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SELF CONFIDENCE

Self confidence atau percaya diri adalah sejauhmana anda punya keyakinan
terhadap penilaian anda atas kemampuan anda dan sejauh mana anda bisa merasakan
adanya kepantasan untuk berhasil. Ignoffo (1999) secara sederhana mendefenisikan self
confidenceberarti memiliki keyakinan terhadap diri sendiri. Menurut Neill (dalam Hadi &
Putri, 2005) self confidence adalah kombinasi dari self esteem dan self-efficacy.
Self confidence adalah sikap positif seorang individu yang merasa memiliki
kompetensi atau kemampuan untuk mengembangkan penilaian positif baik terhadap dirinya
maupun lingkungan (Jacinta, 2002). Menurut Hasan (2004) menyatakan self
confidence adalah percaya akan kemampuan sendiri yang memadai dan menyadari
kemampuan yang dimiliki, serta dapat memanfaatkan secara tepat.
Lauster (dalam Fasikhah, 1994), menyatakan bahwa self confidence merupakan
suatu sikap atau perasaan yakin atas kemampuan diri sendiri sehingga orang yang
bersangkutan tidak terlalu cemas dalam tindakan-tindakannya, dapat merasa bebas untuk
melakukan hal-hal yang disukainya dan bertanggung jawab atas perbuatannya, hangat dan
sopan dalam berinteraksi dengan orang lain, dapat menerima dan menghargai orang lain,
memiliki dorongan untuk berprestasi serta dapat mengenal kelebihan dan kekurangannya.
Menurut Uqshari (2005) self confidence adalah keyakinan seorang individu akan
kemampuan yang dimiliki sehingga merasa puas dengan keadaan dirinya. Bandura (dalam
Sakinah, 2005) mendefenisikan self confidence sebagai suatu keyakinan seseorang yang
mampu berperilaku sesuai dengan yang diharapkan dan diinginkan. Sedangkan Breneche
dan Amich (dalam Kumara, 1988) self confidence merupakan suatu perasaan cukup aman
dan tahu apa yang dibutuhkan dalam kehidupannya sehingga tidak perlu membandingkan
dirinya dengan orang lain dalam menentukan standar, karena ia selalu dapat menentukan
sendiri.
Coopersmith (dalam Nazwali, 1996) menjelaskan bahwa ketika individu lebih aktif,
mempunyai perilaku yang bertujuan, bersemangat dalam menjalankan kehidupan seharihari baik yang bersifat individual maupun yang bersifat kelompok cenderung memiliki self
confidence yang tinggi. Sedangkan menurut Hakim (2002) menjelaskan self confidence yaitu
sebagai suatu keyakinan seseorang terhadap segala aspek kelebihan yang dimilikinya dan
keyakinan tersebut membuatnya merasa mampu untuk dapat mencapai berbagai tujuan
dalam hidupnya.
Self confidence bukan merupakan sesuatu yang sifatnya bawaan tetapi merupakan
sesuatu yang terbentuk dari interaksi. Waterman (dalam Sakinah, 2005) mengatakan bahwa
untuk menumbuhkan self confidence diperlukan situasi yang memberikan kesempatan untuk
berkompetisi, karena menurut Markus dan Wurf (dalam Sakinah, 2005) seseorang belajar
tentang dirinya sendiri melalui interaksi langsung dan komparasi sosial. Dari interaksi
langsung dengan orang lain akan diperoleh informasi tentang diri dan dengan melakukan
komparasi sosial seseorang dapat menilai dirinya sendiri bila dibandingkan dengan orang
lain. Seseorang akan dapat memahami diri sendiri dan akan tahu siapa dirinya yang
kemudian akan berkembang menjadi percaya diri atau self confidence.
Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa self confidence adalah perasaan yakin akan
kemampuan diri sendiri yang mencakup penilaian dan penerimaan yang baik terhadap

dirinya secara utuh, bertindak sesuai dengan apa yang diharapkan oleh orang lain sehingga
individu dapat diterima oleh orang lain maupun lingkungannya. Penerimaan ini meliputi
penerimaan secara fisik dan psikis. Perilaku yang menunjukkan keyakinan pada
kemampuan dan penilaian diri sendiri yang sering muncul dalam berbagai situasi untuk
menghasilkan kinerja yang lebih unggul.

