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Mud

Contaminants

A contaminant is any type of


material (solid, liquid or gas)
which has an adverse effect
on the physical or chemical
characteristics of a drilling
fluid.

Water Based
Mud
Contaminants

Most of the chemical


contaminants are directly
related to the ion exchange
reactions with clays.
The MBC is a good indication of
the concentration of solid clay
type.
MBC < 15 lb / bbl muds are less
affected by the chemical
contamination.

Anhydrite or
Gypsum
Contamination

Anhydrite or
Gypsum
contamination
(CaSO4
CaSO4 .H2O

Detection
Higher physical properties: high viscosity (Marsh),
high gel strengths and high yield point.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Higher Calcium amount.


Alkalinity and pH reduction.
Presence of soft pellets of acid soluble material
in the slurry.
The qualitative test for ion sulfate should
indicate an increase. (Not useful if it has
lignosulphonate as primary defloculant)

Anhydrite or
Gypsum
contamination
(CaSO4
CaSO4 .H2O

Treatment
Increasing the concentration of deflocculant in
the system. (Lignosulphonate and Lignite).
If there is too much calcium, will be necessary to
use sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to precipitate.
2 3 + 4

>11,3

2 4 + 3

pH should be maintained within the range of 9.5


to 10.5 with caustic soda (NaOH) or caustic
potash (KOH).
Phosphates also have the ability to complex the
calcium filtered. This reaction produces an
insoluble calcium phosphate. (T<200F)

Calcium-Based Mud

Anhydrite or
Gypsum
contamination
(CaSO4
CaSO4 .H2O

When large sections of anhydrite or gypsum are


drilled , the magnitude of the contamination makes it
virtually impossible to hold the flow properties and
control filtering desirable.
Therefore it is necessary to add calcium sulfate
convert the system into a system calcium-based
mud.

It requires the addition of a control filtering agent not


too sensitive to calcium.

Cement
Contamination

Cement
Contamination

Not contaminant in:


Clear water, brines, calcium-based mud or oil base
muds, or when the cement is fully cured.

Detection
Higher physical properties: high viscosity (Marsh),
high gel strengths and less filter control.
1.
2.
3.

Calcium ion uptake in clay particles, causing


flocculation.
pH, Pm and Pf increment.
Gelation or solidification tends to occur at high
temperatures.

Cement
Contamination

The following should be considered when a large


amount of cement is drilled:
If the cement operation is in an intermediate or
final stage, you should consider using water
instead of drilling mud to drill cement. (Only
viable when the cement is cased and there is no
pressure communication through cement.)
If the well is in the stage of completion, and you
need to use the mud, it would be necessary
establish a sufficient time to properly treat the
cement contamination, otherwise gelation
problem could develop.

Cement
Contamination

Treatment
Increasing the concentration of deflocculant in
the system. (Lignosulphonate and Lignite).

Calcium can be precipitated by baking sodium


(HCO3) or SAPP (Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate),
reducing pH and Pm.
If the cement is drilled with a polymer system,
polymers will be hydrolysed by the high pH and
precipitated by calcium (Ca)

Cement
Contamination

In this case, citric acid (H3C6H5O7) is the additive to


be used. This precipitates cement as calcium
citrate and reduces the pH.
The use of solids removal equipment to remove
fine particles of cement. In this way the cement is
removed before it can dissolve at lower pH.

Carbonates
Contamination

Carbonate
Contamination

Detection
1. Pf increment with a constant pH.
2. Difference between Pf y Mf increased.
3. Carbonates and Bicarbonates levels increased
4. High gel strengths.
Sources:
CO2 in the air in mud tanks and solid treatment
equipment. CO2 becomes H2CO3 and then it is
transformed into HCO3 or CO3.

Carbonate
Contamination

Excess of cement/gypsum contamination


treatment.
The CO2 gas from the formation/water.
Bicarbonates and carbonates of secondary
products of thermal degradation of
lignosulphonate and lignite. Temperatures above
325 F .

Some impure barytes contain carbonate and


bicarbonate ions .

Mf/Pf Analysis, BaCl2 test.

Carbonate
Contamination

If acid 0.5 ml was used to assess the


phenolphthalein endpoint , Pf is 0.5.
If an additional volume used 0.3 ml acid to assess
to the endpoint of MethylOrange, Mf is 0.8
Repeat the Pf process, with 2 mL of BaCl2 10%, if
this Alkalinity with BaCl2 is half or less of the
previous value Pf , the carbonates contamination
has happened.

