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Petroleum Experts

User Manual

IPM
PVTP
Version 8.5
February 2011

PVTP
IPM - Fluid Characterisation OVERVIEW
by Petroleum Experts Limited

An understanding of PVT properties is fundamental to all aspects of reservoir, petroleum


and production engineering.
PVTP allows tuning of Equations of State (EOS) to match laboratory data. The tuned EOS
can then be used to simulate a range of reservoir and production processes, which impact
equipment sizing and reservoir recovery.
Multiple Samples Reservoir information is handled in a unique project structure to allow the
user to create a consistant picture of the reservoir system.
PVTP has been designed to lead the engineer logically through the fluid characterising
process, which includes tuning EOS models to match measured laboratory data at both
reservoir and process conditions.
PVTP can be used to generate tables of fluid properties, reduced compositions or matched
parameters (Tc, Pc, and Binary Interaction Coefficients) for applications such as reservoir
simulation and nodal analysis. PVTP maximises the value of your laboratory PVT studies
by minimising the amount of experiments required.
PVTP has been extended to include the modelling of solids VIZ. hydrates and waxes and
includes calculations for hydrate formation pressure, hydrate inhibition, wax appearance
temperature and wax dropout.
PVTP features OPENSERVER.
APPLICATIONS
Characterisation of fluids
Recombination of separator samples
Determination of gas / oil contacts
Separator train optimisation
Phase behaviour prediction
Swelling test simulation
Solids (hydrate and Wax Modelling)
Generation of PVT tables for use in simulation
Slim Tube Simulation
Structured approach to sample decontamination, addressing an increasing problem of
contaminated samples
Recombination and PVT validation
Simulation of lab PVT experiments
Online Step-by-Step Help Guide takes the user through fluid characterisation
Unique auto characterisation of heavy end fraction
Simultaneously matches to reservoir and separator tests
Tunes EOS for direct use in PROSPER well modelling systems analysis program
Generates match data for black oil condensate model used in MBAL material balance
program

Copyright Notice
The copyright in this manual and the associated computer program are the property of Petroleum Experts
Ltd. All rights reserved. Both, this manual and the computer program have been provided pursuant to a
Licence Agreement containing restriction of use.
No part of this manual may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or
translated into any language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical or
otherwise, or disclose to third parties without prior written consent from Petroleum Experts Ltd., Petex House,
10 Logie Mill, Edinburgh, EH7 4HG, Scotland, UK.
Petroleum Experts Ltd. All rights reserved.
IPM Suite, GAP, PROSPER, MBAL, PVTP, REVEAL, RESOLVE, IFM and OpenServer are trademarks of
Petroleum Experts Ltd.
Microsoft (Windows), Windows (2000) and Windows (XP) are registered trademarks of the Microsoft
Corporation
The software described in this manual is furnished under a licence agreement. The software may be used
or copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. It is against the law to copy the software on
any medium except as specifically allowed in the license agreement. No part of this documentation may be
reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording, or information storage and retrieval systems for any purpose other than the purchaser's personal
use, unless express written consent has been given by Petroleum Experts Limited.

Address:
Petroleum Experts Limited
Petex House
10 Logie Mill
Edinburgh, Scotland
EH7 4HG
Tel : (44 131) 474 7030
Fax : (44 131) 474 7031
email: edinburgh@petex.com
Internet: www.petex.com
1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

PVTP

Table of Contents
0

Chapter 1

Technical Overview

1 Fluid PVT
...................................................................................................................................
Modeling
5
Equation of
..........................................................................................................................................................
State Modelling
5
Black Oil Modelling
.......................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 PVT for...................................................................................................................................
Integrated systems
7
Introduction
..........................................................................................................................................................
to Lumping/Delumping
7
Building PVT
..........................................................................................................................................................
models for fully Integrated Systems
9

3 Consistency
...................................................................................................................................
of fluid compositions
11
4 Flow Assurance
...................................................................................................................................
- solids deposition
12
5 Automation
................................................................................................................................... 13
6 Examples
...................................................................................................................................
Index
14
7 Whats...................................................................................................................................
New in PVTp
16
8 Contact
...................................................................................................................................
Details
22

Chapter 2

User Guide

24

1 Installation
...................................................................................................................................
and Windows Basics
25
Software..........................................................................................................................................................
and Hardware Requirements
25
Upgrading
.........................................................................................................................................................
from a Previous Version
26
Installing..........................................................................................................................................................
PVTP
26
Running
.........................................................................................................................................................
Setup
26
The PROSPER.INI
.........................................................................................................................................................
file
27
Starting PVTP
.......................................................................................................................................................... 27
Connecting
.........................................................................................................................................................
the Software Protection Bitlock
27
Creating
.........................................................................................................................................................
the PVTP Icon
28
REMOTE..........................................................................................................................................................
Software Utility
28
Entering
.........................................................................................................................................................
the User Authorisation Code
28
Updating
.........................................................................................................................................................
the Software Protection Bitlock
30
Program ..........................................................................................................................................................
Check List
30

2 File Management
................................................................................................................................... 31
PVT Data..........................................................................................................................................................
Files
31
PVT .........................................................................................................................................................
Import Files
32
PVT .........................................................................................................................................................
Export Files
34
IPM EoS Composition
.........................................................................................................................................
(*.PRP)
35
*.PRP File Example
................................................................................................................................... 36
*.PRP file with
...................................................................................................................................
Lumping/Delumping information
37
PROSPER Hydrate
.........................................................................................................................................
Formation (*.PHY)
44
General Data
.........................................................................................................................................
Export (*.PVE)
44
Black Oil Tables
.........................................................................................................................................
(*.PTB)
47
BO Table Export
...................................................................................................................................
from PVTp
49
BO Table Example
...................................................................................................................................
1 Oil
53
BO Table Example
...................................................................................................................................
2 Condensate
56
MBAL PVT with
.........................................................................................................................................
Depth Export (*.PGD)
57
MBAL PVT...................................................................................................................................
with Depth - Black Oil Match Tables
59

Contents

II

MBAL Variable
.........................................................................................................................................
Bubble Point(Oil) Export (*.PVB)
65
MBAL Variable
...................................................................................................................................
Bpt. Calculation Dialog
69
Eclipse Black
.........................................................................................................................................
Oil Export (*.INC)
72
Eclipse Export
...................................................................................................................................
Setup Dialog
73
Eclipse Export
...................................................................................................................................
Tables
78
Eclipse Compositional
.........................................................................................................................................
Export (*.PVO)
79
CMG Black .........................................................................................................................................
Oil Export
80
CMG Compositional
.........................................................................................................................................
Export
81
Kappa Black.........................................................................................................................................
oil Export
82
File Operations
.......................................................................................................................................................... 85
Creating
.........................................................................................................................................................
a New File
85
Opening
.........................................................................................................................................................
an Existing File
85
Saving
.........................................................................................................................................................
a File
85
Copying
.........................................................................................................................................................
a File
86
Closing
.........................................................................................................................................................
Files
86
Restore
.........................................................................................................................................................
Temp File
86
Software..........................................................................................................................................................
Key Maintenance
86
Viewing
.........................................................................................................................................................
the Software Key
86
Printing .......................................................................................................................................................... 87
Printer
.........................................................................................................................................................
Set-up
87
Printing
.........................................................................................................................................................
a Report
87
Units System
.......................................................................................................................................................... 88

3 Models...................................................................................................................................
and Model Options
91
The Black
..........................................................................................................................................................
Oil Model
91
The Equation
..........................................................................................................................................................
of State Model
91
The Acentric
.........................................................................................................................................................
Factor
93
The Binary
.........................................................................................................................................................
Interaction Coefficient
97
Volume
.........................................................................................................................................................
Shift
99
Wax Modelling
.......................................................................................................................................................... 100
Wax
.........................................................................................................................................................
Model Details
103
Wax
.........................................................................................................................................................
Model References
107
Hydrates
.......................................................................................................................................................... 107
Background
.........................................................................................................................................................
to Hydrates
107
Hydrate
.........................................................................................................................................................
Modeling
109
Hydrates
.........................................................................................................................................................
with no water phase
111
Hydrate
.........................................................................................................................................................
Inhibition
112
Hydrate
.........................................................................................................................................................
Model References
113
Compositional
..........................................................................................................................................................
Gradient
113
Compositional
.........................................................................................................................................................
Gradient References
116
Density ..........................................................................................................................................................
Calculation
116
Standing
.........................................................................................................................................................
Katz Density
117
Costald
.........................................................................................................................................................
Density
118
Splitting..........................................................................................................................................................
Pseudo Components
119
Viscosity
..........................................................................................................................................................
and Thermal Conductivity Models
123
Lohrenz,Bray,ClarkViscosity
.........................................................................................................................................................
Model
124
Pedersen
.........................................................................................................................................................
et al Viscosity Model
125
Zhou
.........................................................................................................................................................
et al Viscosity Model
127
Little
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Kennedy Viscosity Model
129
Thermal
.........................................................................................................................................................
Conductivity Model
130
Viscosity
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Thermal Conductivity References
132
Water Modeling
.......................................................................................................................................................... 132
Water
.........................................................................................................................................................
Modeling References
134
Separator
..........................................................................................................................................................
Calculations and the Path to Surface
134
Separators
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Chillers LNG values
135

February, 2011

PVTP Help And Manual

II

III

PVTP
K Values
......................................................................................................................................................... 138
K Value
.........................................................................................................................................................
Dialog
139
K Value
.........................................................................................................................................................
Export/Import Dialog
141
K Value Export
.........................................................................................................................................
File Format
142
Surface
.........................................................................................................................................................
Split Factors
144
Split.........................................................................................................................................................
Factor Setup Dialog
145
Split.........................................................................................................................................................
Factor View|Export Dialog
149
Calculating
..........................................................................................................................................................
Interfacial tension
152
Using Material
..........................................................................................................................................................
Balance to Calculate Bo
152

4 Main ...................................................................................................................................
menu and Preferences
154
Toolbar.......................................................................................................................................................... 155
Preferences
.......................................................................................................................................................... 156
General
......................................................................................................................................................... 157
Volume Shift
.........................................................................................................................................
Setup
160
Directories
......................................................................................................................................................... 163
Regression
......................................................................................................................................................... 164
Units
......................................................................................................................................................... 166
View
......................................................................................................................................................... 167

5 Options
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
168
Options..........................................................................................................................................................
Dialog
168
System
.........................................................................................................................................................
Options
170
User
.........................................................................................................................................................
Information
171
User
.........................................................................................................................................................
Comments
171
Units Dialog
.......................................................................................................................................................... 171
Units
.........................................................................................................................................................
Save Dialog
174

6 Black...................................................................................................................................
Oil Input
175
Black Oil
..........................................................................................................................................................
Toolbar
177
BLACK OIL
..........................................................................................................................................................
PVT - Oil
178
BLACK OIL
..........................................................................................................................................................
PVT - Dry and Wet Gas
184
BLACK OIL
..........................................................................................................................................................
PVT - Retrograde Condensate
185

7 Input...................................................................................................................................
Data EoS
188
PVTp Project
..........................................................................................................................................................
Data Structure
188
Selecting
..........................................................................................................................................................
Components From List
189
User
.........................................................................................................................................................
Database Entries
192
What
.........................................................................................................................................................
Number of Components to Select
192
Enter Components
..........................................................................................................................................................
as Table
193
Component
.........................................................................................................................................................
Identification Dialog
197
Recombination
.......................................................................................................................................................... 198
Enter Composition
.......................................................................................................................................................... 203
Composition
..........................................................................................................................................................
Editor Add,Delete,Edit.Import
208
Component
.........................................................................................................................................................
Import Dialog
214
Component.........................................................................................................................................
Import Select
214
Edit Mole
..........................................................................................................................................................
Percents
215
Binary Interaction
..........................................................................................................................................................
Coefficients
216
Pseudo ..........................................................................................................................................................
Properties
220
Automatic
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Manual Mode
227
Pseudo
.........................................................................................................................................................
Splitting
227
Hint.........................................................................................................................................................
on Method
230
Auto-Matching
.........................................................................................................................................................
of Densities and Viscosities
230
Original
.........................................................................................................................................................
Numbers Store
232
Advanced
..........................................................................................................................................................
Splitting Dialog
233
Whitson
.........................................................................................................................................................
Splitting Options
238
Splitting
.........................................................................................................................................................
Preferences Dialog
240

Contents

IV

Whitson
.........................................................................................................................................................
Split Analysis Dialog
242
Pseudo ..........................................................................................................................................................
Split Profile Dialog
245
View Properties
.......................................................................................................................................................... 247
Command
.........................................................................................................................................................
Buttons
249
OmegaA
.........................................................................................................................................................
and OmegaB
253
Black
.........................................................................................................................................................
Oil Properties Dialog
254
More Black.........................................................................................................................................
Oil Properties Dialog
256
Grouping
.......................................................................................................................................................... 257
Reference
..........................................................................................................................................................
Data
259
Decontamination
.......................................................................................................................................................... 261
Decontamination
.........................................................................................................................................................
Control Dialog
261
Decontamination
.........................................................................................................................................
Mode Selection Dialog
265
Decontamination
.........................................................................................................................................
Quick Look Dialog
265
Decontamination
.........................................................................................................................................
Pseudos Dialog
266
Match Data
.......................................................................................................................................................... 267
Matching
.........................................................................................................................................................
on Mixture Critical Temperature
271
What
.........................................................................................................................................................
Data Should be Used in Regression
273
Regression
.......................................................................................................................................................... 274
Regression
.........................................................................................................................................................
Parameter Selection Dialog
278
Mouse Shortcuts
......................................................................................................................................... 286
Separator ......................................................................................................................................... 286
What
.........................................................................................................................................................
Properties to Use in Regression
287
Matching
.........................................................................................................................................................
Viscosity
288
Regression
.........................................................................................................................................................
With Solids
292
Notes
.........................................................................................................................................................
on Regression
295
Regression
.........................................................................................................................................................
with OmegaA and OmegaB
296
Plot Test
..........................................................................................................................................................
Points
298

8 Lumping/Delumping
................................................................................................................................... 302
Lumping/Delumping
..........................................................................................................................................................
options
302
Manual ..........................................................................................................................................................
Lumping
307
Lumping
..........................................................................................................................................................
Rules dialog
312
Select
......................................................................................................................................................... 314
Import Group
.......................................................................................................................................................... 317

9 Calculation
...................................................................................................................................
EoS
320
Critical ..........................................................................................................................................................
Point Calculation
321
Phase Envelope
.......................................................................................................................................................... 321
Phase
.........................................................................................................................................................
Envelope Test Points Dialog
324
Phase
.........................................................................................................................................................
Envelope Results Dialog
327
Ranged..........................................................................................................................................................
Saturation Pressure
328
Constant
..........................................................................................................................................................
Composition Expansion (CCE)
330
The.........................................................................................................................................................
Calculation Display
334
The.........................................................................................................................................................
Analysis Display
336
Layout
.........................................................................................................................................................
Dialog
338
The.........................................................................................................................................................
Copy to Clipboard Dialog
340
Constant
..........................................................................................................................................................
Volume Depletion (CVD)
341
Constant
..........................................................................................................................................................
Volume Oil Depletion
344
Depletion
..........................................................................................................................................................
Study (DEPL)
348
Differential
..........................................................................................................................................................
Expansion (DIFF)
352
Composite
..........................................................................................................................................................
Differential Expansion (COMPOS)
355
Separator
..........................................................................................................................................................
Process
358
Separator
.........................................................................................................................................................
Analysis
362
Compositional
..........................................................................................................................................................
Gradient
365
Calculation
.........................................................................................................................................................
Results Display
370

February, 2011

PVTP Help And Manual

IV

PVTP
Swelling
..........................................................................................................................................................
Test
371
Slim-tube
..........................................................................................................................................................
Simulation
374
Slim-tube
.........................................................................................................................................................
Input dialog
375
Slim-tube
.........................................................................................................................................................
cell data dialog
378
Slim-tube
.........................................................................................................................................................
rel perm dialog
379
Slim-tube
.........................................................................................................................................................
time steps dialog
380
Slim-tube
.........................................................................................................................................................
calculations dialog
381
Slim-tube
.........................................................................................................................................................
analysis dialog
382
Slim-tube
.........................................................................................................................................................
cell detail dialog
383
Quick Calculation
..........................................................................................................................................................
Dialog
384
Saturation
.........................................................................................................................................................
Pressure and Flash to STD
386
Quick
.........................................................................................................................................................
Calculation Separator Calculation Dialog
387
Maximum
.........................................................................................................................................................
Water in Hydrocarbon Phase
388
Steam Calculations
.......................................................................................................................................................... 392
Calculations
..........................................................................................................................................................
with Lumping/Delumping
394

10 Calculation
...................................................................................................................................
of Solids
397
Wax Amount
..........................................................................................................................................................
Calculation
397
The.........................................................................................................................................................
Analysis Display
400
Wax Appearance
..........................................................................................................................................................
Temperature
402
Hydrate..........................................................................................................................................................
Formation Pressure
405
Calculations
.........................................................................................................................................................
Dialog
409
Hydrate..........................................................................................................................................................
Minimum Inhibitor Concentration
409

11 Streams
...................................................................................................................................
Menu
412
Edit Stream
..........................................................................................................................................................
Details
412
Add/Import/Copy
..........................................................................................................................................................
Stream
413
Delete Stream
.......................................................................................................................................................... 415
Create a..........................................................................................................................................................
Stream to a Target GOR
416
Create a..........................................................................................................................................................
Stream to a Target PSAT
420
Add Water
..........................................................................................................................................................
to a Stream - Saturation Value
425
Add Water
..........................................................................................................................................................
to a Stream - Fixed Amount
429
Blend Streams
.......................................................................................................................................................... 431
Allocate:Blending
..........................................................................................................................................................
Streams to a Target GOR
433

12 Reporting
................................................................................................................................... 437
Setting ..........................................................................................................................................................
Up the Reporting System
437
Reports.......................................................................................................................................................... 437

13 Plotting
................................................................................................................................... 441
Manipulating
..........................................................................................................................................................
Streams
442
Manipulating
..........................................................................................................................................................
Curves
442
The Plot..........................................................................................................................................................
Menu and Toolbar
444
Plotting..........................................................................................................................................................
- Changing Colours
446
Plotting..........................................................................................................................................................
- Changing Labels and Options
447
Plotting..........................................................................................................................................................
- Changing Scales
448
Plotting..........................................................................................................................................................
- Changing Variables
449
Plotting..........................................................................................................................................................
- Printing a Plot
451

14 Utilities
................................................................................................................................... 454
API/Density
..........................................................................................................................................................
Calculator
454
Mass Balance
..........................................................................................................................................................
Calculator
454
Enthalpy
..........................................................................................................................................................
Balance Calculator
457
Single
.........................................................................................................................................................
Point Enthalpy Balance
457
Multiple
.........................................................................................................................................................
Point Enthalpy Balance
458
Hoffmann
..........................................................................................................................................................
Quality Plot
460

15 User ...................................................................................................................................
Databases
463

Contents

VI

Creating..........................................................................................................................................................
a User Database
464
Selecting
..........................................................................................................................................................
a User Database Directory
465
Editing a
..........................................................................................................................................................
User Database
466
Importing
..........................................................................................................................................................
into User Database
467

