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Reverse Carnot Cycle (vapour as ref.)
2-3 & 4-5 isothermal heat rejection

Since s1=s2 and s3=s4

COP = Qc/w = T1/(Th-T1)
Isothermal energy rejection is very slow whereas isentropic compression should be extremely
fast which is not possible.
1-2 Isentropic compr..
2-3 Const. Pr. energy rejection.
Q2-3 = h3-h2
Q4-1 = h4-h1
W = (h3-h2)+(h1-h4)
COP = Q4-1/W
= 1/[(h2-h3)/(h1-h4)-1]


Requirement :
Heat released from occupants, air resistance, ramming of air, control devices & solar radi.
1. Cheap.
2. Main compr. Is used thus require no extra space and no vib. Problem.
3. Air is directly used there is a saving of evaporator.
4. Leakage of ref.(air) can be affordable non toxic & inflammable..
5. Pr. in the system is low thus easy design, fabricate and maint.
6. No complicated parts involve low maint.
7. Weight of the system is very low as compare to VCRC.
Disadv. : COP of the system is very low.
DART (Dry air rated temp.) :
- Comparison of air ref. done on basis of this. Temp. of air after expander before cabin.
- Temp. of discharge air from the expander if there is no condensed moisture present.
- Rating of aircraft unit is given in terms of KG of air per unit time at a design DART.

1. a) Basic air ref. system without evap.

Calc: -

b) With evaporative cooling.

Compressed air from HE is

passed through evap. Vessel
by cooling of evaporation of
low boiling point liquid.
State 3 extends tro state 6 and
better cooling is achieved.

2 )Boot Strap Ref. system

At high speed of aircraft
ramming pr. is sufficient.
Power from cooling turbine is
used to drive compressor.

Calc: -

3 ) Regenerative air ref.-

Reduced ambient air ref. cycleRam air is expanded with aux. turbine
to suction pr. of the blower pr. thus air
is further cooled before expansion. As
a result very low temp. after
expansion is obtained at state 5.



Cop of air ref. is very low bec. energy transfer is not reversal thus phase change cycle is used.
Modification in Carnot cycle:
1. Wet Vs. dry compression
- 1-2 is wet compression
- Problems:
- 1) Liquid ref. damage cylinder valve and
- 2) Liquid ref. wash the lubricant from walls.
Thus at outlet slightly superheat is req.
Wet compresson is desirable in some case there
centrifugal and screw compr. Are used.

2. Throttling Vs. Isentropic expansion.

Vapour compression System

4-4-c-d loss of ref. effect due to

- Also loss of positive work W0
- Area 4-4-c-d and 3-f-4 are same
- Area 2-2-2 increase in ve work.
Q 1-2= 0 , Q 2-4=-( h4-h2) , Q 4-5=
W=Q1-2+Q2-3+Q3-4+Q4-1= -(h2-h1)

COP = q/w= (h1-h4)/(h2-h1)

Power per Ton of ref.
Mass flow rate m=3.5/q
Vol. flow rate through compr.=
Heat rejection to condenser

Effect of operating conditions. :

1 Effect of Evap & cond. Pr. :
Decrease in Evap. Pr results:
1. Reduction in evap. Pr. increase
compressor work done.
2. Decrease in ref. effect.
3. Inc. in sp. Vol of suction vapour.
4. Dec. in vol. eff due to in pr. ratio.

3 Effect of suction vapour superheat :

Decrease in cond. Pr results:

5. Reduction of ref. capacity die to dec in
ref. effect & Vol. eff.
6. Increase power consumption due to inc.
in mass flow rate due to red. In ref.

It is desirable due to complete

vaporization of liquid in evaporator
Increase the sp. Vol of suction vapour.
Increase refrigerating effect.
Increase work done by compr.
Net gain or loss varies with refrigent and
temp. of operation.

4 Effect of liquid sub cooling :

It is desirable as reduces flashing of

liquid during expansion and increase
ref. effect.
Piston displacement & power cons.
Sub cooling done by separate is
cooling is beneficial

4 Use of liquid regenerative HE:


Combination of liquid subcooling &

superheating of vapour.
Increase ref. effect

Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

- Pr. drop in evap is large due to

1. due to friction
2. Pr. drop due to inc. in vol.