http://www.psychologymania.com/2012/06/pengertian-self-confidence.html

SELF CONFIDENCE
Manusia merupakan mahluk biopsikososial dimana terdapat pengertian bahwa manusia
merupakan mahluk yang berdasarkan biologi, psikologi dan hubungan sosial dengan
lingkungan sekitar, dimana ketiga unsur tersebut saling terikat untuk saling mempengaruhi
dan dipengaruhi, kondisi biologi manusia mempengaruhi psikologi manusia, dimana segala
aspek yang terjadi didalam kondisi biologis manusia ini akan di olah lewat psikologi dengan
penerimaan maupun penolakan, dan dari kedua hubungan tersebut akan sangat
mempengaruhi sikap seseorang dalam memasuki ke dunia masyarakat atau sosial. Dalam
psikologi terdapat salah dua aspek kepribadian yang sangat penting dalam kehidupan
bersosial manusia, yaitu rasa percaya diri dan superioritas (Lauster, 1999).
a.

Definisi Kepercayaan Diri

Kepercayaan diri menurut Anthony ( 1992 ) adalah sikap pada diri seseorang yang dapat
menerima kenyataan, dapat mengembangkan kesadaran diri, berfikir positif, memiliki
kemandirian dan mempunyai kemampuan untuk memiliki segala sesuatu yang di inginkan,
sedang menurut Hambly ( 1992 ) kepercayaan diri diartikan sebagai keyakinan terhadap diri
sendiri sehingga mampu menagani segala situasi dengan tenang, kepercayaan diri lebih
banyak berkaitan dengan hubungan seseorang dengan orang lain. Tidak merasa inferior di
hadapan siapapun dan tidak merasa canggung apabila berhadapan dengan banyak orang.
b. Aspek-aspek Kepercayaan Diri
Setiap orang mempunyai tingkat kepercayaan diri berbeda beda tergantung seberapa jauh
faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap dirinya menurut Anthony ( 1992 ) ada beberapa faktor
yang mempengaruhi kepercayaan diri, antara lain :
1)

Faktor-faktor internal

a) Konsep diri
Konsep diri merupakan gagasan tentang diri sendiri. Individu yang mempunyai rasa rendah
diri biasanya memiliki konsep diri yang negatif (Centi, 1995).
b) Harga diri
Menurut Meodow ( dalam Kusuma, 2005 ), harga diri yaitu, penilaian yang dilakukan
terhadap diri sendiri , tingkat pengahargaan terhadap diri sendiri akan berpengaruh terhadap
tingkat kepercayaan diri individu. Semakin tinggi harga diri, semakin tinggi kepercayaan diri
individu tersebut, penilaian diri ini ditentukan oleh berbagai emosi yang mempengaruhi
individu.
c) Keadaan dan kesehatan fisik
Penampilan fisik merupakan penyebab utama rendahnya harga diri dari keadaan fisik.
Kondisi kesehatan juga dapat mempengaruhi rasa kepercayaan diri individu, bila individu
tersebut sakit berlarut-larut akan menggangu kepercayaan diri individu tersebut (Anthony
1992).
d) Kegagalan dan kesuksesan

Keberhasilan yang dicapai akan membawa seseorang pada kegembiraan sehingga


menumbuhkan kepercayaan diri.
e) Pengalaman hidup
Menurut Lauster ( 1997 ) kepercayaan diri di pengaruhi oleh pengalaman hidup, dimana
belajar dari pengalaman masa lalu adalah hal yang penting untuk mengembangkan
kepribadian yang sehat. Pengalaman hidup yang mengecewakan paling sering menjadi
sumber timbulnya rasa rendah diri, terlebih jika seseorang mempunyai perasaan tidak
aman, kurang rasa sayang dan kurangnya perhatian.
f) Peran lingkungan keluarga
Peran lingkungan keluarga terhadap bentuk kepercayaan diri sangat penting dalam
pembentukan kepercayaan diri seseorang jika fungsi keluarga berjalan baik, maka besar
kemungkinan individu dalam kelas tersebut mempunyai kepercayaan diri yang baik.