Chapter 3

Examples Guide

470

1 Examples
...................................................................................................................................
Index
470
2 Step ...................................................................................................................................
by Step Guides
472
Condensed
..........................................................................................................................................................
Guide
473
Step by..........................................................................................................................................................
Step Guide
475
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
1: Create a New File
476
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
2: Select Equation of State and Other Options
476
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
3: Select Components
479
Alternative .........................................................................................................................................
composition entries
481
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
4: Enter Composition
482
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
5: Initialise the Pseudo Component Properties
484
Step 6: Match the Surface Volumetric Properties (Density, GOR etc.) using
the .........................................................................................................................................................
Automatch feature
486
Automatch......................................................................................................................................... 487
Initial QC ......................................................................................................................................... 488
Store Pseudo
......................................................................................................................................... 490
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
7: Find the Best Pseudo Distribution (Whitson Alpha Factor)_2
490
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
8: Use BI Coefficients to improve the match
494
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
9: Select Match Parameters
498
How is Match
.........................................................................................................................................
Data entered?
500
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
10: Use Regression to Match Fluid
504
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
11: Check and Refine the Fluid Characterisation
508
Step
.........................................................................................................................................................
12: Calculate and Export
512
Procedure
..........................................................................................................................................................
for exporting Black Oil and EOS data
513
Export
.........................................................................................................................................................
Black Oil Data
513
Export Black
.........................................................................................................................................
Oil Input data
514
Export Black
.........................................................................................................................................
Oil Tables for IPM
517
Export
.........................................................................................................................................................
EOS for IPM
521
Procedure
..........................................................................................................................................................
for Importing Components from other Fluid Matches
521
Decontamination
..........................................................................................................................................................
Procedure
525
Decontamination
.........................................................................................................................................................
Route 1: entering directly the correct composition
530
Decontamination
.........................................................................................................................................................
Route 2: using the contaminant compositions
532

3 Worked
...................................................................................................................................
Examples
535
Example
..........................................................................................................................................................
1 - EOS Calibration of an Oil Sample
535
Objectives
......................................................................................................................................................... 535
Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
Available
536
Initialise
.........................................................................................................................................................
PVTp and set Units
537
Validate
.........................................................................................................................................................
the PVT report
539
Run Mass .........................................................................................................................................
Balance Calculator
540
Build
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Calibrate the EOS
541
Enter Composition
.........................................................................................................................................
and define the Pseudo
541
Splitting the
.........................................................................................................................................
Pseudo Component
551
Enter and select
.........................................................................................................................................
data to match
558
Regression......................................................................................................................................... 564
Validation of
.........................................................................................................................................
the matched EOS
570
Export
.........................................................................................................................................................
Black Oil and EOS data
577
Export Black
.........................................................................................................................................
Oil data
577
Export Black
...................................................................................................................................
Oil Input Data
579

February, 2011

PVTP Help And Manual

VI

VII

PVTP
Export Black
...................................................................................................................................
Oil Tables for IPM
581
Export EOS
.........................................................................................................................................
for IPM
585
Export Black
.........................................................................................................................................
Oil Tables for Eclipse
585
Example
..........................................................................................................................................................
2 - EOS Calibration of a Gas Retrograde Condensate Sample
589
Objectives
......................................................................................................................................................... 589
Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
Available
590
Initialise
.........................................................................................................................................................
PVTp and set Units
592
Build
.........................................................................................................................................................
and Validate the EOS
593
Enter Composition
.........................................................................................................................................
and define the Pseudo
594
Splitting the
.........................................................................................................................................
Pseudo Component
605
Enter and select
.........................................................................................................................................
data to match
614
Regression......................................................................................................................................... 620
Validation of
.........................................................................................................................................
the matched EOS
623
Hydrate
.........................................................................................................................................................
formation calculations
629
Determining
.........................................................................................................................................
Hydrate occurrence
629
Minimum Inhibitor
.........................................................................................................................................
concentration
632
Example
..........................................................................................................................................................
3 - Lumping/Delumping
634
Objectives
......................................................................................................................................................... 634
Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
Available
634
Create
.........................................................................................................................................................
and QC the Lumped composition
635
Create the .........................................................................................................................................
Lumped composition
636
Validate the
.........................................................................................................................................
Lumped composition
642
Adjust the .........................................................................................................................................
Lumping
645
Validate the
.........................................................................................................................................
Lumped against the Full composition
650
Export
.........................................................................................................................................................
the Full/Lumped composition to IPM
654
Example
..........................................................................................................................................................
4 - Estimating Decontaminated sample properties of a contaminated Oil Sample using PVTP
656
Objectives
......................................................................................................................................................... 656
Data
.........................................................................................................................................................
Available
656
Step-by-step
.........................................................................................................................................................
approach to decontamination in PVTP
659

Chapter

1
Technical Overview

PVTP

Technical Overview

An understanding of PVT properties is fundamental to all aspects of reservoir, petroleum and


production engineering.
PVTP is Petroleum Experts' advanced Pressure Volume and Temperature analysis software.
PVTP is a thermodynamic fluid characterisation tool that can assist the production, reservoir
and process engineers in modelling the fluid PVT behaviour and predicting the effect of
process conditions on the composition of hydrocarbon mixtures with accuracy and speed.
PVTP enables to analyse and predict with confidence the compositional behaviour of complex
mixtures including gas mixtures, gas retrograde condensates, volatile oils, heavy oils and
black oils .
PVTP has all the features that enable to build and calibrate EOS models to PVT lab report
data and to quality check the model by simulating all the common lab experiment. The tuned
EOS can then be used to simulate a range of reservoir and production processes, which
impact equipment sizing and reservoir recovery.
The PVT package can be used as a stand-alone analytical tool, or can be used to generate
Equation of State 320 (EOS) models, black oil 175 models, tables of fluid properties, reduced
compositions for applications such as reservoir simulators or nodal analysis packages.
In the context of fully integrated systems from reservoir to process, PVTP has the unique
feature (Lumping/Delumping) enabling to build for each fluid sets of two equivalent EOS
models, one with a reduced number of components ("lumped" composition), the other with a
large number of components ("full"composition), which can then be used within IPM to suit the
requirements of each module of the integrated model.
PVTP provides facilities to perform studies concerning Flow Assurance, like Wax and
Hydrates deposition, as well as calculation of thermal properties.
Compositional Gradient enables to determine the variation of composition with depth due to
gravity segregation and to generate PVT properties variable with depth.
PVTP is part of the Petroleum Experts' IPM (Integrated Production Modelling) Suite and as
such allows to export PVT data for GAP, PROSPER, MBAL, REVEAL, RESOLVE. As all the
tools of IPM, OPENSERVER is available in PVTP to automatise the most common tasks by
running them from a third party application, like a macro or a VB application.
APPLICATIONS
Characterisation of fluids
Recombination of separator samples
Determination of gas / oil contacts

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

Technical Overview

Separator train optimisation


Phase behaviour prediction
Swelling test simulation
Solids (hydrate and Wax Modelling)
Generation of PVT tables for use in simulation
Slim Tube Simulation
Structured approach to sample decontamination, addressing an increasing problem of
contaminated samples
Recombination and PVT validation
Simulation of lab PVT experiments
Variable PVT with depth can be assessed using the Compositional Gradient feature
Online Step-by-Step Help Guide takes the user through fluid characterisation
Unique auto characterisation of heavy end fraction
Simultaneously matches to reservoir and separator tests
Tunes EOS for direct use in PROSPER well modelling systems analysis program
Generates match data for black oil condensate model used in MBAL material balance
program
See also:
Fluid PVT Modeling 5
PVT for Integrated Systems 7
Consistency of fluid compositions 11
Flow Assurance - solids deposition 12
Automation 13
Examples Index 14

1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

PVTP

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

Technical Overview

1.1

1.1.1

Fluid PVT Modeling

Equation of State Modelling

PVTP allows calibrating EOS models using either of the two industry-standard models:
- Peng-Robinson Equation of State with Volume Shift
- Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State with Volume Shift
PVTP has versatile, easy to use composition input tools which allow the user fast access to
the PVT programs modeling capabilities. Data input options include
Project file structure with multiple independent data stream
Full stream manipulation ,deleting , copying , importing and blending
Multiple stream calculation and plotting
Input of up to 200 components or pseudo components in each stream
Calculations of Solids including Hydrates and Waxes
Calculations including one of two types of volume shift
Composition derived from a Recombination calculation
The ability to create multiple pseudo-components and estimate their properties using
industry-standard methods
Advanced pseudo-component splitting including exponential and gamma distribution
methods.
Regression against laboratory data with each stream independent
MultiStream Regression with changing compositions and shared properties.
Input of Binary Interaction Coefficients using a variety of correlations.
Automatic or manual component grouping
Lumping/Delumping of EOS composition
PVTP has powerful capabilities to perform full Lab report Data Matching 267 including the
following options:
Match with all component Tcs, Pcs,Afs etc.
Match with only pseudo component Tcs, Pcs,Afs etc.
Match using a global Omega A and Omega B
Match using individual component Omega A and Omega B values
Limiting on match property movement
Matching on mixture critical temperature
In PVTP all the most common calculations simulating lab experiments are available:
Calculation and graphical display of Phase Envelopes 321 for a user-selectable range
of vapour fractions
Calculation of Saturation Pressure 328 for complex mixtures at a single reference
pressure or over a range of entered pressures
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PVTP

Constant Composition Expansion 330


Constant Volume Depletion 341
Depletion Study 348
Differential Expansion 352
Composite Differential Expansion 355
Comprehensive Separator 286 Calculations including:
- Send part or all of the separator gas through up to 10 chillers
- Replacement of separator train by K values
- Replacement of separator/chiller train by Split factors
- Calculation of LNG/LPG recoveries and compositions
Swelling Tests 371 with a second stream
Slim-tube 374 simulation
Other features:
Prediction of Separator liquid and gas compositions over a wide range of process
conditions and feedstock compositions
Prediction of composition changes with depth (composition gradient 113 ). Export of
gradient results to multi-pvt MBAL
Eclipse Format Export (Black Oil and Compositional)
Export and Import of Petroleum Experts standard *.prp format
Convert between API and Density
Perform a Material Balance to Validate PVT Report Data
Perform a single and multiple point enthalpy balance calculation
Perform a Hoffman-type Quality Plot

1.1.2

Black Oil Modelling

PVTP enables to define black oil models by entering black oil input data and tables that can
be used for matching purpose.
Back to Overview

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

Technical Overview

1.2
1.2.1

PVT for Integrated systems


Introduction to Lumping/Delumping

Petroleum Experts has been very actively involved in developing tools to integrate reservoir
with production and process disciplines.
Today the technology available (IPM RESOLVE) allows the engineers to integrate and
optimise reservoir simulation models (REVEAL, Eclipse and other third party simulators, etc.)
to production and injection network models (GAP) up to process models (Hysys, Unisim).
With regards to the PVT modelling, each application has got its own requirements, which are
dictated on one side by the objectives of the application itself and on the other by the
calculation speed.
The figure below summarises the main requirements for the three main classes of simulators:

Reservoir numerical simulators are generally focused more on volumetric properties and
the phase behaviour. PVT modelling can be carried out by means of black oil or
compositional (EOS). In case of EOS modelling, the number of components has to be
limited to a very few to avoid the model to run too slow (with exception of thermal
simulators like REVEAL, where a larger number of components is required to guarantee
accurate thermal calculations)
Surface network simulators can work in black oil or compositional too and are focused
mainly on densities and viscosities, as these affect the pressure losses. As far as the EOS
is concerned, the number of components has to be decided on the basis of the model
objectives: if the objective is to determine the pressure drops, a small number of
components can be suitable and can reduce the run time. However, if the objective is to
perform detailed flow assurance studies (temperature estimations, hydrates, etc.), an
extended composition will be necessary.
Process simulators, on the other hand, focus more on thermal properties calculations,
therefore they require compositional modelling and the composition needs to have a large
1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

PVTP

number of components. This is because the thermal properties can be accurately estimated
by specifying a detailed composition. Density is by default determined on the basis of a
correlation (Costald) and pure components properties are not allowed to be modified.
In general, when connecting different models together, the common factor among them is the
fluid. This implies that it is necessary to be able to use a PVT characterisation that is
consistently valid throughout the system.
Based on the information above, whenever a composition is required - because a process
simulator is connected, or because detailed studies need to be performed - it is required to
be able to pass from a small number of components to a large one (or vice versa) whenever
desired/necessary, and to make sure that the fluid characterisation is representative of the
actual fluid throughout.
The idea behind compositional Lumping/De-lumping is to have a methodology that is able to
pass from an extended composition (de-lumped or "full" in the following) to a reduced one
(lumped or grouped) and vice versa consistently, that is to say, preserving the quality of the
characterisation.
This means that at any point in time the full and the lumped compositions will be equivalent
and representative of the real fluid. In general when creating two characterisations of the
same fluid, by definition they will not give the same answers. However, lumping/de-lumping
has to make sure that the important properties are consistent, so that calculation speed and
accuracy are both satisfactory.

In IPM this is achieved by means of the so-called "Lumping Rule", which is a piece of logic
that defines the mechanisms to pass from the full to the lumped composition. The Lumping
Rule is created at the stage of building the EOS model using Petroleum Experts' PVT
package PVTP.
PVTP has all the facilities to create and quality check the couple full/lumped compositions and
to create the Lumping Rule.
An example of a possible Lumping Rule is reported below:

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

Technical Overview

In GAP or RESOLVE it is possible to import a Lumping Rule, which is then used to generate
the lumped (or the full) composition when desired, and (if required) the pair full / lumped
compositions. It is then possible to decide whether to run the calculations with the full or with
the lumped composition.
The following example illustrates one of the possible applications:
Extended composition is required because thermal studies on the pipelines need to be
carried out
Reservoir simulator - PVT is defined with EOS with 5 components (lumped)
Surface network model (GAP) - full composition (30 components) is required because
detailed thermal properties are required
Process model - full composition is required

1.2.2

Building PVT models for fully Integrated Systems

The role of PVTP is to offer all the facilities to build and QC the pair lumped/full compositions.
This implies defining and exporting a Lump Rule, which contains the logic followed to create
the lumped composition and can be used to pass from the full to the lumped composition or
viceversa when required.
In process simulators the density is based on a correlation (Costald). In PVTP the same
method can be followed to make sure that the EOS composition (used in PVTP and IPM in
general) gives a density that is consistent with the one used by the process simulator. This
check can be performed during the stage of EOS matching.
When creating an EOS model that will be used in a process simulation, the only properties
that can be modified are the critical properties of the pseudo-components.
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PVTP

Back to Overview

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

Technical Overview

1.3

11

Consistency of fluid compositions

One common issue concerning fluid samples is their consistency.


For instance, a sample was taken at the beginning of field life by recombination of gas and
liquid coming from a test separator. After as while the field is set on production and it is
discovered that the GOR used for the recombination is incorrect (due to separator carryover), in other words, the fluid composition used in the lab was incorrect.
At this point, it is necessary to determine the actual fluid composition, as well as the actual
fluid properties in order to use them in reservoir and wells models.
Petroleum Experts has developed unique methodologies that allow to recombine the fluid in
order to reproduce field-measured properties, like GOR (just like in the example above) or
saturation pressure.
These methodologies are called:
Create Stream to a Target GOR 416
This technique allows recombining an incorrect fluid composition to match the actual
field-measured GOR.
In the case of the example above, the fluid PVT analysis was conducted on the
incorrect composition. Starting from an EOS matched to the incorrect sample analysis,
it is then possible to recombine the sample to the actual field GOR in PVTP.
The Target GOR calculation is run in PVTP whenever the fluid composition changes, for
example, in PROSPER when running sensitivity on the GOR in compositional mode
Create Stream to a Target Saturation Pressure 420
This feature allows recombining an incorrect fluid composition to match the actual fluid
saturation pressure
Allocation of two streams to a target GOR 433
Given two fluids, for example, a liquid and a gas, this feature enables to combine them
in such proportions as to reproduce a certain GOR
Recombination of separator liquid and gas can be also verified by means of a Recombination
198 utility.
Decontamination 261 can also be performed using PVTP to achieve representative fluid
characterisations.
Back to Overview

1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

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1.4

PVTP

Flow Assurance - solids deposition

In PVTP there are a few features that enable to perform calculations of prediction of
formation of Solids:
Wax Amount 397
Wax Appearance Temperature 402
Hydrate Formation Pressure 405
Hydrate Minimum Inhibitor Concentration 409
Back to Overview

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

Technical Overview

1.5

13

Automation

As part of IPM, PVTP is featured with a fully open-architecture that enables the user to
access the majority of variables and calculations through the OPENSERVER facility.
OPENSERVER allows running any calculation or combination of calculations using Excel
macros or other programs VBA capabilities.
Back to Overview

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1.6

PVTP

Examples Index

The following table can be used as reference for the example included in this Guide.
Application area

Topic

Fluid PVT Modelling /


PVT for Integrated
Systems

Quick step by step guide to build


EOS models for oil and condensate
Condensed Guide 473
fluid samples, export EOS or black
oil tables data to IPM and third party
simulators
Step by step guide to build EOS
models for oil and condensate fluid
samples, export EOS or black oil Step by Step Guide 475
tables data to IPM and third party
simulators
Step by step guide to generate a
consistent black oil model based on a Export Black Oil Data 513
matched EOS
Step by step guide to export the
Export EOS for IPM 521
EOS data to be used in IPM models
Step by step guide to import pseudo Procedure for Importing
components from another fluid EOS
Components from other
Fluid Matches 521
Step by step guide to perform the
Decontamination
decontamination of a downhole fluid
Procedure 525
sample starting from a PVT lab
report on the contaminated fluid
Building an EOS model for an oil fluid
sample, matching the EOS to lab
Example 1 535
report data, generating PVT black oil
tables for IPM and third party
simulators
Building an EOS model for a
retrograde condensate fluid sample,
Example 2 589
matching the EOS to lab report data,
performing hydrate formation study
and inhibitor calculations
Starting from a matched EOS,
creating a lumped composition using
the Lumping/Delumping feature of
Example 3 634
PVTP, then exporting the two full and
lumped composition to IPM

Fluid PVT Modelling /


PVT for Integrated
Systems

Fluid PVT Modelling

Fluid PVT Modelling


PVT for Integrated
Systems
Consistency of fluid
compositions

Fluid PVT Modelling

Fluid PVT Modelling /


Flow assurance

PVT for Integrated


Systems

Consistency of fluid
PVTP Help And Manual

Performing decontamination on a

Examples Guide section

Example 4 656
February, 2011

Technical Overview

downhole contaminated sample,


achieving an EOS characterization of
the original fluid knowing the
fingerprint of the drilling mud

compositions

Back to Overview

15

1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

16

1.7

PVTP

Whats New in PVTp

What is New in PVTP 9.5


Regression with Shift and Multiplier for Tc, Pc, AF
This regression mode consists of applying a unique multiplier and/or a shift parameters to
each of the properties (Tc, Pc, AF). This mode will keep the original trends of the various
properties (Tc and AF increasing and Pc decreasing with carbon number).
As components' thermal properties are directly calculated from Tc and Pc using the principle
of corresponding states, keeping the trend of these properties will also hold the trend of the
thermal properties themselves. This is a benefit when the EoS is used in a process simulation
tool, where single components/cuts thermal properties are at the basis of any calculation.
Weighting for properties in Find Best Alpha within the Whitson Advanced Pseudo
Splitting method
In Find Best Alpha calculation area it is possible to set weighting to the various lab
experimental data to establish relative importance of each property
BI coefficient options in Find Best Alpha within the Whitson Advanced Pseudo
Splitting method
For the purpose of saturation pressure matching, BI coefficients are added at the end of the
Find Best Alpha calculation. This new option allows to select the method of application of the
BI coefficients: one BIC between C1 and the last pseudo, or one BIC between C1 and all the
pseudos, or recalculate the BIC using any of the BIC methods in PVTP
Validation range for the S shift values
The validation range for the S shift parameter can be modified

What is New in PVTP 9.0


Compositional Lumping/Delumping
This unique feature allows creating pairs of Equations of State, one composed of a small
number of components (lumped), the other composed by a large number of components (full
or delumped). All the facilities are available to build sets of lumped/delumped, as well as to
QC them . Lump Rules can be defined and exported along with the compositions to IPM
software GAP, PROSPER, MBAL, RESOLVE and REVEAL.
Volume shift can be set separately in different streams of the same PVTP file
In previous versions a unique volume shift switch (Yes/No) was applied to all the streams in
one PVTP file. Now each stream can have its own set up, that is to say, can be volume
shifted or not, in the same PVTP file.
Export of PVT data to CMG simulators