Pr. drop in condenser is not significant.

Due to pr. drop power cons. increases and COP reduces.


Compressor is hot thus cooled by providing fins.

Pull down test:At ambient 43 Deg. The refrigeration temp-7 deg. .the time noted to achieve
Ice making time0.5 kg of water at 30 Deg+-1. Is keep for 3 hrs. running time of unit is noted.
Compression ratio above 8 is not efficient in single stage. Improve COP .
1. Energy saving:- due to cooling in inter stage
2. .Volumetric Efficiency : decrease in vol. eff with increase in compression ratio and become
zero for large compr. Ratio.
3. Saving in materal : as use thigh thickness in HP and low in Lp . whereas in single use same
4. Leakage across piston : as pr drop across pistion is high leakage is high in single stage.
5. Flywheel size : less due to proper balancing .
6. Less temp in compressor thus lubrication is good.
7. Size of condenser is less due to less heat inlet vapour in condenser.

Disadv: High maintenance due to large no of moving parts and high initial cost.

CASCADE REFRIGERATION- Use of 2 refrigeration cycles due to limitations:

Evaporator of high temp. system becomes the condenser of low temp. system known as
cascade condenser. Use where very low temp. is required as
1. Liquification of petroleum vapours , atmospheric gases, dry ice manufacturing, blood storage
(-80 Deg.C),Hardening of special alloys (-90 Deg.C)
R-12 & R-22 are used in high temp. side and R-13 is used in low temp. side

- Organic refrigerants are chlorofluorocarbons CFCs .
- Those contain H with C and F are called Hydro-chlor-flurocarbons HCFCs.
- Those contain no Cl atom called Hydro-flurocarbons HFCs.
- F atom make the substance physiologically more favorable.
-Cl is responsible for depletion of Ozone layer, H implants flammability.


1 ) As for dichloro tetra fluro ethane (Cl 2F4)

q= 2 , p= 4 , n=0 thus 2+4+0=2m+2 thus m=2
Thus R(2-1)(0+1)(4) = R114
2) CCl3F - q=3, p=1 , n=0
Thus R(1-1) (0+1)(1)
= R11
Primary refrigerents: directly use as working fluid in refrigeration system phase change is
there , no harm when in direct contact.
Secondary ref: No direct contact, transport energy from one location to another, no phase
change, water and brine mixture., Sol. Of water and ethylene glycol, propylene glycol.

Properties of Refregereants

A) Thermodynamic properties:
1) Critical Temp & Pr.: Temp. High as possible , for high heat transfer at const. temp.,
reduce power consumption.
Pr. should be moderate and +ve. High can make system bulky and low will make air leakage
into the system.
2) Specific Heat:
Sp. Heat of liquid should be small . Less irreversibility during throttling & greater subcooling.
Sp. Heat of vapour should be high for less superheat of vapour.

3) Enthalpy of Vaporization:
This should be as large as possible to minimize the area under superheat and the area reduction due to
throttling . Also, the higher value of enthalpy of vaporization lowers the required flow rate per ton of
4 ) Conductivity :
The conductivity of the refrigerant should be as high as possible so that the size of the evaporator and
condenser is manageable. ammonia has a better conductivity than that of R12 or R22 and is more But,
ammonia is toxic .
5 ) Evaporator and Condenser Pressure
Both the evaporator and condenser pressures need to be above atmospheric pressure otherwise air leaking into
the system.
6) Compression Ratio
as small as possible , leakage of refrigerant occurs across the piston. Also, the volumetric efficiency is affected.
7 ) Freezing Point
low as possible , blockage of passages during flow of fluid through evaporator.
8) Volume of Refrigerant Handled Per Ton of Refrigeration
small as possible in order to have a small size of the compressor. The type of compressor is decided by this
value. For refrigerants like R12, R500, R22 etc., a reciprocating compressor is suitable. For others like R11 and
water, a centrifugal compressor is required to handle the large volume.


