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Anda di halaman 1dari 105

By

Victor Robles Nieves

of the Requirements for the Degree of:

Master of Science

In

Mechanical Engineering

University of Puerto Rico

Mayagüez Campus

December 2004

________________________________ _________________

Basir Shafiq, Ph.D. Date

Member, Graduate Committee

_________________________________ _________________

Frederick Just, Ph.D. Date

Member, Graduate Committee

_________________________________ _________________

Oswald Uwakweh , Ph. D. Date

Representative of Graduate Studies

_________________________________ _________________

Jia Yi, Ph.D. Date

Chairman, Graduate Committee

_________________________________ _________________

Prof. Paul Sundaram, Ph.D. Date

Chairperson of the Department

ABSTRACT

finite elements models for the pipe system were developed: a structural finite

element analysis model with multi-support system for frequency analysis, a fluid-

structure interaction (FSI) finite element model and a transient flow model for

frequencies, static, dynamic and thermal stresses, and the limitation of the pipeline

at the segment k has a negative effect on the entire piping system. It was

determinated that the first natural frequency of the whole system occurs at 2.07

Hz, and the second at a frequency of 5.65 Hz. Resonance vibration for the first

mode shape was found at a flow rate of 40 lbm/s, and resonance vibration for the

analysis, the limit maximum flow rates were determinated based on the rate of a

rapid closure of the isolation valve. A study of the fluid transient in a simple

interaction effects. The results show notable differences in the velocities profile

ii

RESUMEN

tesis. Tres modelos de elementos finitos para las tuberías fueron desarrollados: un

fluido transiente para análisis de golpe de ariete en una tubería llena de fluido. Las

forma de vibración a una razón de 275 lbm/s. Para el análisis de golpe de ariete, el

simple. Los resultados obtenidos del modelo de elementos finitos para el caso de

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

University of Puerto Rico and NASA for their financial support; especially Dr.

Travis for the opportunity to be a part of a summer intern at NASA facilities, Dr.

Castillo and Dr. Just for their supports and helps. Special thanks to my advisor of

the thesis, Dr. Yi Jia, who has treated me with honesty and provided wise advises

for the completion of the work during all my master studies. The graduate students

for their friendship and Virmarie Zengotita, who has been with me since the

mother, even when fiscally can’t be with me, her lessons and values are always

present.

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES...................................................................................................x

NOMENCLATURE .............................................................................................. xi

1.1 Introduction....................................................................................................1

2.1.1 Assumptions..........................................................................................14

2.3 Results..........................................................................................................19

ANALYSIS...........................................................................................................27

v

3.1.1 Governing Equation ..............................................................................29

3.3 Conclusions..................................................................................................47

4.3 Conclusions..................................................................................................56

6.3.3 Mesh......................................................................................................71

6.4 Results..........................................................................................................71

vi

6.5 Conclusions..................................................................................................76

7.2 Conclusions..................................................................................................79

REFERENCES ......................................................................................................83

APENDIX ..............................................................................................................88

vii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.5b: Stress vs. length for gap correction case ...........................................19

viii

Figure 3.14: Possible failures for segments A, B, C, D, and F ..............................46

Figure 4.3: Resonances per segment at different flow rates for the mode

shape 1 ...........................................................................................................53

Figure 4.4: Possible resonances per segment at different flow rates for mode

shape 2 ...........................................................................................................54

Figure 4.5: Possible resonances per segment at different flow rates for mode

shape 3 ...........................................................................................................54

Figure 5.2: Boundary layer type of turbulence power spectral density [5] ...........63

ix

Figure 6.10: Velocities profile at the sixth iteration ..............................................76

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.4: Maximum Axial Rotation Due to Temperature Changes for 0 Gap.....23

Table 2.5: Maximum Axial Rotation Due to Temperature Changes for 0.25

Gap.................................................................................................................23

x

NOMENCLATURE

∇ = Divergent

ac = Cross-sectional Area

C = Speed of Sound

Ca = Corrosion Allowance

Cs = Damping of Structure

Di = Inner Diameter

Do = Outer Diameter

E = Modulus of Elasticity

ΣF = Total Force

Fa = Axial Force

fn = Natural Frequency

i = Intensification Factor

K = Pipe Stiffness

L = Length

M = Structure Mass

m = Mass intensity

xi

ma = Mass Added due water

Ma = Torsion Moment

Mi = In Plane moment

mt = Total Mass

Pd = Design Pressure

P = Pressure

Po = Applied load

Re = Reynolds Number

Sa = Axial Stress

SB = Bending Stress

Se = Expansion Stress

Sh = Strouhall Number

SH = Hoop Stress

SL = Longitudinal Stress

Ss = Sustained Stress

ST = Torsion Stress

t = Time

xii

T1 = Low Temperature

T2 = High Temperature

V = Flow velocity

γ = 2α

wf = Natural frequency

w = Applied frequency

∆ = deflection

υ = Poisson Ratio

ρs = Structure Density

ρw = Water Density

xiii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

One of the major problems during the rocket-engine test at NASA is the

vibration experienced from the exhaust plume on its components. Flow induced

vibration occurs when the natural frequency, fn of the line transporting the

propellant and fluid flow are the same or near 1.4. This matching of the two

of this piping system is the operation of valve. The effect of suddenly stopping or

overpressure. Is this overpressure is enough the pipeline may fail or deform. The

object is changed in the structure, the object will experience length or area

deformation thus volume changes. The magnitude of this change will depend on

Two know investigation has been previously done in this facilities, Castillo [1]

created a model to study the acoustic induce vibration, he obtain results of noise

velocities that may cause buckling of the pipelines. His models were based on a

1D mass spring model. It was performed to study the natural frequencies and

1

critical flows velocities at resonance, it main focus was on the fluid flow. He

discretized the pipe system in straight segments, the problem of his model is that

not considers the boundary conditions and support configurations. Also, it did not

provide stresses and strain results in all axis. The other know work was performed

by Indine, inc, they created a fluid dynamic model using EASY5 software to

simulated the transient pressure and flow state at each point in the feedline.

pressure oscillation forces on propellant line. A problem of their model is that the

This new investigation is focus on the structure, it consider the effect created

vibration effect caused by vortex shedding and turbulence flow were consider as

well the water hammer effect on the structure and the thermal stress. For this

interaction (FSI) finite element general model and transient timer response general

piping system is not new; practically every person has used one. For the general

public there is very little understanding of the phenomenon behind the use of

piping systems. In some applications, like power plants, the failure of piping

2

systems can cause severe economic losses and in worst cases the loss of human

lives. Some of the design or operation factors that may cause failures in piping

systems are: incorrect support, transient pressure changes, flow induced vibration

and thermal stresses. Several standard codes have been developed to regulate the

Vortex shedding occurs when the flow past an obstacle such as cylinder, sphere or

any other disturbing object; resulting in vortices behind the cylinder. These

vortices move downstream of the pipeline at a frequency, fs, if the conditions are

When the fluid velocity exceeds any but the smallest values characteristic of

“seepage” flows, eddies will form even if the surface of the flow channel is

perfectly smooth. The flow is said to be turbulent after it has achieve a specific

by the turbulence flow has the characteristic of being random. With the

appropriate conditions this force will induce pipe vibration, this type of vibration

Water hammer normally occurs during the opening or closing of valves, and it

system. Figure 1.1 shows a diagram illustrating this phenomenon. Notice that this

as a big noise coming out of the pipe. This is what is heard sometimes when the

3

water faucet is suddenly open or close.

Fluid flow through valves, bends and orifices generates turbulence as the flow

passes through the obstacle. This in turns radiates acoustic waves (of velocity Ua

and pressure Pa) upstream and downstream of the valve. Thus, as the area of the

valves and flow meters changes subsequently the acoustic waves. This is because

the waves have an acoustic pressure that acts against the surface of the pipe.

Consequently, the fluid flow and the solid surface are coupled through the forces

exerted on the wall by the fluid flow. The fluid forces cause the structure to

deform, and as the structure deforms it then produces changes in the flow. As a

result, feedback between the structure and flow occurs: action-reaction. This

between the fluid flow and the solid surface the equations of motions describing

the dynamics are coupled. This makes the problem more challenging, and even

worse when the flow is turbulent. In addition, this means that the Navier-Stokes

equation and the structure equation for the solid surface must be solved

V a lve

A co u stic W av e Flo w

T an k

.

