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# Unit-1

Introduction
7 hours
Equilibrium equations in elasticity subjected to body force, traction forces, and stress-strain
relations for plane stress and plane strains. General description of Finite Element Method,
Application and limitations. Types of elements based on geometry. Node numbering, Half band
width.

## CONTENTS COVERED HERE

Equilibrium equations in elasticity subjected to body force, traction forces, and stress-strain
relations for plane stress and plane strains.
1. Theory of Elasticity
1.1 INTRODUCTION:
Theory of elasticity deals with the stress and displacements in elastic solids generated by
external forces.Theory of elasticity is concerned with evaluation of 15 Unknowns: 6
Stresses,6 Strain and 3 displacements and for this one needs to understand the relevant 15
equations i.e Equilibrium equations (3),Strain-displacement equations (6) and
Constitutive equations (6)

## Value of Elasticity Theory (SADD)

Develops Exact Analytical Solutions For Problems of Limited Complexity
Provides Framework for Understanding Limitations of Strength of Materials Models
Establishes Framework for Developing Linear Finite Element Modeling
Generates Solutions for Benchmark Comparisons with FEA Solutions
In elementary mechanics of materials (the first undergraduate course in solid mechanics)
as well as in an introductory Theory of elasticity course, five fundamental assumptions
are normally made about the characteristics of the materials for which the analysis is
valid.
These assumptions require the material to be,

1.2 Assumptions
Continuum: The body is continuous, so displacements, Strains and stresses, can be
expressed by continuous functions in space.
Homogeneous: The body is homogeneous, i.e., the elastic properties are the same
throughout the body. Elastic constants will be independent of the location in the body.

Isotropic: The body is isotropic so that the elastic properties are the
same in all
directions. Thus the elastic constants will be independent of the orientation of coordinate
axes.
The two independent elastic constants are
E Youngs modulus
E
G
G Shear modulus
2(1 )
Linear Elastic: The body is perfectly elastic
Obeys Hook's law of elasticity i.e linear relations between stress components and strain
components.
= E. ,E Youngs modulus = G., G Shear modulus
F(
)

F ()

Elastic(Non linear)

Linear Elastic
D(
)

D()

## The displacements and strains are small:

The displacements components of all points of the body during deformation are very
small compared with its original dimensions
The equations of Elasticity are considerably simplified.
Also be called small deformation theory, small displacement theory, or small
displacement-gradient theory.
1.3 Types of Forces
1.BodyForce

f 3x1

fx

fy

fz T

Body Forces

## Acts on the volume(mass) of the body.

Dimension is Force/Volume ,
Examples :gravitational force
,Inertia
forces (in motion), Magnetic force.
Component of in X, Y, Z directions are
Cantilever Beam Under Self-WeightLoading (SADD)

2. Surface force T 3 x 1
Surface force(often termed surface Traction) : Acts on the surface of the body.
Dimension is force/Area, e.x., N/m2
Example:Contact
forces
,Aerodynamic
pressures,friction hydrostatic pressure.
T
T T T

x
3 x1
Component of T in X, Y, Z directions are
y
z

3x1
i
Forces: 3. Point load
Point load (often termed Concentrated Load ) : Idealised as acting at a point on the body.
Dimension is force, e.x., N.
T
Component of P in X, Y, Z directions are
Pi 3 x1 Px Py Pz

R lim

A0

F
A

nn lim

A0

Fn
A

Fs
A0 A

lim

2 R 2 nn 2

## Stress is a second order tensor.

It needs two subscript
The first subscript indicates the plane on which it acts by its normal and
the second subscript its direction

xx

Direction
Plane(normal)

xy xy 12

x-plane, y-direction

ij

xx xy

yx yy
zx zy

xz

yz
zz

## In contracted notation, Stress Is written in the form of a vector as

6 X 1 xx yy zz xy yx zx T

Sl.No

Diagrams

1.Force

Components

Definition

Force components
Push or Pull

2.Traction

3.Surface
Stress

4. Stress at
point

## Force per unit area

On a surface of
specified
orientation.
(Force intensity)
Equilibrium

SurfaceStress
components

## A pair of equal and

opposite traction
on a surface of
specified
orientation

Stress
components

Surface stresses on
planes
of
all
orientations
through a point.

## Stresses vs. tractions

A Similarities between stresses and tractions
1 Same dimensions (force per unit area)
2 The normal stress acting on a plane matches the normal traction
B Differences between stresses and tractions
1 Stresses are tensor quantities and tractions are vectors.
2 The stress state is defined at a point using a
fixed reference frame, whereas a
traction is defined on a plane with a reference frame that floats with the plane.