9) Coefficient of Performance
Higher the magnitude of COP, lower will be the running cost. Since, the COP of any refrigeration system is
limited by the Carnot COP, for large operating pressures a multi-stage refrigeration system should be
employed. CO2 has a very low COP. Hence, it is not suitable for use as a refrigerant.
10) Density
large as possible. In reciprocating compressors, the pressure rise is accomplished by squeezing the entrapped
fluid inside the piston-cylinder assembly. Hence, density decides the size of the cylinder. Again in centrifugal
compressors pressure rise is related to the density of the vapor. A high value of density results in high pressure
11) Compression Temperature
compressed, there is a rise in the temperature of the refrigerant Refrigerants having lowest compression
temperatures are thus better than others.

Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability and Inertness
It should be chemically stable for the operating ranges of temperature. Also, it should not react with the
materials of the refrigeration system or with which it comes into contact. Further, it should be chemically inert
and must not undergo polymerization reactions at either the lower or higher ranges of temperatures.
Action on Rubber or Plastics
Rubber and plastics are used extensively in the refrigeration system. These materials are mostly used in the
seals and gaskets of the refrigeration system. They help to prevent the leakage of the refrigerant and ensure the
smooth functioning of the compressor. The refrigerant should not react with them or else there might be
leakage of refrigerant from the system or loss of functioning of the compressor.
The refrigerant should be inert and not catch fire when subjected to high temperatures. From this viewpoint
CO2 is the most suitable as it is not only non-flammable, but also acts as a fire-extinguisher. Ethane, butane,
isobutene are highly undesirable as they catch fire quickly.
Effect on Oil
The refrigerant should not react with the lubricating oil else, there is a possibility of loss of lubricating action
due to either thickening or thinning of the oil. It should not be soluble in the oil else there will be reduction in
the viscosity of the lubricating oil.
Effect on Commodity
If the refrigerant is directly used for chilling, then it should not affect the commodity kept in the conditioned
space. Also, in case where direct cooling is not employed, the refrigerant should still not affect the commodity
if there is any leakage.
The refrigerant used in air conditioning, food preservation etc. should not be toxic as they will come into
contact with human beings.

4.5.3 Physical Properties

Leakage and Detection
Since pressures higher than atmospheric are usually employed in refrigeration systems, there is a possibility of
leakage of refrigerants after long period of operation. It is desirable to detect this leak early else the system
would operate under reduced capacity or stop functioning altogether. Hence, it is desirable that the refrigerant
has a pungent smell so that its leakage can be detected immediately.
Miscibility with Oil
The refrigerant should not be miscible with the oil else the lubricating strength will be reduced.
It should be as small as possible to ensure that the pressure drop in the system is as small as possible. A low
viscosity refrigerant will require less energy for its circulation through the refrigeration system.

4.5.4 Safety Criteria

refrigerant should be non-toxic, non-flammable, have no effect on food products and should not react with
atmospheric air. No refrigerant satisfy these criteria fully. We can therefore, group refrigerants into different
sub-groups based on their flammability and toxicity levels.


4.5.5 Economic Criteria

Cost of Refrigerant
flooded type evaporator or condenser, the refrigerant amount required is high and their cost needs to be
factored in while making the initial investments.
Availability and Supply
The refrigerant should be easily available in the market and in abundant quantity. This ensures that the cost of
the refrigerant is not prohibitive. An abundant and free supply of the refrigerant ensures that refrigeration
systems will be designed specifically for use with them.
Storage and Handling
The refrigerant should be such that it can be conveniently stored and handled during transportation and
charging. It should be stored in as small a pressure vessel as possible. Also, if we have to handle a toxic or
flammable refrigerant, then the cost involved will be higher compared to handling and storage cost of nontoxic and non-flammable refrigerant.

