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Cambridge IELTS 10

Test 1- Reading Passage 1 Step By


Step Solution
By
Mithun Roy
March 21, 2016
1
10830

Cambridge IELTS 10 Test 1- Reading Passage 1.

Stepwells
A millennium ago, stepwells were fundamental to life in the
driest parts of India. Although many have been neglected,
recent restoration has returned them to their former glory.
Richard Cox travelled to north-western India to document
these spectacular monuments from a bygone era.
During the sixth and seventh centuries, the inhabitants of the modern-day
states of Gujarat and Rajasthan in North-western India developed a method of
gaining access to clean, fresh groundwater during the dry season for drinking,
bathing, watering animals and irrigation. However, the significance of this
invention the stepwell goes beyond its utilitarian application.
Unique to the region, stepwells are often architecturally complex and vary
widely in size and shape. During their heyday, they were places of gathering, of
leisure, of relaxation and of worship for villagers of all but the lowest

castes.Most stepwells are found dotted around the desert areas of Gujarat
(where they are called vav) and Rajasthan (where they are known as baori),
while a few also survive in Delhi. Some were located in or near villages as public
spaces for the community; others were positioned beside roads as resting
places for travellers.
As their name suggests, stepwells comprise a series of stone steps descending
from ground level to the water source (normally an underground aquifer) as it
recedes following the rains. When the water level was high, the user needed
only to descend a few steps to reach it; when it was low, several levels would
have to be negotiated.
Some wells are vast, open craters with hundreds of steps paving each sloping
side, often in tiers. Others are more elaborate, with long stepped passages
leading to the water via several storeys built from stone and supported by
pillars, they also included pavilions that sheltered visitors from the relentless
heat. But perhaps the most impressive features are the intricate decorative
sculptures that embellish many stepwells, showing activities from fighting and
dancing to everyday acts such as women combing their hair and churning
butter.
Down

the

centuries,

thousands

of

wells

were

constructed

throughout

northwestern India, but the majority have now fallen into disuse; many are
derelict and dry, as groundwater has been diverted for industrial use and the
wells no longer reach the water table. Their condition hasnt been helped by
recent dry spells: southern Rajasthan suffered an eight-year drought between
1996 and 2004.
However, some important sites in Gujarat have recently undergone major
restoration, and the state government announced in June last year that it plans
to restore the stepwells throughout the state.
In Patan, the states ancient capital, the stepwell of Rani Ki Vav (Queens
Stepwell) is perhaps the finest current example. It was built by Queen
Udayamati during the late 11th century, but became silted up following a flood
during the 13th century. But the Archaeological Survey of India began restoring
it in the 1960s, and today its in pristine condition. At 65 metres long, 20
metres wide and 27 metres deep, Rani Ki Vav features 500 distinct sculptures

carved into niches throughout the monument, depicting gods such as Vishnu
and Parvati in various incarnations. Incredibly, in January 2001, this ancient
structure survived a devastating earthquake that measured 7.6 on the Richter
scale.
Another example is the Surya Kund in Modhera, northern Gujarat, next to the
Sun Temple, built by King Bhima I in 1026 to honour the sun god Surya. Its
actually a tank (kund means reservoir or pond) rather than a well, but displays
the hallmarks of stepwell architecture, including four sides of steps that descend
to the bottom in a stunning geometrical formation. The terraces house 108
small, intricately carved shrines between the sets of steps.
Rajasthan also has a wealth of wells. The ancient city of Bundi, 200 kilometres
south of Jaipur, is reknowned for its architecture, including its stepwells. One of
the larger examples is Raniji Ki Baori, which was built by the queen of the
region, Nathavatji, in 1699. At 46 metres deep, 20 metres wide and 40 metres
long, the intricately carved monument is one of 21 baoris commissioned in the
Bundi area by Nathavatji.
In the old ruined town of Abhaneri, about 95 kilometres east of Jaipur, is Chand
Baori, one of Indias oldest and deepest wells; aesthetically, its perhaps one of
the most dramatic. Built in around 850 AD next to the temple of Harshat Mata,
the baori comprises hundreds of zigzagging steps that run along three of its
sides, steeply descending 11 storeys, resulting in a striking geometric pattern
when seen from afar. On the fourth side, covered verandas supported by ornate
pillars overlook the steps.
Still in public use is Neemrana Ki Baori, located just off the JaipurDehli
highway. Constructed in around 1700, its nine storeys deep, with the last two
levels underwater. At ground level, there are 86 colonnaded openings from
where the visitor descends 170 steps to the deepest water source.
Today, following years of neglect, many of these monuments to medieval
engineering have been saved by the Archaeological Survey of India, which has
recognised the importance of preserving them as part of the countrys rich
history. Tourists flock to wells in far-flung corners of northwestern India to gaze
in wonder at these architectural marvels from 1,000 years ago, which serve as a

reminder of both the ingenuity and artistry of ancient civilisations and of the
value of water to human existence.
Questions
15
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading
Passage 1?
In boxes 15 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE
if
the
statement
agrees
with
the
information
FALSE
if
the
statement
contradicts
the
information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
1
Examples of ancient stepwells can be found all over the world.
2
Stepwells had a range of functions, in addition to those related to water
collection.
3 The few existing stepwells in Delhi are more attractive than those found
elsewhere.
4 It took workers many years to build the stone steps characteristic of
stepwells.
5 The number of steps above the water level in a stepwell altered during the
course of a year.
Questions 68
Answer
the
questions
below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 68 on your answer sheet.
6
Which part of some stepwells provided shade for people?
7 What type of serious climatic event, which took place in southern Rajasthan,
is
mentioned
in
the
article?
8 Who are frequent visitors to stepwells nowadays?
Question 9-13
Complete the table below
Choose ONE WORD AND /OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
Stepwells

Date

Features

Other notes

Rani Ki Vav

Late 11th
century

As many as 500
sculptures decorate the
monument

Restored in the 1990s


Excellent condition, despite
the ...(9)... of 2001

Surya Kund

1026

Steps on the ....(10)....


produce a geometric
pattern
Carved shrines

looks more like a ....(11)...


then a well

Raniji Ki
Baori

1699

Intricately carved
monument

One of 21 baoris in the area


commissioned by Queen
Nathavatji

Chand Baori

850 AD

Steps take you down 11


storeys to the bottom

Old, deep and very dramatic


Has ....(12).... which provide
a view to the steps.