4

1.1.2 The Analysis

liquid behavior under operational conditions. Static pipe stress and structural

system; whereas the fluid analysis yields stream pressures; the structural dynamic

Figure 1.2 shows the structural analysis element with its corresponding

analyses. In the static analysis maximum stresses and displacements were found

for the complete system, the weakest elements of the piping system with different

pressure waves were applied to the system as internal pressure loads, as a result

the maximum flow rate that the system can resist before failure was identify

within its corresponding stress. For the thermal analysis stress caused by a

were obtained. For the resonance vibration analysis the first and second natural

frequencies of the piping system were identified using a finite element program

and compared with the applied frequency from the fluid resulting from vortex

5

3D Solid Model

Stress Displacement History frequencies Frequencies

System System Time System

This section services as a literature review about previous works done by other

researchers, which has been used as reference sources, support and background

for this research. Many papers and books have been consulted, but most of them

are briefly mentioned and some of them are discussed along the thesis. The papers

Investigation of the flow induced vibration at the NASA Facility has been

conducted by InDyne, Inc. They. Created a fluid dynamic model using EASY5

software to have simulated the transient pressure and flow state at each point in

pressure oscillations associated with valve opening and closing operations as well

6

study the acoustic induce vibration, he obtain results of noise and frequency.

support system generally under the action of seismic conditions for both linear and

non linear behaviors under the action behaviors. Vayda [37], presented his

research on the dynamic behavior of piping systems under the influence of support

to pipe gap with the seismic conditions and the nonlinearity of the system

Lockau,Haas and Steinweder [38] presented their work on piping and support

design due to high frequency excitation as the criterion. Morgan [30] studied the

was analyzed. However their results were restricted to real wave numbers and to

Thomson [29] introduced the effects of Poisson’s ratio and included flexural

and axial wave motion and evaluated the phase velocities of the first three

presents an equation to estimate the values for the frequency of the vortex

shedding,

SV

fs = (1.1)

di

where S is the Strouhal number, V is the flow velocity and di the inner pipe

diameter.

7

5.43 X 10 5 ≤ Re D < 6.06 X 10 6 , a Strouhal number of about 0.41 is appropriate.

This is the range of Reynolds number used in our case. Blevins [26] gives a brief

A.S. Tijsselin [9],[10] has done extensive literature reviews about Fluid Structure

offers an alternative way to measure the damping ratio by measuring the power

Cuschieri [31] investigated the transmission of vibrational power from the piping

system to the supporting structure using power flow and structural mobility

methods. This approach can be applied to isolate straight pipe sections as well as a

structural mobility terms. Kumar [27] derived the frequency equation for

study the flexural vibrations (n=1) of empty and fluid-filled shells of different

thickness. The effect of fluid was negligible for vibrations of thick shells. As the

thickness of the shell decrease, the presence of fluid gave extra modes of

the analytical results obtained with the extended Joukowksy equation. He found

that In the case of the bended pipe the pressure amplitude of the extended

8

Joukowsky equation seems to be too conservative. Samsury [28] discussed the

plane axial waves in the fluid getting converted to flexural beam vibrations of the

fluid filled cylindrical elastic shells. The dependence of phase velocity on various

physical parameters of the system was analyzed. However their results were

form solutions for the joint acceptances for spring-supported and simply supported

beams. K.T. TRUONG [22] in his paper evaluated dynamic stresses of a Pipe

Line, presented a fast and reliable way to evaluate the harmonic dynamic stresses

of a simply supported pipeline from the data collected on the field. He also offers

a basic understanding to solve quickly vibration problem when and where the

computer software is not accessible. Paidoussis, M.P.; Au-Yang, M.K. and Chen,

S. S., [38] in 1988, studied leakage flow induced vibration. He collected technical

components.

1.3 Objective

facilities. As outcomes, maximum flow rate that may cause resonance and

9

vibration amplitudes, based on transient flow analysis, will be identified. The

programs will be created In order to achieve these major goals. The following are

specific objectives:

1. Create a finite element model for static structural analysis of the specific

structure interaction.

10

CHAPTER 2 STATIC ANALYSIS

conditions for given problem. This model was created in the commercial software

In our case the code that was applied is the ASME B31.1 power piping code. This

model is intended to only simulate static fluid flow, and for a structural analysis.

Simulating the effects of fluid flow will be presented in separate analysis in the

following chapters.

complex problem [6]. The type of element used can be described as following: an

element has six degrees of freedom at two nodes: translations in the nodal x, y,

and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes. Figure 2.1 shows

11

Figure 2.1: Elastic straight pipe elements

reducer as shown in Figure 2.2. The segments are named with letter that goes from

A to N. The model has the capability of return values every 4 inches. For sections

inches and an internal diameter of 4.209 inches, this leads to a thickness of 1.208

inches. From sections I to n the outside diameter is 4.5 inches with an inside

density of 0.2899 lb/cu in. The fluid inside of the piping is liquid oxygen with a

density of .0411 lb/cu in. Table 2.1 summaries the properties of the pipelines.

12

A

2 2

I E B

H F

2 1

3 3

J G D C

L

N

3

M

6 in section 4 in section

Material

stainless steel stainless steel

13

The pipeline has three types of supports as shown in Figure 2.3; the first one is

a one-way support, constraining the movement in the negative Y axis. The second

one is a 4 way constrain support, it has a .25 inches of gap for the x and for the

positive Y axis, for the negative Y axis the displacement is constrained. The last

2.1.1 Assumptions

The weight of the tank which is at section A was not included in the analysis

because all its weight is sustained by its own separate supports. This part of the

connection was considered welded under ANSI B16.9. The section connected in

the T has two valves and was not considerate after the valves refer to Figure 2.2.

For the location of the T, there is a flow meter that its weight was also not

to the piping is minimal. The supports were treated as rigid elements. The anchors

14

at sections F and N were modeled as rigid in all directions. The weight of the

valve at section I is considered to be held by its own supports, thus is not include

Cylindrical pressure vessel and pipes carrying fluids at high pressure develop

stresses with values that are dependent upon the radius of the element under

consideration. The pressure inside of the cylinder acts on the wall of the same, as

a result a stress acting uniformly over the area is created. This stress is the hoop

⎧⎪⎡ Do ⎤ ⎫

SH = P ⎨⎢ ⎥ − 0 .4 ⎬ (2.1)

⎪⎩⎣ 2(thk − ca) ⎦ ⎭

diameter, thk is the thickness and ca is the corrode cross-sectional area, in our case

no corrosion is expected for the stainless steel, thus the ca value becomes 0.

Another stress created due to pressure is the longitudinal stress, this stress is

created along the pipe, and it will depend on the geometry of the pipe as well on

support or any stress intensity factor in the pipe. The stress is calculated with the

following equation.

SL =

[(i Mi)

i

2

+ (io Mo) 2 ] 1

2

+

Fa + Pa

(2.2)

Z Ac

15

where Mi is the in-plane moment, Mo is the out of plane moment Z is the

cross-sectional area and Pa is the axial force from internal pressure and is

Pa =

π

{P[D0 − 2(−ca)]2 } (2.3)

4

The static analysis serves as a starting point, where the weakest elements are

going to be identified and the cause of it. As well, the support with the reaction

that creates to the piping system will be analyzed. It’s not expected any failure or

After an inspection of the pipeline it was found a space or gap between certain

supports and the pipeline as shown in Figure 2.4. The gap means that the pipelines

in certain areas do not touch the support, therefore their weight load is supported

by segments of others areas. The reason for the space is unknown but it might

were made with the gap and without the gap to see if the gap makes any

16

Figure 2.4: Pipe with gap

One of our goals in this investigation is to study the effect of the temperatures

changes. If the temperature of an object is changed in the structure, the object will

experience length or area thus volume changes. The magnitude of this change will

Changes in temperature affect all dimensions in the same way. In this case,

thermal strain is handled as strain due to an applied load. For example, if a bar is

heated but is constrained the stress can be calculated from the thermal strain and

Hooke’s law.

σ th = Eε th (2.4)

where E is the modulus of elasticity and ε th is the thermal strain, the length L,

area A, and volume V, strain are calculated with the following equations.

17

∆L = αL0 (T2 − T1 ) (2.5)

γ ≈ 2α (2.7)

β ≈ 3α (2.9)

Algor calculate the thermal stress using the restrained and unrestrained

conditions, PipePlus determines the restrained or unrestrained status according to

the Y coordinate for each segment of pipe. A positive Y coordinate value

represents an aboveground (unrestrained) segment. A negative Y coordinate value

represents a buried (restrained) segment.