2) Faktor eksternal
a) Lingkungan dan pengalaman,
Syarwani ( Dalam Corey, 1997 ) mengatakan bahwa lingkungan yang keras cenderung
memudahkan individu untuk membentuk rasa percaya diri, selain itu kepercayaan diri di
tentukan pula oleh pengalaman-pengalaman yang dialami sejak kecil.
b) Pendidikan.
Pendidikan mempengaruhi kepercayaan diri seseorang (Anthony, 1992). Lebih lanjut dapat
di ungkapkan bahwa tingkat pendidikan yang rendah cenderung membuat individu
tergantung dan berada di bawah individu yang lebih pandai, sebaliknya individu yang
mempunyai pendidikan lebih tinggi cenderung akan lebih menjadi disiplin dan tidak perlu
tergantung pada individu lain.
c) Bekerja.
Rogers mengemukakan bahwa bekerja dapat membangkitkan kreatifitas dan kemandirian
serta kepercayaan diri, rasa percaya diri akan muncul dengan melakukan pekerjaan selain
materi, kepuasan dan rasa percaya diri didapat karena mengembangkan kemampuan diri.
Orang yang mempunyai kepercayaan diri yang baik akan menampakkan ciri-ciri yang
berbeda dengan orang yang memiliki kepercayaan diri yang rendah, orang yang memiliki
kepercayaan diri yang tinggi biasanya tidak terlalu cemas dengan tindakan. Dapat
melakukan hal-hal yang disukai, bertanggung jawab atas perbuatan yang dilakukan, hangat,
sopan, dalam berinteraksi dengan orang lain, mempunyai dorongan untuk berprestasi serta
dapat mengenal kelebihan dan kekurangan yang dimiliki (Hakim, 2002).
Kepercayaan diri berpengaruh pada individu, pada manusia kepercayaan diri akan
cenderung berubah, hal ini tergantung pada pengalaman dalam hubungan interpersonal,
namun demikian pengalaman tidak hanya memberikan umpan balik yang positif saja, bila

umpan balik yang diterima positif maka kepercayaan diri akan membaik sebaliknya jika
umpan balik yang diterima negatif maka kepercayaan diri akan turun (Lauster, 1997).
Berikut ini merupakan aspek-apsek kepercayaan diri menurut Drajat ( 1997 ) antara lain:
1)
Rasa aman. Terbebas dari perasaan takut, rasa cemas dan tidak ada
terhadap situasi atau orang di sekitarnya.

kompetisi

2)
Ambisi normal. Ambisi disesuaikan dengan kemampuan tidak ada kompetensi dari
ambisi yang berlebihan, dapat menyelesaikan tugas dengan baik dan bertanggung jawab.
3)
Konsep diri. Memberikan penilaian positif terhadap potensi fisik, psikis, sosial maupun
moral.
4)
Mandiri. Tidak tergantung pada orang lain dalam melakukan sesuatu dan tidak tidak
membutuhkan dukungan dari orang lain secara berlebihan.
5)
Tidak mementingkan diri sendiri atau toleransi. Mengerti kekurangan yang ada pada
dirinya, menerima pendapat orang lain dan memberi kesempatan pada orang lain.
Sehubungan kurangnya kepercayaan diri, Anthony ( 1992 ) mengemukakan ciri-ciri orang
yang kurang percaya diri yaitu : 1) Cenderung merasa tidak aman, 2) Tidak bebas, 3) Raguragu, 4) Mebuang waktu dalam mengambil keputusan, 5) Perasaan rendah diri, 6) Kurang
cerdas, 7) Cenderung menyalahkan lingkungan sebagai penyebab bila menghadapi suatu
masalah
Jangan pernah memandang rendah diri sendiri, percaya kepada kemampuan diri sendiri,
manusia memiliki kehebatan dan keunikan pada dirinya ( Penulis )