Neemrana Ki
Baori

1700

Has two ....(13)....


levels

Used by public today

General Tips To Solve IELTS Reading


Passage
Step 1: Read the heading & bold lines of passage.
Step 2: Pick up ideas & get into yourself within ideas of the passage.
** Application of step 1 & step 2:
Stepwells Ok, I know about it as an Indian Sub-continent person. If you dont
just pick it up from the bold lines like1st line A millennium ago it says driest part of India built something that
was fundamental to life, to keep them moist(!) and easily can say it was
something related to water source.
2nd line Although many have been neglected,. it says water source
structures are now reconstructed to let them their previous glory though some
are neglected.
3rd line Richard Cox travelled to. says that these are spectacular
monuments and found in north-western India.
Step 3: Dont read the whole passage first, rather read 1/2 questions first
and Underline/Mark the Keywords.
Step 4: Now read for keywords and alternative to keywords.

Step by step solution to


CAMBREDGE IELTS 10 READING TEST 1
PASSAGE 1 Stepwells
-

Questions 15
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading
Passage 1?
In boxes 15 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE
if
the
statement
agrees
with
the
information
FALSE
if
the
statement
contradicts
the
information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

Important Tips and Tricks For Yes, No, Not Given or True, False, Not
Given
*********************
Q# 1. Examples of ancient stepwells can be found all over the world.
NB: Found where (ancient one)?
Answer to Q 1

A millennium ago, stepwells were fundamental to life in the


driest parts of India.

DURING THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH


CENTURIES, THE INHABITANTS OF THE MODERNDAY STATES OF GUJARAT AND RAJASTHAN IN
NORTH-WESTERN INDIA DEVELOPED A METHOD
OF GAINING ACCESS TO CLEAN, FRESH
GROUNDWATER DURING THE DRY SEASON FOR
DRINKING, BATHING, WATERING ANIMALS AND
IRRIGATION.
1st line from topic sentence, A millennium ago.. revels ancient which is
the keyword of Q1 and the driest parts of India. that means ancient one
found in India not all over the world.
*So the answer for Q 1 is False.
Again
1st paragraph starts with During the sixth and seventh centuries..
India developed a method.. that must replace ancient one found in
India not all over the world.
*So the answer is False.
Q# 2. Stepwells had a range of functions, in addition to those related to
water collection.
NB: Function?
Answer to Q 2

..DEVELOPED A METHOD OF GAINING ACCESS


TO CLEAN, FRESH GROUNDWATER DURING THE
DRY SEASON FOR DRINKING, BATHING, WATERING
ANIMALS AND IRRIGATION. HOWEVER, THE
SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS INVENTION THE STEPWELL
GOES BEYOND ITS UTILITARIAN APPLICATION.
This part of 1st paragraph contains word method that reflexes function
keyword and gaining access to clean, fresh groundwater that is for
water collection keyword of the Q2.
*So the answer is True
Q# 3. The few existing stepwells in Delhi are more attractive than those
found elsewhere.
NB: More attractive one?
Answer to Q 3

Now search for the word Delhi from the next paragraph.

..WHILE A FEW ALSO SURVIVE IN DELHI. SOME WERE


LOCATED IN OR NEAR VILLAGES AS PUBLIC SPACES FOR
THE COMMUNITY; OTHERS WERE POSITIONED BESIDE
ROADS AS RESTING PLACES FOR TRAVELLERS.
Here we find the word Delhi from last segment of 2nd paragraph we get that
some stepwells found in Delhi and there is no indication whether it is attractive
or not.
*So the answer is NOT GIVEN.
Q #4. It took workers many years to build the stone steps characteristic of
stepwells.
NB: Time required to build stone steps?
Answer to Q 4
Here we search for the word Stone steps and a time frame.

AS THEIR NAME SUGGESTS, STEPWELLS COMPRISE A


SERIES OF STONE STEPS DESCENDING FROM GROUND
LEVEL TO THE WATER SOURCE (NORMALLY AN
UNDERGROUND AQUIFER) AS IT RECEDES FOLLOWING
THE RAINS. WHEN THE WATER LEVEL WAS HIGH, THE
USER NEEDED ONLY TO DESCEND A FEW STEPS TO
REACH IT; WHEN IT WAS LOW, SEVERAL LEVELS WOULD
HAVE TO BE NEGOTIATED.
3rd paragraph contains the word Stone steps and no time frame mentioned
here related to stone steps.
*So the answer is NOT GIVEN.
Q#5. The number of steps above the water level in a stepwell altered during
the course of a year.
NB: Steps number altered or not? or course of a year?
Answer to Q 5

..FROM GROUND LEVEL TO THE WATER SOURCE


(NORMALLY AN UNDERGROUND AQUIFER) AS IT RECEDES
FOLLOWING THE RAINS. WHEN THE WATER LEVEL WAS
HIGH, THE USER NEEDED ONLY TO DESCEND A FEW
STEPS TO REACH IT; WHEN IT WAS LOW, SEVERAL
LEVELS WOULD HAVE TO BE NEGOTIATED.
Last segment of 3rd paragraph mentioned about rain as season that is the
course of a year . a few steps means number of steps and levels
would have to be negotiated. that means steps are altered.
*So the answer is TRUE.

**See, we just mark the key words that we need to find from the passage.
NBs are given for those who can memorize things better thus they can go for
further questions to read. If you are not so good at memorizing, thats not a
problem, the best way to solve the question 1-5 one by one because questions
are arranged serially from the passage.

Questions 68
Answer
the
questions
below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 68 on your answer sheet.
Tips and Tricks Short Answer Question in IELTS Reading
*********************
Q#6. Which part of some stepwells provided shade for people?
NB: Which part provide shade?
Answer to Q 6
Here Shade is the keyword. Now start reading 4th paragraph-

..OTHERS ARE MORE ELABORATE, WITH LONG STEPPED


PASSAGES LEADING TO THE WATER VIA SEVERAL
STOREYS BUILT FROM STONE AND SUPPORTED BY
PILLARS, THEY ALSO INCLUDED PAVILIONS THAT
SHELTERED VISITORS FROM THE RELENTLESS HEAT..
Shade gives the expression of sheltering house for people, In the passage
we get the line pavillions that sheltered visitors that means visitors get
shelter from pavillions or we can say that, pavillions are the sheltering house or
shade.
*So the answer is Pavillions.
Q#7. What type of serious climatic event, which took place in southern
Rajasthan, is mentioned in the article?
NB: Serious climatic event in Rajasthan?
Answer to Q 7
Here we search for the word southern Rajasthan in the passage
southern Rajasthan suffered an eight-year drought between 1996 and
2004.
we get the word southern Rajasthanat the end of the 5th paragraph. Here
serious climatic condition is mentioned as drought.
* So the answer is Drought.
Q#8. Who are frequent visitors in stepwells nowadays?
NB: Frequent visitors now?
Answer to Q 8
Now we look for the word frequent visitors or now. In 6th paragraph we get
nothing,
7th paragraph starts with In Patan,

8th paragraph starts with Another Example is the.