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

Technical Overview

17

Both black oil tables and EOS data can be exported to CMG simulators (IMEX, GEM)
Export of PVT data to Kappa software
Black oil tables can be exported to Kappa suite (Ecrin)
Decontamination done entering the contaminating mud composition
Along with the methodology already available in PVTP, It is now possible to perform
decontamination by entering the composition of the drilling mud. The program will then
eliminate from the contaminated fluid sample the presence of the contaminating mud

What is New in PVTP 8.0


Increased Number of Components
The number of components throughout the program has been raised to 200. This applies to all
types of components. This feature is particularly useful in combination with the component
import feature ( see Composition Editor below).
More Tabular Inputs and Spreadsheet Input Dialog
- Spreadsheet Input - Input Components as Table. A composition can be taken from
digital report and pasted directly into PVTP. Component types can be adjusted as required.
IPM composition input dialogs are available as an alternative. Components, pseudos and
groups can be extended up to the 200 limit.
- Table Entry. Vertical table entry has been added where practical to allow cut and paste
operations. See Composition Entry 203 and Seperator Calculation 387 for examples.See Enter
Components as Table 193 .
- Composition Editor. A new Composition Editor 208 dialog has been created which is called
from the Pseudo Properties 220 dialog or the main screen data menu.
This provides the flexible manipulation of a matched composition.
Operations available are:
Editing of names and properties
Set component value
Delete component(s)
Move component(s)
Insert component(s)
Import component(s)
Lump components
Split pseudo
The import feature allows the user to build a composition which represents all the
pseudos from all the components in a fluid gathering network. This may be an advantage with
some surface simulator packages.
Improved pseudo manipulation and splitting
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PVTP

For the matching of straightforward fluids, the procedure has been left effectively the same
Options have been added to allow the user more freedom to exploit the 200 components that
have become available.
Splitting in particular has been modified to give more flexibility in producing a match which
might serve the demands of reservoir and surface engineering. See Pseudo Properties 220
dialog.
Whitson's Method and best Alpha calculator.
Whitson's Gamma distribution model has been added to the pseudo splitting options.
This gives the user a range of distribution curves which may be modified to help match the
fluid. An analysis dialog 242 is provided which helps the user find the best combination of shape
factor alpha and number of splits. The other shape factors beta and eta can also be entered
by the user. See Advanced Splitting 233 dialog.
Splitting Preferences
This feature allows the user to control which of the five extended property databases are
used as part of the splitting procedure. In addition, the user can create and import|export a
set of properties. More control is also given on the SG and MWt normalization that occurs
after a splitting operation has been done. See Split Preferences 240 Help.
Follow Profile
This option is now available for all split methods, giving more freedom in dealing withy
contaminated fluids. See Pseudo Properties Dialog 220 .
Step by Step Guide (Route 2)
A route is now documented in the help and manual which allows the user to perform a match
without using pure component properties for regression. The methodology uses Whitson
Splitting and Volume Shift. See Step by Step Guide 472 .
Costald Oil Density
The Costald density model has been added as an option within PVTP. When selected this
calculation will replace Standing Katz as the oil density model within automatching and is
displayed within the majority of calculation tables. With this model has come the requirement
to add two parameters to the equation of state composition VIZ Costald Volume and Costald
Acentric Factor. These properties can be displayed and edited within the View Properties 247 ,
Composition Editor 208 and Pseudo Properties 220 dialogs.
Improved handling of CO2/H2S
The increased use of these gases has put strain on there modeling with Equation of State.
The phase behavior calculations within PVTP and IPM have been improved. Further work is
planned in this area for the next version.
Steam Calculations
A facility has been added within PVTP to calculate the properties of steam 392 . The calculator
PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

Technical Overview

19

makes visible the routines that are used for steam within IPM 6. A comprehensive table can
be generated which can be exported and interpolated.
Extensive changes to Eclipse Black Oil export
The Eclipse black oil export 72 has been given more features allowing an extensive fluid map
to be produced.
Improved Target GOR in PVTP and IPM
Target GOR 416 within PVTP and IPM has been modified to give the user a choice in the
source of the fluids that are mixed.
The choice is
Use fluids from separator or
Use fluids evolved near the saturation pressure
Black Oil Properties Button
A Black Oil Properties calculation facility has been added to the View Properties and
Component Editor dialogs of PVTP. This option has the same functionality as the extended
Properties calculation within Compositional IPM. The values calculated reflect the inputs to the
Black Oil Models within IPM
Changes to Pure Component Selection during regression
A facility has been added to the Preferences 164 of PVTP to deselect the pure component
properties from lab data regression. The Tcs,Pcs and Accentric Factors can be treated
differently from the Volume Shift 99 Parameters. There is a facility to set the choice as a
default so that all new files have the same options set.
Exports|Imports
Export added to Chevron Chears compositional simulator
Import to be added for PVTi compositional export files

What was New In PVTP 7.0


Phase Envelope
Solids calculation and display
The calculation of hydrate formation pressure and wax appearance temperature has been
added to the Phase Envelope 321 Dialog. The results of these calculations can be viewed by
calling the Phase Results 327 Dialog. In addition the calculated values are displayed on the
phase envelope plot.
Profile Points
A facility has been added to display a pressure | temperature profile on the phase envelope
1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

20

PVTP

plot. 100 temperature and pressure points can be entered or imported into the Test Points 324
Dialog.
Data to Clipboard
All results from phase envelope or solids calculations and profile points can be sent directly to
the clipboard via the Clipboard button on the Phase Envelope Dialog.
Separator /Chiller Combination
The gas evolved from a separator train can now be sent through a set of up to 10 chillers.
This applies to both the separator calculation 134 and to other calculations where such a path to
surface is required e.g. the Constant Composition Expansion 330 . The inclusion of chillers
allows the composition and recoveries of LPG and LNG to be calculated. In addition Split
Factors can be produced.
Separator K Values
Calculate with K values
Where applicable a separator area is provided on all dialogs to allow the path to
surface to be defined e.g. the Constant Composition 330 Dialog. In addition to a straight flash to
stock tank and flash through a separator train, the user can now replace the separators with
Separator K Values.
Produce and Export K Values
The K values produced as part of the Separator Calculation 134 can be exported from
the Separator Analysis display.
K Values within IPM Compositional
K values can be transferred to all other IPM programs using the K value export file *.
pks format or as part of the IPM EoS *.prp export. They can then be imported into the various
EoS options screens
Separator Split Factors
Calculate with Split Factors
Split factors are an alternative method of replacing a separator train 134 eg. the path to
surface in the Constant Composition Dialog.
The advantage of split factors is that they can also describe a set of chillers and
predict recoveries for oil, gas and LNG.
Produce and Export Split Factors
The Split Factors are calculated via the Split Factor Setup 145 Dialog. They are imported
and exported via the Split Factor View/Export Dialog.
Centralized Options
All options have been moved to a central set of dialogs with access from various points within
the program.

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

Technical Overview

21

Enhancements to Target GOR


The Streams|Target GOR Dialog has added features to allow more user flexibility. Streams
can be tested prior to storage. Any unwanted streams can be deleted.
Multiple Stream Delete
The stream delete dialog now allows multiple stream selections to allow groups of streams to
be deleted.
Black Oil Export
The table size for the black oil export has been increased to 100.
Lab Data Tables
The table size for the EoS lab match data has been increased to 100.
Gas Heating Values
The gas gross and net heating values are now calculated as columns within the CCE and CVD
calculation tables. The value given is derived from the composition of the accumulated gas
after sending the fluid through the indicated separator train. The separator analysis page has
previously given these values.

1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

22

1.8

PVTP

Contact Details

Contact
us
You can contact
us by Email,
Mail ,Phone, Fax
or on the web at
http://www.petex.
com
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eum
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Limite
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USA

+44 (0) 131


+1 281
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February, 2011

Chapter

2
User Guide

24

PVTP

User Guide

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

User Guide

2.1

25

Installation and Windows Basics

This chapter explains how to install PVTP on a computer. The guide assumes the user has a
working knowledge of Windows terms and procedures. If the user is unfamiliar with the
Windows operating system, it is recommended to read the relevant sections in the Microsoft
Windows user's Guide to learn more about Windows operations.
This chapter gives instructions on installing the program to a Windows 98, 2000 or Windows
NT operating system.

2.1.1

Software and Hardware Requirements

The program supports all Windows-certified device drivers that are shipped with Windows.
The list of devices, software and hardware supported by Windows is included with the
documentation of Windows.
PVTP can be run as single user licence or on a Network. In either case, a special security key
is needed. The security key is called Bitlock for stand-alone licences and HARDLOCK for
network licences
The security key is provided by Petroleum Experts.
The minimum requirement recommended for PVTP is Pentium 450 MHz machine 9or
equivalent) with 128 Mbytes of RAM memory.
In order to install the software from the CD, the machine should have access to a CD drive.
For a stand-alone licence, a security key (Bitlock) provided by Petroleum Experts must be
attached to the parallel printer port of the PC before PVTP can be run.
For network license installation, the security key (HARDLOCK) can be attached to any PC
communicating with the network.
The user should refer to the separate installation procedure for network HARDLOCK sent
with the purchase of a HARDLOCK licence.
If PVTP has been installed for the first time on a machine, the Bitlock driver must be installed
on this machine in order to establish the link between the software and the security key
(Bitlock driver).
In order to install the Bitlock driver, start from the main Windows screen. There click on |Start
| Programs | Petroleum Experts IPM |Utilities and then start the Licensing Configuration
Wizard and following the instructions.
Ensure that the user has permission to install a driver.
The IT manager can help the user getting the required permission.

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26

2.1.1.1

PVTP

Upgrading from a Previous Version

For convenience in running linked models, Petroleum Experts software products now installs
by default into a common sub-directory \Program Files \Petroleum Experts\IPM X.Y.
In order to keep an original version of the program, back it up into another directory before
installing the upgrade.
All program upgrades are backward compatible. This ensures
that data files created with earlier versions of the program can
still be read by later program versions. However, a data file
with the new version is saved, that file can no longer be
opened by earlier versions!
As with all new software
installations, always back up the PVTP files.

2.1.2

Installing PVTP

Before installing the program on the computer, one should first determine:
The drive where the program is to be installed
The amount of space available on the selected drive
When installing on a network, verify that the necessary access rights are available to
create directories and files on the designated volume.
What Set-up does
The installation procedure:
Creates a program directory on the hard disk.
Creates a sample files sub directory on the hard disk.
Unpacks the PVTP program and related files to the selected drive and directory.
Creates a program initialisation file PROSPER.INI in the Windows directory.
Creates a new Windows program group and icon for both PVTP and REMOTE.
When updating PVTP, the set-up can be used to modify, repair or remove components of the
IPM Suite. In this case, follow the online instructions
To avoid potential system resources conflicts, please
shut down other applications before running SETUP.
Some anti-Virus programs can interfere with the
installation process and may need to be shut down.

2.1.2.1

Running Setup

To install the PVTP program:


1. Insert the program installation CD in the correct drive
2. The Autorun should start the installation program. Follow the online instructions
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3.

2.1.2.2

27

If the Autorun does not start, access the CD drive from the Windows Explore and
double click on Set up.exe

The PROSPER.INI file

The PROSPER initialisation file contains the settings used to customise the PVTP application
environment. Settings such as the program data directory, customised units system, last file
accessed and the colour settings of the screen graphics are all stored in this file. There is not
need to manually modify the PROSPER.INI file. The program will automatically record any
changes to the settings.
PVTP automatically creates the PROSPER.INI file in the Windows default directory using the
program's default settings. The location of this file is defined by this entry in the WIN.INI file:
[PETROLEUM EXPERTS]
IniPath=PROSPER.INI
It is not recommended changing the location of the PROSPER.INI file. If however, the user
wants to do so for specific reasons (to place it on a specific network drive), take the following
steps:
1. First copy the existing PROSPER.INI file to the required directory. For example:
COPY C:\WINDOWS\PROSPER.INI
U:\NETWORK\APPS\PVTP\PROSPER.INI
2.

2.1.3

Next amend the 'IniPath' entry in WIN.INI to correspond to the new directory and path
where the PROSPER.INI is now located. e.g.:
IniPath=U:\NETWORK\APPS\PVTP\PROSPER.INI
During the installation PVTP unpacks a number of files onto the computer in the
specified installation directory. The unpacked files should not be modified, removed
or moved to another directory.

Starting PVTP

Before starting the program, make sure the software protection Bitlock (dongle) is connected
to the PC and that the Bitlock Driver has been installed.

2.1.3.1

Connecting the Software Protection Bitlock

The software protection Bitlock must be attached a USB port port. Do Not connect the
Bitlock to a serial port, as this can damage the Bitlock or the PC. If The user is using
protection Bitlocks for other software, we do not recommend stacking the Bitlocks. We

1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

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PVTP

suggest using only the correct Bitlock with the appropriate software. Stacking Bitlocks may
lead to incompatibilities between Bitlocks, and may cause read/write or access errors with
some Bitlocks.
2.1.3.2

Creating the PVTP Icon

The PVTP icon should appear automatically in the correct folder under the Programs menu
after installation.
If this does not happen, invoke the Start menu and select Settings | Taskbar. Select the
Start Menu Programs tab and click on Add to add the PVTP program to the menu. Follow
the instructions on the screen.
To start the program subsequently, select the PVTP program from the programs menu of
the Start menu.
It is also possible to create a shortcut to PVTP on the main Windows desktop. To do this,
click the right hand mouse button anywhere within the desktop and select New | Shortcut
from the resulting popup menu. Follow the instructions on the screen to create the shortcut
to PVTP.EXE.
PVTP can then be executed by double-clicking on the shortcut icon.

2.1.4

REMOTE Software Utility

All Petroleum Experts' software requires a software protection device to allow it run. The
utility program REMOTE.EXE provided with our software allows to access the software
protection device to view information such as the enabled program options, program expiry
date(s), and Bitlock number.
An inactive software device may have been sent. For security, authorisation codes are
always sent separately to the Bitlock. On receiving the software package, please contact
Petroleum Experts to confirm reception. We will then verify the user access code
programmed on the Bitlock, and issue a set of codes to activate the Bitlock. In these
situations, the necessary codes will be sent to the user by facsimile, letter or email.
To enter the codes, run the REMOTE application installed with PVTP (see next section for
more details).
One can also create a shortcut to the Remote application from the Windows desktop.
For this, click on |New |Short cut anywhere on the Windows screen and follow the online
instruction. The program file is called REMOTE.EXE.

2.1.4.1

Entering the User Authorisation Code

Enter user authorisation codes only if:


The software protection Bitlock received is inactive,
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User Guide

29

Access period for the program has expired, or


New program options have been acquired
To enter authorisation codes take the following steps:
Double click the REMOTE icon (or select the REMOTE program from the Programs menu of
Windows 98). A screen similar to the following will appear:

If the software protection Bitlock is already active, a list of enabled programs will appear in
the Remote screen as above. If PVTP has already been enabled, no further action is needed.
If this is the case, exit the Remote Utility program now. No user authorisation code is
required.
If the code has expired or has not been enabled, the Bitlock should be activated with the set
of codes provided by Petroleum Experts. To do so, click on the |Update button on the
bottom of the previous screen and the following screen will appear:

Enter the codes from Left to Right beginning with the top row (use <Tab> to move between
the items). Press |Continue to activate the codes to return to the 'Remote Software Bitlock
Utility' screen. If the user has received authorisation codes for more than one program, click
'Update Software Bitlock' again, and enter the codes for the next program.
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PVTP

2.1.4.2

Updating the Software Protection Bitlock

Access to the software ceases automatically when the license expiry date elapses. However,
a reminder pops up several days in advance. This gives sufficient time to contact Petroleum
Experts about new codes. Software Bitlocks require updating when:
The software license period has ended
The annual maintenance fee is due
Software protection Bitlocks also need updating when acquiring other Petroleum Experts
software packages. The procedure to update the Bitlock is the same as for entering the
authorisation codes. When the appropriate screen appears, enter the codes provided - from
left to right beginning with the top row. Press OK to activate the codes, or Cancel to quit the
update. To view the expiry date for any of the listed programs, simply click (highlight) the
software name.
Perpetual licence holders will be sent on a yearly basis a
utility program written by Petroleum Experts that
automatically updates the Bitlock. The update is hardcoded inside the utility program. Step-by-step instructions
are sent with this utility program.

2.1.5

Program Check List

To ensure trouble free processing and access to the PVTP program, please check:
To have sufficient disk space.
The software protection Bitlock is connected to the Parallel printer port. Do Not
connect the Bitlock to the serial port, as this can damage the Bitlock or the PC.
The software protection Bitlock is firmly in place ensuring a good connection. If the
Bitlock is loose the program may not be able to access the dongle to activate the
program.
The printer cable is firmly attached to the software Bitlock. The printer should be
turned ON and be put on-line.
The PC system date is set correctly to the current date (i.e. today's date).
Back up the files on a regular basis with disk utility programs. This could help to
avoid the corruption of files, or help detect potential problems with the hard disk
before it is too late.

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2.2

31

File Management

This section describes the menus, options and procedures used in PVTP to create new files
and open or save existing files. The Units system and how to define printer settings and is
outlined. The menus described in this section are the PVT File menu and Units menu.
The File menu provides the ability to open, close, save etc. The PVT package allows multiple
files to be opened at once. The Window Menu allows the user to swap between opened files.
This menu offers the user the standard options available from an MDI (Multi Document
Interface)

The PVT package can load multiple PVT Project Files each of which occupies its own
window.
The windows can be selected, cascaded, arranged and tiled via this menu.
Before working with a file, it must be opened. This can be done using the File menu Open
option or the icon.
To protect his/her own work, the user should save the data on a regular basis. Saving a file
is done using the File menu Save or Save As options. This simple procedure could potentially
prevent hours of work and analysis being lost.
To start a new PVT Project file use the File menu New option.

2.2.1

PVT Data Files

PVTP uses a flexible file structure that enables data to be easily exchanged between files and
other application programs. In PVTP, information is grouped into the following categories:
PVT Project File
Import
Export
Temporary
Report
and saved into the following types of data file:

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PVTP

PVT Project
File (*.pvi)
Extract
Data (*.pvi)

Temporary
Files (*.psv)

This is the main type of PVT package file . The information file contains all
the composition input, matching and calculation data for multiple streams.
When opened the main data points are shown within the main PVT
window
This file contains the results a particular set of calculations plus the
composition which produced it. The file is produced using the Extract
option within the Analysis window or from the View properties display.
When opened the file behaves in the same way as the original PVI file
from which the data was extracted
This file is created at various points within the program, particularly after
regression operations, to hold intermediate results. The file is not
automatically deleted when a normal PVI file is closed. If a normal PVI file
becomes unreadable, it is possible to rename the PSV file as PVI and use
it instead. Temporary file creation is switched off by default. If the user
requires this facility it can be activated by way of the Preferences Dialog
157

See also:
PVT Import Files 32
PVT Export Files 34
2.2.1.1

PVT Import Files

This function is accessed by using the Import option from the File menu. The selection dialog
is shown below.

Alternatively the files can be imported via the Add Stream Dialog.