https://decungkringo.wordpress.com/2012/03/31/kepercayaan-diri-self-confidence/

SELF CONFIDENCE
Self-confidence is one aspect of personality that is very important in human life. Self
confident people are confident about their own abilities and have realistic expectations, even
when their expectations are not realized; they stayed positive and can take it.
Definition
Self-confidence is a mental or psychological condition of a person who gives a strong
confidence in him to do or perform any act. People who do not believe in themselves have a
negative self-concept, lack of confidence in his ability, because it is often kept to them. Self
confidence is a mental or psychological condition, which individuals can evaluate the entirety
of her strong belief in giving him the ability to take action in achieving various goals in life.
People who have good self-confidence, they have positive feelings toward themselves, have
strong beliefs on him and had accurate knowledge of the capabilities. People who have good
self-confidence are not the only person who feels capable of (but not really afford) but is a
person who knows that he can be caused by experience and calculation that he did.
Synonyms: aplomb, inner strength, positive self-image, self-assurance
Personality traits of people with low self-confidence
When this is linked to the practice of everyday life, people who have low self-confidence or
have lost confidence, tend to feel / be as below:
Do not have anything (desires, goals, targets) which fought energetically
Do not have a decision to step decisive
Easily frustrated or give up when faced with a problem or difficulty
Less motivated to go forward, laziness or half and half
Often fails to accomplish its tasks or responsibilities
Awkward in dealing with people
Can not demonstrate the ability to speak and the ability to listen to a convincing
Often have unrealistic expectations
Too perfectionist
Too sensitive

Self-Confidence and Performance


Self-confidence is considered one of the most influential motivators and regulators of
behavior in people's everyday lives (Bandura, 1986). A growing body of evidence suggests
that one's perception of ability or self-confidence is the central mediating construct of
achievement strivings (e.g., Bandura, 1977; Ericsson et al., 1993; Harter, 1978; Kuhl, 1992;
Nicholls, 1984). Ericsson and his colleagues have taken the position that the major influence
in the acquisition of expert performance is the confidence and motivation to persist in
deliberate practice for a minimum of 10 years.
Self-confidence is not a motivational perspective by itself. It is a judgment about capabilities
for accomplishment of some goal, and, therefore, must be considered within a broader
conceptualization of motivation that provides the goal context. Kanfer (1990a) provides an
example of one cognitively based framework of motivation for such a discussion. She
suggests that motivation is composed of two components: goal choice and self-regulation.
Self-regulation, in turn, consists of three related sets of activities: self-monitoring, selfevaluation, and self-reactions. Self-monitoring provides information about current
performance, which is then evaluated by comparing that performance with one's goal. The
comparison between performance and goal results in two distinct types of self-reactions:
self-satisfaction or -dissatisfaction and self-confidence expectations. Satisfaction or
dissatisfaction is an affective response to past actions; self-confidence expectations are
judgments about one's future capabilities to attain one's goal. This framework allows a
discussion of self-confidence as it relates to a number of motivational processes, including
setting goals and causal attributions.