Like that if we go through the 1st sentence of each paragraph then we find
today in the last paragraph of the passage.
Today, following years of neglect, many of these monuments to medieval
engineering have been saved by the Archaeological Survey of India, which has
recognised the importance of preserving them as part of the countrys rich
history. Tourists flock to wells in far-flung corners of northwestern India to
gaze in wonder at these architectural marvels from 1,000 years ago,..
Here Today means nowadays and tourists flock to wells that says
tourists are the visitors of wells.
*So the answer is Tourists.
Question 9-13
Complete the table below
Choose ONE WORD AND /OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
************************
Q#9. Restored in the 1960s. Excellent condition, despite the ..of 2001.
To solve the questions of a table you need to follow the general instructions.
Here the question is placed in 2nd row & last column. 2nd row 1st column
includes Rani Ki Vav stepwell, So the question is about this stepwell.
Now in passage find out Rani Ki Vav stepwells and it is found in 7th
paragraph. Now look for 2001 and this is found in the last line of this
paragraph.
In Patan, the states ancient capital, the stepwell of Rani Ki Vav (Queens
Stepwell) is perhaps the finest current example. It was built by Queen
Udayamati during the late 11th century, but became silted up following a flood
during the 13th century. But the Archaeological Survey of India began restoring
it in the 1960s, and today its in pristine condition. At 65 metres long, 20
metres wide and 27 metres deep, Rani Ki Vav features 500 distinct sculptures
carved into niches throughout the monument, depicting gods such as Vishnu
and Parvati in various incarnations. Incredibly, in January 2001, this ancient
structure survived a devastating earthquake that measured 7.6 on the Richter
scale.
From the question it is clear that it wants to know about an event/ a
phenomenon in noun form (noun takes article the before it). Here in this
sentence two noun can find and these are earthquake and Richter scale.
Among these two earthquake is an event/a phenomenon but Richter scale is
an instrument.
*So the answer is Earthquake.
Q#10. Steps on the .. produce a geometric pattern.
Carved shrines.
Here question is placed in 3rd row & 3rd column. 3rd row 1st column includes
Surya Kund stepwell, So the question is about this stepwell.

Now in passage find out Surya Kund stepwell and it is found in 8th paragraph.
Now look for geometric pattern and this is found in the 2nd line of this
paragraph.

ANOTHER EXAMPLE IS THE SURYA


KUND IN MODHERA, NORTHERN
GUJARAT, NEXT TO THE SUN TEMPLE,
BUILT BY KING BHIMA I IN 1026 TO
HONOUR THE SUN GOD SURYA. ITS
ACTUALLY A TANK (KUND MEANS
RESERVOIR OR POND) RATHER THAN
A WELL, BUT DISPLAYS THE
HALLMARKS OF STEPWELL
ARCHITECTURE, INCLUDING FOUR
SIDES OF STEPS THAT DESCEND TO
THE BOTTOM IN A STUNNING
GEOMETRICAL FORMATION. THE
TERRACES HOUSE 108 SMALL,
INTRICATELY CARVED SHRINES
BETWEEN THE SETS OF STEPS.
Now, the question is- what thing produce geometric pattern? here four side
steps that can alternately say like steps on four side and that match with the
question pattern.
*So the answer is Four sides.
Q#11. looks more like a . then a well.
Here question is placed in 3rd row & 4th column. 3rd row 1st column includes
Surya Kund stepwell, So the question is about this stepwell.
Now in passage find out Surya Kund stepwell and it is found in 8th paragraph.
Now looks for the word looks like and this is found in the 2nd line of this
paragraph.

..Its actually a tank (kund means reservoir or pond) rather than a


well, but displays the hallmarks of stepwell architecture.
Here underlined section clarify that it looks like a tank.
*So the answer is Tank.
Q#12. Old, deep and very dramatic.
Has .. which provide a view to the steps.
Here question is placed in 5th row & 4th column. 5th row 1st column includes
Chand Baori stepwell, So the question is about this stepwell.
Now in passage find out Chand Baori stepwell and it is found in 9th
paragraph. Now looks for the word which is noun after Has and that also
provide a view to the steps. This is found in the last segment of 9th paragraph.
Built in around 850 AD next to the temple of Harshat Mata, the baori comprises
hundreds of zigzagging steps that run along three of its sides, steeply
descending 11 storeys, resulting in a striking geometric pattern when seen from
afar. On the fourth side, covered verandas supported by ornate pillars
overlook the steps.
Here, Noun Varadas relates to the steps.
*So the answer is Varandas.
Q#13. Has two .. levels
Here question is ptwolaced in 6th row & 3th column. 6th row 1st column
includes Neemrana Ki Baori stepwell, So the question is about this stepwell.
Now in passage find out Neemrana Ki Baori and it is found in 11th paragraph.
Now looks for the word two that is found in the 1st line of 11th paragraph.
Still in public use is Neemrana Ki Baori, located just off the JaipurDehli
highway. Constructed in around 1700, its nine storeys deep, with the last two
levels underwater.
Here, the line two levels underwater, we can re-arrange it as two
underwater levels.
*So the answer is underwater.
-

Cambridge IELTS 10 Test 1- Reading


Passage 2 Step By Step Solution
By
Mithun Roy
March 22, 2016
0
3939

Cambridge IELTS 10 Test 1- Reading Passage 2 Full Solution.

EUROPEAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS


1990-2010
What have been the trends and what are the prospects for
European transport systems?
A It is difficult to conceive of vigorous economic growth without an efficient
transport system. Although modern information technologies can reduce the
demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the
requirement for transport continues to increase. There are two key factors
behind this trend. For passenger transport, the determining factor is the
spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European Union (EU)
roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, and in
the next decade the EU will see a further substantial increase in its fleet.
B As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to
changes in the European economy and its system of production. In the last 20

years, as internal frontiers have been abolished, the EU has moved from a
stock economy to a flow economy. This phenomenon has been emphasised
by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour
intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is
hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly plant or
away from users.
C The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for
entry to the EU will also increase transport flows, in particular road haulage
traffic. In 1998, some of these countries already exported more than twice their
1990 volumes and imported more than five times their 1990 volumes. And
although many candidate countries inherited a transport system which
encourages rail, the distribution between modes has tipped sharply in favour of
road transport since the 1990s. Between 1990 and 1998 road haulage
increased by 19.4%, while during the same period rail haulage decreased by
43.5%, although and this could benefit the enlarged EU it is still on average
at a much higher level than in existing member states.
D However, a new imperative-sustainable development offers an opportunity
for adapting the EU s common transport policy. This objective, agreed by the
Gothenburg European Council, has to be achieved by integrating environmental
considerations into Community policies, and shifting the balance between
modes of transport lies at the heart of its strategy. The ambitious objective can
only be fully achieved by 2020, but proposed measures are nonetheless a first
essential step towards a sustainable transport system which will ideally be in
place in 30 years time, that is by 2040.
E In 1998, energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28% of
emissions of CO2 the leading greenhouse gas. According to the latest
estimates, if nothing is done to reverse the traffic growth trend, CO2 emissions
from transport can be expected to increase by around 50% to 1,113 billion
tonnes by 2020compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990. Once
again, road transport is the main culprit since it alone accounts for 84% of the
CO2 emissions attributable to transport. Using alternative fuels and improving
energy efficiency is thus both an ecological necessity and a technological
challenge.
F At the same time greater efforts must be made to achieve a modal shift. Such
a change cannot be achieved overnight, all the less so after over half a century
of constant deterioration in favour of road. This has reached such a pitch that
today rail freight services are facing marginalisation, with just 8% of market
share, and with international goods trains struggling along at an average speed
of 18km/h. Three possible options have emerged.
G The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through
pricing. This option would not be accompanied by complementary measures in

the other modes of transport. In the short term it might curb the growth in road
transport through the better loading ratio of goods vehicles and occupancy rates
of passenger vehicles expected as a result of the increase in the price of
transport. However, the lack of measures available to revitalise other modes of
transport would make it impossible for more sustainable modes of transport to
take up the baton.
H The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is
accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better
quality of services, logistics, technology). However, this approach does not
include investment in new infrastructure, nor does it guarantee better regional
cohesion. It could help to achieve greater uncoupling than the first approach,
but road transport would keep the lions share of the market and continue to
concentrate on saturated arteries, despite being the most polluting of the
modes. It is therefore not enough to guarantee the necessary shift of the
balance.
I The third approach, which is not new, comprises a series of measures ranging
from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting
investment in the trans-European network. This integrated approach would
allow the market shares of the other modes to return to their 1998 levels and
thus make a shift of balance. It is far more ambitious than it looks, bearing in
mind the historical imbalance in favour of roads for the last fifty years, but
would achieve a marked break in the link between road transport growth and
economic growth, without placing restrictions on the mobility of people and
goods.
Questions 14-21
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on
Reading Passage 2 on the following pages.
Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs, A-I.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-E and G-I from the list of headings
below.
Write the correct numberi-xi, in boxes 14-21 on your answer sheet
List of Headings
i

A fresh and important long-term goal

ii Charging for roads and improving other transport methods


iii Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported
iv Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns
v The environmental costs of road transport
vi The escalating cost of rail transport

vii The need to achieve transport rebalance


viii The rapid growth of private transport
ix Plans to develop major road networks
x Restricting road use through charging policies alone
xi Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission
14 Paragraph A
15 Paragraph B
16
Paragraph C
17
18 Paragraph E

19
20
21
Paragraph

Paragraph G
Paragraph H
Paragraph I
D

Questions 22-26
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading
Passage 2?
In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE
if
the
statement
agrees
with
FALSE
if
the
statement
contradicts
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

the
the

information
information

22. The need for transport is growing, despite technological developments.


23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to
their relevant consumers.
24. Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries.
25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.
26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to
reach 739 billion tonnes.
*************************

Step by step solution to CAMBREDGE IELTS


10 TEST 1 Reading Passage 2
EUROPEAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
1990-2010
Step 1: Read 1st and 2nd one of the TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN question, and
mark keywords of it.
Q#22. The need for transport is growing despite, technological development.
Q#23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer
to their relevant consumers.

Step 2: Now start reading the passage from A to find out the keywords or
Alternative keywords from the passage of questions mentioned in step 1.
Here, In 2nd line of Passage A we get requirement increase which replaces
the words need is growing. Again the line starts with Although modern
information technologies that can replace technological development.

ALTHOUGH MODERN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES


CAN REDUCE THE DEMAND FOR PHYSICAL TRANSPORT
BY FACILITATING TELEWORKING AND TELESERVICES, THE
REQUIREMENT FOR TRANSPORT CONTINUES TO
INCREASE.
**So, Answer of Q 22 is TRUE
Step 3: When we got the answer in the passage A so early then read the next
question with the earlier remaining one of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type
question. And repeat following step 1 and step 2.
Q#23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer
to their relevant consumers.
NB: Any move in industries?
Q#24. Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries.
NB: Car Expensive in EU.

..THE DETERMINING FACTOR IS THE SPECTACULAR


GROWTH IN CAR USE. THE NUMBER OF CARS ON
EUROPEAN UNION (EU) ROADS SAW AN INCREASE
OF THREE MILLION CARS EACH YEAR FROM 1990 TO
2010, AND IN THE NEXT DECADE THE EU WILL SEE A
FURTHER SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE IN ITS FLEET.
In the last segment of 1st paragraph we get number of cars increase in
EU roads, here nothing about car expenses.
So, the answer for Q#24 is NOT GIVEN
Step 4: If we get the answer of one of the above question in passage A then
again go for next question with the earlier unsolved one of TRUE, FALSE or NOT
GIVEN type question. And repeat following step 1 and step 2. By the way if we
just finished of reading passage A. Then try out to give heading for passage
A thus read the list of heading carefully to mark out the key points. And
must look for the paragraph A heading.
Here, we dont get the answer of Q#23. So we need to read the heading list and
mark the key points of each heading. Also search for the heading of paragraph
A.
i A fresh and important long-term goal

NB: Fresh goal (of transportation)


ii Charging for roads and improving other transport methods
NB: Charging, improving methods
iii Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported
NB: Changes affecting goods transport.
iv Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns
NB: Taking all the steps to change.
v The environmental costs of road transport
NB: About environment.
vi The escalating cost of rail transport
NB: About rail.
vii The need to achieve transport rebalance
NB: Achieve re-balance.
viii The rapid growth of private transport
NB: Rapid growth of Private one.
Here, 4th line of the passage A says, spectacular growth in car use which
means Rapid growth of private.