For the restrained segments the sustained stress is calculated with the

following equation [14]:

S L = Eα (T 2 − T 1) (2.10)

For the unrestrained segment the expansion stress is calculated with the

following equations [14]

[

S E = Sb2 + 4 St2 ] 1

2

(2.11)

Where;

Sb =

[(i M ) + (i M ) ]

i i

2

0 0

2

1

2

(2.12)

Z

Mt

St = (2.13)

2Z

18

2.3 Results

0.12

Segment A

Segment B

0.1

Segment C

Segment D

0.08

Stress/Allowance

Segment E

Segment F

0.06 Segment G

Segment H

0.04 Segment I

Segment J

Segment K

0.02

Segment L

Segment M

0 Segment N

Segments

0.035

Segment A

0.03 Segment B

Segment C

0.025 Segment D

Stress/Allowance

Segment E

0.02 Segment F

Segment G

0.015 Segment H

Segment I

0.01 Segment J

Segment K

0.005 Segment L

Segment M

0 Segment N

Segments

19

Figures (a) and (b) show the peak static stress/allowance ratio value for segments

from A to M for both cases, with the gap and without the gap in section k, refers

to Figure 2.6 for location of this segment. The stress to allowance ratio is the

division of the maximum allowance stress per ASME code B31.1 and the actual

maximum actual stress per segment. These values were obtained using the Algor

Gap

J

20

0 in gap .25in gap

545 psi

70

1789 PSI

1789 psi

220

Figure 2.7 shows the stresses distribution along the piping system. It also

shows the peak stress for the case with gap and without gap, and the location of

the same. The left side of the Figure is the case without the gap and the right one

The following Tables 2.2 to 2.7 summarize some of the results. Although the

effect can be seen in the stresses, particularly for those where the gap of .25 inches

is present

21

Table 2.2: Thermal Maximum Displacement for 0 Gap

Temperature X Y Z

Segment Segment Segment

°F (inches) (inches) (inches)

Temperature X Y Z

Segment Segment Segment

°F (inches) (inches) (inches)

The results from Tables 2.2 and 2.3 reveal that the structure experiences some

displacement due to temperature changes, but the changes in all directions are

almost identical. In Tables 2.4 and 2.5 present rotation experience by the zero and

with the .25 inches gap cases. However, after -300 F degrees the two cases are

identical.

22

Table 2.4: Maximum Axial Rotation Due to Temperature Changes for 0 Gap

Temperature X Y Z

Segment Segment Segment

°F (inches) (inches) (inches)

-0.486

M

Table 2.5: Maximum Axial Rotation Due to Temperature Changes for 0.25

Gap

Temperature X Y Z

Segment Segment Segment

°F (inches) (inches) (inches)

The stresses due to temperature changes are shown in Tables 2.6 and 2.7 for

the gap and elimination of the gap cases, respectively. Unlike the previous tables

of displacement and rotation the results for the stresses are different for the zero

gaps. Only at a temperature of -300 °F both stresses are the same, but for the other

23

Table 2.6: Stress Due to Temperature Changes for 0 Gap

Stress 0 GAP

Temperature °F Maximum (psi) Stress/Allowance Segment

-200 0.26 F

11188

2.4 Discussion

In Figure 2.5, it can be seen that a stress peak point at segment L. This peak

value means that there are some factors increasing the stress in this location. Some

factors that may contribute to the increment of the stress are supports, tees or

anchors. In this particular case it was found that a .25 inches gap in two supports

located at section K creates an increase of stress. The reason is that the entire

24

segment does not touch the support. With the gap correction the stress reduces, it

is true not only in section L but also in almost all other segments, for comparison

cases, Figure 2.7 can be referenced. With the .25 in gap the maximum static stress

is 1789 psi that is a ratio of stress/allowance of .10. With the gap correction the

.03. This number looks insignificant at this moment later when the fluid pressure

is taken into account this increase in stress becomes more significant. Again the

intention at this moment is to identify which are the weakest elements and its

Segment L Segment I

For the static stress case the gap on the supports at segment k has a negative

effect in the piping, increasing the stress and displacement in almost all the

segments. The more vulnerable segments of the pipe system are F, G, H and I.

Correction of the gap definitely reduce the stress in almost half for the static case.

None of the segments are close to the stress/allowance ratio of 1.0, and is expected

that with the addition of the fluid pressures loads to the system, the stress will be

affected by this gap also the natural frequencies and the pressure history. At this

25

phase of the investigation the more vulnerable segments were found.

For the thermal case the stress and displacement with the gap of .25 in and

zero gaps were analyzed in a range from -100 to -400 °F degrees, (the temperature

stress and displacement were found. However; the more important values

correspond to the -200°F which are the operational values for liquid oxygen. For

the .25 in the maximum stress and displacement was found 11,188 psi with a

corresponding stress/allowance ratio of .26. For the zero gap 10,710 psi with a

segment F. However, these values are in the acceptable range and no action is

26

CHAPTER 3 WATERHAMMER INDUCED

performed. An extension to the specific case study was achieved. The main focus

valve as a potential source for excessive pressure and the possible violent pipe

also treated. Therefore, the model used for the study of the valve behavior was a

simple pipeline that connects two reservoirs. For application purpose the

maximum waterhammer pressure was analysis for the NASA piping system and

numerical code has been developed. Then, the effect of closing the valve at

model for frictional losses. The specific case of the NASA facilities is discussed in

section 3.6.

Classical equations that describe this problem can be found in the literature

and Etal works. In this investigation the formulation includes the nonlinear terms.

27

pressure drops in this investigation. In many cases this coefficient is calculated

losses are found in the valve and pipe, as consequence of fluid contractions and

shear stress.

orifice; therefore modeling the same can be represented with a flow orifice study.

Thus, the coefficient of discharge for the valve case is assumed the same as in the

orifice. For the case of flow through an orifice Sisavath and etal [43] develop

different models, the application of this model can be extended to pressure drop in

a valve. For the case of friction losses due to shear stress the most useful model is

These models were compared with others models and the unsteady friction

were classified by Bergant and etal [44] [45]. Also, they investigated the Brunone

[46] models in detail and compare with results of laboratory measurements for

water hammer cases with laminar and low Reynolds number in turbulent flows.

Assumptions of pure liquid all the time without presence of air or bubbles is

made, therefore the cavitation effect is not considered in this model. Under this

assumption, the study of air valve [50] and entrapped bubbles [51] are not

equation in the space and time domain [48]. For transient part the method of

characteristic is applied, this is the preferred method to solve the time integration

28

[42] [49]. Limitation of this technique is when nonlinear terms are included,

therefore the MacCormack predictor corrector method is used to solve for the

nonlinear terms.

Under typical pipeline operating conditions of the fluid accelerates and holds

simplifications will be taking into account: axisymetric flow, no sterling flow and

the momentum equation, but the friction losses is contemplated using unsteady

model. Another consideration is that the fluid is essentially compressible and the

∂p ∂V

+ ρa 2 =0

∂t ∂x (3.1)

∂V 1 dp fV V

+ + =0

∂t ρ dx 2D (3.2)

Where f is the friction factor. Bergant and etal [46], based on experimental

results recommend the original Brunoe model as an effective model. Brunoe [47]

29

kD ⎛ ∂V ∂V ⎞

f = fq + ⎜ − ⎟

V V ⎝ ∂t ∂x ⎠

(3.3)

Diagram [i]. Also the relative roughness can be found tabulated for different pipe

coefficient C * :

C*

k=

2 (3.4)

7.41

log(14.3 / Re 0.05 )

Turbulent flow (3.5b)

Re

30

assumed that the reservoir of the pipe line will maintain constant level, thus

pn = ρgH = Pi

inlet (3.6)

Where the subscript n indicate time at the instant n . Therefore, the boundary

condition for the velocity at the valve, under steady state conditions, is known and

also the volumetric flow rate. Using the discharge coefficient, the volumetric flow

rate is:

Q0 = C d A0 2 p 0 / ρ

valve (3.7)

coefficient and A0 is the area of open valve. An schematic of the model with it

The volumetric flow as a function of valve steam depends on the type of valve

percent of the maximum volumetric flow at the acting pressure of the system [54]

[55] Figure 5.2 shows a typically close-open curve [56] for a valve.

31

Figure 3.2: Typically close-open curve [55]

Assuming that last relationship is valid for transient conditions, the velocity at

AT pn

Vn = C d F (l ) 2 n

= Vv

valve

A0 ρ (3.8)

Where, F (l ) is the percent of caudal obtained from Figure 3.2 and l the stem

position. AT the area of valve totally open and A0 the area of the valve partially

32

3.1.3 Numeric Discretization

∂p ∂V

+ ρa 2 =0 (3.10)

∂t ∂x

∂V 1 dp fV V

+ + =0 (3.11)

∂t ρ dx 2D

p(inlet , t ) = P (3.14)

V (valve, t ) = V (3.15)

Then, for the spatial and temporal discretization the MacCormak is used. The

nonlinear PDE and system of PDE [48]. In the MacCormak method, the predicted

approximations:

∆t n

pin +1 = pin − ρa 2 (Vi +1 − Vi n )

∆x (3.16)

∆t ∆t n

Vi n +1 = Vi n −

ρ∆x

( p in+1 − p in ) − Vi n f

2D

Vi

(3.17)

33

p in +1 =

1⎡ n

⎢

2⎣

p i + p in +1 − ρa 2

∆x

(

∆t n +1

)⎤

Vi − Vi n−1+1 ⎥

⎦ (3.18)

Vi n +1 =

1⎡ n

⎢

2⎣

Vi + Vi n +1 −

∆t

ρ∆x

( )⎤

pin +1 − pin−+11 ⎥ − Vi n f

⎦

∆t n

2D

Vi

(3.19)

stationary condition given by the Courant number less than one. For this system of

∆t ∆t

Cn1 = ρa 2 ≤ 1 and Cn1 = ≤1 (3.20)

∆x ρ∆x

Here, when ∆x is imposed, the ∆t can be found from the last equation.

To integrate the equations a Fortran code has been developed. As a test case,

the instantaneously totally close behavior for the valve was performed to validate

convergence. The nodal point selected for the spatial discretizacion was chosen as

500 for all the cases. The ∆t was chosen as: 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 second.