free of cost, is non-toxic and non-flammable and does not affect the commodity if pure. Air contains moisture
and this reacts with the material of the evaporator and condenser , blocked by the formation of ice from this
moisture. The COP of air is of the order of 0.6 and thus, not suitable for use in refrigeration systems on a
Use where toxicity effects were of secondary importance. Its advantages are its low cost, low specific volume,
high COP (of the order of 4.0) and high refrigeration effect per unit mass of the refrigerant. Its primary
drawback is its toxicity which prevents its use in air-conditioning and food preservation systems. Ammonia has
a boiling point of -33 0C at atmospheric pressure.
Carbon Dioxide
non-toxic and non-poisonous refrigerant. Also, it is not only non-flammable but and is an excellent
extinguishing agent as well. Its other advantages are that it is chemically stable, immiscible with the lubricating
oil and does not affect the metal used in the system. It has a low specific volume and this requires volume
displacement per ton of refrigeration. However, its critical pressure is too high. Also, its critical temperature is
only 31 0C which makes it unsuitable for use in countries with a hot climate like India. It is an excellent
refrigerant for low temperature refrigeration.
Sulphur Dioxide
suffocating and irritating gas and is twice as heavy as air at atmospheric conditions. It was mostly used as a
household refrigerant in the older days, but has since been discarded for better refrigerants. It suffers from a lot
of disadvantages. Sulphur dioxide reacts with water forming sulphurous acid, which in presence of oxygen
becomes sulphuric acid, a corrosive compound for metals. It is non-flammable but attacks foodstuff on coming
in contact with it. It is also partially miscible with the lubricating oil.
This group consists of colourless fluids normally in gaseous state and made up of various combinations of
carbon and hydrogen. Most of the refrigerants from this category are suitable for low temperature refrigeration.
Isobutane falls in this category and has been suitable for domestic refrigeration. They are non-poisonous, but
are flammable and highly explosive when exposed to air. The molecular weight and boiling point of each gas
varies according to the number of hydrogen and carbon atoms. The larger the number of hydrogen and carbon
atoms, the heavier is the gas and higher is its boiling point.
Halocarbon Refrigerants
The halocarbon refrigerants are formed by replacing one or more of hydrogen atoms of methane or ethane by
one or more atoms of the three halogens: fluorine, chlorine or bromine. Some of the refrigerants coming under
this category are mentioned below:
Refrigerant R12


The refrigerant R12 is the most widely used refrigerant in the domestic and large commercial establishments.
Its chemical formula is CCl2F2 and its boiling point is -300C at 1 bar. It is a non-flammable, non-explosive,
non-irritating, non-toxic and odourless refrigerant. It remains chemically stable up to 5500C. Also, it does not
affect the material of the refrigeration system. It is available in abundance and is quite cheap. However, its use
is being discontinued nowadays for its contribution to ozone depletion which will be discussed later.
Refrigerant R13
Its chemical formula is CClF3. it is a non-flammable, non-toxic and stable refrigerant. It is very suitable for
achieving low temperatures in a cascade refrigeration system. Its specific volume is high and therefore, it is
suitable for centrifugal compressors. However, it also has a negative effect on ozone depletion.
Refrigerant R22
Its chemical formula is CHClF2. it is also a non-toxic, non-flammable, non-corrosive and non-irritating
refrigerant. It is the most common refrigerant for use in large refrigeration systems and is preferred to R12.
Refrigerant R114
Its chemical formula is C2Cl2F4. Its boiling point corresponding to 1 bar is about 30C. It has properties very
similar to those of R12 with respect to water and oil combination. It is not suitable for low temperature
refrigeration since it has negative evaporator pressure even at around 9 0C. It is non-toxic, non-explosive and
non-corrosive even in the presence of water.

AzeotropeWhenever two components are mixed the resultant mixture behaves according the theory of mixture.However
in some situations in a particular ratio the mixture behaves as a single has a fix boiling point correspond to that
pr.such mixtures are called azeotrope 500 series like R-500 ( 73.8% R-12 and 26.2 R-152 by wt.)
From refrigerant point of view Low temp. and high pr achieve by these.
The main culprits in this case are the chlorine containing halogenated hydrocarbons, commonly known as
chlorofluorocarbons or CFC which are being used as refrigerants.
The layer just above the Earths surface is known as the troposphere. The troposphere extends up to 10 km
from the surface. The ozone layer is just above the troposphere and located in the stratosphere.
Chlorofluorocarbon + UVwithIrradiated
free Cl
Cl + O3 ClO + O2
ClO + O Cl + O2 (Free Cl atom which again rect woth O3 and again recation starts)
Along with ozone depletion, CFC refrigerants also contribute to a large extent in the global warming of the
planet. These gases create a greenhouse effect which traps the heat in the lower atmosphere. This makes the
Earth warmer because the green house gases do not allow infrared radiation to pas through tem. The earth
emits IR rays during its cooling when sun is not there. CO2 is the most important green house gas but one
molecule of CFC has warming potential which is more than 1000 times the warming potential of one molecule
of CO2. Suns rays are allowed into the lower atmosphere, but the heat from these rays is not allowed to

