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Thebiogasscrubbingsystem

The biogas scrubbing system consists of three units, the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removing unit,
Carbon dioxide (CO2) removing unit, and moisture trapping unit. The three units are
interconnected with plastic hoses.

Figure: Biogas Purification, Compression and Bottling Unit Layout Diagram

CO2scrubbing unit
Biogas consists of different gases like Methane, carbon dioxide, and some other trace gases like
hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, nitrogen, water vapor and others. From those gases, only methane is
required for cooking and lighting purposes but the others are harmful for the equipments which
the biogas burnt in, transported through and decrease the calorific value of the biogas. So that,
unwanted gases should be removed using different methods to increase its calorific value of the
gas, to safeguard the equipments and to make it easily transportable from production site by
compressing into cylinder to usable areas.My interest is not to describedifferent purification
processes and equipments used in this area but to explainabout CO2 scrubbing unit developed by
me.
The purpose of CO2scrubbing unit is to remove the unwanted CO2 from raw biogas dissolving
withwater.The carbon dioxide scrubbing unit is constructed from reused edible oil plastic drumof

volume 25 liters and different out of use plastic bath room materials and a piece of galvanized
pipe. The unit has water inlet, water outlet, raw biogas inlet and purified biogas outlet. The water
inlet, gas inlet and gas outlet are positioned at the top whereas water outlet is at the bottom part
of the scrubber unit. The gas inlet is connected to the line which is coming from the biogas
digester and the gas outlet is to water absorber unit of the system.The water inlet of the scrubbing
unit is connected to tap water and the outlet is to discharging port. Even if the water and raw
biogas inlets are positioned at the top, there is a 4 cm height difference between them. Inlet of the
water is located at the most top place of the scrubber unit but gas inlet is placed below by 4cm
far. So that, both water and raw biogas are forced to enter into scrubber on the top in different
ports.
The direction in which the raw biogas introduced to the scrubber makes the unit is unique from
already known and used in this area. The widely known design is differentfrom this by the
direction how the raw biogas enters into the unit. In the known design, the raw biogas is entering
into a scrubber from bottom and the water is from top in counter flow direction to the raw
biogas. The contact time of water and biogas in known and used design is smaller than the design
which I am developed from local materials. The amount of CO2 being dissolved in water is
determined by the time in which the biogas makes contact with water and the pressure of the
water too. It is possible to increase the contact time of the gas with water by making them to flow
in the same direction from the top to bottom. In my design, boththe water and the raw biogas
enter into the scrubber unit from the top, and the gas flows along with water down to the
scrubber through common line. This is in order to increase the contact between the gas and the
liquidphase mean to give enough time to CO2being dissolved in the water and forming carbonic
acid.Before the purification process starting, the drum should be filled with water up to half level
to control escaping of raw biogas through openings.As the raw biogas reaches the bottom of the
scrubber, the carbon dioxide (CO2) and Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gets dissolved in water.So that
the gas again bubbled out through water to the top part of the container and this step additionally
dissolve the rest CO2 from the raw biogas. Consequently the dissolved CO2 and H2S are removed
from the scrubber through the water outlet. Due to its low density, the purified biogas, methane
(CH4) is collected at the top of the water level and passes on to the moisture trapping unit for
further

purification.

2.1 cm

Water
inlet
Biogas
inlet

Biogas
outlet

Biogas Inlet
36.2 cm

Water Inlet

4.0 cm
Biogas Outlet

4.9 cm
2.1 cm
7.6 cm

1.4 cm

CO2
Scrubbing
unit
45.0cm
Water Outlet
4.1 cm
6.0 cm

Water
outlet

24.0 cm
Biogas Scrubber

Figure: CO2 scrubber unit