The frictional term for the test case was neglected. The pressure distributions

for different times in the adjacent point to the valve are shown in Figure 3.3 as a

result.

Pressure fluctuation in each step corner of Figure 3.3 are not smooth, this is

attributed to the noise effect. Figure 3.4 shows the details of the numerical noise

34

Figure 3.3: Wave pressure for different dt

35

Based on previous result, ∆t and ∆x was selected. After the selection of step

and time, a simulation considering the friction factor is performed. Figure 3.5

shows the results of the simulation for the pressure distribution adjacent to the

point of the valve. The simulation is performed for both with and without friction

case. Friction effect can be appreciated as a decrement of pressure along time. The

effect of pressure losses can be seen when comparing with previous case.

A study of time of closing was performed with the same parameter that in the

test case. The valve studied is of a linear type. The behavior of the pressure for

36

Figure 3.6: Effect of time of close

Figure 3.6 shows that the maximum pressure as a function of valve closing

time, the faster the valve is close the higher and the abrupt the change on pressure

is.

The fluid bulk modulus of elasticity is the other parameter that may contribute

to the maximum pressure. For different Bulk modulus of elasticity the maximum

37

Figure 3.7: Effect of bulk Elasticity Modulus

chosen was austenitic stainless steal and the fluid content is liquid oxygen. The

applicable properties are shown in Table 3.1. To have liquid oxygen at ambient

Length (m) 1 1

38

Figure 3.8: Effect of time of close in the maximum pressure

For this specific problem the spatial grid was made using ∆x = 0.0002 and the

time grid with a ∆t = 0.0000002. This grid was chosen to minimize numerical

fluctuation according with the previous analysis. Figure 3.8 show the maximum

pressure as a function of initial velocity for different closing time. For all the cases

it can be seen a linear behavior between maximum pressure and the initial

velocity. In this Figure is evident that the faster the close time higher is the

pressure. Also, the difference between closing the valve at .05 and .1 second is

minimal thus, .01 second may be taken as the critical value. As expected the fluid

39

Figure 3.9: Effect of initial velocity in the wave pressure

Using a valve closing time of .01 seconds for different initial velocity, the

higher pressure in the first millisecond, the same is attenuated as time pass due to

pipe friction.

As shown in Figure 3.9 transients flows has a peak maximum pressure value,

thus if failure due to an overpressure could occur it will happen at this value. For

Analyzing the energy conservation for the case rapid valve closure or open.

The diminution of Kinetic energy will transform in a compression work for the

40

fluid that will cause the fluid to full fill the pipe. As a result an over pressure is

obtained.

Flow

V V +dV

Velocity

Pressure P P+d P

thereby changing the pressure from P to P + dP. This change in pressure will

produce a pressure wave that will propagate in the upstream direction. The

pressure on the upstream side of this wave is p, whereas the pressure on the

situation by letting the velocity reference system move with the pressure wave.

Then creating a control volume at the interrupted area the momentum equation is

solved as following:

x2

d

∑ F = dt ∫ ρ wVAc dx + ( ρ w AcV 2 ) out − ( ρ w AcV 2 ) in (3.21)

x1

First because the flow is steady, the first term on the right-hand side of the

momentum equation is zero. Referring to equation 3.21, and introducing the force

(3.22)

41

By simplifying and discarding terms of higher order, this equation becomes

The general form of the equation for conservation of mass for one-dimension

x2

d

dt x∫1

0= ρ w Ac dx + ( ρ wVAc ) out − ( ρ wVAc ) in (3.24)

Having steady flow the first term on the right hand side of equation 3.24 is

0 = ( ρ w + dρ w )(V + c + dV ) Ac − ρ w (V + c) Ac (3.25)

− ρ w dV

dρ w = (3.26)

V +c

− ρ w dV

dρ w = (3.27)

c

dP = − ρ w * dV * c (3.28)

For the sound velocity c if the conduits of the walls are assumed to be slightly

deformable instead of rigid, then the speed of sound would take the following

form.

42

K

ρ

C= (3.29)

KD

1+

eE

The proposed facility maximum flow is 275 lbm/sec, because the structural

analysis intends to study the limitation of the piping system this flow will be

considered as the maximum theoretical flow. The inner pipe diameter recalling

from previous chapter is 4.209 in. The total line length from the tank bottom to the

Tank

Location

Isolation

valve

275 275 in

V = = = 456 (3.30)

ρ w Ac .0433 × 13.914 sec

43

The theoretical maximum pressure surge for this flow velocity using a specific

Pmax = = = 1994 psi (3.31)

g 386

The pressures plotted in Table 3.2 are the pressures at the run valve, which is

at steady state flow. At steady state the local pressure is the tank pressure minus

flow friction losses. At a valve totally closure, flow is stopped therefore friction

losses becomes zero. Since the friction losses are zero it can be assumed that the

local pressure will be the peak surge pressure at the valve plus the tank pressure.

Pressure + Tank

Velocity Pressure Pressure

Pressure

ft/s (mpa) (psia)

(psia)

16.40 5.937 861 8861

32.80 11.870 1722 9722

38.00 14.250 2067 10067

49.21 17.810 2583 10583

65.61 23.750 3445 11445

The pressure plotted in Table 3.2 are applied to the structural model created in

Algor, this pressure do not consider as fluctuating over time, therefore considered

as a constant pressure simulating failure by peak transient pressure. Algor has the

capability of simulate loadings to the structure and study the effect along

44

Flow 16.4 ft/s

0.9

0.8

0.7

Segment A

Segment B

0.6

Stress/allowance

Segment C

Segment D

0.5 Segment E

Segment F

Segment G

0.4

Segment H

Segment I

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

Segments

With a 16.4 ft/s and a sudenly close no failure is predicted as shown in Figure

3.12, but it clearly can be seen that the stress per segment is close to the limit

1.2

1

Segment A

Segment B

Stress/Allowance

0.8 Segment C

Segment D

0.6 Segment E

Segment F

0.4 Segment G

Segment H

Segment I

0.2

0

Segments

45

With a flow of 32.4 ft/s and instantaneous closure of the isolation valve,

most of the segments also are close to their limits. This may be considered as the

valve.

Flow 38 ft/s

1.2

1

Segment A

Segment B

0.8

stress/allowance

Segment C

Segment D

0.6 Segment E

Segment F

0.4 Segment G

Segment H

Segment I

0.2

0

Segment

With a flow rate of 38 ft/s which is the maximum flow rate proposed by the

facility it is clear as shown in Figure 3.14, that with a suddenly close of the test

valve almost all segments are on they limit and most of them are over their limits.

46

Flow 49.21 ft/s

1.2

1

Segment A

Segment B

Sterss/Allowance

0.8 Segment C

Segment D

0.6 Segment E

Segment F

0.4 Segment G

Segment H

Segment I

0.2

0

Segment

For this case failures of almost all segments is evident as shown in Figure 3.15,

this flow velocity should be avoided and there is no reason for study higher flow

values.

3.3 Conclusions

A study of the fluid transient in a simple pipeline is done. For that reason, a

using MacCormak method. The behavior analyzed for different test cases the

parameter to control the crest of wave pressure. The result obtained indicates that

with adequately time of operation of the wave crest no reach the pressure of

failure.

Maximum pressures caused by rapid closure of isolation valve are obtained for

various flow using standard book equations. The transient flow pressure wave was

47

applied to the piping system before the isolation valve. Failure prediction is

obtained for several segments. It is found that for the case of a valve rapid closure,

possible failure will occur at a flow rate of 38 ft/s which is the maximum flow the

facility is planning to run. Some pressures reducer is recommended before the test

48

CHAPTER 4 RESONANT FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

worst cases direct impact on public safety. Vibration in piping systems consists of

the transfer of momentum and forces between piping and the contained liquid

during flow. Excitation mechanisms may arise by rapid changes in flow and

loads impart on the piping are transferred to the support mechanisms such as

hangers, thrust blocks, etc. Special attention has to be taken when this phenomena

is present.

Free vibration occurs when a system is displaced from its static position and

left free to oscillate. Under free vibration the system oscillates at its natural

specified by its stiffness and inertia properties. Natural frequencies are calculated

with modal analysis. Forced vibrations are classified into periodic and non-

The resonance effect can be described as a non stable vibration. Resonance will

take effect when the exiting frequency is near 1.4 the natural frequency [15][16].

Figure 4.1 shows the segments that the excitation frequencies need to be

calculated

49

Figure 4.1: NASA diagram configuration from previous investigation[1]

With the objective to derive the mathematical model for this problem some

simplifications was taking into account: the piping system is idealized as a group

..

M Y + ky = P0 sin ωt (4.1)

As one of boundary conditions, the beams is fixed at both ends. Solving for

50

straight forward and the development of these set of equations can be found in text

P0 1

y (t ) = A cos ωt + B sin ωt + sin ωt (4.2)

k 1− r2

wf

r= (4.3)

w

analysis is

Po 1

δ dyn = (4.4)

k 1− r2

n 2π EI

wf = (4.5)

2 L2 m

The natural frequencies for the first 3 mode shapes were calculated per

segment and compared with the excitation frequency from the fluid. Also the first

2 mode shapes were determined with the consideration of the pipeline as a whole.