## 1.6 Equilibrium equations

The state of stress varies from point to point in a loaded member in general.
This variation is governed by the condition that each and every differential element
considered should satisfy the conditions of equilibrium
Force equilibrium:
Fx 0, Fy 0 Fz 0

Moment equilibrium:

M x 0, M y 0 M z 0

## Consider a 2D element of size dx,dy from a loaded 2D structure.

The element is shown under positive stress system
Let the body forces(expresses in terms of force /volume be
T
f 2 x1 f x f y

Equilibrium Equations 2D

y
y

dy

yx

fx

xy

dy

xy

fy
x

yx

yx
y

x yx

fx 0
x
y

Fy 0 xxy yy f y 0

xy
x

dx

x
dx
x

xy yx

## 1.6.2 Equilibrium Equations 3D

Consider A Three dimensional Body Occupying Volume V ,having surface S
Constrained on some region
(Displacement B.C) and with Traction B.C
And subjected to Body forces

## Consider Equilibrium Of Element Volume

Equilibrium equations
Consider the equilibrium of an element volume to obtain the 3 force equilibrium
equations of elasticity
yx zx

Fx 0, x

fx 0
x
y
z
xy y zy
Fy 0,

fy 0
x
y
z
yz z

FZ 0, xz

fz 0
x
y
z
Moment

Stress

Equilibriu m

0 , yz zy , M y 0, xz zx , M z 0 , xy yx
tensor is

symmetric

1.7 Displacement:

Pattern of Deformation
1.Rigid Body Motion
Two-Dimensional Example

Zero Strains

## Rigid body Rotation

body Translation

Rigid

Displacement vector
Displacement of a material point P inside a
body, before and after the deformation

Initial position of the material points of the body is described by the coordinates x, y, z of
the generic point P

## Its displacement is defined by vector PP with components u,v,w in the reference

directions x, y, z, respectively.

The position of the point after the deformation is therefore given by the coordinates x + u,
y + v, z + w.
If the material is continuous before and after the deformation, the functions u(x, y, x),
v(x, y, z), w(x, y, z) are continuous functions of the position coordinates of the body
before the deformation, x, y, z.

## Let Intial position be

P (x, y,z) and displaced position be , P' (x', y',z',).
Displacement vector PP' is denoted by u.
The displacement vector u has components Ux=u, Uy=v
and Uz=w along the x, y and z axes respectively, and
can be expressed as, u iu jv kw

2. Deformation

2
1.

1
1

Biaxial stretch

1.

## Infinitesimal Strain (Small Strains)

1.TheEngineering Normal Strain
Expressed as the change in length L per unit of the original length Lo of the line element
or fibers.
If Lo is the original length and L is the final length ,then
L Lo L

Lo
Lo

## Measures of strain are often expressed in parts per million or microstrains.

2. Shear Strain ()
Shear strain measures changes in angles in terms of radians with respect to two specific
directions initially perpendicular to each other.

## Consider deformation of a the two-dimensional rectangular element with original

dimensions dx by dy represented by ABCD.
After deformation, the element takes a rhombus form as ABCD

## A1B11C11D11 shown in the dotted outline corresponds to rigid body displacement .

Reference point A is taken at location (x,y), and the displacement components of this
point are thus u(x,y) and v(x,y).
u
v
The corresponding displacements of point B are u dx and v dx
x
x
u
v
The corresponding displacements of point D are u dy and v dy
y
y

Longitudinal Strain x

A1B1 AB
,
AB

AB (1 x ) dx(1 x )

A1B1

Horizontal projection of A1 B1 dx
Vertical

projection = B11 B1

A B dx(1 )
1

1 2

u
dx
x

v
dx
x

u v

dx dx dx
x x

u v
u
(1 2 x ) 1 2
x x
x
2
x

## Assuming small deformations and strains and neglecting product of Smaller

quantities
u
x
x
Similarly Longitudinal strain in Y direction

A1D1 AD
v
y
AD
y

Shear Strain
Shear strain measures changes in angles in terms of radians with respect to two specific
directions initially perpendicular to each other.

xy B11 A1 B1 D11 A1 D1
1 2

xy
xy

v
u
dx dx
x
y

dx
v u

x y

v u
u
v
, y
xy
x
y
x y

u
v
w
x , y , z
x
y
z

v u
w v
, yz
x y
y z
w u

x z

xy
xz

## 1.9 Generalised Hookes Law

The relationships between the stress and strain components are termed Constitutive
equations.
The Constitutive equations is based on Experimental observations and established
principles.

Hookes Law

## Robert Hooke (1635-1703) :Established tension is proportional to the stretch

Hookes law established the notion of (linear) elasticity, but not yet in a way that was
expressible in terms of stress and strain.