FOR PASSENGER TRANSPORT, THE DETERMINING FACTOR


IS THE SPECTACULAR GROWTH IN CAR USE. THE
NUMBER OF CARS ON EUROPEAN UNION (EU) ROADS
SAW AN INCREASE OF THREE MILLION CARS EACH YEAR
FROM 1990 TO 2010, AND IN THE NEXT DECADE THE EU
WILL SEE A FURTHER SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE IN ITS
FLEET.
**So the answer for Q#14 is viii
ix Plans to develop major road networks
NB: Plans for networks
x Restricting road use through charging policies alone
NB: Restrict road charging policies alone
xi Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission
NB: countries awaiting EU admission.
Step 5: Just pen through the marking point of heading list that we match
earlier. Now call your memory for the earlier unsolved question and also read
and mark the next new one of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type question.
Now start reading Passage B. At the same time mark the key points of 1st line
of passage B.

Q#23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer
to their relevant consumers.
Q#25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.
NB: When Gothenburg European Council set up?

AS FAR AS GOODS TRANSPORT IS CONCERNED,


GROWTH IS DUE TO A LARGE EXTENT TO CHANGES IN
THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY AND ITS SYSTEM OF
PRODUCTION.
In the 1st sentence we get- goods transport changes due to
Q#23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer
to their relevant consumers.

THIS PHENOMENON HAS BEEN EMPHASISED BY THE


RELOCATION OF SOME INDUSTRIES, PARTICULARLY
THOSE WHICH ARE LABOUR INTENSIVE, TO REDUCE
PRODUCTION COSTS, EVEN THOUGH THE PRODUCTION
SITE IS HUNDREDS OR EVEN THOUSANDS OF
KILOMETRES AWAY FROM THE FINAL ASSEMBLY PLANT OR
AWAY FROM USERS.
Here in 3rd line of Passage B says that relocation of industries that are
labour intensive to reduce production cost where as Q#23 mentioned
that industries moved, closer to consumers and reduce production
cost. now if we compare relatively then we get industries moved closer to
labour not to consumers to reduce production cost.
**So the answer of Q#23 is FALSE.
Step 6: Now read next question of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type and mark
key-words then continue reading the passage. If we get it in this passage then
go for the next question. If not then look for the passage heading from List of
Heading. Now we only look through our marked key words in the list and try to
match one from the list with our 1st line marked keywords that have already
been done in the 4th step. *** when we get confused with two or three
heading then mark all of them serially depending upon our preference.
Q#25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.
NB: When Gothenburg European Council set up?
Q#26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted
to reach 739 billion tonnes.

NB: CO2 emissions reach 739 billion tonnes.


Here, in passage B we didnt get the answer of Q#25 so we look for the
heading of B
From 4th step we get the keywords for 1st line of Passage B is- goods
transport changes due to that clearly match with the heading line iii
iii Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported
NB: Changes affecting goods transport.
** So the answer for Q#15 is iii
Step 7: Now just follow the Step 5 and Step 6 until getting all of the answers
of the questions of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type. After that we just read the
first line of a paragraph and mark the key-words and then try to match with the
key words of our List heading key-words.
Paragraph C starts with the line-

THE STRONG ECONOMIC GROWTH EXPECTED IN


COUNTRIES WHICH ARE CANDIDATES FOR ENTRY TO
THE EU WILL ALSO INCREASE TRANSPORT FLOWS, IN
PARTICULAR ROAD HAULAGE TRAFFIC.
NB: Countries candidates to entry EU increase transport.
Now match it with List of heading keywordsxi Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission
NB: Countries awaiting EU admission.
Here, Countries candidates can be used for Countries awaiting, To entry
means Admission and transport trends replace for increase transport .
**So the answer for Q#16 is xi
Now look for the Q#25 and Q#26 in this paragraph C.
Q#25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.
NB: When Gothenburg European Council set up?
Q#26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted
to reach 739 billion tonnes.
NB: CO2 emissions reach 739 billion tonnes.
Nothing found in this paragraph now we go for next paragraph that is D and
mark the key-words of 1st line then match with the rest Heading list.

HOWEVER, A NEW IMPERATIVE-SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


OFFERS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR ADAPTING THE EUS COMMON
TRANSPORT POLICY.

A fresh and important long-term goal

NB: Fresh goal (of transportation)


**So the answer for the Q#17 is i
Now in this paragraph we get-Gothenburg European Council proposed
measures will ideally be in place in 30 years time, that is by 2040.

THE GOTHENBURG EUROPEAN COUNCIL, HAS TO BE


ACHIEVED
BY
INTEGRATING
ENVIRONMENTAL
CONSIDERATIONS INTO COMMUNITY POLICIES, AND
SHIFTING
THE
BALANCE
BETWEEN
MODES
OF
TRANSPORT LIES AT THE HEART OF ITS STRATEGY. THE
AMBITIOUS OBJECTIVE CAN ONLY BE FULLY ACHIEVED BY
2020, BUT PROPOSED MEASURES ARE NONETHELESS
A FIRST ESSENTIAL STEP TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE
TRANSPORT SYSTEM WHICH WILL IDEALLY BE IN
PLACE IN 30 YEARS TIME, THAT IS BY 2040.
But nothing found about the set up time of Gothenburg European Council.
So the answer of Q#25 is NOT GIVEN.
Thus we have only one TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type questionQ#26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted
to reach 739 billion tonnes.
NB: CO2 emissions reach 739 billion tonnes.
Now with this Q#26 move on to the next paragraph E. where 1st line is-

IN 1998, ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN THE TRANSPORT


SECTOR WAS TO BLAME FOR 28% OF EMISSIONS OF
CO2THE LEADING GREENHOUSE GAS.
That greenhouse gas emission is the environmental cost of transport
sector.The list of heading v expresses the ideas of paragraph E.
v The environmental costs of road transport
NB: About environment.
So the answer of Q#18 is v
Now read the rest of the paragraph for Q#26.
Q#26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are
predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.
NB: CO2 emissions reach 739 billion tonnes.