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PVI
File Import
ASCII
File Import

33

This imports a stream from another PVTP *.PVI file. This option is
explained in Streams - Adding a Stream
Three ACII file options are available by selecting from the combo box and
clicking on the Import from ASCII file:
Importing a
This is the file type that is produced from the
Proper compositional export and the various
*.PRP file
compositional and compositional areas in the
other PETEX programs. This feature allows the
user to take this file back into PVTP and make a
working stream with it. (PROSPER EoS 35 for
more details)
Importing a
This file is used in Eclipse 300 and is produced by
the Schlumberger PVTi program
PVTi *.pvo file
Importing a
A working example of an import file is contained
within the PVT\SAMPLES directory with the file
*.EQL Data File
name example.eql

At present importing is limited to a text file with the following format:


Line 1
No Data Read
Line 2
No Data Read
Line 3
Number of Components n (including Pseudos) <tab> Number of Pseudo Components
Line 4
No Data Read
Line 4,6,.......2n+3
Component name eg. C1, CO2, C11+ (note only one name per line). See note below for
names with *
Line 5,7......2n+4
Component properties in the following order separated by tabs i.e.
mole % component <tab> Specific Gravity <tab> Boiling Point (deg C) <tab> Molecular
Weight <tab> Critical Temperature (deg C) <tab> Critical Pressure (atm) <tab > Acentric
Factor<tab> Critical Volume
Note: These values ,other than mole % , are not required at present for pure components as
they are overwritten by Petroleum Experts Database values. However, if one wishes the
values to remain , add the character * to the end of the name . Example C1* within
EXAMPLE.EQL in the samples directory. All values are preferred for Pseudos. If no Boiling
Point or SG is present (shown by 0.00 value), the missing numbers will be calculated.
line 2n+5
No Data Read
line 2n+6
No Data Read
line 2n+7 .. end-1
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PVTP

Component Binary Interaction Coefficients in form:


component x number <tab> component y number <tab> BI Coefficient value
line end

the end of data is marked by three 1000s separated by tabs


Once the text file is imported via the file load dialog , the PVT file must be fully initialised by
Clicking on the Select Components option within the Data Menu then Clicking on OK
When the Composition Input Screen loads press Properties to bring up the Pseudo Screen
i.e. if pseudos are required.
When the Pseudo Properties display loads , press OK to calculate any missing pseudo
values.
Press OK on the Composition Input Screen when it reappears to return to the main display
Save the PVT file with the required name
WARNING : if pseudo properties are not set up as described errors will occur eg. with
density calculations

2.2.1.2

PVT Export Files

This function is accessed by using the Import option from the File menu.

The selection dialog is shown below.

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35

See the individual export options for more details:


IPM EOS Composition (*.prp) 35
Prosper Hydrate Formation Pressure (*.phy) 44
General Data Export (*.pve) 44
IPM Black Oil Export Tables (*.ptb) 47
MBAL Multi-PVT Export (*.pgd) 57
MBAL Variable Bubble Point Export 65
Eclipse Black Oil Export 72
Eclipse Compositional Export 79
CMG Black Oil Export 80
CMG Compositional Export 81

2.2.1.2.1 IPM EoS Composition (*.PRP)


PRP files contain the data required by the PVT section of Petroleum Experts PROSPER
program.
The file is produced using the Export option within View properties display or by using the
Export option from the File menu.
Select Type 1 PROSPER EoS Composition from the Export Types Dialog Screen:

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36

PVTP

Only a limited subset of the data normally associated with a PVT file is required by PROSPER
VIZ.
Equation Type (SRK or Peng Robinson)
Property Names and Units
Composition (mole %) for each component
Critical Temperature for each component
Critical Pressure for each component
Critical Volume for each component
Acentric Factor for each component
Molecular Weight for each component
Specific Gravity for each component
Volume Shift S Factor
Parachor for each component
OmegaA value for each component
OmegaB value for each component
Binary Interaction Coefficients for all component combinations
Separator Temperatures and Pressures are included if any have been used to correct fluid
GOR and FVF
Note: All the values exported are in field units.

2.2.1.2.1.1 *.PRP File Example


Below is an example of the export file produces by the IPM EoS Composition Export Option
within PVTP
NOTES
1) the options read are dictated by the file version number. The program maintains
compatibility with old file versions but some properties or options may not be set
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User Guide

37

2) all variables are exported and imported in field units only.

NEW!!!
In case Lumping/Delumping is present in a stream, the .PRP file will contain both the Full and
Lumped composition and the Lumping Rule to pass from on to the other.
An example is shown below:

*
* Petroleum Experts - PRP Export File
*
*
*Export File Signature
*#PetexPRP
*Export File Version
*#13
*
*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
FILE
DETAILS
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
*
FILE
NAME
:
C:\Peppe\IPM7_examples\PVTP\Lumping-Delumping\LumpingDelumping_final.prp

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PVTP

* Exported : Fri Nov 28 15:45:57 2008


*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
*
*
* Equation Type 0 - Peng Robinson 1 - SRK
0
*
*
*
* Number of Components
Number of Lumped Components - Set to 0 if No Lumping
Present
*
17 6
*
*
*
Mole
Critical
Critical
Accentric
Molecular
Specific
Critical
Volume
Boiling
Parachor
OmegaA
OmegaB
Costald
Costald Component
*
Percent
Temperature
Pressure
Factor
Weight
Gravity
Volume
Shift
Point
Volume Accentric Fact Name
*
*
percent
degrees F
psig
lb/lb.mole
Gravity
l/kg.mole
degrees F
l/kg.mole
* ------------- --------------- --------------- --------------- ----------------------------- --------------- --------------- --------------- ----------------------------- --------------- --------------- --------------- --------*
0.309999985
1.02600002
0.457235529
2.32999988
1.10099995
0.457235529
68.7299966
0.414999992
0.457235529
12.3699994
0.546000004
0.457235529
5.00999975
0.584999979
0.457235529
1.29999994
0.600000024
0.457235529

PVTP Help And Manual

-233.104004
477.32608
0.0390000008
89.8000031
-0.153999999
-320.350006
0.0777960739
89.8000031
0.0390000008 "N2"
87.6920013
1058.25891
0.238999993
93.9000015
-0.100199997
-109.209999
0.0777960739
93.9000015
0.238999993 "CO2"
-116.517998
658.380798
0.0109999999
99.1999969
-0.169021085
-258.790009
0.0777960739
99.1999969
0.0109999999 "C1"
89.7979965
693.651184
0.0989999995
148.300003
0.144581646
-127.389999
0.0777960739
148.300003
0.0989999995 "C2"
206.005997
602.682983
0.152999997
203
-0.0737650841
-43.6899986
0.0777960739
203
0.152999997 "C3"
274.694
514.359985
0.182999998
263
-0.93227005
10.8500004
0.0777960739
263
0.182999998 "IC4"

28.0100002
60.4000015
44.0099983
78
16.0400009
70
30.1000004
115
44.0999985
155
58.0999985
181.5

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User Guide

1.40999993
305.294006
535.963135
0.600000024
255
-0.79191643
0.457235529
0.0777960739
255
0.59999997
369.806
468.361511
0.620999992
306
-1.02865613
0.457235529
0.0777960739
306
0.79999996
385.59201
474.827759
0.629999995
304
-0.707209468
0.457235529
0.0777960739
304
0.959999952
454.100006
425.008331
0.663999975
370
-0.338579506
0.457235529
0.0777960739
370
1.03275995
469.004913
366.199249
0.790524006
513.026123
-0.16004476
0.457235529
0.0777960739
477.350708
1.44994993
520.127625
358.507416
0.816838026
610.499512
-0.0385923348
0.457235529
0.0777960739
549.466553
1.20878994
584.877441
352.221069
0.841445029
718.668579
0.0267236773
0.457235529
0.0777960739
654.734863
0.649470968
817.557922
343.423096
0.856844008
804.419373
0.109054677
0.457235529
0.0777960739
748.999084
0.525084974
918.090881
294.021149
0.867217004
876.045715
0.159527346
0.457235529
0.0777960739
819.955505
0.751112962
953.889587
285.648468
0.878147006
947.97522
0.124890819
0.457235529
0.0777960739
917.979065
0.562835972
1006.14093
251.158356
0.891615987
1060.04675
0.145392463
0.457235529
0.0777960739
1071.88171
*
* Binary Interaction Coefficients
*
* Only non-zero BICs are exported and imported
*
* Number of non-zero BICs to be written or read
*

39

0.199000001
58.0999985
31.1900005
200
0.199000001 "NC4"
0.226999998
72.1999969
82.1299973
225
0.226999998 "IC5"
0.250999987
72.1999969
96.8899994
245
0.250999987 "NC5"
0.298999995
86.1999969
155.75
282.5
0.298999995 "C6"
0.324606925
118.205002
278.516998
360.825439
0.324606925 "C7::C9"
0.389556885
142.317001
356.419006
421.399597
0.389556885 "C10::C11"
0.45922333
168.371002
435.45401
481.993744
0.45922333 "C12::C13"
0.51284194
191.102005
492.145996
531.406311
0.51284194 "C14::C14"
0.556492388
207.529007
535.682007
565.459473
0.556492388 "C15::C15"
0.600647986
230.606003
579.065002
611.420898
0.600647986 "C16::C17"
0.667824745
265.493011
641.086975
677.985229
0.667824745 "C18::C20"

1
* Only first half of array is exported - values will be copied to second half
*
16 2
0.05
*
* Volume Shift Flag
*
1
*

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*
*
*
*

PVTP

LUMPED COMPOSITION

Mole
Specific
OmegaA
Component
*
Percent
Gravity

*
*

percent
Gravity

Critical
Critical
OmegaB
Temperature
Volume

Critical
Volume
Costald

Accentric
Molecular
Boiling
Parachor
Costald Single Exempt

Pressure
Factor
Shift
Point
Volume Accentric Fact

degrees F
l/kg.mole

psig

Weight
Name

lb/lb.mole
degrees F

l/kg.mole
* ------------- --------------- --------------- --------------- ----------------------------- --------------- --------------- --------------- ----------------------------- --------------- --------------- --------------- ----------------------------- --------*
68.9594242
0.417743474
0.457235529
19.6905199
0.621522061
0.457235529
5.09591431
0.619337284
0.457235529
3.73470624
0.817533849
0.457235529
1.94960337
0.867981781
0.457235529
0.569832035
0.891615987
0.457235529
*
* LUMPED Binary
*

-117.041487
657.567835
0.0111257241
16.093748
99.1577895
-0.168953638
-259.066423
69.9568946
0.0777960739
99.1577895
0.0111257241 0 0 "N2C1"
119.087449
713.630145
0.129276
35.3029576
155.773112
0.0601443885
-103.965524
120.793506
0.0777960739
155.773112
0.129276 0 0 "CO2C2C3"
345.928987
491.767872
0.225351081
67.3141989
292.593688
-0.756716136
65.9552069
220.936884
0.0777960739
292.593688
0.225351081 0 0 "IC4NC4IC5NC5C6"
527.027649
358.600859
0.394198462
144.1027
618.649876
-0.0511828439
360.504783
424.294635
0.0777960739
563.761263
0.394198462 0 0 "C7::C9C10::C++"
898.147491
307.41717
0.558993412
210.989919
879.944596
0.128994331
537.920271
571.901745
0.0777960739
834.258395
0.558993412 0 0 "C14::C14C15:++"
1006.14093
251.158356
0.667824745
265.493011
1060.04675
0.145392463
641.086975
677.985229
0.0777960739
1071.88171
0.667824745 0 0 "LAST_PSEUDO"
Interaction Coefficients

1
* Lumped Values
*
5 0
0.0681924247
*
* Lumped Volume Shift Flag
*

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1
*
* Composition Lump Tag
*
"LUM1"
*
* Number of Lump Rules Exported
*
1
********************************************
* Lump Rules Tag
"LUM1"
* Lump Rules Description
"CREATED FROM LUMPING OF LUMPING-DELUMPING_START.PV"
* Last Edit Date
28 11 2008
* Number of Lumps
6
* Lump Name
"N2C1"
* Lump Type
1
* Lump Description
"N2 + C1"
* Lump Data
* Number of Components in Lump
2
* Component Name Index Type
"N2" 0 2
"C1" 5 2
* BIC Multiplier Flag Value
1
1.37
*
*** End of Lump 1 ***
* Lump Name
"CO2C2C3"
* Lump Type
1
* Lump Description
"CO2 + C2 + C3"
* Lump Data
* Number of Components in Lump
3
* Component Name Index Type
"CO2" 1 2
"C2" 6 2
"C3" 7 2
* BIC Multiplier Flag Value

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PVTP

1
1.37
*
*** End of Lump 2 ***
* Lump Name
"iC4nC4iC5nC5C6"
* Lump Type
1
* Lump Description
"iC4 + nC4 + iC5 + nC5 + C6"
* Lump Data
* Number of Components in Lump
5
* Component Name Index Type
"iC4" 8 2
"nC4" 9 2
"iC5" 10 2
"nC5" 11 2
"C6" 12 2
* BIC Multiplier Flag Value
1
1.37
*
*** End of Lump 3 ***
* Lump Name
"C7::C9C10::C++"
* Lump Type
1
* Lump Description
"C7::C9 + C10::C11 + C12::C13"
* Lump Data
* Number of Components in Lump
3
* Component Name Index Type
"C7::C9" -1 3
"C10::C11" -1 3
"C12::C13" -1 3
* BIC Multiplier Flag Value
1
1.37
*
*** End of Lump 4 ***
* Lump Name
"C14::C14C15:++"
* Lump Type
1
* Lump Description
"C14::C14 + C15::C15 + C16::C17"
* Lump Data
* Number of Components in Lump
3

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43

* Component Name Index Type


"C14::C14" -1 3
"C15::C15" -1 3
"C16::C17" -1 3
* BIC Multiplier Flag Value
1
1.37
*
*** End of Lump 5 ***
* Lump Name
"LAST_PSEUDO"
* Lump Type
3
* Lump Description
"Last Pseudo Component"
* Lump Data
* Number of Components in Lump
1
* Component Name Index Type
"LAST_PSEUDO" 0 3
* BIC Multiplier Flag Value
1
1.37
*
*** End of Lump 6 ***
*
*# ************* End of Lump Rule *************
*
*
* Separators T, P
*
3 1
100
500
90
100
60
0
*
* Volume Shift Flag
*
1
*
* Reference Temperature
*
255
*
*# End of file
*

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2.2.1.2.2 PROSPER Hydrate Formation (*.PHY)


PHY files contain a table of temperatures and hydrate formation pressures 405 . After
calculation the export is available from the Calculation Display 334 dialog or from the Export
Type 34 dialog.
The file is in ASCII an a typical one would contain:
*
* Petroleum Experts - Hydrate Export File
*
*
*Export File Signature
*#PetexHYD
*Export File Version
*#1
*
* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! PVT FILE DETAILS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!
* PVT FILE NAME : C:\PVTP_Files\Samples\Ipm360\samples\pvtp\BLEND.PVI
* Exported :Thu Nov 09 08:47:02 2006
* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
*
* All variables are exported in Field units
*
* Temperature
Pressure
* (degrees F)
(psig)
30
98.4336
37.7778
184.709
45.5556
339.382
53.3333
628.548
61.1111
1295.94
68.8889
3239.27
76.6667
6487.05
84.4444
10804.8
92.2222
15642
100
20592.4
*
*
*#End of File
2.2.1.2.3 General Data Export (*.PVE)
PVE files are files produced by the PVT General Export Function.
The ASCII text file is produced using the Export option from the File Menu
Select Type 3 - Petex General from the Export Types 34 dialog.
The Selection screens which follow give the user the choice of exporting any combination of :
PVT Options
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User Guide

45

Primary Input Composition and BI Coefficients.


Grouped/Matched Composition and BI Coefficients.
Reference Data
Calculations
The calculation columns to be exported can be individually selected using the Layout dialog.
The data exported can be delimited by tabs or commas or alternatively saved in a fixedcolumn-size format. De selecting the saving of column headings and Keywords will produce a
file containing only numeric data. If headings are required, a comment marker of choice can
be added to give the importing program a marker to search for.
The General Export Display is shown below.

The dialog gives the user great flexibility in what should be exported and in what format. The
export is to an ASCII file with a default extension of .PVE
For each section of Input Data or results a check-box allows the user to switch on or off its
export .
The available sections are:
Input Data
Input
Composition
BI Coefficients

Included are all the entries made on the PVT Options screen i.e. Method,
Analyst, and Well etc
This is component concentrations and properties of the mixture prior to
any grouping or regression exported in tabular form. The currently
selected Stream will be exported at this point
The initial values for Binary Interaction Coefficients are exported in a
symmetrical table
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PVTP

Grouped/
Matched
Composition
Grouped/
Matched BI
Coefficients
Reference Data
Calculations

Delimiting

Headings and
Comments

Layout

PVTP Help And Manual

This is component concentrations and properties of the mixture after


Grouping or Regression exported in tabular form
The Grouped/Matched values for Binary Interaction Coefficients are
exported in a symmetrical table
This option will export the Reference Temperature, Pressure and depth
When the dialog is loaded, the list box within this section displays all the
calculations which may be exported.
A checkbox allows all calculation exporting to be switched on or off.
Highlighted Calculation names will be exported. Clicking on the calculation
name within the list box will select or de-select the item.
The variables within each calculation can be individually selected using
the Layout option
The data exported can be delimited by tabs or commas or alternatively
saved in a fixed-column-size format. Enter the column width in the edit
box if the fixed-column-size option is required
Deselecting the saving of column headings and Keywords will produce a
file containing only numeric data. If headings are required a comment
marker of choice can be added to give the importing program a marker to
search for. Erasing the comment marker edit box contents will give
headings without an added character.
When all the selections have been made click on the Export control
button to bring up the file save dialog. A file extension of .PVE is taken as
default, but any legitimate file name can be used
The Layout screen (shown below) is the same as used in all the
calculations. Each selected calculation will be shown as a separate dialog
within which individual values can be selected.

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To select or de-select a value click on the checkbox beside its name.


To remove all selections for a particular calculation click on the Hide All
button.
To export all columns click on the All button above the list box.
When all column selections have been made click on OK .
Clicking on Cancel will shut down the display , ignoring any selections
which have been made
2.2.1.2.4 Black Oil Tables (*.PTB)
See also
Black Oil Table Export from PVTP 49
Example 1 Oil 53
Example 2 Condensate 56
PTB files are files which contain the data in a form which can be imported into the PVT/
BlackOil/Tables section of Petroleum Experts PROSPER or MBAL or programs. The format
is fairly general.
An ASCII text file is produced by this procedure. The process is carried out using the Export
option within View properties display or using the Export Option from the File Menu
In PVTP the export is selected as Black Oil Table from the Export Types Dialog 34
The export file contains a version number, the latest being shown below. This allows the
format to develop with older formats being still supported. Two examples of the export format
are included in this document.
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PVTP

*Version 2
Apart from the version line all lines beginning with a * are treated as comments and ignored.
Blank lines are also ignored. No data within a table eg. A gas value where there is only single
phase oil, is marked by exporting a value > 3.4e35.
The variables available for transfer along with their keywords and units are listed in Table 1.
Any combination of variables may be exported but in general the choice is made to match the
black oil table input for the various programs and models (see Export from PVTP 49 ). It is
important to note that the values transferred between the programs are done in a specific set
of field units. Only these units are allowed. Conversion to the user unit is done on IMPORT.

Up to 10 tables are supported from the PVTP Export 49 Facility. Within PROSPER the number
of Black Oil Tables can be extended to 50. The number of tables to be exported is selected
by the user by way of the dialog shown below. The number appears at the top of the
exported file.
* NUMBER OF TABLES (MAX 10)
10
Above each table exported is a line which contains the table number the number of pressure
entries within the table, a table temperature in degrees F and an equivalent saturation
pressure in psig.
2 21 59.9474 4647.61
This entry is followed by column values which are calculated for each pressure entry. The first
PVTP Help And Manual

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User Guide

49

number on each line is the If the Saturation Pressure is not included in the list within the table
it is automatically calculated by PVTP and inserted when Export is selected. Exports from
other programs should also contain this saturation pressure line.
2 21 59.9474 4647.61
1000 312.243 1.16236 1.45101 0.569708 0.0110762 0.01136
1263.16 375.444 1.18857 1.32124 0.681203 0.00834986 0.012384
1526.32 431.647 1.21031 1.21657 0.785276 0.00670003 0.0136971
1789.47 485.903 1.23131 1.1257 0.883083 0.00566162 0.015194
2052.63 539.529 1.2523 1.04332 0.975207 0.00498207 0.016746
2315.79 593.394 1.27363 0.967492 1.06206 0.00451619 0.0182704
2578.95 648.069 1.29548 0.897481 1.14401 0.00418155 0.0197351
2842.11 703.977 1.31799 0.83281 1.22135 0.00393125 0.0211376
3105.26 761.479 1.34125 0.773032 1.29438 0.0037378 0.0224872
3368.42 820.909 1.36539 0.717714 1.36333 0.00358442 0.0237978
3631.58 882.605 1.39052 0.66644 1.42842 0.00346043 0.0250838
3894.74 946.916 1.41678 0.618832 1.48981 0.00335871 0.0263592
4157.89 1014.23 1.44432 0.574543 1.54768 0.00327441 0.0276375
4421.05 1084.96 1.47333 0.533264 1.60213 0.00320408 0.0289321
4647.61 1148.97 1.49964 0.499923 1.64637 3.400000e+035
3.400000e+035
4684.21 1148.97 1.49964 0.499923 1.64637 3.400000e+035
3.400000e+035
4947.37 1148.97 1.49964 0.499923 1.64637 3.400000e+035
3.400000e+035
5210.53 1148.97 1.49908 0.501652 1.65867 3.400000e+035
3.400000e+035
5473.68 1148.97 1.49511 0.514031 1.74693 3.400000e+035
3.400000e+035
5736.84 1148.97 1.49132 0.526315 1.8349 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
6000 1148.97 1.48767 0.538507 1.9226 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
See full examples 53 at end of this document.
2.2.1.2.4.1 BO Table Export from PVTp
See also
Black Oil Table Export 47
Example 1 Oil 53
Example 2 Condensate 56
In PVTP the export is selected as Black Oil Table from the Export Types Dialog 34

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PVTP

A typical starting display is shown below:

The Calculations are set out in a series of 10 tables. Each table has a temperature and up to
100 pressures.
All the table variables except water viscosity and water Z factor can be calculated
automatically from the minimum inputs of Temperature and Pressure.