The natural frequencies and their corresponding mode shape were determinate

using ALGOR and analytical equations. The excitation frequencies from the fluid

obtained from previous research [1] did not cover all the segments. In order to

determine resonance, therefore, the natural frequencies obtained in this work were

or between 1.4 the natural frequencies, resonance will occur. After calculating the

51

natural frequencies per segment, the natural frequencies were compared with the

excitation frequencies from the fluid, Table 4.1 illustrates the excitation

frequencies from the fluid obtained in [1]. The shaded cells represent possible

flows rate that may cause resonance for the complete system. To determinate if

calculated for the first three mode shapes per segment, Figure 4.2 illustrates the

beam discretization approach. Figures 4.3 to 4.5 show the relationship of fluid

excitation frequency and natural frequencies for each segment. Note that any

resonance, two lines are included in each graphics representing the upper and

lower limit. The fluid excitation frequencies were calculated at flow rate of 40,

7

8 1

11 9

2

10 6

12 3

5

13 4

14

17 15

16

52

Table 4.1: Fluid Excitation Frequencies by Others [1]

Segment fs_(113lbm/s) Fs_(275lbm/s) Fs_(40(lbm/s)

1 597.379005 1453.70771 2.11401778

2 74.6723757 181.713464 1.05700889

3 22.1251483 53.8410262 0.70467259

4 9.33404696 22.7141829 0.52850445

5 4.77903204 11.6296617 0.42280356

6 2.76564354 6.73012828 0.3523363

7 1.74162975 4.23821489 0.30200254

8 1.16675587 2.83927287 0.26425222

9 3.48451039 8.47947379 0.99881594

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

Ratios

1

fs 113

0.8 fs 275

fs 40

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Segments

Figure 4.3: Resonances per segment at different flow rates for the mode

shape 1

53

Resonanse for Mode Shape 2

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

Ratios

1

fs 113

fs 275

0.8

fs 40

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Segments

Figure 4.4: Possible resonances per segment at different flow rates for mode

shape 2

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

fs 113

Ratios

1 fs 275

fs 40

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Segments

Figure 4.5: Possible resonances per segment at different flow rates for mode

shape 3

54

Figure 4.6: Natural frequency mode shape 1 of a complete systems

55

4.3 Conclusions

using ALGOR and compared with the excitation frequency obtained from the

fluid at different flow rates. The results yields that the first natural frequency for

the whole system will occurs at 2.07 Hz, and the second at a frequency of 5.65 Hz

with its corresponding mode shapes. It is very clear in Table 4.1 that almost the

entire feed line might suffer from the resonance effect as calculated by finite

whereas, resonance for the second mode may occur at a flow rate of 275 lbm/s.

Figures 4.6 and 4.7 show the displacement results for the first and second mode

shapes. Notices that for the first mode shape the greatest displacement and stresses

is near the end of the piping system whereas, for the second mode shape the

segments near the center might be in resonance. It is expected that for the third

mode the elements near the tank could have the greatest displacement, of course it

With the analytical method approach the pipeline was discretized in straight

segments between supports as shown in Figure 4.1, the segments were idealized as

simple supported beams which are more appropriate for piping [16,18]. In

frequencies were calculated for the first three mode shapes. Examining possible

resonance was studied for the first mode shape in segments three, four and six. For

the second mode shape resonance was studied only in segment number two and

for the third mode shape resonance was predicted for segment one and two as

56

The results in this investigation reveal higher natural frequencies for all

segments than the anticipated in previous research [1]. The discretization made in

previous investigation was along straight pipe, which making the segments longer

and more susceptible to vibration than analyzing between supports. Supports will

tend to increase the stiffness of the segment. Taking into account only the straight

segments will underestimate the additional stiffness that comes from these

segments.

57

CHAPTER 5 TURBULENCE INDUCED VIBRATION

When the fluid velocity exceeds any but the smallest values characteristic of

“seepage” flows, eddies will form even if the surface of the flow channel is

perfectly smooth. The flow is said to be turbulent after it has achieve a specific

by the turbulence flow has the characteristic of being random. To study this type

attempt for a detailed time history response. The approach to solve this problem is

by calculating the root mean square values of the responses. With this calculation

At this days is still not feasible to determinate the turbulent forcing function

determinate fluid parameters and analytical approach for the solid behavior. In

simple word the experimental data obtained from the fluid is applied to the

The most widely used method to solve this type of problem is the acceptance

integral method first formulated by Powell [17]. Chen and Wanbsganss [18]

followed this method to estimate the parallel flow induce vibration of nuclear fuel

roads and Chyu and Au-Yang [19] applied this method to estimate the response of

panels exited by boundary layer turbulence. Au-Yang [20] applied this method to

58

estimate the response of reactor internal component excited by the coolant flow

mean square amplitudes. To determinate the root-mean square (rms) response the

→ →

AG p ( fα )ψ α ( x ) J αα ( fα )

2

⎛→⎞

y ⎜ x⎟ =∑

2

(5.1)

64π 3mα fα ζ α

2 3

⎝ ⎠ α

→

where J αα is the joint acceptance. The joint acceptance is a measurement of the

matching in space between the forcing function and the structural mode shape.

The same is tabulated in flow induce vibration text books [16] and is included in

this work for reference, see Figure 5.3, The term G p ( fα ) is the structural

fluctuating power spectral density (PSD) due to boundary layer type of turbulence.

derived under many simplifying assumptions, of which the most import ants are

that the cross modal contribution to the response is negligible, and the turbulence

The convective velocity Uc, which determines the phase relationship of the

forcing function at two different points on the surface of the structure; the

function at two different points on the surface of the structure; and finally the

power spectral density function, Gp, which determines the energy distribution as a

function of the frequency of the forcing function. These three fluid parameters are

59

obtained by model testing and scaling. In this thesis existing data from the

Based on data obtained from turbulent flows, Chen and Wambsganss [18] derived

frequency:

ωδ *

Uc − 2. 2 ( )

= 0.6 + 0.4e V

(5.2)

V

*

−.89ωδ

Uc

= .59 + .3e (5.3)

V V

Where δ

*

is the displacement boundary layer thickness for boundary layer flow

or in our case the “hydraulic radius” in confined internal flow. Both equations

show that except at very low frequencies, the convective velocity is fairly

independent of the frequency, being equal to approximate 0.6 times the free

[24] found, in two separate experiments, that the convective velocity is about the

60

Figure 5.1 Comparison of convective velocity predicted by Chen and

For this investigation the flow is internal in a pipe, therefore the boundary layer

can’t grow indefinitely. In small pipes and narrow flow channels, the boundary

layer will fill up the entire cross section of the flow channel. In that case the

DH

δ* = = RH (5.4)

2

The most important fluid mechanic parameter that characterizes the turbulence

forcing function is the power spectral density (PSD). And can be obtained with

the following empirical equation, which was derived based on data from a scale

⎡Φ ( w) ⎤

G p ( f ) = 2πρ 2V 3δ * ⎢ 2PP 3 * ⎥ (5.5)

⎣ρ V δ ⎦

61

In this equation the displacement boundary layer thickness δ * is the hydraulic

radius. The quantity in [] is plot in the ordinate of Figure 5.2, the data of this

low frequency, turbulent flow without cavitations the fallowing equation applies

[24]

Gp ( f )

= .155e − 3 F , 0 < F < 1 (5.6)

ρ V RH

2 3

=.027e-1.26F, 1 ≤ F ≤ 5

where

F = fRH/V (5.7)

GP ( f ) − x −4

= min{20 F − 2 ( ) ,1.0} (5.8)

ρ V RH

2 3

RH

where x is the absolute value of the distance from the cavitation source such

as an elbow or a valve.