## For Linear Elastic material ,Stress is proportional to Strain and vica-versa

is or E , E is the constant of Proportionality
is or G , G is the constant of Proportionality
The relation between the normal stress and the longitudinal strain in the same
direction is called the longitudinal modulus of elasticity or Youngs modulus E of the
material.
The relation between the Shear stress and the Shear strain is called the Shear modulus of
elasticity or Modulus of Rigidity G of the material.

## Generalised Hookes Law

For Linear Elastic material Each of the six Stress components may be expressed as a
linear function of the six strain components and Vica versa.i.e 6 x1 C 6 x 6 6 x1

x C11
C
y 21
z C31

xy C41
yz C51

xz C61

C12
C22
C32
C42
C52
C62

C13
C23
C33
C43
C53
C63

C14
C24
C34
C44
C54
C64

C15
C25
C35
C45
C55
C65

C16 x x S11
C26 y y S 21
C36 z z S31

C46 xy xy S 41
C56 yz yz S51

C66 xz xz S61

S12
S 22
S32
S 42
S52
S62

S13
S 23
S33
S 43
S53
S 63

S14
S 24
S34
S 44
S54
S64

S15
S 25
S35
S 45
S55
S65

S16 x
S 26 y
S36 z

S 46 xy
S56 yz

S66 xz

## Hooke's Law in Compliance Form

Similarly 6 x1 S 6 x 6 6 x1
Note that the stiffness matrix is traditionally represented by the symbol C OR D, while S
is reserved for the compliance matrix!
The generalized Hookes law is an assumption, which is reasonably accurate for many
material subjected to small strain, for a given temperature, time.
The 36 coefficients C11 to C66 are called elastic coefficients

## Hooke's Law in Stiffness Form

For Isotropic material the number of independent elastic constants reduces
two 2.i.e Young's modulus E and the Poisson's ratio v.
D

1

1

E
0
0
0
D C
(1 )(1 2 )
0
0
0

0
0
0

1
0

0
0
0
21

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
1 2
2

0
0
0

1 2
2

0
0
0

1 2
2

## Hooke's Law in Compliance Form

S 1
E0
0

0
0
0
0

21
0

E
Note : G , G
21

21
0
0
0
0

1.10 :2 D Problems
By virtue of Geometry, Loading and Material Property ,certain class of problems can be
reduced in dimension from 3D to 2 D and sometimes 1 D without much loss of accuracy.
This saves considerable memory space and computational time.
Two vs Three Dimensional Problems(Sadd)

2D elastic problems
PLANE STRESS
PLANE STRAIN
The basic theories of plane strain and plane stress represent the fundamental plane
problem in elasticity.

## Plane Stress Problems

Consider a 2 D member
whose in plane dimensions(x,y)
are very large compared to
Out of plane dimension(z)
The domain is bounded two stress free planes z
= h,

Since the plate is thin in the z-direction, there can be little variation in the stress
components through the thickness.
Thus they will be approximately zero throughout the entire domain. z xz yz 0
Under these assumptions, the stress field can be taken as
x x ( x, y), y y ( x, y), xy xy ( x, y)

z xz yz 0, Also, xz yz 0, z 0

## Plane Stress :Examples

1.Thin Plate with Hole2.Thin cantilever plate

xy

Plane Stress

xy

Rotating disc/Flywheel

x
E

y
2
1
xy

0 x
1

1
0 y

1
0 0
xy
2

D3 x3

0
1
1

0
1 2
1
0 0

## Plane Strain Problems

Consider a 2 D member whose in plane dimensions(x,y) are very small compared to out
of plane dimension(z)

If the body forces and tractions on lateral boundaries are independent of the z-coordinate
and have no z-component, then the deformation field can be taken in the reduced form
u u ( x, y ) , v v ( x, y ) , w 0

z xz yz 0

## Under these assumptions, the stress field can be taken as

x x ( x, y), y y ( x, y), xy xy ( x, y)

z xz yz 0, xz yz 0, Also, z 0

## Plane Strain :Examples

1.Wall of a Dam

2.Strip footing
3. Rotating Shaft/
cylinder
4. Long cylindrical pressure vessel subjected to internal/external pressure and constrained
at the ends
Plane Strain D

x
1

0 x

E

1
0 y
y
1 2
1 1 2 0
0

xy
xy
2

D3 x3

1
E

1
1 1 2
0
0

z x y

0
0
1 2

Sl.No

Plane Stress

Plane Strain

Dimensions

## In plane dimensions are Out of plane dimensions are very

very large compared to out large compared to in
plane
of plane dimensions
dimensions

Stress

zero z xz yz 0

z x y
xz yz 0

Strain

xz yz 0

z xz yz 0