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The calculation ,which is carried out by pressing on Calc. Table or Calculate All , consists of
a Saturation Pressure 328 estimation followed by a Constant Composition Expansion 330 (CCE).
The values will be the same as those reported for the CCE option within the PVT package
Calculation menu. The saturation pressure is placed in the edit box at the top of the table. The
other values are placed within the table. All values can also be entered manually. Water
viscosity and water Z factor must be entered manually. Click in cell, enter the required number
and click away.
The tab section at the bottom of the display shows which tables have been filled with
temperature values. The table can be viewed by pressing on the numbered tabs.
Selecting
The variables to be exported are selected using the list box on the right of the
display. At least one variable should be chosen. At the time of export the
Variables
program checks if a selected table has any valid data for the chosen columns.
to Export
If none exists the table is ignored.

This feature has been added to assist in the transfer of the correct columns to
MBAL's or PROSPER's table import facility.
To use this option
Select the target program using the combo box provided
Select the type of fluid (defined in MBAL's or PROSPER's OPTIONS) using
the radio buttons
Finally click on the Select button. This automatically sets the required
variables for export.

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PVTP

Separator
Data

In common with the CCE calculation , the Table Export displays contains a
section for Separator Data 134 . This allows the user to define a 10-stage
separator train through which the CCE liquid will be flashed to correct the Oil
FVF and GOR. The processes which are used to return an oil to standard
conditions can significantly change the final oil characteristics and the amount
of gas liberated on the way. Alternatively K Values 138 or Split Factors 144 can be
used to represent the separator train.All stages do not need to be entered and
a last flash to standard conditions is always included.
The Combo box within the separator data area allows the user to select the
separation methodology. The Setup button allows the stage characteristics to
be changed by calling the dialog shown below.

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User Guide

Export

53

When the data required has been entered and/or calculated, the variables
selected can be exported by clicking the Export button. This brings up a small
dialog which allows the user to select the table or tables to export .

This dialog gives the user the ability to select one ,all, or a range of tables to
export. If Range of Tables is chosen the range required should be entered in
the edit boxes provided.
Note: the program will ignore empty tables or any which are found not to
contain data of the required type.
When the tables have been chosen press Export to bring up the file selection
dialog as shown below. The default file extension is *.ptb

2.2.1.2.4.2 BO Table Example 1 Oil


This is an example of an oil Black Oil Export Table to be imported into PROSPER.
See also:
Black oil tables 47
Black oil table export from PVTP 56
*
* Petroleum Experts - PVT Black Oil Export File
*
*Version 2
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PVTP

*
* (BLANK LINES AND LINES WITH AN ASTERISK (*) IN COLUMN 1
* ARE IGNORED)
*
* The export of data is done always in Field units.
* The target program will adjust to the internally selected units.
*
*
*
*

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! PVT FILE DETAILS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!


PVT FILE NAME : C:\Ex2test.pvi
Exported :Thu Nov 27 10:50:18 2008
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

* NUMBER OF TABLES (MAX 10)


2
* DATA COLUMN IDENTIFIERS
* - CAN BE IN ANY ORDER
* - COLUMNS CAN BE MISSING
* - ANY INDIVIDUAL ITEM > 3.4e35 = missing item
*
*
* PRES - Pressure
* GOR - Gas-Oil Ratio
* OFVF - oil Formation Volume Factor
* OVIS - oil Viscosity
* ODEN - oil Density
* OCOM - oil Compressibility
* GFVF - gas Formation Volume Factor
* GVIS - gas Viscosity
* WVIS - water Viscosity
* WCOM - water Compressibility
* ZFAC - Z Factor
* GDEN - gas density
* CGR - produced cgr
* VCGR - vapour cgr
*
**************** VARIABLES EXPORTED ****************
PRES GOR OFVF OVIS ODEN GFVF GVIS
****************************************************
*******************

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UNITS

****************
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55

* The export of data is done always in Field units.


* The target program will adjust to the internally selected units.
****************************************************

************** Export Table 1 ****************


1 13 200 2333.57
2333.57 629.941 1.35745 0.882961 43.449 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
4500 629.941 1.30828 1.31799 45.0822 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
4200 629.941 1.31378 1.25692 44.8933 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
4000 629.941 1.31764 1.21631 44.7619 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
3700 629.941 1.32373 1.15561 44.5559 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
3400 629.941 1.33023 1.09516 44.3382 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
3100 629.941 1.33718 1.03501 44.1077 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
2800 629.941 1.34465 0.975199 43.8627 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
2500 629.941 1.3527 0.915759 43.6016 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
2200 591.027 1.34158 0.929484 43.7192 0.00686457 0.0188513
2000 534.538 1.31845 1.00374 44.1229 0.00760049 0.0177162
1800 479.926 1.29595 1.08433 44.5276 0.00851608 0.016734
1500 400.888 1.26296 1.2201 45.1434 0.010383 0.0155118
************** Export Table 3 ****************
3 13 120 1991.97
1991.97 629.941 1.29441 1.48874 45.565 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
4500 629.941 1.25734 2.11163 46.9084 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
4200 629.941 1.26096 2.03798 46.774 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
4000 629.941 1.26347 1.98874 46.6811 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
3700 629.941 1.26739 1.91465 46.5366 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
3400 629.941 1.27152 1.84032 46.3853 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
3100 629.941 1.27589 1.76576 46.2266 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
2800 629.941 1.2805 1.691 46.06 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
2500 629.941 1.2854 1.61604 45.8846 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
2200 629.941 1.2906 1.54092 45.6995 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
2000 629.941 1.29426 1.49075 45.5703 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035
1800 572.821 1.27437 1.58623 45.9066 0.00691228 0.0165872
1500 486.044 1.24381 1.75114 46.4429 0.00852023 0.0150153

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2.2.1.2.4.3 BO Table Example 2 Condensate


This is an example of a condensate Black Oil Export Table to be imported into MBAL.
See also:
Black oil tables 47
Black oil table export from PVTP 56
*
* Petroleum Experts - PVT Black Oil Export File
*
*Version 2
*
* (BLANK LINES AND LINES WITH AN ASTERISK (*) IN COLUMN 1
* ARE IGNORED)
*
* The export of data is done always in Field units.
* The target program will adjust to the internally selected units.
* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! PVT FILE DETAILS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!
* PVT FILE NAME : C:\PVT model.pvi
* Exported :Thu Nov 27 10:53:55 2008
* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
* NUMBER OF TABLES
2

(MAX 10)

* DATA COLUMN IDENTIFIERS


* - CAN BE IN ANY ORDER
* - COLUMNS CAN BE MISSING
* - ANY INDIVIDUAL ITEM > 3.4e35 = missing item
*
*
* PRES - Pressure
* GOR - Gas-Oil Ratio
* OFVF - oil
Formation Volume Factor
* OVIS - oil
Viscosity
* ODEN - oil
Density
* OCOM - oil
Compressibility
* GFVF - gas
Formation Volume Factor
* GVIS - gas
Viscosity
* WVIS - water Viscosity
* WCOM - water Compressibility
* ZFAC - Z Factor
* GDEN - gas density
* CGR - produced cgr
* VCGR - vapour cgr
*
**************** VARIABLES EXPORTED ****************
PRES OFVF OVIS GFVF GVIS ZFAC GDEN CGR VCGR
****************************************************
*******************

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UNITS

****************
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* The export of data is done always in Field units.


* The target program will adjust to the internally selected units.
****************************************************

************** Export Table 1 ****************


1 12 255 4797.86
4797.86 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035 0.00411833 0.0422859 0.97991 20.7195 0 97.2247
5500 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035 0.00387041 0.0462519 1.05528 22.0467 0 97.2247
5300 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035 0.0039336 0.0451432 1.03361 21.6925 0 97.2247
4500 2.26167 0.158855 0.00426976 0.0381018 0.953063 19.0619 17.5708 82.3135
4000 2.05011 0.191435 0.00461425 0.0325163 0.91589 16.5493 38.5982 63.2706
3500 1.88678 0.22546 0.00510957 0.0279127 0.887895 14.1941 53.9514 48.5777
3000 1.74787 0.263274 0.00583408 0.0239703 0.869572 11.908 65.9708 36.6764
2500 1.62058 0.309895 0.00693245 0.0206507 0.86191 9.67012 75.5556 26.9673
2000 1.49777 0.37569 0.00869054 0.0180039 0.865657 7.50129 82.8601 19.3419
1500 1.37674 0.482473 0.0117632 0.0160404 0.880931 5.44005 87.502 13.9636
1000 1.25842 0.687898 0.0180868 0.0146771 0.907374 3.51807 88.309 11.3441
500 1.14769 1.25004 0.0371267 0.013755 0.944773 1.74571 81.085 14.1818
************** Export Table 2 ****************
2 12 200 4842.97
4842.97 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035 0.00371898 0.0484639 0.967651 22.9444 0 97.2247
5500 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035 0.00354877 0.052626 1.04825 24.0449 0 97.2247
5300 3.400000e+035 3.400000e+035 0.00359591 0.0513722 1.02366 23.7296 0 97.2247
4500 2.42999 0.155694 0.00384106 0.0422023 0.928853 20.8622 24.6227 77.6758
4000 2.19843 0.18383 0.00410568 0.0354585 0.882886 18.1626 48.7076 56.7903
3500 2.02481 0.210082 0.00450624 0.0299959 0.848339 15.5943 66.3597 40.5701
3000 1.87626 0.237143 0.00511721 0.0252674 0.826311 13.05 80.4162 27.331
2500 1.73494 0.270678 0.00607671 0.0212263 0.818504 10.5268 91.6488 16.7109
2000 1.59192 0.320517 0.00765229 0.0180051 0.825787 8.08529 100.002 8.86707
1500 1.44535 0.403823 0.0104496 0.0156636 0.8478 5.79509 105.252 3.89406
1000 1.29708 0.562596 0.016257 0.0140963 0.883574 3.69799 106.845 1.57969
500 1.15324 0.973972 0.033818 0.0130932 0.932321 1.8031 101.6 1.6007

2.2.1.2.5 MBAL PVT with Depth Export (*.PGD)


PTG files are files which contain the data in a form which can be imported into the PVT/Fluid
Properties/Import section of Petroleum Experts MBAL program. The MBAL program should
have the tank model Variable PVT selected.
The input display is derived from that used for the standard Compositional Gradient 365
calculation.
The format is fairly general and could be used for other packages.
An ASCII text file is produced by this procedure. The process is carried out using the Export
option within View properties display or using the Export Option from the File Menu.
The first stage in the export process is to calculate the Compositional gradient via a variation
of the Compositional Gradient Calculation Input Dialog (see figure below).

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PVTP

The only difference is a change of label on the button from Calc to Export.
Input the depths or range of depths required and press on Export. This brings up the Export
dialog.

Click on Calc to fill in the table. The reference data used can be changed using the edit boxes
above the main table.
The program will calculate the compositional gradient for the selected depths.
When this has been completed, the program uses the compositions at each depth to make up
a black oil match table. For each depth.
The pressures used to define the Black Oil flashes are automatically selected with respect to
the saturation pressure.
5 pressures, including the saturation pressure are used. The data produced can be viewed via
the MBAL Match Data dialog. This display is called by clicking on one of the Match Data
buttons in column 1.
The automatically-set pressures can be modified manually in this dialog and the Black Oil
properties re-calculated. The check box in column 2 indicates whether the pressures have
been modified.
When the data has been set click on Export to create the ASCII file. The default file
extension is .PGD
Analysis allows the user to view the compositions calculated for each depth. See Analysis
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Dialog within the Calculations 320 Chapter for more details.


The calculation results can be viewed graphically using the Plot option. See the Plot Chapter
for the options available within plots.
Click on Main to exit the dialog and return to the summary display.

Important Note on Units


The values transferred between the programs are done in field units Conversion
to the user unit is done on IMPORT.
2.2.1.2.5.1 MBAL PVT with Depth - Black Oil Match Tables
This dialog is called by clicking on any of the MatchData buttons within the MBAL export
table. A typical example is shown in figure below:

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PVTP

The table is the result of 5 flashes on a composition at a particular depth. The aim is to
provide the data necessary for matching the Black Oil Model. The program automatically
selects the pressures as
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

One third of saturation pressure


Two thirds of saturation pressure
Saturation pressure
Seven sixths of saturation pressure
Four thirds of saturation pressure

The aim is to provide enough data to give the shape of the particular Black Oil correlation
above and below the Saturation Pressure.
If the selected points are found to be unsuitable the values above and below can be adjusted
by:
a) Putting the table into Manual mode using the radio buttons provided
b) Entering new values for pressure in the white boxes within the table
c) Click on the Calc. Button
Command buttons
Exit
Cancel
Plot

will close the dialog and retain the values


will close the dialog with any changes ignored
allows the user to view the shape of the Black Oil curves

NOTE
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Any recalculation of the underlying MBAL PVT with depth table will invalidate and remove any
manually entered pressures.
A typical export file is shown below:
*
* Petroleum Experts - MBAL PVT with Depth Export File
*
*
* (BLANK LINES AND LINES WITH AN ASTERISK (*) IN COLUMN 1
* ARE IGNORED)
* - ANY INDIVIDUAL ITEM VALUE > 3.4e35 = missing item
*
* UNITS for each data item are assumed to be whatever the current is
* setting at the time of export
*
*Export File Signature
PetexPGD
*Export File Version
1
*
* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! PVT FILE DETAILS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!
* PVT FILE NAME : C:\HAMID\AX.PVI
* Exported :Sun Feb 08 17:02:49 1998
* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

DATA COLUMN IDENTIFIERS

DPTH - Depth
PRES - Pressure
TEMP - Temperature
PSAT - Bubble/Dew Point Pressure
GOR - Gas-Oil Ratio
OAPI - Oil Gravity
GGRV - Gas Gravity
WSAL - Water Salinity
MH2S - Mole H2S
MCO2 - Mole CO2
MN2 - Mole 2
OFVF - oil Formation Volume Factor
GFVF - gas Formation Volume Factor
OVIS - oil Viscosity
GVIS - gas Viscosity
ZLIQ - oil Compressibility
ZVAP - gas Compressibility
GFVF - gas Formation Volume Factor
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* CGR - produced cgr


*
**************** DEPTH TABLE VARIABLES EXPORTED ****************
DPTH ,PRES ,TEMP ,PSAT ,GOR ,OAPI ,GGRV ,WSAL ,MH2S ,MC02 ,MN2 ,
****************************************************************
**************** MATCHDATA TABLE VARIABLES EXPORTED ****************
PRES ,GOR ,OFVF ,OVIS ,GVIS ,ZLIQ ,ZVAP ,GFVF ,CGR ,
********************************************************************
**********************
UNITS
*****************************
* Units Used in Depth Table Variables:*feet ,psig ,degrees F ,psig ,scf/STB ,API , , , , , , ,
* Units Used in MatchData Variables:*psig ,RB/STB ,centipoise ,centipoise , , ,ft3/scf ,bbls/MMscf ,
********************************************************************
**********************
DATA
* NUMBER OF DEPTHS
7

*****************************

* Reference Depth in feet


9369
* Reference Pressure in psig
3280
* Reservoir Temperature in degrees F
240
* Temperature Gradient in deg F/100 ft
1.8
*Data no 1 at Depth 8869 feet
8869 ,3220.42 ,231.003 ,2980.33 ,17528.4 ,59.6764 ,0.756737 ,0 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,0.00906007 ,
* Number of MatchData Lines
5
993.433 ,396.508 ,1.34781 ,0.138438 ,0.0141965 ,0.334204 ,0.898412 ,0.0174201 ,53.706 ,
1986.9 ,1109.68 ,1.79818 ,0.0946761 ,0.0175569 ,0.552108 ,0.842573 ,0.00822854
,42.6687 ,
2980.33 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.0254712 ,1.234568e+038
,0.814226 ,0.00531417 ,1.234568e+038 ,
3477.05 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.0286318 ,1.234568e+038
,0.842439 ,0.00471613 ,1.234568e+038 ,
3973.76 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.0316125 ,1.234568e+038
,0.876937 ,0.00429788 ,1.234568e+038 ,
*Data no 2 at Depth 9035.67 feet
9035.67 ,3237.14 ,234.002 ,3048.63 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.00887868 ,
PVTP Help And Manual

,59.7848

,0.763556

,0

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63

* Number of MatchData Lines


5
1016.2 ,409.348 ,1.36064 ,0.135219 ,0.0142724 ,0.33949 ,0.896489 ,0.0170727 ,62.0198 ,
2032.43 ,1155.64 ,1.83571 ,0.0916819 ,0.017834 ,0.560222 ,0.840694 ,0.00806241
,50.1091 ,
3048.63 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.0266022 ,1.234568e+038
,0.811896 ,0.0052033 ,1.234568e+038 ,
3556.74 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.0299055 ,1.234568e+038
,0.843699 ,0.00463785 ,1.234568e+038 ,
4064.83 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.0329984 ,1.234568e+038
,0.881508 ,0.00424217 ,1.234568e+038 ,
*Data no 3 at Depth 9202.33 feet
9202.33 ,3254.66 ,237.001 ,3130.92 ,13072.7 ,59.9214 ,0.772361 ,0 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,0.00863199 ,
* Number of MatchData Lines
5
1043.63 ,426.478 ,1.37682 ,0.131639 ,0.0143599 ,0.345723 ,0.893948 ,0.0166547 ,74.6633
,
2087.29 ,1216.41 ,1.88403 ,0.0883227 ,0.0181829 ,0.569793 ,0.838169 ,0.00786225
,61.9258 ,
3130.92 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.0282337 ,1.234568e+038
,0.808286 ,0.00506646 ,1.234568e+038 ,
3652.75 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.0317214 ,1.234568e+038
,0.845046 ,0.00454321 ,1.234568e+038 ,
4174.56 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.0349646 ,1.234568e+038
,0.887356 ,0.00417645 ,1.234568e+038 ,
*Data no 4 at Depth 9369 feet
9369 ,3280 ,240 ,3279.88 ,4316.35 ,60.7132 ,0.834684 ,0 ,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038
,0.0065 ,
* Number of MatchData Lines
5
1093.28 ,483.188 ,1.42496 ,0.124293 ,0.0144985 ,0.354491 ,0.884976 ,0.0158165 ,273.857
,
2186.6 ,1358.06 ,1.99025 ,0.0827284 ,0.0188862 ,0.585908 ,0.831526 ,0.00748011
,316.012 ,
3279.88 ,4316.35 ,4.11191 ,0.0464585 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.76052 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
3826.53 ,4316.35 ,3.87211 ,0.0513914 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.834998 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
4373.17 ,4316.35 ,3.69423 ,0.0561634 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.910005 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
*Data no 5 at Depth 9535.67 feet
9535.67 ,3306.98 ,242.999 ,3168.36 ,3380.86 ,60.8218 ,0.847811 ,0 ,1.234568e+038