62

Figure 5.2: Boundary layer type of turbulence power spectral density [5]

63

5.2 Results and Discussions

For the turbulence induce vibration, the analysis was performed at the

maximum flow rate proposed by NASA. The root-mean square (rms) response

was obtained at this flow. The highest flow was chosen due to the reason that has

the higher energy and representing the worst case. The results were limited to the

segments which were fluid information was available. For simplicity the analysis

frequencies that characterize these segments. The specific segments have the

lower frequencies because they are the longest comparing with the others. The

stiffness of these segments can be increased if additional supports are added thus

Natural Uc (in/s)

Segment Frequency Convective 4fL1 /Uc Jmm J´nm ωδ*/V

(Hz) Velocity

1 61.181 417.130 59.255 0.010 1.000 0.193

2 19.921 493.204 28.597 0.010 1.000 0.063

3 46.784 432.455 49.980 0.010 1.000 0.147

4 14.565 513.828 23.471 0.010 1.000 0.046

5 717.158 393.950 214.811 0.001 1.000 2.260

6 8.058 544.733 16.467 0.010 1.000 0.025

7 78.79 406.410

1 69.018 0.010 1.000 0.248

8 195.507 394.154 112.100 0.001 1.000 0.616

9a 5660.833 393.950 603.516 0.001 1.000 17.842

9b 90.951 421.639 58.155 0.010 1.000 0.177

64

Table 5.2: PSD and RMS Responses

Natural

Normalized Gp

Segment Frequency Yrms (in)

PSD (psi^2 / Hz)

(Hz)

1 61.181 2.000E-05 2.818E-04 0.149

2 19.921 4.000E-05 5.635E-04 0.211

3 46.784 4.000E-05 5.635E-04 0.211

4 14.565 4.000E-05 5.635E-04 0.211

5 717.158 3.500E-06 4.931E-05 0.020

6 8.058 4.000E-05 5.635E-04 0.211

7 78.791 2.000E-05 2.818E-04 0.149

8 195.507 2.000E-05 2.818E-04 0.047

9a 5660.833 2.000E-08 2.818E-07 0.001

9b 90.951 1.500E-05 1.304E-04 0.121

65

CHAPTER 6 FE Model of Fluid-Structure Interaction

Normally when it is desired to obtain the fluid velocity in a pipe, equations are

applied with the assumption of no wall deformation. If the walls deform, the

deformation will affect fluid thus creating a fluid structure interaction. This

interaction model. The solutions presented takes into account the interaction of the

solid. Several plots presented were compared in the percent difference if the

interaction between the solid and fluid is not taking into account.

Considering the behavior of the fluid structure interaction, the fluid will

applied a pressure to the pipe walls, and if the pressure is strong enough to cause

pipe deformation, this deformation will decrease the velocity along the pipe. The

pressure drop caused by a velocity decrease will change the pipe diameter again.

This phenomenon is what we are calling fluid structure interaction. To solve fluid

solution of the fluid and applied the results to the structure until a criterion of

convergence is accomplished.

Two models were created one a 2D channel we no obstruction that will serve

as the base model. The other will be the same channel with an obstruction; this

obstruction can easily by a valve half open. The obstruction will locally increase

the pressure, creating a large deformation compare to the base model. Different

66

6.2 FEM Analysis

The procedure to solve the couple problem is essentially obtaining the solution

first form the dynamic fluid analysis, except that this solution are going to be

saved in what is call a physic environment. Then the program calls the solid

physic environment which at this point is only a solid with boundary conditions.

Then the pressure solution obtained from the fluid physic is applied to the internal

walls of the solid pipe. Finally a static analysis for the solid is performed,

Two models were created; a free flowing channel and a channel with 50%

obstruction in its cross-sectional area shown in Figures 6.2 and 6.3. In order to

compare the results, both geometries created were essentially the same for the

analyses. Soft materials were chosen, thus, it is expected that the pipe will deform

significantly enough to affect the fluid velocities. Tables 6.1 and 6.2 summarizes

67

Figure 6.1 Fluid structure interaction loop flow chart

Structure

Fluid

Structure

68

Table 6.1: Dimensions Free Flowing Channel

Dimensions

Thickness 0.003175 m

Length .5 m

Structure

Fluid

Obstruction

Structure

Dimensions

Length (m) .5 m

69

6.3.1 Material Properties

and Poisson’s ratio. The modal analysis in addition to the previous properties also

required to define the density. For the Computational Fluid Dynamic CFD

Properties

The sequential coupled field analysis requires a combination of solid and fluid

elements. For the structural analysis the element chosen was HYPER 74. This

element has the ability to accommodate nonlinear behavior being ideal to obtain

stresses and pressures results. This element is also compatible with some fluid

elements. For the fluid environment the element chosen was FLUID 141. This

70

6.3.3 Mesh

The procedure to mesh the areas in both types of analyses was practically the

same and it yielded very similar meshes. It was not desired to free mesh the

created volumes causing a mesh that would degenerate the geometry or that would

was done in a constant area basis except in the case with the obstruction were the

mesh was finer near this area. This resulted in a regular mesh that was even and

conditions on the two were the same. This is a very important requirement since

the boundary conditions affect greatly the results and without this similarity a

conditions were placed at both ends of the channel in order to simulate supports

acting on the outside of the channel. The channel was considered fixed at both

ends. The other boundary condition applied was related to the fluid and the same

were applied to the channel internal surface area. The velocities of the fluid near

the internal walls of the channel were set to 0 and the pressure at the end of the

channel was set to 0. The pressure will ensure flow in the desired direction.

6.4 Results

The results presented are focus in to demonstrate that for a fluid flowing in a

highly deformable environment the dynamic deformation of the pipe will have an

71

effect in the behavior of the fluid. Therefore, the result presented in this section is

iteration solution. To present this, a graphic was created showing average percent

difference of the velocity results obtained for each node of the channel. The

procedure to calculate the percent difference was the fallowing. First a nodal

solution was run to solve for the velocity this solution was saved and the same

was used as the non fluid structure interaction solution. Then a subroutine was

created using ANSYS. In the subroutine an iterative method was created were the

pressure solution from the fluid was applied to the walls of the channel and the

deformation created from the pressure was used to solve the fluid until velocity

values converge. Then each velocity solution per node was compared with the non

fluid structure interaction and for each of them the percent difference was

calculated. Finally an average of the all the percent difference was calculated. This

procedure was applied for both cases the channel with the obstruction and the free

flowing one for flows from .01 m/s to .1 m/s. Figure 6.4 resumes the results. To

physically see how the results change per iteration a sequence of pictures

examples for the specific case of fluid flowing at .04 mps are presented, see

Figures 6.5 to 6.10. Note how the maximum velocities change from the first

iteration and the second one. This is expected due to the higher deformation will

72

25%

20%

15%

P e rce n t E rro r

10%

Obstruction

No Obstruction

5%

0%

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

Velocity M/S

73

Figure 6.6: Velocities profile at the second iteration

74

Figure 6.8: Velocities profile at the fourth iteration

75

Figure 6.10: Velocities profile at the sixth iteration

6.5 Conclusions

Two models were created; a free flowing channel and a channel with 50%

Various flow cases were study, after comparing the non interaction with the

velocity. This may be attributed to the fact that when the fluid applies pressure to

the rubber channel the rubber channel deforms, this deformation decrease the

velocity at which the fluid is traveling. Because the axial velocity has decrease

now the pressure applied by the fluid also decrease, at this point the rubber

channel tries to gets is steady state form. Now the cross-sectional area has

decrease again and by consequence the fluid increase again its velocity and the

76

pressure applied to the wall of the channel also increase. This phenomenon

For the fluid structure interaction investigation, two models were created; a

straight pipe and a straight pipe with 50% obstruction in its cross-sectional area.

For both cases, a non-fluid structure interaction solution was compared against a

comparing the non interaction with the interaction solutions; it was noticed that a

percent difference up to 25% in the fluid velocity. This is attributed to the fact that

when the fluid applies pressure to the pipe, it deforms. This deformation decrease

the velocity at which the fluid is traveling. As the axial velocity decreased, the

pressure applied by the fluid also decrease. Since the cross-sectional area

decreases again, by consequence the fluid increase its velocity again and the

pressure applied to the wall of the pipe also increase. This phenomenon continues

Comparing both models, the fluid structure interaction in pipe with 50%

obstruction is more significant than the pipe with no obstruction. The main reason

77

CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

7.1 Summary

are presented in this thesis. For general purpose application; transient and fluid-

The research conducted for the NASA facilities were; structural, thermal,

water hammer, resonance and turbulence induced vibration analysis. Three finite

elements models for the pipe system and segments at NASA facilities were

for frequency analysis, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) finite element model and

transient flow model for waterhammer induced vibration analysis in a fluid filled

pipe. The natural frequencies, static stress and the limitations of the pipeline

system were determined. A simple chart characterizing the relation between stress

and location along the length of the pipeline was developed for all segments.

In the warterhammer case, the limit maximum flow rates were determinate

based on the rate of a rapid closure of the isolation valve. A study of the fluid

transient in a simple pipeline was performed. The behaviors of different test cases

analyzed were completed based on these results. Subsequently, the time of valve

close and open was analyzed as a parameter to control the crest of wave pressure.

78

7.2 Conclusions

In the structural analysis the gap on the supports at segment k has a negative

effect on the piping system, the gap increases the stress and displacement in

almost all the segments. The more vulnerable segments of the pipe system are

of the gap could reduce fifty percent of the maximum stress in the pipeline

system. However, none of the segments are close to the critical stress and

The thermal stress analyses were conducted for the gap and non-gap support at

certain segments. The analyses were performed in a range from -100 to –400 °F

degrees as system content and 85°F as surrounding temperature. The results yield

facilities operational conditions. For the support with gap, the maximum stress

was found as 11,188 psi with a stress/allowance ratio of .26, and for the support

without gap, the maximum stress 10,710 psi with a stress/allowance ratio of .25.