In some refrigeration systems, the refrigerant is not put into direct use. in home air- conditioning and home
refrigeration systems. Also, in some cases the size of the refrigerated space may be so large that direct
refrigeration may be uneconomical. In such case, an indirect way is employed. The refrigerants used in this
way do not pass through the cyclic process and are referred to as secondary refrigerants. The refrigerants
commonly used in this way are water and brine solutions of calcium or sodium. This
therefore allows the use of a smaller size refrigerator with a considerably less amount of refrigerant. Also,
since the refrigerant does not come in direct contact, cheaper grade materials can be used for the heat
Due to its toxicity, ammonia cannot be used as a refrigerant in residential air conditioners. Therefore, the usual
practice is to chill brine over the evaporator coil and then air is cooled by passing over the brine coil. This
method eliminates the dangers of toxification on account of ammonia leakage into the air streams.


Sodium chloride brine solutions are most common up to 15 0C while calcium chloride brine solutions can be
used up to 50 0C. However, these solutions are very corrosive to metals such as brass, copper and aluminium.
In place of them, sometimes certain chemicals known as antifreeze are used with water to prevent clogging.
CA is the concentration .
- As conc. Increases the freezing point of
sol. Reduces
- For a given conc. A point of min. temp.
without solidification is known as eutectic


Comparison of Absorption and compression sys:
1. Work on thermal energy cheaper than electrical energy.
2. Only moving part is small pump. Vibrations , foundation and cost is less.
3. Small condenser is required as vapour leaving the generator is around 340 K and 420 K in compr.
4. Capacity of system is controlled by generator by Inc. temp. even at low evap. Pr. but in compr. System
capacity reduces as evaporator pr. falls.
5. COP of the system is less around 1.2 but uses waste energy thus cost is less.
6. Absorption system can work at different load on same COP.
7. For large capacity compression system is much costlier.
8. Less maintenance.
9. Less leakage (from seal)
10. Heavy and bulky for less capacity but compact and less bulky for large capacity.

Required for determination of HT in absorber, condenser & evap.
Mixture is a mixing of homogeneous ( same properties like density ,temp.) or heterogeneous
component without chemical chemical reaction.
Homogeneous mix. are in thermodynamic equilibrium and not separated by mec. Means . change in
properties like sat. pr, ,sp. vol,etc.
When 2 components are mixed


Temperature Concentration diagram (T-c dia.)

- Shows variation of temp. with concentration for various pressures.
- A liquid of conc. C1 at const. pr. P is heated at point 1. When first bubble mark point 2 .
- Further heating causes vapour , point 3 is the point till last drop of liquid, after 3 superheating is done
without phase change at 4.
- With different conc. And same pr. the locus of temp of first bubble ( RPS) known as liquid saturation
curve and locus of temp. at which whole liquid is evaporated (RQS) is called vapour saturation curve.
- R represent sat. temp. of single component and S represent sat. temp. of component liquid which is
dissolve in first liquid.
- Similar set of curve is obtained for different pressures.

Enthalpy concentration (h-c)

- Below the liquid sat. line there are lines of constant temp. (isotherms). It is not possible to draw
isotherms between liquid and vapour sat. lines thus and aux. lines (PSR) are drawn corresponding to a
pr. which helps to determine the isothers.


State 1 shows subcooling state

2 shows saturation state.
Concentration remains close as
it is liquid state but as
vaporization starts the con. Is
given by a line parallel to
horizontal axis cut vapour
saturation line at 4. The conc. is
Line joining 2 & 4 is isotherm.
State of subcooling liuid is
given by conc. And temp.

Adiabatic mixing of two streams

From the given masses and

conc. Point 1 , 2 & 3 are
To get the temp. of mixture a
isotherm is drawn which
intersect point 3.
First take a point A if it not
cross 3 then take another point
and repeat till cross point 3.


Throttling process

Throttling is isoenthalpic
process h1=h2
State 2 lies above sat. line
corresponding to pr. P2
Shows after throttling mixture
consists of liquid and vapour at
diff. conc.
To obtain the conc. Of liquid
and vapour isotherms are
drawn by hit and trial passing
through point 2.