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,1.234568e+038 ,0.00597958 ,
* Number of MatchData Lines
5
1056.11 ,455.891 ,1.41045 ,0.125053 ,0.0144333 ,0.345564 ,0.888033 ,0.0164925 ,360.764
,
2112.25 ,1249.86 ,1.9233 ,0.085132 ,0.0184277 ,0.574194 ,0.83661 ,0.00782229 ,453.442 ,
3168.36 ,3380.86 ,3.40831 ,0.0518623 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.743622 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
3696.42 ,3380.86 ,3.23817 ,0.0571572 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.823709 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
4224.47 ,3380.86 ,3.10936 ,0.0623314 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.903482 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
*Data no 6 at Depth 9702.33 feet
9702.33 ,3336.35 ,245.998 ,3100.22 ,3017.7 ,60.8607 ,0.853655 ,0 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,0.00574032 ,
* Number of MatchData Lines
5
1033.4 ,437.28 ,1.40159 ,0.125082 ,0.0144059 ,0.340151 ,0.890203 ,0.0169632 ,408.444 ,
2066.82 ,1185.27 ,1.88612 ,0.0862731 ,0.0181776 ,0.567039 ,0.84003 ,0.00805995
,532.838 ,
3100.22 ,3017.7 ,3.1531 ,0.0543352 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.734882 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
3616.92 ,3017.7 ,3.00609 ,0.0597755 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.816837 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
4133.61 ,3017.7 ,2.89377 ,0.0651067 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.898189 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
*Data no 7 at Depth 9869 feet
9869 ,3366.84 ,248.997 ,3045.5 ,2779.84 ,60.884 ,0.857745 ,0 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,0.00556968 ,
* Number of MatchData Lines
5
1015.16 ,421.808 ,1.39481 ,0.124852 ,0.0143902 ,0.335786 ,0.892026 ,0.0173724 ,445.867
,
2030.35 ,1134.7 ,1.85835 ,0.0870026 ,0.0179929 ,0.561257 ,0.84289 ,0.00826661 ,596.749
,
3045.5 ,2779.84 ,2.99245 ,0.0560421 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.728205 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
3553.09 ,2779.84 ,2.85924 ,0.0615715 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.811196 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
4060.66 ,2779.84 ,2.75683 ,0.0669972 ,1.234568e+038 ,0.893412 ,1.234568e+038
,1.234568e+038 ,1.234568e+038 ,
**********************

PVTP Help And Manual

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*****************************

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2.2.1.2.6 MBAL Variable Bubble Point(Oil) Export (*.PVB)


PVB files are files which contain the data in a form which can be imported into the PVT/Fluid
Properties/Import section of Petroleum Experts MBAL program.
PVB files are files which contain the data in a form which can be imported into the PVT/Fluid
Properties/Import section of Petroleum Experts MBAL program. The MBAL program should
have the tank model Variable PVT selected.
The format is fairly general and could be used for other packages.
An ASCII text file is produced by this procedure. The process is carried out using the Export
option within View properties display or using the Export Option from the File Menu.
This display is initiated by selecting the Type 6 -MBAL Variable Bubble Pt. (Oil) option from
the Export Types Dialog Screen.
The objective is to provide a full black oil map for reinjecting gas into a dead oil to provide a
range of fluids with differing Bubble Points.
The dialog is split into 2 fluid types:
Saturated

Undersaturated

These tables represent the oils properties at various saturation


pressures. Data entry can be done for any of five temperatures.
If the table pressure is below the oils uninjected bubble point a
straightforward CCE calculation is done to the table temperature and
pressure. The oils black oil properties are then calculated and
reported.
If the pressure is above the uninjected bubble point the following
procedure is undertaken by the program:
The oil is flashed to standard conditions to calculate dead oil and
associated gas composition
The dead oil composition is mixed with a range of proportions of gas to
get a curve of addition amount versus bubble point.
The required amount of injected gas to achieve the input pressure is
estimated.
The estimated gas fraction is mixed with the dead oil and this
combination is taken through a CCE to get the fluid's blackoil
properties. The fraction of gas used is reported within the Analysis
Dialog
These tables represent the oils properties at pressures above the
saturation pressure. For any of five temperatures. there are five bubble
points. Theses bubble points represent different mixtures of dead oil
and gas. The procedure followed to achieve these saturation pressure
matching compositions is very similar to that outlined for the
SATURATED table. Once the composition is determined this fluid is
flashed at the table temperature and the range of input pressures to
calculate the oils density, viscosity and FVF

The data entry for the dialog is available in two forms i.e. Automatic and User Selected.
The table temperature is entered via the edit box provided. A set of radio buttons in the top
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right of the display allows the user to move between the five saturated tables. Table
temperatures must be different.
The labelled TABS allow selection between displaying the Saturated and undersaturated
data.
In automatic mode the user can enter an individual pressure range for each temperature. If
the entries are to be repeated the Copy Pressures, Paste and Paste All buttons can be
used to make the data entry easier. The Copy Pressures stores the pressure range entered.
The Paste button will overwrite the current table entries with the stored values. The Paste All
feature will overwrite all pressure ranges whether saturated or undersaturated with the stored
values. If any of the pressure entries contradicts the other defined variables i.e. an
undersaturated PSAT the user will be informed and the values adjusted.

Clicking on the User Selected radio button changes the display.


The user can now enter up to 50 individual pressures for each temperature.
Every SATURATED table must have at least one associated UNDERSATURATED entry.
Clicking on the Under saturated TAB brings up a display like that in the figure below in User
Selected mode:

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The associated Saturation Table Temperature is displayed. For this temperature up to five
Bubble Points can be defined. For each Bubble Point the program will create a fluid of dead
oil and injected gas. This composition will then be flashed to all the pressures defined. The
required Saturation Pressure is entered using the edit box provided. The user can move
between the five under saturated tables by way of the 5 radio buttons in the top right corner.
The pressure entries must be equal to or above the PSAT defined for the table. As with the
saturated tables all the pressure entries are independent of each other. A similar automatic
mode entry is provided.

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Separator Data

PVTP Help And Manual

The input displays contain a section for Separator Data. This allows
the user to define a separator train through which the oil will be flashed
to correct the Oil FVF and GOR. The processes which are used to
return an oil to standard conditions can significantly change the final oil
characteristics and the amount of gas liberated on the way. When
multiple samples are being analysed, it may be necessary to have
individual separator settings for each stream. In this case, the
individual radio button should be clicked on. The stream separator
settings can be accessed via the tabs at the bottom of the table. All
stages do not need to be entered and a last flash to standard
conditions is always included. The combo within the separator data
area switches between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
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separately from those within the Separator calculation.


The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator
Calculation into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all
values from within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see section on K Value Dialog in the
Separator topic 358 .
See sections on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and the
background to Split factors in Separator topic 358
Once a range of entries have been made for the Saturated and
Undersaturated table have been made proceed to the Calculation and
Export Dialog
Command buttons
Calc
Exit
Cancel
Clear

To bring up the Calculation and Export Dialog click on the Calc control
button
Exit stores the entries made and returns to Summary Screen
Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary
Screen
Clear removes a table or all table entries

2.2.1.2.6.1 MBAL Variable Bpt. Calculation Dialog


This display is initiated by selecting the Calc option from the Export MBAL Variable Bubble
Point display.
A typical starting display would be:

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Clicking on the TABS allows the user to move between the Saturated and Undersaturated
results tables.
Calc

Click on Calc to fill in the calculated properties for all tables.


The display becomes:

Export
Analysis

When the data has been set click on Export to create the ASCII file.
Analysis allows the user to view the compositions calculated for each
combination of P and T. See Analysis Dialog help for more details.
Where applicable the display will show the percentage of dead oil put
into the composition eg. For saturated points above the original oil
bubble point the display might look like this:

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71

The calculation results can be viewed graphically using the Plot option.
See Plot Help.
When the variable is common to both saturated and undersaturated
tables the plot shows both curves eg. Oil FVF:

Main
Click on Main to exit the dialog and return to the summary display

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2.2.1.2.7 Eclipse Black Oil Export (*.INC)


INC files are files which contain the data in a form which can be imported into an Eclipse
Blackoil Simulator.
The process is initiated by selecting the Eclipse (Black Oil) Format option from the Export
Types Dialog Screen.
The display allows the user to calculate phase properties and export them in a variety of
standard Eclipse formats.
The export is to an ASCII file with a default extension of .INC .
Since not all Eclipse or even PVT data is available within this file, it has been assumed that
the file will be edited by the user and "included" in the Eclipse input file.
The export is on the basis of a single stream (see Streams Help) at a single temperature. The
temperature is assumed initially to be the Reservoir Temperature, but it can be changed
within the Eclipse Setup dialog. Multiple temperature files can be produced by merging
several individual export files.
The stream is selected via the list box at the top of the dialog.
The calculations are carried out over a range of pressures for each of the three phases VIZ.
Oil, Gas and Water. Each has an independent range setting.
Eclipse allows for a variety of PVT data types, indicated by selection of Keywords. The
Eclipse documentation should be used as a reference on how these types are depicted and
used.

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This dialog has a combobox for each phase .The options include:
OIL

GAS

OIL

No Oil
Oil with Dissolved Gas PVCO + PMAX or PVTO
Undersaturated Oil with Constant Dissolved Gas PVDO (+
RSCONST)
Constant Oil with Dry Gas RVCONST
No Gas
Wet Gas with Vapourised Oil PVTG
Dry Gas PVDG
Dry Gas with Constant Vaporised Oil PVDG (+ RVCONST)
Constant Gas with Undersaturated Oil RSCONST
No Water
Water included PVTW

The keywords selected are shown at the bottom of the dialog. With the Oil with Dissolved
Gas option the checkboxes can be used to select between the PVCO + PMAX and PVTO
options
NOTE on UNITS
Note that Eclipse has less unit options than PVTP. It is up to the user to output in units which
match the rest of the Eclipse input file. The units dialog can be used to make any changes
required
Command buttons
Export
Clear
Exit
Cancel

click to proceed to the next stage of the exporting process


sets all options off
saves the current selections and closes down the dialog
closes down the dialog without saving any selection changes

2.2.1.2.7.1 Eclipse Export Setup Dialog


This display is initiated by selecting Export from the Eclipse Export Utility 72 dialog. The
display allows the user to setup the temperature and pressures which will be used to
calculate and subsequently export data to file.

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The calculation will be carried out at a single temperature. This is initially set at the Reservoir
Temperature but it can be changed using the Edit box shown above.
The calculation done on each phase is a Constant Composition Expansion 330 (CCE). This a
flash process where all the products are retained i.e. the total amount of each component at
the initial conditions is the same at all the measured values, only the phase splits (K values )
have been changed.
Fluid Range
Options

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The black oil mapping of a fluid normally requires the creation of fluids
with a higher saturation pressure than that of the original. This is done
by mixing gas and oil derived from the original fluid to a new target
value. Within the program there are two options for the source of the
gas and oil:
Use
Separator
fluids
Use fluids
from
near PSAT

Separator Data

The stream performs a full separator calculation


using the separator train input at the bottom of the
dialog. The accumulated gas and dead oil
compositions found during this flash are then mixed
in the PSAT target calculation
The stream has its saturation pressure calculated at
the input temperature. A flash is then carried out a
pressure just below this PSAT value. The gas and
oil compositions found during this flash are then
mixed in the PSAT target calculation. Note that the
results can be very different using the two methods.
In general a much hgher maximum PSAT can be
found using method 2. In general option 2 shows
gives better results as part of this export as the
fluid property extension is smoother.
See also help on Creating a Stream to a target
PSAT.
If the Extend new fluids to maximum is clicked off
the original fluid will not be extened if not required
eg within PVTO option. The second checkbox
intructs the program to produce as full a map of the
fluid as possible i.e. all input pressures are used as
saturated and under-saturated targets. If Do all
possible under-saturated values is off the minimum
table of properties is produced

The input displays contain a section for Separator Data. This allows the
user to define a separator train through which the oil will be flashed to
correct the Oil FVF and GOR. The processes which are used to return
oil to standard conditions can significantly change the final oil
characteristics and the amount of gas liberated on the way. When
multiple samples are being analysed, it may be necessary to have
individual separator settings for each stream. In this case, the
individual radio button should be clicked on. The stream separator
settings can be accessed via the tabs at the bottom of the table. All
stages do not need to be entered and a last flash to standard conditions
is always included. The combo within the separator data area switches
between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank

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Use Separator train


Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator
Calculation into the Separator Data area.The Clear button removes all
values from within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value Dialog
See help on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and the
background to Split factors

This display contains radio buttons which allow the user to swap
between User Selected and Automatic modes.
In Automatic the pressure entries look like this. The phase entries are
independent of each other. If a phase has not been requested within the
Export Utility the edit boxes for that phase are hidden.
In the User Selected version the ranged input is replaced by a grid for
each phase where any mixture of pressures can be entered. Select
each phase by clicking on the tab at the bottom of the grid.

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Additional Inputs - PVDO and PVDG

Where additional information is required the appropriate edit box will


appear in this area With the PVDO option the user will be asked for the
bubble point of the oil. All pressure inputs are above this value giving the
oil a fixed RS value. This RSCONST is calculated within the Eclipse
Export Dialog. Similarly with the PVDG option the user will be required
to enter a dew point for the gas.
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All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to the Eclipse Export
Tables dialog
Command buttons
Export
Exit
Cancel
Clear

To bring up the Eclipse Export Tables dialog click on the Export control
button
Exit will store all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values

2.2.1.2.7.2 Eclipse Export Tables


This dialog allows the user to initiate calculations and view the results

The Calculation Screen is loaded when the Export button is pressed on the Eclipse Export
Setup Dialog.
The display is in the form of three tables, one for each phase, with input values on the left and
the required calculation variables calculations listed in columns on the right.
Each column has a variable name and unit as a heading.
Scroll bars are provided to show more variables and results.
If the values have been already calculated the display will show the last set of values
calculated.
To the right of each table is a calculated stock tank density for each phase. This is calculated
even if the phase is absent from the setup options. When all three densities are present, they
are added to the export file under the DENSITY keyword as shown below:

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DENSITY
52.6231 62.4562 0.0642391 /
-- units (lb/ft3)
The display has several control buttons along the top which have the following functions:
Export
Calc
Plot
Layout
Cancel
Main

This option brings up the file selection dialog as shown below. Selecting a
file name with the extension .INC and pressing OK will automatically
produce the required ASCII file
This option recalculates the table using the latest inputs provided
This generates a full sized plot of the calculated results
This option allows the user to select which columns are displayed in the
results table. See Calculation Layout Display
This option closes down the display and passes the control back to the
input screen
This option closes down both the calculation and the input displays and
passes the control back to the main PVT screen

2.2.1.2.8 Eclipse Compositional Export (*.PVO)


The objective is to provide an ASCII file which is compatible with an Eclipse 300 PVT input.
The file is exported as a PVO type including matched composition and properties.
As an option the file can also contain water properties for a range of pressures.
This display is initiated by selecting the 7 -Eclipse (Compositional) Format option from the
Export Types Dialog Screen.
A typical dialog would be as follows:

Two types of unit system are provided i.e. Field and Metric. When loaded the dialog will
select the system which best matches the reservoir temperature unit. Later, however, this
selection can be changed using the radio buttons provided.
If water PVT is required, enter the range and number of pressures required, change the
water salinity to the desired value and click on the Include Water Properties checkbox.
A combo box allows the desired stream to be selected.
Clicking on the Export button brings up the file selection dialog. Select a name for the PVO file
and click on save.
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2.2.1.2.9 CMG Black Oil Export


NEW!!!
By selecting File/Export and then CMG (Black Oil) Format it is possible to access an export
utility that allows to generate black oil table data for CMG simulators.

In this section it is possible to select the Stream from which to generate the data, then the
Export Type (Constant Composition Expansion or Differential Liberation) and the Water
Reference Pressure.
On clicking on Export the program will display a calculation screen, which varies depending on
the Export Type selected.
The figure below shows the CCE screen:

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Enter the Temperature and the Pressure range and the separator Calc Method, then Export
and Save the .GEM file.
2.2.1.2.10 CMG Compositional Export
NEW!!!
By selecting File/Export and then CMG (Compositional) Format, it is possible to export
directly a .GEM file containing the EOS composition and components' parameters that can be
imported in CMG numerical simulator GEM.
Upon selection of the above utility, save the file with extension .GEM.

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2.2.1.2.11 Kappa Black oil Export


NEW!!!
By selecting File/Export and then Kappa (Black Oil) Format, it is possible to access the
section that allows to calculate and export PVT black oil tables for Kappa software.
The export section is the same as the one to export black oil tables to Petroleum Experts
IPM Suite:

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See the section on Black Oil Tables export for IPM 49 for further details.

Unlike the IPM export, the exported columns are fixed by a fluid type selection. This listbox
allows the fluid type to be selected.
View All cannot be exported but allows the user to see all the properties which were
generated as part of the CCE calculation.
The file exported has extension .kbo. An example of exported file is reported below:

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2.2.2

File Operations

2.2.2.1

Creating a New File

85

While working with PVTP, new input or output data files can be created at any time. To
create new file, from the File menu choose the New command.
This command does not actually create a new and separate file, but reinitialises the program
input/output data. The next step would be to choose the compositional model etc. by
selecting Options from the Options menu.

2.2.2.2

Opening an Existing File

Existing data files can be opened quickly and easily at any time during the current working
session. To open a file, from the File menu choose the Open option. Alternatively, press the
left-hand mouse button while the pointer is over the file-open icon within the PVT Toolbar.
The list box within the file-open dialog gives the following options:
All PVT files (*.PV*)
Data files (*.PVI)
The program displays a dialog box in which the files matching the selection criteria are listed
in alphabetic order. The default data directory files are automatically displayed first. To open
a file, point and click the filename to recall and press or click on OK the alternative method
of opening a file is to double-click on the file name. If the desired file is not listed, it is
possible that:
1) It is in a different sub directory
2) It is on a different drive
3) It is of a different file type.
2.2.2.3

Saving a File

When files are opened in PVT, the program copies the selected file into the computer's
memory. Any changes to the file are made to the copy in memory. In the event of a power
failure or computer crash, these changes would be completely lost. To prevent this, we
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recommend to save the data on a regular basis and especially before quitting the program.
The Save command stores all the changes made in the current active file. By default, the S
ave command saves a file under its original name and to the drive and directory last selected.
If the file is new, the user will be prompted to enter a name and select a target directory:
When exiting the program the user will be prompted to close any files which have been
altered during the session and not saved.

2.2.2.4

Copying a File

The Save As command allows to make more than one copy or version of an existing file. With
this command, one can save a file under the same name but to a different drive, or under a
different name on the same drive. Before saving a copy to another disk, we recommend the
file is first saved on the hard disk!
The program displays a dialog box listing all the current files that match the selection criteria.
The default data directory is automatically displayed first. To copy a file, enter a new name
in the Filename field - up to eight characters are allowed. Select a different directory or drive
if desired, then press or click on OK.

2.2.2.5

Closing Files

The CLOSE command removes the currently-displayed file and all its data from memory. If
the file has been changed the user is prompted to save the file contents before closure.
The Close All command removes every file that has been loaded.
The Delete Calculation Results Command leaves the file composition data in place but
removes the results of any calculations that have taken place.

2.2.2.6

Restore Temp File

A temporary file with the extension *.PSV is created at various point within the program,
particularly after regression operations, to hold intermediate results. The file is automatically
deleted when a normal PVI file is closed. If, however, there is a computer or software failure
during further processing, this command can be used to recover lost data.

2.2.3

Software Key Maintenance

2.2.3.1

Viewing the Software Key

The Dongle command activates the REMOTE software utility program that allows to read the
software protection key. This facility allows to see what programs are currently enabled,
their expiry date, user authorisation codes and key number. This utility is also used to update
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the software key. Software keys must be updated when new programs or modules are
required or the key expiry date changed. Please refer to the Remote 28 section for further
details.