ACCORDING TO THE LATEST ESTIMATES, IF NOTHING IS DONE TO


REVERSE THE TRAFFIC GROWTH TREND, CO2 EMISSIONS FROM
TRANSPORT CAN BE EXPECTED TO INCREASE BY AROUND 50%
TO 1,113 BILLION TONNES BY 2020, COMPARED WITH THE
739 BILLION TONNES RECORDED IN 1990. ONCE AGAIN,
ROAD TRANSPORT IS THE MAIN CULPRIT SINCE IT ALONE
ACCOUNTS FOR 84% OF THE CO2 EMISSIONS ATTRIBUTABLE TO
TRANSPORT.
From the paragraaph we got CO2 emissions reach 1,113 billion tonnes.
**So the answer of Q#26. is FALSE
Now we got solution of all of the questions of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type.
So we will explain only the 1st line of rest paragraphs to get a heading for each.
Solution for paragraph F is given so we go for paragraph G. 1st line of
paragraph G is-

THE FIRST APPROACH WOULD CONSIST OF FOCUSING


ON ROAD TRANSPORT SOLELY THROUGH PRICING.
x Restricting road use through charging policies alone
NB: Restrict road charging policies alone
Here Pricing means charging policies and solely means alone.
** So the answer for Q#19 is x
Now the 1st line of paragraph H is-

THE SECOND APPROACH ALSO CONCENTRATES ON


ROAD TRANSPORT PRICING BUT IS ACCOMPANIED
BY MEASURES TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE
OTHER MODES (BETTER QUALITY OF SERVICES,
LOGISTICS, TECHNOLOGY).
ii Charging for roads and improving other transport methods
NB: Charging, improving methods
Here increase replaces improving and modes for method.
** So the answer of Q#20 is ii
Now the 1st line of paragraph I is-

THE THIRD APPROACH, WHICH IS NOT NEW, COMPRISES


A SERIES OF MEASURES RANGING FROM PRICING

TO

REVITALISING

ALTERNATIVE

MODES

OF

TRANSPORT AND TARGETING INVESTMENT IN THE


TRANS-EUROPEAN NETWORK.
iv Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns
NB: Taking all the steps to change.
a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative
modes of transport this line can replace all steps.
Here we can be confused with heading ix
ix Plans to develop major road networks
NB: Plans for networks
Here targeting investment in the trans-European network though
indicates Plans for network of roads. But we can not take this heading
because it denies all other plans that mentioned first part of the line.
**So the answer for Q#21 is iv
/*/*/*****************

Cambridge IELTS 10 Test 1- Reading


Passage 3 Step By Step Solution
By
Mithun Roy
March 24, 2016

Cambridge IELTS 10 Test 1- Reading Passage 3 Full Solution. IELTS


Reading Practice Test.

The psychology of innovation


Why are so few companies truly innovative?

Innovation is key to business survivaland companies put substantial resources


into inspiring employees to develop new ideas. There are, nevertheless, people
working in luxurious, state-of-the-art centres designed to stimulate innovation
who find that their environment doesnt make them feel at all creative. And
there are those who dont have a budget, or much space, but who innovate
successfully.
For Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University, one
reason that companies dont succeed as often as they should is that innovation
starts with recruitment. Research shows that the fit between an employees
values and a companys values makes a difference to what contribution they
make and whether, two years after they join, theyre still at the company.
Studies at Harvard Business School show that, although some individuals may
be more creative than others, almost every individual can be creative in the
right circumstances.
One of the most famous photographs in the story of rocknroll emphasises
Ciaidinis views. The 1956 picture of singers Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Johnny
Cash and Jerry Lee Lewis jamming at a piano in Sun Studios in Memphis tells a
hidden story. Suns million-dollar quartet could have been a quintet. Missing
from the picture is Roy Orbison a greater natural singer than Lewis, Perkins or
Cash. Sam Phillips, who owned Sun, wanted to revolutionise popular music with
songs that fused black and white music, and country and blues. Presley, Cash,
Perkins and Lewis instinctively understood Phillipss ambition and believed in it.
Orbison wasnt inspired by the goal, and only ever achieved one hit with the
Sun label.
The value fit matters, says Cialdini, because innovation is, in part, a process of
change, and under that pressure we, as a species, behave differently, When
things change, we are hard-wired to play it safe. Managers should therefore
adopt an approach that appears counterintuitive -they should explain what
stands to be lost if the company fails to seize a particular opportunity. Studies
show that we invariably take more gambles when threatened with a loss than
when offered a reward.
Managing innovation is a delicate art. Its easy for a company to be pulled in
conflicting directions as the marketing, product development, and finance
departments each get different feedback from different sets of people. And
without a system which ensures collaborative exchanges within the company,
its also easy for small pockets of innovation to disappear. Innovation is a
contact sport. You cant brief people just by saying, Were going in this
direction and Im going to take you with me.
Cialdini believes that this follow-the-leader syndrome, is dangerous, not least
because it encourages bosses to go it alone. Its been scientifically proven that
three people will be better than one at solving problems, even if that one
person is the smartest person in the field. To prove his point, Cialdini cites an
interview with molecular biologist James Watson. Watson, together with Francis
Crick, discovered the structure of DNA, the genetic information carrier of all
living organisms. When asked how they had cracked the code ahead of an array
of highly accomplished rival investigators, he said something that stunned me.