''SELF-CONFIDENCE" AND RELATED CONCEPTS


Terms such as "self-confidence," "self-efficacy," "perceived ability," and "perceived
competence" have been used to describe a person's perceived capability to accomplish a
certain level of performance. Bandura (1977) uses the term "self-efficacy" to describe the
belief one has in being able to execute a specific task successfully (e.g., solving a math
problem) in order to obtain a certain outcome (e.g., self-satisfaction or teacher recognition)
and, thus, can be considered as situationally specific self-confidence.1 Self-efficacy is not
concerned with an individual's skills, but, rather, with the judgments of what an individual can
accomplish with those skills (Bandura, 1986). Bandura (1986, 1990) distinguishes between
"self-efficacy" and "self-confidence": self-confidence refers to firmness or strength of belief
but does not specify its direction; self-efficacy implies that a goal has been set. We do not
adopt Bandura's distinction, but use the term "self-confidence" because it is more familiar to
most individuals. "Self-confidence," as the term is used here, is the belief that one can
successfully execute a specific activity, rather than a global trait that accounts for overall
performance optimism. For example, one may have a lot of self-confidence in one's ability at
golf but very little self-confidence in one's tennis skills.
"Perceived competence" and "perceived ability" are terms that have been used in the
research literature on achievement and mastery motivation. They indicate the perception
that one has the ability to master a task resulting from cumulative interactions with the
environment (Harter, 1981; Nicholls,

1984). In sports and physical movement, Griffin and Keogh (1982) developed the concept of
"movement confidence" to describe a person's feeling of adequacy in a movement situation;
Vealey (1986) used the term "sport confidence" to define the belief or degree of certainty
individuals possess about their ability to be successful in sport. Some organizational
psychologists use the term "state expectancy'' in essentially the same manner as Bandura's
(1977) concept of self-efficacy (Eden, 1990).
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
Self-efficacy theory was developed within the framework of a social cognitive theory
(Bandura, 1986). Bandura poses self-confidence as a common cognitive mechanism for
mediating people's motivation, thought patterns, emotional reactions, and behavior. The
theory was originally proposed to account for the different results achieved by the diverse
methods used in clinical psychology for treating anxiety. It has since been expanded and
applied to other domains of psychosocial functioning, including motivation, cognitive skill
acquisition, career choice and development, health and exercise behavior, and motor
performance. (For reviews on specific domains, see Feltz, 1988b; Lent and Hackett, 1987;
McAuley, 1992; O'Leary, 1985; Schunk, 1984a). The theory has also been found to be
equally predictive cross-culturally (Earley, 1993; Matsui, 1987; Matsui and Onglatco, 1991).
Self-Confidence Information
Self-confidence beliefs, defined as people's judgments of their capability to perform specific
tasks, are a product of a complex process of self-persuasion that relies on cognitive
processing of diverse sources of confidence information (Bandura, 1990). These sources of
information include performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal
persuasion, and physiological states.
Performance accomplishments are supposed to provide the most dependable confidence
information because they are based on one's own mastery experiences. One's mastery
experiences affect self-confidence beliefs through cognitive processing of such information.
If one has repeatedly viewed these experiences as successes, self-confidence will increase;
if these experiences were viewed as failures, self-confidence will decrease. Furthermore, the
self-monitoring or focus on successes or failures should have differential effects on behavior
and self-confidence, depending on which is monitored (Bandura, 1986): focusing on one's
successes should provide more encouragement and greater confidence than focusing on
one's failures.
The influence that performance experiences have on perceived self-confidence also
depends on the perceived difficulty of the task, the effort expended, the amount of guidance
received, the temporal patterns of success and failure, and one's conception of a particular
"ability" as a skill that can be acquired versus an inherent aptitude (Bandura, 1986). Bandura
has argued that performance accomplishments on difficult tasks, tasks attempted
independently, and tasks accomplished early in learning with only occasional failures carry
greater confidence value than easy tasks, tasks accomplished with external aids, or tasks in
which repeated failures are experienced early in the learning process without any sign of
progress.
Confidence information can also be derived through a social comparison process with others
(Festinger, 1954). Vicarious sources of confidence information are thought to be generally

weaker than performance accomplishments; however, their influence on self-confidence can