2.2.4

Printing

2.2.4.1

Printer Set-up

Once selected a printer using the Windows Control Panel and selected the appropriate set-up
options, printing reports is straightforward. When ready to print, always verify the printer is
plugged in, on-line and connected to the machine. The Printer Set-up command of the File
menu, allows to change the printer set-up options. The setup can also be changed from the
Report Print Dialog Screen.
As all printers have varying printing capabilities, the dialog box that appears will correspond
with the printer selected. Most printers allow to select paper size and source, page
orientation and number of copies.

2.2.4.2

Printing a Report

Prior to printing a report, it is always a good idea to save the data file(s). In the unlikely event
that a printer error or some other unforeseen problem occurs, this simple procedure could
prevent work being lost.

To print a report, select the Reporting/Report menu option. Select the sections one wishes to
report on the dialog box. The program will lead through a series of input screens to set up
the required report sections. From the main dialog box, select a destination for the report.
Details of how to set up a report are given in Section

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PVTP

Units System

This section describes the system of units. The built in flexibility of the units system enables
to select any variable and define the unit of measurement to be used. This feature makes it
possible to modify the units system so that it corresponds to data reports supplied by a
service company or customise the units system to suit personal preferences.
PVTP always works internally in Field units. To facilitate data entry and output display in any
units system, PVTP accepts data in the specified Input units and converts it to Field units for
calculation. The results (in Field units) are converted back to the specified Output unit set if
necessary. By making selections from the different categories, one can work in the preferred
units and save the results in the units required by company policy.
The changes made to the units system are file specific, each holding its own unit set. The
program allows to create one's own units system. To access the units system, point to the
Units menu and click the mouse, or click on the icon shown above.

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To access the units system, point to the Units menu and click the mouse. Alternatively, point
to the units icon on the PVT Toolbar and click the mouse.
The following screen will appear:

Unit
Options

The Units Menu is divided into two main sections:


Variables

Validation

Unit
Systems

Select any item from the list of variables displayed. To


select an item, move the scroll box up or down, until the
required variable appears on the screen
Used to set up the error checking limits for each
selected input variable

The following default Units Systems are provided:


Oilfield Units
Norwegian S.I.
Canadian S.I.
German S.I.
French S.I.
Latin S.I.
Customized unit systems can be created and saved under new names.
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Changing
the Units

Validation
Limits

Different units can be selected for both input and output


The Input and Output units for each variable on the list can be changed.
To change or customise the default Units System:
Scroll through the measurement variables list until the unit item to modify is
visible on the screen.
Select the unit category (Input and/or Output) to modify.
Select the unit field corresponding to the measurement item and click on the
arrow to its right to display the list of unit options.
Select the preferred measurement unit
To reduce the possibility of entering incorrect data, PVTP checks that input
data falls within predetermined validation limits. For most purposes, the default
validation limits are adequate. For particular applications, the user can change
the validation limits if required by entering new values directly from the units
definition screen.
Find the required variable by scrolling through the list, and then enter required
changes in the low and high validation limit boxes. Enter the custom validation
limits in the units currently in use. To permanently attach the new validation
limits to a custom units system, click Save before leaving the validation screen
by clicking OK.
To save changes, click Save. The user will be prompted to enter a name for
the new Units System. This new system can now be recalled and applied to
any file. The ability to have separate input and output unit systems allows the
user to work with familiar units and to create reports in any required unit
system. PVT calculates internally in Oilfield Units.
If some particular units have been modified during the course of a PVT session,
the changes will be written into the .PVI file when the input data are saved.
Irrespective of the current units system settings, recalling a previously saved .
PVI file will cause PVT to revert to the units saved in the recalled .PVI file. To
permanently impose a new set of units on the recalled file, open a custom units
file (or use one of the internal unit sets) and then save the .PVI file. The new
units settings will be used whenever the .PVI file is loaded

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91

Models and Model Options

This chapter describes briefly the background equations and inputs to the two models
available within the PVT package VIZ.
the Black Oil Model
the Equation Of State Model
In addition the following topics are also covered:
Acentric factors
Binary Interaction Parameters
Volume Shift
Hydrate modeling
Wax modeling
Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity modeling
Water Eos modeling
Separation and the Path to Surface

2.3.1

The Black Oil Model

Traditional Black Oil modeling techniques have been applied within PVT to
Oil
Dry and Wet Gas
Retrograde Condensate
Matching against Laboratory Data is also available.
Black Oil modeling is a technique which is based on values of density and GOR measured at
known surface conditions to predict the properties at other points and the results of process
changes. The technique is fast and accurate when applicable.

2.3.2

The Equation of State Model

Equations of State were developed to give a mathematical relationship between pressure,


volume and temperature. They were originally put forward as a method of interpreting the nonideal nature of many pure substances. With time, this role has been extended successfully to
predicting the properties of simple and complex mixtures.
The equations used in PVT are derived from Van der Waals Equation and in common with it
represent the total pressure as a summation of an attractive and a repulsive element:
P total = P repulsive - P attractive

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The classic Van der Waals equation describes this relationship as:

RT
v b

a
v2

where b represents the hard-sphere volume of the molecules and a the intermolecular
attraction.
The two cubic Equations of State which are available within the PVT package are:
Peng-Robinson (PR) EoS

RT
v b

Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK)
EoS

a (T )
v (v b ) b (v
RT
a (T )
v b v (v b )

b)

In addition in IPM there is a feature within the program which allows the user to customise
the general equation to suit a specific need.
The attractive term is defined as:

and the a(Tc) function at the critical point is given by the empirical relationship:

The constant 0.45724 is called also Omega A and is specific of the EOS model (in this case,
Peng-Robinson).
(TR, ) is a function of the reduced temperature T/Tc and the acentric factor as shown
below:

m is an empirical quadratic or cubic of the acentric factor:


for

< 0.49

m = 0.37464 + 1.54226

for

> 0.49

m = 0.379642 + 1.485030

- 0.2699

^2

- 0.164423

^2 + 0.016666

^3

In addition the repulsive factor b within PR is given by:

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The constant 0.0778 is called also Omega B and is specific of the EOS model (in this case,
Peng-Robinson).
All cubic Equations of State can be rewritten as a function of the compressibility factor Z e.g.
the Peng Robinson equation becomes

Z3

B) Z 2

(1

(A

3B 2

2 B) Z

B 2 )Z

AB

( AB

B2

B3 )

and the SRK

Z3

Z2

(A

where

a (T ) P
( RT ) 2

bP
RT

and

Pv
RT

See also
The Acentric Factor 93
The Binary Interaction Coefficient 97
Volume Shift 99

2.3.2.1

The Acentric Factor

The acentric factor was put forward as a means of representing the non-sphericity and
polarity of many compounds. The original Equation of State 91 PV=nRT was based on a
model of hard spheres which behaved in a classical and predictable fashion. The vast majority
of compounds are, unfortunately, far from ideal and far from spherical. The acentric factor
provides a number which can be used in the equation of state to match predicted PVT
behaviour with reality.
To quote the authors in Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria by J Prausnitz
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and R. D. Lichtenthaler.
"Acentric Factors are arbitrary and chosen for convenience"
There was originally an empirical basis for the value of the acentric value. Based on the
observed deviation of some fluids from that predicted for simple fluids, Pitzer proposed an
experimental method for determining the acentric factor.

It had been observed that for simple fluids the following relationship held i.e. as the
Temperature (T) approached 7/10 of the critical temperature (Tc) the measured saturation
pressure(Ps) approached 1/10 of the critical pressure(Pc).
Ps
Pc

1
10

T
(
Tc

7
)
10

when

Pitzer's proposal was to use the logarithmic deviation from this relationship as a measure of
the acentric factor
log 10 (

Ps
) T / Tc
Pc

0.7

1.0

The acentric factor enters the equation of state as a component which describes the change
in the intermolecular attraction component with temperature a(T) .
The Peng Robinson Equation is
P

RT
v b

v (v

a (T )
b ) b (v

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with

a (T )

a (Tc ) (TR ,

where the a(T) function at the critical point is given by the empirical relationship
a (Tc )

0.45724 (

R 2TC2
)
PC

and
(TR ,

is a function of the reduced temperature T/Tc and the acentric factor as follows

(1

(1 TR0.5 ) 2

is an empirical quadratic or cubic of the acentric factor


At values of
less than 0.49 the equation is quadratic:
0.37464 1.54226
0.2699 2
The estimation changes to a cubic at other values of
0.379642

1.485030

0.164423

0.016666

:
3

In addition the repulsive factor b within PR is given by:


RT C
b 0.0778 (
)
PC
Soave Redlich Kwong varies from PR in the constants within the empirical functions i.e.
R 2TC2
a (Tc ) 0.427 (
)
PC

0.480

1.54

0.176

and

0.08664 (

RT C
)
PC

The table below shows some typical acentric factors. Note that the value increases with the
size of the molecule and its polarity.
Table 1 Common Acentric Factors
Compound

Acentric
Factor

Nitrogen N2

0.039

Carbon Dioxide CO2

0.239

Methane C1

0.011
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Ethane C2

0.099

Butane nC4

0.199

Hexane C6

0.299

Octane C8

0.398

Decane C10

0.489

Acentric factors are available from the database supplied with the PVT package. The values
in table 1 are taken from the Petroleum Experts database.The acentric factors for all
components can be viewed and adjusted within the View Properties 247 or Composition Editor
208 dialog.
It is particularly important to select the right acentric factor for pseudo components. This value
can be calculated automatically or input manually within the Composition Input display. This
display is selected by clicking on the Properties button within the Composition Entry 203 dialog.

See also
Equation of State Model 91
Binary Interaction Coefficient 97
Volume Shift 99

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97

The Binary Interaction Coefficient

The cubic equations of state were originally developed for pure substances. With time their
use was extended to mixtures. This extension required some method of introducing a measure
of the polar and other interactions between pairs of dissimilar molecules. The binary
interaction coefficient was put forward. This variable enters the calculation as a component in
the inter-molecular attraction a.
For mixtures:
N

xi x j a ij
i 1 j 1

where
x
and
x
are mole fractions of components i and j, respectively and:
i
i

ai

a j (1

k ij )

kij is the binary interaction coefficient.


The attraction functions
ai and aj represent the a(T) functions for each individual component. (see acentric factor 93
help)
Binary Interaction Coefficients represent a flexible way of moulding the ideal Equation of State
91 to match the non-ideal reality of many mixtures. The program offers the user a variety of
correlations for Binary Interaction Coefficients as well as the opportunity to enter values
manually. This flexibility, however, brings with it the problem of where to start when
characterizing a mixture. Hint on Binary Interaction Coefficients puts forward a possible
approach.
The manipulations of kij are carried out within the BI Coefficient dialog 216 :
This display is selected by clicking on the B I Coeffs... button within the Composition Input
Page.
The latter display can be called by selecting the Composition Entry 203 option from the Data
menu or clicking on the icon.

The Binary Interaction Coefficients Display contains combo boxes which allow the user to
select between the correlations available for kij .
Choice of BI Coefficient
Authors disagree on the values of binary interaction coefficients for hydrocarbon mixtures.
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Some suggest that kij should be set at zero for hydrocarbon hydrocarbon interactions, and
given a value for hydrocarbon non-hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon non-hydrocarbon
pairs .
The approach of using BI coefficients is suitable for systems modeled using the SoaveRedlich-Kwong(SRK) Equation Of State.
With the Peng-Robinson(PR) Equation Of State the following general approach was found
successful in many cases:
For Volatile Oils or
CoCondensates

For Heavy Oils

try the correlations:


A. N. Other Correlation for Boiling Point
Bergman(PNA) and Cavett/Edmister for Acentric
Factor
No Binary Interaction Coefficients or a small value e.
g. 0.05 between the C1 and heaviest component
try the correlations:
Petroleum Experts Correlation for Boiling Point
TWU/Edmister for Acentric Factor
Binary Interaction Coefficients for all components

The program offers the user a variety of correlations for binary interaction coefficients as well
as the opportunity to enter values manually. The manipulations of kij are carried out within the
display illustrated below:

This display is selected by clicking on the B I Coeffs... button within the Composition Entry 203
Page.
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See also
The Equation of State Model 91
The Acentric Factor 93
Volume Shift 99
2.3.2.3

Volume Shift

Volume Shift arises from an inherent weakness in the 2 parameter (a and b) Equations of
State in estimating liquid densities.
The Peng Robinson 91 equation of state can be written as:

RT
v b

v (v

a (T )
b ) b (v

b)

In the 3 parameter version V is replaced by a corrected version Vs where

Vs = V + cV
c is the third parameter and is the sum of the individual xi ci . This third parameter volume
shifts the equation.
Since this correction is done after the flash equilibrium calculations, the component K values,
saturation pressure and phase envelope are not affected. What is changed is the
compressibility Z and anything derived from it i.e. Density, GOR, FVF, Relative Volume etc.
The use of Volume Shift seems to be very attractive, since it corrects a known problem.
However there are potentially significant problems in using this method e.g.:
1) The Equation of State as a model is non predictive . Matching must be used to model real
fluid behaviour. Volume Shift can be used to make up for bad data or inadequacies in the
matching methods.
However, too high Volume Shift corrections can lead to incorrect results (for example,
unphysical profiles of densities or FVF).
That is why when matching on Volume Shift it is necessary to make sure the EOS gives
consistent results for a wide range of pressures and temperatures and this can be achieved
by running sensitivity calculations in PVTP, for example CCE, CVD, separator, etc.
This potentially negative effect of the Volume Shift can be mitigated by introducing the
Volume Shift at the end of the final EOS matching process.
2) The Volume Shift approach is a correction factor which solves the difficulty of matching
density. It does, however, introduce other problems with regards to the continuity of the
original equation. It is not a temperature dependent function. Matching a c at one elevated
temperature may cause difficulties with matching and the material balance at another lower
temperature. This can potentially introduce mass imbalance when going from high to low
temperatures, which may significantly affect calculations like pressure drop estimation in the
wellbore.
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The IPM Suite contains corrections to reduce the errors in mass balance that volume shift
produces. This correction consists of using the Oil FVF coming from a mass balance:

(where the density of oil and gas at Standard Conditions are measured properties, see
related topic 152 )
rather than purely from the EOS. The correction above forces the mass balance in the EOS,
which has been found to counteract the negative effect of the Volume Shift and makes the
Volume Shift a viable solution to achieve reliable EOS matching.
However, when generating EOS to be exported to third party software, it is important to
make sure that those software use the same correction by mass balance as in IPM.
Volume Shift is available when any Equation of State model is selected within the Main
Options 168 dialog and within the Preferences 156 dialog. Once set, all calculations will use
volume shift. Volume Shift parameters can be set and tested within the Volume Shift Setup 160
dialog. This is called from the Preferences dialog. The parameters can also be viewed and
adjusted within the View Properties 247 or Composition Editor 208 dialog.
The volume shift within the program is based on a method from Jhaveri and Joungren (SPE
13118,1988).
In this method
Ci = bi . Si
where the Vol Shift S factor Si can come from:
a database or calculated from the molecular weight of the component by
Si = (1-(d / MWti**e))
or
(NEW!!!) A correlation that determines the Si on the basis of the components' specific
gravities
The volume shift parameter Si can be regressed upon if required (see Regression Parameter
Selection 278 )

2.3.3

Wax Modelling

Won (ref 1 107 ) originally proposed a model for wax formation based on an ideal solution. The
derivation of the basic equation is as follows:
The problem is analysed in terms of a subcooled liquid and a thermodynamic cycle (see
diagrams below). This analysis is outlined more fully in Prausnitz (ref.2 107 ).
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The fugacity of the solid is equal to that of the solute in liquid and for the system at position 2
is given by:

f solid

x2 f 20

................eqn. 1

where
x2 is the mole % solute in the solvent or solubility,

is the liquid-phase activity coefficient and


the standard state fugacity.
if it is assumed that the solvent and solute are very similar making
1
2
and equation 1 becomes
2

f 20 is

P1( pure _ solid

x2

P2 ( subcooled

_ liquid )

with P being the vapour pressure and


x2 now referred to as the ideal solubility
Pressure/Temperature Diagram for Pure Material

Pressure

LIQUID

Critical
Point

SOLID
Triple
Point

VAPOUR

Temperature

The problem can be more generally solved using the thermodynamic cycle shown in figure
below.
Fig 2 Thermodynamic Cycle
Triple Point
b

T
SOLID

LIQUID

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ASSUMPTION 1

Assuming negligible solubility of the solvent in the solid then


equation 1 can be written as:

f 2s
L
2 f2
It is assumed that the fugacities depend only on the solid
forming component and are independent of the nature of the
solvent.
The thermodynamic cycle allows the ratio of the two
fugacities to be calculated. The change in Gibbs free energy
going from a to d is given by:
x2

ASSUMPTION 2

f 2L
)
f 2S ...............eqn2

RT ln(

In addition the energy change can be written as:


a

Using the thermodynamic cycle a->d is replaced by a->b->c>d . enthalpy becomes:


a

This can be rewritten in terms of the Heat of Fusion(Melting)


and the specific heats in going from temperature T to the
triple point.
Pt

T
a

ASSUMPTION 3

hf

C p dT

T (

Tt

d v
) dP
dT

Pt

vdP
P

The volume change at the melting point is assumed to be


negligible and these terms are ignored, giving:
T
a

hf

C p dT
Tt

The entropy cycle can be written as:


a

which in a similar way to enthalpy becomes


T
a

ASSUMPTION 4

Sf
Tt

Cp
T

Pt

dT
P

d v
dP
dT

again the volume change is assumed to be negligible giving


T
a

Sf
Tt

Cp
T

dT

The entropy change at fusion is defined as:

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Sf

103

Hf

Tt
Substituting the results of the cycle in eqn 2 and rearranging
gives the equation which acts as the fundamental for many
wax models:
H f Tt
c p Tt
cp
T
f 2L
)
(
1)
(
1)
ln( t )
S
f2
RT t T
R T
R
T
for most materials the melting point line is nearly parallel with
the Pressure axis allowing the triple point temperature to be
replaced with the melting point.
ln(

ASSUMPTION 5

ln(

ASSUMPTION 6

f 2L
)
f 2S

Hf
RT t

Tmelt
T

1)

c p Tmelt
(
R
T

1)

cp
R

ln(

Tmelt
)
T
.................

eqn 3
Implicit in the use of this equation is that the thermodynamics
of a pure substance in an ideal solution can be extended to a
mixture where the solvent is non-ideal and the solid is neither
ideal nor a pure single species
Some points to note about this equation is that it is dominated
by the Melting Point value. In essence this value determines
when the solid may start to form. The other important term is
the Heat of Melting which plays a role both in the formation
temperature and the amount of solid formed. In its simplified
form, this equation as used by Won overestimates both the
Wax Appearance Temperature and the amount of wax
formed. The various models question the assumptions built
into this model extending the equation in various ways to
remove these errors.
How this equation is used and adapted within the various
models is given in Model Details section 103

Wax Modeling 100 .


Wax Model References 107
Wax Model Details 103
Wax Appearance Temperature 402
Wax Amount Calculation 397
2.3.3.1

Wax Model Details

This is the list of the models available:


WON
ORIGINAL

This model is outlined in reference 1 134


Won derived the equation 3 (Wax modeling 100 ) and expressed it as
follows:
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si
xi

K iSL

L
i
S
i

Hf

) exp[

RT t

(1

T
)
Tmelt

cp
R

(1

Tmelt
T

ln(

Tmelt
)
T

v
dP ]
RT

.......4
where
xi

and

xi

are the mole fractions of i in the liquid and solid respectively.