Principal operating line

Two principal requirement :
1. Max. separation of water to avoid high temp. in evap.
2. Large amount of purging of water in absorber.
- Preheater reduce inlet heat Qg.
- Analyser is a open type counter flow HE with baffle type arrangement to remove
water vap.
- Rectifire is a HE to remove water.
- Condensate is subcooled in precooler increases ref. effect.
- Energy transfer in evap. Causes vaporization of ammonia.
- Rectifire is a dephlegmator surface cond. Cooling by external source.


From EQ. (7.37) P,Q & 1 lies on same lines on same

line called Principal Operating line
For most efficient rectification with- given
sol. of Li-Br & water is
and Qg/M7 the state 1 must lie on the
line generator .
For this condition the refining and-concentration
Pure water vapour send to
Coumin must have min . no. of trags.condenser and evap. By throttling.
are more
VAPOUR lines
of water at low pr. in
evap. Causes cooling.
- Strong sol. Of Li-Br. Send to
- There are no analyser and rectifier
as pure water vapour leaves the
- Diff in pr. of evap & generator is
very less pumping is not required
by giving elevation.
- No mainteneance, low cost ,non
- Cannot operate temp. below 2 Deg.
C & not use for large volumes.


Three Fluid Absorption system :

Multi stage Absorption Sys.

A lighter gas compare to ref. vapour is

introduces as a carrier fluid eliminate
- Liquid seals are there .
- Light gas is charged in the evaporator
such that the partial pr. of ammonia
should give the desire evap. Temp.
- Ammonia vapourise and absorbed in
the absorber.
- Light gas become hot by the weak
sol. Coming from the separator and
moves up to the evaporator .
- It again come down with the vapour
and cycle complete.
- Molecular wt. of H2-2 & ammonia -17.
- Actual commercial 3 fluid system is
made by Electrolux which consists of
a HE to reduce heat input to the
- Analyser and rectifier are provided to
get pure
can be obtained for the
Adv : same temp. of cooling and
- Silent,
low maintenance
, no valves ,
to weak
no pump,
in LT evap
is cost
as of
inc. in HT evap thus absorption of
ammonia in more and conc. Is
-This conc. Sol feed to generator.
-Main disad is the heat required is


- Vapour from generator is

reabsorbed by weak sol.
From evap.
- Condenser is removed.
- Resorption system
produces more ref. effect
then multistage system.

Other Refrigeration System

Water Refrigeration System
- Use for precooling of vegetables, vacuum drying of veg. , chilling drinking water, concentrating fruit juices.
- Centrifugal compr. Are use due to large sp. Vol. of water.
Sat . temp. of water depends on the pr. as pr reduces sat temp. reduces which causes evaporation of water at lower temp
and take heat of vaopurisation creating ref. effect.

Centrifugal Refrigeration System

- Flash vapour is sucked by a compressor

& compressed to a pr. to condense at
atm. Temp.
- Condenser is maintained at slightly low
pr. to remove the uncondensable gases.
- Chilled water is circulated to heat load
and again flash in chamber.

-The COP of the system depends on : condenser pr, flash chamber pr. , makeup water temp. and compressor eff.
- Pr. in flash chamber should not below 0.008 bar (sat. temp. 4 Deg C).
- Multstage ejectors can be use.
Steam-Jet Refrigeration System
- Flash chamber is insulated.
- Motive steam (1.7 to 8 bar ) is expands
through a nozzle imparts momentum to
the vapour.
- Process of momentum exchange and
carrying of vapour by the motive steam
is called entrainment.
- Steam and water mixture is passed
through the venturie and compressed P &


- Velocity of steam is around 1000-1350

- A is initial condition of motive steam
before throttling & B is final condition of
- C is the initial condition of water vapour in
flash chamber
- E is the conditionof mixture of steam and
vapour, F is the discharge of condenser.
- G is the condition of makeup water
throttled to point H

- Direct cooling can be achieved. Chilling of vegetables , transportation of navy & cargo ships.
- Less maintenance , use waste steam,
- Above 75 Ton cost is 50 % of Compression system.
- Chilling upto 2 Deg C can be achieved
- Large size system, Centrifugal compr. Are costlier and eff. Of nozzles is less.
- COP is very low 0.4 to 0.6


Effect on COP

2. Steam cons. with varying

condenser temp.