Carbonate
Contamination

Treatment:
Treatments determined by the following
methods are designed to remove all bicarbonates
and carbonates but 20 millimol/liter of
carbonates.
From the value of Pf on the vertical axis,
advancing to the line of pH and rising to the top
of the graph to determine the required pounds
per barrel of lime to precipitate carbonates/
bicarbonates. Add the lime of both graphics and
multiplied by the fraction of water (Fw) to
determine the necessary treatment.

Salt
Contamination

The three types of salts natural rock encountered


during drilling operations are halite (NaCl), sylvite
(KCl) and carnallite (KMgCl3 6H2O)

Salt
Contamination

The only systems on which the dissolved salts have


almost no effect systems are clear water, brines, oil
base muds and some polymer systems with low
content of colloids.
Detection
1. High viscosity, high gel strengths, high filtering.
2. Significant increase in chloride content.
3. Small increases in hardness in the mud filtrate.

Salt
Contamination

Halite: The initial effect on the drilling mud is


flocculation of the clays caused by mass action
sodium ion.
Treatment: includes adding deflocculant to maintain
sufficient flow properties and dilution with fresh
water in order to obtain desirable proper rheology.

An additional amount of caustic soda is required


to increase the pH.
Whether to drill through solid salt or common salt
veins, mud should be saturated with salt to
prevent well landslides.

Salt
Contamination

Sylvite (KCl): Sylvite contamination produces the


same reaction mud properties and require the same
treatment sludge contamination halite.
It is important to know the type of salt to be drilled.
As the solubility of sylvite is slightly higher than the
halite, a section of perforated sylvite solid salt with a
saturated fluid halite can still collapse to some
extent, but not with the same severity as if fresh
water is used.

Carnallite (KMgCl3 6H2O): The complex salt


"carnallite" is relatively rare.

Salt
Contamination

Detection:
1. Clay Dehydration and Floculation.
2. In the presence of hydroxyl ions (OH-), the
dissolved magnesium carnallite is precipitated as
magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2). It increases the
mud viscosity.
Treatment: Do not use caustic soda. Sodium sulfate
(Na2SO4) is one of the chemicals that are available to
control calcium filtering fluids having a high
magnesium content.

Gas
Contamination

H2S:It is the most severe and corrosive contaminants.

Hydrogen
Sulfide (H2S)
Contamination

This gas is destructive to tubulars and toxic materials to


humans. When it is identified, staff should immediately
use appropriate personal protective equipment and
implementing safety measures for workers.
Detection
1. pH reduction.
2. Discoloration of mud (to a dark color) due to the
formation of FeS from barite.
3. Rotten Egg Smell.
4. Increased viscosity and filtering due to reduced
pH.
5. Formation of black deposits (FeS) on steel
drillpipe.

Hydrogen
Sulfide (H2S)
Contamination

Treatment:
To compensate for the harmful aspects of H2S gas,
the pH should be increased to at least 11, or to a safer
level 12, adding caustic soda or lime.

Hydrogen
Sulfide (H2S)
Contamination

Treatment:
Sulfide ion could be removed by reaction with zinc
oxide to form zinc sulfide, which is insoluble.
S2- + Zn Zn2 + S 2 + 2+ Zn
Treatment of 1 lb / bbl of zinc oxide removes about
1,000 mg /l sulfide.

To protect tubular materials against the


corrosiveness of H2S, it is recommended to use an
oil-base mud. The oil acts as a film-forming agent in
the presence of H2S.

Hydrogen
Sulfide (H2S)
Contamination

Treatment:
H2S is no less toxic in oil-based muds. In fact, with oil
muds it would be necessary to take greater
precautions than with water-based muds, due to the
solubility of H2S in the oil.
Detection sulfide hydrogen in the mud can be tested
in two ways:
1. Garrett Gas Train (GGT).
2. Proof of Hach.

Conclusion

WT: Density.
FV: Funnel Viscosity.
PV: Plastic Viscosity.
YP: Yield Point.
Gels: Gel strengths.
FL: Filter Loss.
Pm: Mud Alkalinity.
Pf: Filtrate Alkalinity.
Mf: Filtrate Alkalinity
(MethylOrange)