Both maximum stresses were found at segment F. However, these values are in

were studied for various flows. The peak values of transient flow pressure were

generated in the piping system before the isolation valve. Possible failures were

predicted for several segments. It is clear that for the case of a valve rapid closure,

possible failure might occur at a flow rate of 38 ft/s, which is the maximum flow

79

at which the facilities operate. Some pressures reducers placed before the test

valves are recommended in order to reduce the impact of the traveling waves.

method, and the behavior of the system was analyzed for different test cases. The

incremental time was performed based on these results. Then, using material and

fluid properties, the time of valve close and open was analyzed as a parameter to

control the crest of wave pressure. The results obtained indicate that with adequate

time of valve operation, the wave crest will not reach to the pressure of failure.

For the vibration resonance analysis, the natural frequencies of the system as

a whole were obtained and compared with the excitation frequency of fluid at

different flow rates. The results conclude that the first natural frequency of the

whole system occurs at 2.07 Hz, and the second at a frequency of 5.65 Hz with its

corresponding mode shapes. Resonance for the first mode shape was found at a

flow rate of 40 lbm/s, whereas, resonance for the second mode occurs at a flow

rate of 275 lbm/s. For the first mode shape the greatest displacement and stresses

are near the end of the piping system, and for the second mode shape the segments

near the center could be in resonance. It is expected that for the third mode the

elements near the tank might have the greatest displacement, of course it takes

With the analytical method approach the pipeline was discretized in straight

natural frequencies were calculated for the first three mode shapes. Examining

possible resonances were predicted for the first mode shape in segments three,

four and six. For the second mode shape resonance was predicted only in segment

80

number two and for the third mode shape resonance was predicted for segment

The results in this investigation reveal higher natural frequencies for all

segments than the anticipated in previous research [1]. The reason can be found in

was along straight pipe making the segments longer and more susceptible to

vibration than analyzing between supports. Supports will tend to increase the

stiffness of the segment. Taking into account only the straight segment will under

For the fluid structure interaction investigation, two models were created; a

straight pipe and a straight pipe with 50% obstruction in its cross-sectional area.

For both cases, a non-fluid structure interaction solution was compared against a

comparing the non interaction with the interaction solutions; it was noticed that a

percent difference up to 25% in the fluid velocity. This is attributed to the fact that

when the fluid applies pressure to the pipe, it deforms. This deformation decrease

the velocity at which the fluid is traveling. As the axial velocity decreased, the

pressure applied by the fluid also decrease. Since the cross-sectional area

decreases again, by consequence the fluid increase its velocity again and the

pressure applied to the wall of the pipe also increase. This phenomenon continues

Comparing both models, the fluid structure interaction in pipe with 50%

obstruction is more significant than the pipe with no obstruction . The main reason

81

7.3 Future works

experimental data. Due to no experimental data was available for the facilities,

data available in textbook was use to estimate the vibration response. For future

works is recommended to measure the turbulent forcing function and apply the

method of Chapter 5

interaction effect. However, the analysis was made using the material properties

82

REFERENCES

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[3] H.M. Blackburn, Two and Three Dimensional Simulation of Vortex Induced

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[4] Nadeen Duranis 2001. “Dynamic of pipelines with finite element methods”

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Wave Attenuation, Shape and Timing by Anton, Eindhoven University of

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[9] A.S. Tijsseling(1993) Fluid Structure Interaction In Case of Water hammer

with Cavitations, Ph. D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Faculty of

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[10] A.S. Tijsseling(1993) Fluid Structure Interaction In Case of Water hammer

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Engineer, Report No. 93-6, Delft, The Netherlands, 1993, ISSN 0169-6548

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[12] G.W. Housner 1952 “Bending vibration of a Pipe Line Containing Flowing

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[13] Thomas Repp (1998) Fluid dynamics Waterhammer Simulations With

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83

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[15] Leonard Meirovitch, Fundamental of Vibrations Mc Graw Hill higher

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[16] Au-Yang,M.K, “Flow-Induced Vibration of Power and Process Plant

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[17] Powell, A 1958, “ On the Fatigue Failure of Structure Due to Vibration

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[18] Chen, S.S. and Wambsganss, M. W., 1970 “Response of a Flexible Rod to

Near Field Flow Noice,” in Proceeding of Conference on Flow Induced

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[19] Chyu, W.J. and Au-Yang M.K., 1972 Random Response of Rectangular

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[21] Au-Yang, M.K.,2000, “The Joint and Cross Acceptance in Cross-Flow

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[22] Bull, M.K., 1967, “Wall-Pressure Associate with Subsonic Turbulent

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[23] Au-Yang, M.K. and Jordan, K.B., 1980, “Dynamic Pressure Inside a PWR-

A Study Based on Laboratory and Field Test Data, “Journal Nuclear

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84

[25] K.T. TRUONG, Evaluating dynamic Stresses of a Pipe Line, This paper is

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Proceeding: International Symposium on Flow-Induced Vibration and Noise,

Vol. 4, Flow-Induced Vibration due to Internal and Annular Flow, ASME

Press, New York.

[27] R. Kumar 1971 Acustica 24, pp.137-146. Flexible vibrations of fluid-filled

circular cylindrical shells

[28] D.R. Samsury 1974 Research Report-Naval Ship Research and Development

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[30] T.C. Lin and G.W. Morgan 1956 The Journal of the Acoustical Society of

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cylindrical, elastic shell.

[31] J.M. Cuschieri 1988 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 83(2),

pp.641-646. Excitation and response of piping systems.

[32] A.L. Lewis and D.R. Roll 1997 Tappi Journal, pp.76-82. Pulsing and

vibration caused by control valve induced acoustic resonances.

[33] Chiba,T., Koyanagi,R., Ogawa, N. and Minowa, C., (1989), A Test and

Analysis of the Multiple Support Piping System, Journal of Pressure Vessel

Technology, Vol. 111, pp 291p299

[34] Chiba,T., Koyanagi,R., Ogawa, N. and Minowa, C., (1990), Dynamic

Response Studies of Piping Support System, Journal of Pressure Vessel

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[35] Chiba,T., Koyanagi,R., Ogawa, N. and Minowa, C., (1990) Response

Characteristic of Piping System Supported by Visco Elastic and Elasto-

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[36] Chiba, T and Koyanagi, R., (1988), An Experimental Study of the Response

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85

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Frequency Excitation on Piping and Support Design, Journal of Pressure

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Proceeding: International Symposium on Flow-Induced Vibration and Noise,

Vol. 4, Flow-Induced Vibration due to Internal and Annular Flow, ASME

Press, New York

[40] Taylor, C. E.; Pettigrew, M. J., Dickinson, T. J. and Currie, I. G.,

Vidalou, P, 1997 “Vibration Damping in Multispan Heat Exchanger Tubes,”

4th International Symposium on Fluid Structure Interactions, Vol II, edited by

M.P. Paidoussis. ASME Special Publication AD-Vol. 53-2, pp. 201-208

[41] ASME, 1979, Steam Tables, Fourth Edition, ASME Press, New York

[42] M. C. haudhry, Hydraulic Engineering, Jhon Wile & Sons Inc., New York,

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Through an Axisymmetric Sudden Contraction or Expansion”, Transactions

of the ASME, 124, pp. 273-278.

[44] A. Bergant and A. Tijsseling, “Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave

Attenuation, Shape and Timing”

[45] A. Bergant, A. R. Simpson J. Vitkovsky, “Developments in unsteady pipe

flow friction modeling”. J. of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 39, NO. 3, pp. 249-

257, 2001.

[46] B. Brunone, U.M. Golia, , and M. Greco, “Some remarks on the

momentum equation for fast transients”. Int. Meeting on Hydraulic

Transients with Column Separation, 9th Round Table, IAHR, Valencia,

Spain, pp. 140-148,1991.

[47] J. D. Hoffman, Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists, McGraw-

Hill Inc. Singapore, 1993.

86

[48] H. M. V. Samani and A. Khayatzadeh, “Transient flow in pipe networks” J.

of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 40, NO. 5, pp. 637-644, 2002.

Pressures”, J. of Transportation Engineering, pp. 101-106, March 1997.

Hammer in Piping with Entrapped Air”, Transactions of ASME, Vol. 124,

pp. 194-204, 2002.

[51] R. S. Gupta, Hydrology & Hydraulic Systems, Waveland Press Inc., Illinois,

1989.

[52] M. Moran and H. Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics,

JHON WILE & SONS, INC., New York, 2000.

flow”. Proc., Int. Conf. on Pressure Surges and Fluid Transients, BHR Group,

Harrogate, England, pp. 289-311, 1996.

[54] B. Fitzgerald and C. Linden, “The Control Valve’s Hidden Impact on the

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[55] C.S. Beard, Control Valves, Intrument Publishing company, Pittsburgh,

1957.