He said he and Crick had succeeded because they were aware that they
werent the most intelligent of the scientists pursuing the answer. The smartest
scientist was called Rosalind Franklin who, Watson said, was so intelligent she
rarely sought advice.
Teamwork taps into one of the basic drivers of human behaviour. The principle
of social proof is so pervasive that we dont even recognise it, says Cialdini. If
your project is being resisted, for example, by a group of veteran employees,
ask another old-timer to speak up for it. Cialdini is not alone in advocating this
strategy. Research shows that peer power, used horizontally not vertically, is
much more powerful than any bosss speech.
Writing, visualising and prototyping can stimulate the flow of new ideas. Cialdini
cites scores of research papers and historical events that prove that even
something as simple as writing deepens every individuals engagement in the
project. It is, he says, the reason why all those competitions on breakfast cereal
packets encouraged us to write in saying, in no more than 10 words: I like
Kelloggs Com Flakes because . The very act of writing makes us more likely
to believe it.
Authority doesnt have to inhibit innovation but it often does. The wrong kind of
leadership will lead to what Cialdini calls captainitis, the regrettable tendency
of team members to opt out of team responsibilities that are properly their. He
calls it captainitis because, he says, crew members of multipilot aircraft exhibit
a sometimes deadly passivity when the flight captain makes a clearly wrongheaded decision. This behaviour is not, he says, unique to air travel, but can
happen in any workplace where the leader is overbearing.
At the other end of the scale is the 1980s Memphis design collective, a group of
young designers for whom the only rule was that there were no rule. This
environment encouraged a free interchange of ideas, which led to more
creativity with form, function, colour and materials that revolutionised attitudes
to furniture design.
Many theorists believe the ideal boss should lead from behind, taking pride in
collective accomplishment and giving credit where it is due. Cialdini
says:Leaders should encourage everyone to contribute and simultaneously
assure all concerned that every recommendation is important to making the
right decision and will be given full attention The frustrating thing about
innovation is that there are many approaches, but no magic formula. However,
a manager who wants to create a truly innovative culture can make their job a
lot easier by recognising these psychological realities.
Questions 27-30
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.
27. The example of the million-dollar quartet underlines the writers point
about
A recognising talent.

B working as a team.
C having a shared objective.
D being an effective leader.
28. James Watson suggests that he and Francis Crick won the race to discover
the DNA code because they
A were conscious of their own limitations.
B brought complementary skills to their partnership.
C were determined to outperform their brighter rivals.
D encouraged each other to realise their joint ambition.
29. The writer mentions competitions on breakfast cereal packets as an
example of how to
A inspire creative thinking.
B generate concise writing.
C promote loyalty to a group.
D strengthen commitment to an idea.
30. In the last paragraph, the writer suggests that it is important for employees
to
A be aware of their companys goals.
B feel that their contributions are valued.
C have respect for their co-workers achievements.
D understand why certain management decisions are made.
Questions 31-35
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 31-35 on your answer sheet
31. Employees whose values match those of their employers are more likely to
32. At times of change, people tend to
33. If people are aware of what they might lose, they will often
34. People working under a dominant boss are liable to
35. Employees working in organisations with few rules are more likely to
A take chances.
B share their ideas.
C become competitive.
D get promotion.
E avoid risk.
F ignore their duties.

G remain in their jobs.

Questions 36-40
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 3?
In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
36 The physical surroundings in which a person works play a key role in
determining their creativity.
37 Most people have the potential to be creative.
38 Teams work best when their members are of equally matched intelligence.
39 It is easier for smaller companies to be innovative.
40 A managers approval of an idea is more persuasive than that of a colleague.

Step by step solution to CAMBREDGE IELTS


10 TEST 1 Reading Passage 3 The
psychology of innovation
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Questions 27-30
27. The example of the million-dollar quartet underlines the writers point
about
A recognising talent.
B working as a team.
C having a shared objective.
D being an effective leader.

SUNS MILLION-DOLLAR QUARTET COULD HAVE


BEEN A QUINTET. MISSING FROM THE PICTURE IS ROY
ORBISON A GREATER NATURAL SINGER THAN LEWIS,
PERKINS OR CASH. SAM PHILLIPS, WHO OWNED SUN,
WANTED TO REVOLUTIONISE POPULAR MUSIC WITH
SONGS THAT FUSED BLACK AND WHITE MUSIC, AND
COUNTRY AND BLUES. PRESLEY, CASH, PERKINS AND
LEWIS INSTINCTIVELY UNDERSTOOD PHILLIPSS
AMBITION AND BELIEVED IN IT. ORBISON WASNT
INSPIRED BY THE GOAL, AND ONLY EVER ACHIEVED
ONE HIT WITH THE SUN LABEL.
This is from last segment of 3rd paragraph.
Here option A. Recogniging talent cant be the answer because greater
natural singer Roy Orbison was a talent but later on missing from the million
-dollar quartet.
In option B. Working as a team can be the answer.
But in option C. Having a shared objectives is more appropriate because
though they worked as a team but they worked for a shared objective or goal
of Sam Phillips.
Option D. is out by *POE.
**So the answer is C.
28. James Watson suggests that he and Francis Crick won the race to discover
the DNA code because they
A were conscious of their own limitations.
B brought complementary skills to their partnership.
C were determined to outperform their brighter rivals.
D encouraged each other to realise their joint ambition.

WHEN ASKED HOW THEY HAD CRACKED THE CODE AHEAD OF


AN
ARRAY
OF
HIGHLY
ACCOMPLISHED
RIVAL
INVESTIGATORS, HE SAID SOMETHING THAT STUNNED ME. HE
SAID HE AND CRICK HAD SUCCEEDED BECAUSE THEY WERE
AWARE THAT THEY WERENT THE MOST INTELLIGENT OF
THE SCIENTISTS PURSUING THE ANSWER. THE SMARTEST
SCIENTIST WAS CALLED ROSALIND FRANKLIN WHO, WATSON
SAID, WAS SO INTELLIGENT SHE RARELY SOUGHT ADVICE.

This line is taken from the 5th line of 7th paragraph. Here they were aware
that means they were conscious about that- they werent the most
intelligent of the scientists pursuing the answer. that means about their
limitations.
Though other options are closely related but can not be brought out from the
paragraph so clearly like option A.
**So the answer is A.
29. The writer mentions competitions on breakfast cereal packets as an
example of how to
A inspire creative thinking.
B generate concise writing.
C promote loyalty to a group.
D strengthen commitment to an idea.