1. Effect of Motive steam Pr. Motive steam cons. remains

Almost constant above 4 bar pr. for varying condenser temp

3. Variation of COP with condensate temp.: The chilling temp. is taken as parameter.As Condensing
temp. inc. as COP dec .for a giving chilling temp.

Vortex Tube Ref. System

Compressed air is cooled and

expanded through a nozzle
Swirl motion of air is created.
Air moves as a free vortex flow
towards valve end K.E. is converted
into Pr. Energy giving a point of
Stagnation pr. is higher then pr. in
nozzle plane thus a reversal flow
takes place
There is a energy transfer between


Impact of pr. ratio ( Inlet of nozzle / atmospheric Pr. ( Pi / Pa)

- Minor leakages are insignificant.
- Simple design , less maint.
- Less space and less bulky.
Disad :
- Cop is very less upto 0.23


Cooilng of cutting tools reactive with coolants.

To cool upto -50 deg C . Use in cond. Of natural gas.
Air suits use in mining , high temp area, pr. vessels.
Air craft refrigeration.
Turbine blade cooling.
Air round refrigeration.


Pulse Tube refrigeration:


Compressed air at atms. Temp. is

entered in a pulse tube .
Gas present inside the pulse tube
(Imaginary piston of other gas
without mixing.) is compressed
and them is increased from inlet to
outlet end .
After this supply of compressed air
is stopped and .
Cooling of outlet end is done which
causes futher cooling of cold end .
-83 Deg C can be achieved with
single stage.
Use where very low temp. are
required with multistage.
can be
achieved with helium.
All the states are having const.
The point at which slope of T-p curve
changes are called inversion points.
Locus of the points is called inv.

Linde Process:
- Gas enter at state 1 and compressed
isothermally in a multistage compr.
Upto 2.
- Yied = Mass of liquid produced
Mass of air compressed
- Yied is more as much inlet temp. is



Fluids which are meant for temp. below 113 K are termed as
Cryogenic Fluids.


Claude System :
- 10 % of compressed gas is
expanded reversibily and
adiabatically in a expander.
- Use to drive the compressor.
Hydrogen and Helium
-Cooling is done in two HE A & B
for effective cooling with
-Cooling is done by liquid
nitrogen in HEC.
-Cooling by vapour of hydrogen
is done in HE .
Helium :
-Require more HE and
expanders as it Liquefy at
very less temp.
-It require 45 KW to yield 32 to
45 liter of helium per Hr.

Air separation

Use to produce nitrogen , Oxygen and argon.

Air is filtered , compressed and cooled upto
atm. Temp.
- Water vapour and CO2 is removed by freezing ,
Molecular sieve and reversing exchanger.
- Distillation column are used to separate air in
desired products.
- Oxygen leaves from bottom, nitrogen from top
and Argon has similar boiling point to oxygen
thus stay with Oxygen.
- Oxygen becomes a liquidate at 183C and
nitrogen at 196C


1. Seebeck effect:
Two junctions of dissimilar wires
maintained at diff. temp. generation of
emf is there.
Seebeck coefficient depends on pair of
2. Peltier Effect:
DC current is passed with a pair of
dissimilar wires heating at one end and
cooling at other.

Figure of Merit and analysis

Advantages :



No moving part ,vibration & noise.

Easy to overload and control by inc. current.
Compact , Light in weight.
Can be use with other ref. system in any position.
Can be use as heat pump.
Non toxic as there is no refrigerant.
Simple and use in cooling suits.

1. Unavailibilty of suitable material with higher figure of merit.
2. Initial and running cost is higher.
3. COP in the range of 0.1- 0.2.
-High manufacturing cost, Non- toxic , Non
corrosive., Easily handle and cut.
Tripple point is -56.6 C and 5.78 bar.
At lower pr. below triple point solid
directly conevt into gas,
Power required is 400-500 Hp per Hr. Per MT
of Solid co2 due to high pr. ratio around 70.
- Problem of blockage of expansion device dur to
formation of dry Ice. Thus first liquid Co2 is
produce at pr. slightly above triple point. Then
pr. reduce in snow chamber.