[56] D. R. Yang, “Actuator And Control Valve Selection”, Lecture III, Dept. of

87

APENDIX

*******************************program****************************

1388,1389,1384,1385,1386,1387,1375,1383,1382,1381,1380,1379,1378,238,1377,1376

668,667,666,665,664,663,662,661,660,659,657,658,656,655,669

/BATCH

/COM,ANSYS RELEASE 5.7.1 UP20010418 12:33:43 05/23/2002

/input,menust,tmp ,'',,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,1 !User interface on

/GRA,POWER

/GST,ON

/PLO,INFO,3

/COL,PBAK,ON,1,BLUE

/VIEW, 1 ,1,1,1 !view

/ANG, 1

/REP,FAST

/PREP7

/prep7

shpp,on !element shape checking

!!Assign element

ET,2,58 ! 3D solid element

!!Geometry

CYL4,0,0,.0534543, ,.0841375 !Hollow Cylinder, inner diameter outer

!Fluid Area

FLST,2,4,3 !specify data required for a picking operation NFIELD, NARG, TYPE, Otype, LENG

FITEM,2,7 !key points in active coordinate system

FITEM,2,8 !key points in active coordinate system

FITEM,2,6 !key points in active coordinate system

FITEM,2,5 !key points in active coordinate system

A,P51X !Area arbitrary through key points

K, ,0,0,0, !key point in point 0,0,0

K, ,0,0,-1.524, !key point

K, ,0,.6,-1.524, !key point

LSTR, 9, 10 !straight line through key point

LSTR, 10, 11 !straight line through key point

!*

LFILLT,10,9,.18, , !line fillet, line ,line ,radius

FLST,2,2,5,ORDE,2

FITEM,2,1

FITEM,2,-2

FLST,8,3,4

FITEM,8,9

FITEM,8,11

FITEM,8,10

VDRAG,P51X, , , , , ,P51X

FLST,2,2,6,ORDE,2

FITEM,2,3

FITEM,2,5

VADD,P51X

FLST,2,2,6,ORDE,2

FITEM,2,4

FITEM,2,6

VADD,P51X

88

SAVE

FLST,5,2,6,ORDE,2 !To select volumes

FITEM,5,1

FITEM,5,7

VSEL,S, , ,P51X !volume selected

vatt,2,2,2 !assign properties to p51x,elemento,material,real constant

FLST,5,2,6,ORDE,2

FITEM,5,2

FITEM,5,3

VSEL,S, , ,P51X !select Volume P51x

vatt,1,1,1 !assign properties to p51x,elemento,material,real constant

!Mesh Creation

ALLSEL,ALL !Select all

ALLSEL,ALL !Select all

FLST,5,4,6,ORDE,4

FITEM,5,1

FITEM,5,2

FITEM,5,3

FITEM,5,7

CM,_Y,VOLU ! CM,Cname, Entity - Groups geometry items into a component Y=Volume

VSEL, , , ,P51X !select Volume P51x

CM,_Y1,VOLU !Groups geometry items into a component Y1 = volume

CHKMSH,'VOLU' !Check Mesh named volu

CMSEL,S,_Y ! Selects a subset of components and assemblies

!*

VSWEEP,_Y1 !create mesh for Y1 volume

!*

CMDELE,_Y !Deletes a component or assembly definition.

CMDELE,_Y1 !Deletes a component or assembly definition.

CMDELE,_Y2 !Deletes a component or assembly definition.

!*

SAVE

!!Fluid Environment

et,1,142

et,2,0

!!CFD Conditions and Type of fluid

flda,solu,flow,1 !Flotran executions option for flow 1

flda,solu,turb,1 ! Flotran executions option for flow 1 turbulent

flda,iter,exec,100 !Flotran Iterations

flda,outp,sumf,10 !Output Summary frequencies

flda,prot,dens,constant

flda,prot,visc,constant

flda,nomi,dens,998 ! lbf/in^3 (density - water)

flda,nomi,visc,8.94e-7 ! Lb/in*s (viscosity of water)

flda,conv,pres,1.E-8 ! Tighten pressure equation convergence

FLST,5,1,5,ORDE,1

FITEM,5,2

CM,_Y,AREA !Y = Area

ASEL,R, , ,P51X ! Selects a subset of areas Select R from P51x

89

CM,_Y1,AREA !Y1 = Area

CMSEL,S,_Y ! Selects a subset of components and assemblies

CMDELE,_Y !Deletes a component or assembly definition.

!*

!*

!*

DA,_Y1,VX,0,1 !Specify fluid velocity in volumes X Axis inlet

DA,_Y1,VY,0,1 ! Specify fluid velocity in volumes y Axis inlet

DA,_Y1,VZ,-5,1 !Specify fluid velocity in volumes z Axis inlet

!*

CMDELE,_Y1

!*

FLST,5,12,5,ORDE,6

FITEM,5,7

FITEM,5,-10

FITEM,5,17

FITEM,5,-20

FITEM,5,27

FITEM,5,-30

CM,_Y,AREA

ASEL,R, , ,P51X

CM,_Y1,AREA

CMSEL,S,_Y

CMDELE,_Y

!*

!*

!*

DA,_Y1,VX,0,1 !Specify fluid velocity in volumes X Axis

DA,_Y1,VY,0,1 !Specify fluid velocity in volumes Y Axis

DA,_Y1,VZ,0,1 !Specify fluid velocity in volumes Z axis

!*

CMDELE,_Y1

!*

FLST,5,1,5,ORDE,1

FITEM,5,32

CM,_Y,AREA

ASEL,R, , ,P51X

CM,_Y1,AREA

CMSEL,S,_Y

CMDELE,_Y

!*

/GO ! Reactivates suppressed printout.

!*

DA,_Y1,PRES,0,1 !Specify Pressure at outlet of piping

!*

CMDELE,_Y1

!*

SAVE

alls

/title,Fluid Analysis

physics,write,fluid,fluid

physics,clear

!Creating the Solid Enviroment

et,1,0 ! The Null element for the fluid region

et,2,58 ! assign element 45 to material 2

mp,ex,2,2.82e9 !psi Young's modulus

mp,nuxy,2,0.49967 ! Poisson's ratio

tb,mooney,2

90

tbdata,1,0.293E+6 !Mooney-Rivlin Constants

tbdata,2,0.177E+6

FINISH

/SOLU !Enters the solution processor.

FINISH

/PREP7 !Define the options for the structure analysis. Loads>>analysis options

NLGEOM,0 !Large deformation off

NROPT,AUTO, , !Newton raphson method (program chosen)

LUMPM,0 !Use lumped mass approximation turned off

EQSLV, , ,0, !Equation solver type

PRECISION,0 !Single precision off

MSAVE,0 !Memory safe off

PIVCHECK,1 !pivot check on

PSTRES,ON !prestress on

TOFFST,0, !Temperature difference 0

/REPLOT

FLST,5,1,5,ORDE,1

FITEM,5,1

CM,_Y,AREA

ASEL,R, , ,P51X

CM,_Y1,AREA

CMSEL,S,_Y

CMDELE,_Y

/GO

DA,_Y1,ALL,0

CMDELE, Y1

FLST,5,1,5,ORDE,1

FITEM,5,31

CM,_Y,AREA

ASEL,R, , ,P51X

CM,_Y1,AREA

CMSEL,S,_Y

CMDELE,_Y

/GO

DA,_Y1,all,0

CMDELE, Y1

/title,structural analysis

finish

/solu

antype,static

nlgeom,on

cnvtol,f,,,,-1

physics,write,struc,struc

physics,clear

save

/REPLOT

SAVE

SAVE

! Couple fluid Solution

*do,i,1,loop ! Execute fluid -> structure solutions

/solu

physics,read,fluid ! Read in fluid environment

91

*if,i,ne,1,then !!,IF,VAL1,Oper,VAL2, If I not equal to 1 then

flda,iter,exec,100 ! Execute 100 global iterations for

*endif ! each new geometry

solve ! FLOTRAN solution

fini

! end of fluid portion

physics,read,struc ! Read in structures environment

/assign,esav,struc,esav ! Files for restarting nonlinear structure elementsave

!!Assign,Ident,Fname,Ext,Dir

/assign,emat,struc,emat

*if,i,gt,1,then ! Structural restart loop If i is grater than a

parsave,all ! Save parameters for convergence check

resume ! Resume DB - to return original node positions

parresume ! Resume parameters needed for convergence check

/prep7

antype,stat,rest !Analysis type Static, restart

fini

*endif

/solu /Enter Solution preprocesor

solc,off

asel,s,,,7,10 ! Select proper areas to apply fluid pressures

asel,a,,,17,20

asel,a,,,27,30

nsla,,1 !nsla,Type,NKEY - Selects those nodes associated with the selected areas

esel,s,type,,2 !,ESEL Type,Item,Comp,VMIN,VMAX,VINC,KABS - Selects a subset of elements.

ldread,pres,last,,,,,rfl ! Apply pressure surface load from Flotran

alls

rescontrol,,none ! Do not use multiframe restart for nonlinear

solve

*if,i,eq,1,then

save ! save original node locations at the first run

*endif

fini

/prep7

*SET,mkey,2 ! Select level of mesh morphing for fluid

dvmorph,2, ,mkey

dvmorph,3, ,mkey ! Perform morphing of volume 2

alls

fini

/assign,esav

/assign,emat

*enddo

92

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