PROVE THAT EVEN SOMETHING AS SIMPLE AS WRITING


DEEPENS EVERY INDIVIDUALS ENGAGEMENT IN THE
PROJECT. IT IS, HE SAYS, THE REASON WHY ALL THOSE
COMPETITIONS ON BREAKFAST CEREAL PACKETS ENCOURAGED
US TO WRITE IN SAYING, IN NO MORE THAN 10 WORDS: I LIKE
KELLOGGS COM FLAKES BECAUSE . THE VERY ACT OF
WRITING MAKES US MORE LIKELY TO BELIEVE IT.
This line is taken from 2nd line of 9th paragraph. Here option A. and C.
omitted by the POE. Option B. generate concise writing can be the answer but
here in this paragraph this writing process is only taken as an example to
evaluate the fact that The very act of writing makes us more likely to
believe it that means strengthen commitment to an idea. So most appropriate
option is D.
**So the answer is D.
30. In the last paragraph, the writer suggests that it is important for employees
to
A. be aware of their companys goals.
B. feel that their contributions are valued.
C. have respect for their co-workers achievements.
D. understand why certain management decisions are made.

CIALDINI SAYS:LEADERS SHOULD ENCOURAGE EVERYONE TO


CONTRIBUTE AND SIMULTANEOUSLY ASSURE ALL CONCERNED
THAT EVERY RECOMMENDATION IS IMPORTANT TO MAKING
THE RIGHT DECISION AND WILL BE GIVEN FULL ATTENTION

This is taken from 2nd line of last paragraph. Here everyone means
employees, every recommendation is important means their contributions
are valued. Other options are omitted by the POE.
** So the answer is B.
====================
Complete each sentence with the correct ending
Questions 31-35
31. Employees whose values match those of their employers are more likely to

RESEARCH SHOWS THAT THE FIT BETWEEN AN EMPLOYEES


VALUES AND A COMPANYS VALUES MAKES A DIFFERENCE TO
WHAT CONTRIBUTION THEY MAKE AND WHETHER, TWO YEARS
AFTER THEY JOIN, THEYRE STILL AT THE COMPANY.
This paragraph is taken from 2nd line of 2nd paragraph. Here fit between
means match and still at the company means remains in their job.
** So the answer is G. remain in their job
32. At times of change, people tend to

..WHEN THINGS CHANGE, WE ARE HARD-WIRED


TO PLAY IT SAFE.
This line is taken from 1st line of 5th paragraph. here we get, when things
change that is At the time of change, hard-wired to that is tend to, play it
safe that is avoid risk.
**So the answer is E. avoid risk
33. If people are aware of what they might lose, they will often

STUDIES SHOW THAT WE INVARIABLY TAKE MORE


GAMBLES WHEN THREATENED WITH A LOSS THAN
WHEN OFFERED A REWARD.
This line is taken from last line of 5th paragraph. Here, take more
gambles means take chances when people are threatened with a
loss means aware of what they might lose
**So the answer is A. take chances
34. People working under a dominant boss are liable to

THE WRONG KIND OF LEADERSHIP WILL LEAD TO


WHAT
CIALDINI
CALLS
CAPTAINITIS,
THE
REGRETTABLE TENDENCY OF TEAM MEMBERS TO
OPT OUT OF TEAM RESPONSIBILITIES THAT ARE
PROPERLY THEIR.
This line is taken from 2nd line of the paragraph 10. Opt out of team
responsibilities is clearly resembles Ignore their duties.
**So the answer is F. ignore their duties
35. Employees working in organisations with few rules are more likely to

..THE ONLY RULE WAS THAT THERE WERE NO


RULE. THIS ENVIRONMENT ENCOURAGED A FREE
INTERCHANGE OF IDEAS.
The line is taken from 11th paragraph. Here interchange/share of ideas is
the best match with the line.
**So the answer is B. Share of ideas
=======================
YES, NO, NOT GIVEN
Questions 36-40
36. The physical surroundings in which a person works play a key role in
determining their creativity.

PEOPLE WORKING IN LUXURIOUS, STATE-OF-THE-ART


CENTRES DESIGNED TO STIMULATE INNOVATION WHO FIND
THAT THEIR ENVIRONMENT DOESNT MAKE THEM FEEL AT
ALL CREATIVE.AND THERE ARE THOSE WHO DONT HAVE A
BUDGET,
OR
MUCH
SPACE,
BUT
WHO
INNOVATE
SUCCESSFULLY.
This line is taken from the last line of paragraph 1. Here all the physical
surroundings make to create an environment to stimulate innovation failed to
bring out creativity, on the other hand without proper physical surroundings one
can be innovative.
So, The physical surroundings in which a person works doesnt have
a role in determining their creativity can be the right sentence.
**So the answer is NO
37. Most people have the potential to be creative.

ALTHOUGH SOME INDIVIDUALS MAY BE MORE


CREATIVE THAN OTHERS, ALMOST EVERY INDIVIDUAL
CAN BE CREATIVE IN THE RIGHT CIRCUMSTANCES.
This line is taken from last line of 2nd paragraph, almost every individual
means Most people, can be stands for have the potential to be creative.
**So the answer is YES.
38. Teams work best when their members are of equally matched intelligence.

TEAM WORK TAPS INTO ONE OF THE BASIC DRIVERS


OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR. THE PRINCIPLE OF SOCIAL
PROOF IS SO PERVASIVE THAT WE DONT EVEN
RECOGNISE IT, SAYS CIALDINI.
Here in the 1st line of paragraph 8 mentioned about Team work and Cialdini
says clearly that proof is so pervasive that he couldnt recognise it. In this
paragraph we didnt find anything relating to members intelligence with team
work.
**So the answer is NOT GIVEN

39. It is easier for smaller companies to be innovative.


The sequence of question usually follow the continuity of the passage. Here
after paragraph 8 we dont get any thing about the companies innovation
advantages regarding to its size.

AT THE OTHER END OF THE SCALE IS THE 1980S


MEMPHIS DESIGN COLLECTIVE, A GROUP OF
YOUNG DESIGNERS FOR WHOM THE ONLY RULE WAS
THAT THERE WERE NO RULE.
From 1st line of paragraph 11, if we count a group of young designers as
a small company then we see, nothing says here about companies size
affecting innovation rather than clear discussion about companies internal rules
and regulations.
**So the answer is NOT GIVEN
40. A managers approval of an idea is more persuasive than that of a
colleague.

MANY THEORISTS BELIEVE THE IDEAL BOSS SHOULD LEAD


FROM BEHIND, TAKING PRIDE IN COLLECTIVE ACCOMPLISHMENT
AND GIVING CREDIT WHERE IT IS DUE.
This line is taken from 1st line of last paragraph of the passage. Here Boss is
Manager and should lead from behind where colleagues are being credited for
their idea. So the right answer should be Approval of collective ideas is
more persuasive than that of a manager.
**So answer is NO
====================