be enhanced by a number of factors. For instance, the less experience people have had with
performance situations, the more they will rely on others in judging their own capabilities.
The effectiveness of modeling procedures on one's self-confidence has also been shown to
be enhanced by perceived similarities to a model in terms of performance or personal
characteristics (George et al., 1992; Gould and Weiss, 1981).
Persuasive techniques are widely used by instructors, managers, coaches, parents, and
peers in attempting to influence a learner's confidence, motivation, and behavior. In
acquiring expert performance, Ericsson and his colleagues put a great deal of emphasis on
parents' and teachers' expectations and verbal persuasions that a child is "talented" as a
major influence on the child's self-confidence, motivation, and perceived protection "against
doubts about eventual success during the ups and downs of extended preparation"
(Ericsson et al., 1993:399). Persuasive information includes verbal persuasion, evaluative
feedback, expectations by others, self-talk, imagery, and other cognitive strategies. Selfconfidence beliefs based on this type of information, however, are likely to be weaker than
those based on one's accomplishments, according to the theory. In addition, persuasive
techniques are thought to be most effective when the heightened appraisal is slightly beyond
what the person can presently do but still within realistic bounds because people are
generally aware that better performances are achievable through extra effort (Bandura,
1986). The extent of persuasive influence on self-confidence has also been hypothesized to
depend on the prestige, credibility, expertise, and trustworthiness of the persuader.
The causal attributions that one makes regarding previous achievement behavior also can
be thought of as a source of self-persuasive information in formulating future confidence
expectations. Causal attributions for previous behavior have been shown to predict
confidence expectations (McAuley, 1990; Schunk and Cox, 1986). (This relationship is
discussed in more detail below.)
Self-Confidence, Behavior and Thought Patterns, and Motivation
Bandura (1977) states that self-efficacy (self-confidence) is a major determinant of behavior
only when people have sufficient incentives to act on their self-perception of confidence and
when they possess the requisite skills. He predicts that self-confidence beliefs will exceed
actual performance when there is little incentive to perform the activity or when physical or
social constraints are imposed on performance. An individual may have the necessary skill
and high self-confidence beliefs, but no incentive to perform. Discrepancies will also occur,
according to Bandura, when tasks or circumstances are ambiguous or when one has little
information on which to base confidence judgments.
How individuals cognitively process confidence information also influences the relationship
between self-confidence and behavior (Bandura, 1977). For example, successes and
failures may be distorted in importance. People who overweigh their failures are believed to
have lower expectations than those with the same performance levels who do not overweigh
their failures.
The relationship between self-confidence expectations and performance accomplishments is
also believed to be temporally recursive (Bandura, 1977:194): "Mastery expectations
influence performance and are, in turn, altered by the cumulative effect of one's efforts."
Bandura (1990) has emphasized the recursive nature of the relationship between self-

confidence and thought patterns as well. The relationship between the major sources of
confidence information, confidence expectations, and behavior and thought patterns, as
predicted by Bandura's theory, is presented in Figure 8-1.
As just discussed, people's self-confidence beliefs are hypothesized to influence certain
thought patterns and emotional reactions as well as behavior. Two thought patterns of
particular interest to the study of performance motivation are goal intentions and causal
attributions; a third thought pattern that can influence self-confidence beliefs is how one
thinks about ability.
Self-confidence beliefs have been shown to influence future personal goal-setting and to
mediate the relationship between goal intentions and motivation (Earley and Lituchy, 1991).
Research has also shown that the stronger people's self-confidence beliefs (assessed
independently from their goals), the higher the goals they set for themselves and the firmer
their commitments are to them (Locke et al., 1984). In addition, as noted above (Kanfer,
1990a), motivation based on goal intentions is mediated by self-regulatory influences that
include two types of self-reactive influences: affective self-evaluation
(satisfaction/dissatisfaction), and perceived self-efficacy for goal attainment. Bandura (1990)
includes a third type of self-reactive influence: adjustment of personal standards. Figure 8-2
summarizes, schematically, Kanfer's and Bandura's ideas of motivation that are based on
goal intentions.

https://www.nap.edu/read/2303/chapter/13#181