Won simplified this equation by assuming the second and third terms
were equal to zero and the ratio of activity coefficients
L
i
S
i

was equal to 1.
This leaves a fairly simply equation which unfortunately exaggerates
both the Wax Appearance Temperature and the amount of wax formed.
si
xi

K iSL

exp[

Hf

(1

RT t

T
)]
Tmelt

Within the model the required values for Melting Points and Heats of
Melting are taken from the following correlations
Tmelt

374 .5

0.02617 .M i

20172
Mi

and
H

0.1426 .M iTi m

where
x
is the molecular Weight of component i
This model is outlined in reference 4 134 .
In an effort to overcome the weaknesses in his original model above
Won suggested that the assumption that
2

WON WITH
SOL PARAMS

L
i
S
i

was equal to 1 was in valid as it lead to and overestimation of the


solubilities of C5 to C10 in the solid solution.
Instead the author proposed an estimation of the activity coefficients
based on modified regular solution theory.
This gives a method of estimating the activity ratio based on solubility
parameters.
:
L
i
S
i

exp[

vi
{(
RT

) 2L

) 2S }]

where
x
is the molar volume given by?
2

vi
x2
L
d 25

PVTP Help And Manual

Mi
L
d 25

is the molecular Weight of component i and


is the liquid density of the component at 25 degrees C estimated by:
February, 2011

User Guide

L
d 25

0.8155

0.6272 e

04 M i

105

13 .06 / M i

The paper gives estimates of the solid and liquid solubility parameters
up to C40

CHUNG
ORIGINAL

is the average solubility parameter for the respective phase


Within this model the author uses the correlations outlined in his original
model for estimating melting points and heats of melting
This model is outlined in reference 5 107 .
This model is very similar to Won with Sol Params above. The
difference lies in the assumption that the all the species in the solid are
very similar and that the activity coefficient of the solid can therefore be
set to 1.
Equation 4 in Won Original above is modified by the introduction of
solubility parameters to be:
si
xi

K iSL

exp[

Hf
RT

(1

T
)
Tmelt

vi
(
RT

) 2L

ln(

vi
v
) 1 ( i )]
Vm
Vm

with
Vm

xi vi

Within this model the author uses the correlations outlined in won
original for estimating melting points and heats of melting
In addition the following correlations are suggested for molar volume
and liquid solubility parameter.
vi

M i /( 0.8155

0.6272 e

13 .06
)
Mi

04 M i

and
L
i

6.993

0.781

0.049

10 .235 /

where
ln( M i )

and
is the molecular Weight of component i
This model is outlined in reference 5 134 .
This model is very similar to Won with Sol Params above. The
difference lies in the correlations listed below:
xi

CHUNG
MODIFIED

0.9Ti m ( M i0.55 )

3.8( M i0.786 )

vi

and
L
i

PEDERSEN
WAX

6.743

0.938

0.0395

13 .039 /

This model is outlined in reference 3 107 .


The model is derived from the simplified version of equation 3 (Wax
modeling 100 ) used by Won i.e.
ln(

f 2L
)
f 2S

Hf
RTt

(1

Tmelt
)
T

Substituting fugacity coefficients for fugacities,this equation becomes:

1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

106

PVTP

fi

xi

Hf

p exp[

RT t

(1

T
)]
Tmelt

where
xi
is the fugacity of component i in the solid phase
L
i
is the liquid fugacity coefficient of component i
xi

is the solid phase mole fraction of component i


and
p is the pressure
The basis for the model is the presumption that not all the high
molecular weight material can form waxes.
The fraction which is allowed to do so within the model comes from an
empirical relationship :
z iS

z itotal [1 ( A

Mi ).(

pip

p
p

p
i

)C ]

where
z iS

is the fraction of
allowed to become wax,
xi
is the C7+ molecular weight
2 is the SG of component i
and
z itotal

L
i

is the SG of an equivalent paraffin given by:

p
i

0.3915

0.0675 ln( M i )

A B and C are constants with the following values


A = 0.8824 , B= 0.0005354 and C=0.1144
The component melting points and heats of melting are calculated using
correlations proposed by Won(ref 1 134 )

Ti m

374 .5

0.02617 .M i

20172
Mi

and
H im

0.1426 .M iTi m

See also
Wax Modeling 100
Wax Model References 107
Wax Appearance Temperature 402
Wax Amount Calculation 397

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February, 2011

User Guide

2.3.3.2
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

107

Wax Model References

Continuous Thermodynamics for Solid-Liquid Equilibria: Wax Formation from Heavy


Hydrocarbon Mixtures by K.W. Won March 26 1985. , Paper 27A presented at AIChE
Spring National Meeting. Houston, TX
J.M. Prausnitz , R.N. Lichtenthaler,E. Gomesde Azevedo :- Molecular Thermodynamics
of Fluid-Phase Equilibria 2nd Ed. ,Prentice-Hall ,New Jersey (ISBN: 0-13-599564-7)
Prediction of Cloud Point Temperatures and Amount of Wax Formation by K.S.
Pedersen SPE Production & Facilities Feb. 1995 ,46-49
Thermodynamics for Solid Solution-Liquid-Vapour Equilibria: Wax Phase Formation from
Heavy Hydrocarbon Mixtures. by K.W. Won , Fluid Phase Equilibria,30 (1986) 265-279
Thermodynamic modeling for Organic Solid Precipitation by T H Chung,SPE 24851

See also
Wax Modeling 100 .
Wax Model Details 103
Wax Appearance Temperature 402
Wax Amount Calculation 397

2.3.4

Hydrates

This section is a brief introduction to hydrates and their modeling. It includes:


Background to hydrates 107
Hydrate Modeling 109
Hydrate Inhibition 112
Hydrate Model References 113
2.3.4.1

Background to Hydrates

This document is not intended to be a comprehensive guide to the subject of hydrates.


A detailed explanation of hydrates is available in references 1-4 of the Hydrate Reference List
113 .
Gas Hydrates are solid meta-stable compounds which form at higher temperatures than that
expected for pure water ice.
Gas hydrates can be referred to as compounds because they have a fixed composition.
However, a hydrate is a particular type of compound which derives its formation not from
covalent bonds but from weak van der Waals attraction forces.
Within a hydrate, water molecules form a cage with spaces(cavities). If a gas molecule is of
the right size it can occupy a cavity and weakly bond to the surrounding water molecules.
This bonding makes the overall energy of the hydrate lower than that for the molecules in nonhydrate form and acts as the thermodynamic driving force for hydrate formation.
The compounds formed by this type of loose entrapment are termed Clathrates.
Water has been identified as forming three types of hydrates VIZ. I ,II and H (ref.1,2)
1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

108

PVTP

For the purposes of this program we will consider only the more common I and II forms.
The differences between the two structures derive from the number of molecules which make
up a single unit.
Both types of hydrate contain a variety of small and large cavities.
The number and size distribution of the cavities within a hydrate determines the types and
amount of gas molecules which can be held.
Not all cavities need to be filled to form a stable hydrate.
Typical of the data supplied for the two hydrate types:
Property

Hydrate I

Hydrate II

Number of water molecules


per unit cell

46

136

No. of small cavities

16

No of large cavities

Small diameter Angstrom

7.95

7.82

Small diameter Angstrom

8.6

9.46

Potential guest moleculessmall cavity

C1
CO2
N2
H2S

C1
C2
CO2
N2
H2S

Potential guest moleculeslarge cavity

C1
CO2
N2
H2S

C1
C2
C3
C4
iC4
CO2
N2
H2S

With a small number of potential guests and two possible structures, the calculation of
hydrate formation can be dealt with by the application of statistical mechanics (van der Waals
and Platteeuw ref. 5 113 )
Estimating hydrate formation is explained in more detail in Hydrate modeling.
Inhibitors
Since hydrate formation is can be an expensive process problem ,much work has been
carried out to engineer its reduction or prevention.
The most common methods involve any or all of the following:

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

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109

a) Keeping the temperature higher than the hydrate formation temperature.


b) Adding bulk inhibitors such as methanol or sodium chloride which will shift the hydration
curve downwards to lower temperatures and
c) Adding "kinetic" inhibitors which act to slow down the formation of hydrate crystals
The modeling of inhibitors is dealt with in Hydrate Inhibition.
The user is encouraged to read references 113 1 or 2 to get a more in-depth view of this
subject.
2.3.4.2

Hydrate Modeling

See also Background to Hydrates 107 .


It has been assumed in the model below that a discrete water phase is present. It is also
possible to form hydrates directly from gas water molecules. This mechanism is described in
Hydrates with no water phase 111 .
The thermodynamic modeling of gas hydrates is normally considered to consist of 2 steps.
pure water (state 1) -> empty hydrate lattice(state 2) -> filled hydrate lattice(state H)
State 2 is really hypothetical , only being used to make the calculation practical.
Written in terms of chemical potentials the transition becomes.
( H
( 2
H
1
2)
1)
The H 1 term represents the gain from adsorption of the gas molecules.
It is this difference that is a measure of the weak van der Waals forces which are giving the
energy advantage to forming the structure.
The estimation of this term is treated as a statistical gas adsorption problem and the varying
approaches to its solution make up the majority of the differences between the model options
(see Hydrate Formation Pressure and Minimum Inhibitor Concentration).
The difference between the chemical potential of pure water and the filled hydrate is given by
H

RT

nci ln( 1
i

y ji )
j

where
nci
is the number of cavities of type i
and
n
is the probability that cavity of type i is occupied by gas molecule of type j (see table in
Background to Hydrates).
ci

The important term


n
is calculated from Langmuir adsorption theory and is given by:
ci

1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

110

y ji

PVTP

C ji f j
(1

C ki f k )
k

where
x
and
xi
are the fugacities forgas molecule j and k calculated by the Equation of State Model.
C ji
is a temperature-dependent Langmuir adsorption constant.
The C ji term is commonly determined using the Lennard-Jones-Devonshire spherical cell
model.(ref 1 113 ).
This model requires an estimation of the potential function describing the interaction of guest
molecules and the water molecules at any distance r within the cage.
i

The lower the potential , the higher is the probability of finding a guest gas molecule at this
position. Of the alternative methods for calculating potential the most commonly used is the
Kihara (see ref 1 113 and 6 for more details).
In the Sloan option (ref 1) within the program the adsorption constant
C ji
is derived as follows:
C ji

4
kT

R
0

r
) r 2 dr
kT

exp(

where R is the cavity radius and r is the distance from the cavity centre.
The experimentally fitted Kihara cell potential
(r ) is calculated from :
12

(r )

2z

R11 r

10

a
R

4
11

R5r

a
R

........eqn 1

and
N

1
(1
N

r
R

a
)
R

(1

r
R

a
)
R

where N = 4,5,10 or 11 as in eqn 1


z = the coordination number of the cavity
R = the free cavity radius
r = distance from the cavity centre
the parameters
,
a ,and
are experimentally derived parameters which are unique to every guest molecule.
The Munck et al model from reference 3 113 is used in PVTP. This uses a function for
k ij
of the type shown for the model above , but with different values for A and B.
The total chemical potential equation takes the form:

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

User Guide

RT

(T0, P0 )

RT

T
T0

hw
dT
RT 2

P
P0

vw
dP
RT

111

ln a

where
xi

(T0, P0 )

is the chemical potential at the chosen reference state with temperature


and pressure
w

xi
hw

is the specific enthalpy difference and


is the specific volume difference going from
to T

vw

xi

a is the activity of water within the system. The value of pure water is taken as 1. When an
inhibitor is used the value of a is adjusted to include the inhibition effect.
See Hydrate Inhibition 112 for more details.

2.3.4.3

Hydrates with no water phase

See also Background to Hydrates 107 .


The normal mechanism for hydrate formation assumes the presence of a water phase as
described in Hydrate Modeling 109 .
Formation of hydrates directly from a gas phase containing water is possible and occurs at a
higher pressure than the equivalent when a discrete water phase is present.
This calculation path is only followed if water is present in the composition and the Assume
free water phase exists option is set off (see Hydrate Formation Pressure Dialog 405 )
The thermodynamic modeling of gas hydrates is normally considered to consist of 3 steps
(see ref 3 113 ).
water in gaseous form(G)->condensed water (state 1) -> empty hydrate lattice(state 2) ->
filled hydrate lattice(state H)
Written in terms of chemical potentials the transition becomes.

The difference between the chemical potential of gaseous water and the condensed water is
given by

where

is the fugacity of water in the gas phase which is given by:

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PVTP

where

is the saturation pressure of water and

is the molar volume of water.

Combining the above equations with those already outlined in Hydrate Modeling 109 gives:

...................................................................(h.1)

The difference between the chemical potential of pure water and the filled hydrate is given by
H

RT

nci ln( 1
i

y ji )
j

...................................................................(h.2)

where
nci
is the number of cavities of type i
and
n
is the probability that cavity of type i is occupied by gas molecule of type j (see table in
Background to Hydrates).
ci

The combination of equations h.1 and h.2 allows the possibility of evaluating whether the
hydrate formation from gas is thermodynamically favored or not.
2.3.4.4

Hydrate Inhibition

See also Background to Hydrates 107 and Hydrate Modeling 109 .


There are 2 types of hydrate inhibitor i.e. kinetic and thermodynamic.
Kinetic
inhibitors

Thermodynamic
inhibitors

PVTP Help And Manual

are designed to slow down the rate of hydrate formation by blocking


or stopping crystal growth.
These agents, fatty acids, amines and fatty alcohols do not stop
hydrate formation, they only shift it to a different time and place.
Kinetic inhibition is outwith the scope of the PVT program at present
disrupt the order within water produced by its hydrogen bonding.
This disruption reduces the activity of the water, making it less likely
to form hydrates.
There are two main types of thermodynamic inhibitor VIZ. alcohols
(methanol, glycol) and electrolytes (NaCl,ZnCl etc.).
The chemical potential water molecules in the presence of alcohols
decreases because hydrogen bonds form between the water
molecules and water.

February, 2011

User Guide

H2O + CH3OH

O .H

113

CH3

With electrolytes the water molecules form a coat of many layers


around the ions in solution.
This destroys the normal liquid crystal structure of water making it
more difficult for the ordered hydrate structure to form.
Both mechanisms result in a lowering of the water activity term a in
the hydrate modeling equation.
H

RT

(T0, P0 )

RT

T
T0

hw
dT
RT 2

P
P0

vw
dP
RT

ln a

Activity correlations are found in references 1,2 and 7 113 for the inhibitors supported

2.3.4.5
1.

Hydrate Model References


Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases by D.S.Sloan :-Marcel Dekker Inc., New York
(ISBN: 0827 99372)
Hydrates of Hydrocarbons by Yuri F. Makogon :- PennWell Publishing Company,
Tulsa,Oklahoma
Properties of Oils and Natural Gases by K.S.Pedersen,A.Fredenslund and P.
Thomassen :- Gulf Publishing Company.Houston
Petroleum Engineers Handbook :- Society of Petroleum Engineers ,Richardson,Texas
Platteeuw. J.C. and van der Waals. J.H. : Thermodynamic Properties of Gas
Hydrates II. Phase Equilibrium in the System, Rec. Trav. Chem.(1959),78,126-133
J.M. Prausnitz , R.N. Lichtenthaler,E. Gomesde Azevedo :- Molecular
Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria 2nd Ed. ,Prentice-Hall ,New Jersey (ISBN:
0-13-599564-7)

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

See also Hydrate Modeling 109 .

2.3.5

Compositional Gradient

The compositional gradient function calculates the effect of gravity on the distribution of
components within the reservoir. Under the influence of gravity light components will tend to
move towards the top of the structure with the heaviest having a greater abundance towards
the bottom.
Fig 1
fi(T,P,ni)

f1i(T1,P1,ni)

With no gravity effect the fugacity of a component is a function of the temperature, pressure
1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

114

PVTP

and composition.
Fig 2
f1i(T1,P1,ni,dz)

dz

fi(T,P,ni)

With the gravity effect introduced the fugacity also becomes a function of the change in height
dz.
The change in the component fugacities over the height change is given by the following
equation (full derivation in ref 1.):
f 1i
fi

exp[

( Mw i / RT ) gdz

..................... Eqn 1
The fugacity of a component at reference
x
changes to
i

f 1i

. The size of the change depends on the temperature T, dz, and importantly the component
molecular weight
C
.
When the component molecular weights are very different e.g. methane (18) and asphaltene
(2000-20000), the gradient is at its most extreme with the composition and consequently the
saturation pressure varying relatively quickly with depth.
ji

Fig 3
P1,T1,n1
dz
Pref,Tref,nref

The procedure the program follows to solve the gradient is as follows:


1. The vertical heights selected are resolved as a set of stages (see fig. 3).
2. The starting point is the matched PVT sample, which has a composition (nref), a
reference pressure (Pref) and a reference temperature (Tref) associated with it.
3. From P,T and n the equation of state can calculate zfactor and density of the fluid and
the component fugacities
x
at this point.
4. From the fluid density and the change in height the program can estimate P1. The
implication being that the composition is constant over dz.
5. T1 is calculated from the user-entered temperature gradient.
6. From P1 estimate, T1 and nref, the component fugacities
i

f 1i

can be calculated as in figure 1 i.e. no composition change due to gravity.

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February, 2011

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115

7. Equation 1 is the used to adjust the


f 1i

value and take account of the size segregation.


8. The adjusted fugacity ratio is directly related to the composition, so a new estimate of
composition at 1(n1) can be calculated.
9. The pressure adjustment required at 1 is directly related to the change in composition so
a new P1 can be estimated.
10. With the new P1 and n1 , steps 6-9 are repeated until the values converge i.e. the
fugacity change calculated for P,T and n changing equals that predicted by equation 1.
11. The reference conditions now become P1, T1 and n2 and the second stage is
calculated.
12. When all upward stages have been calculated, the program returns to Tref and Pref
and does the downward stages in exactly the same way
The result of this calculation is a series of pressures temperatures and compositions and
depths for each of the selected depths. If one is starting from an oil and travel up the
structure, the fluid will get lighter and lighter, containing more and more methane. At the some
stage the composition calculated will be a gas. This is the GOC. With the Ps, Ts and
compositions the equation of state can be used to calculate the properties of the fluid at each
depth including saturation pressure density GOR etc.
The results are normally projected graphically with the change in reservoir pressure and
saturation pressure shown versus depth.
Fig. 4

The abrupt change in slope of the pressure line reflects the change in density from gas to oil.
With this type of system there is one point where the saturation pressures of the gas and oil
1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

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PVTP

are equal and also equal the reservoir pressure at the GOC. Figure 5 shows the phase
envelopes of the gas and oil compositions just above and below the GOC.
Fig. 5

From this diagram it can be seen that the fluids are very different. They do however share a
common point that is equal to the temperature and pressure at the GOC.

2.3.5.1
1.
2.
3.
4.

2.3.6

Compositional Gradient References


Thermodynamics of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs by A. Firoozabadi :-McGraw-Hill (ISBN:
0-07-022071-9)
Prediction of compositional grading in a reservoir fluid column - Montel F. and Gouel
P.L. SPE 14410
Compositional variations within a hydrocarbon column due to gravity - Schulte A. 55th
Techn. Conf. Soc. of Petr. Eng. AIMF,Texas,Sept. 21-24,1980 SPE 9235
Role of Asphaltenes in Compositional Grading of a reservoir's Fluid Column Hirschberg A. SPE 13171

Density Calculation

The calculation screens within PVTP show two oil densities for comparison purposes. The
EOS value is determined directly from the equation of state calculation of liquid
compressibility Z. This value is used to derive all the related properties i.e. Oil Gravity, Oil

PVTP Help And Manual

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117

FVF and GOR.


The second value is taken from the correlation put forward by Standing and Katz or an
alternative Costald method. The non-predictive nature of the Equation of State method 91 and
its weakness in calculating liquid properties makes the value of Oil Density particularly
suspect in non-matched systems. The EOS Density is, however, sensitive to composition and
property changes, making it a suitable value for matching and regression.
The Standing-Katz value is empirically derived and in our experience predicts well the density
of most fluids.The correlation is only accurate at low temperatures and pressures i.e
separator or stock tank conditions. The average nature of the properties used and its lack of
sensitivity make Standing-Katz unsuitable for regression.
The Costald method is a corresponding states model which uses critical properties to
estimate density. It is extensively used in surface facility modeling. Since this model shares
properties with those used to model the fluid, the values for density will change as the
matching process proceeds. In common with the practise in surface modeling, two variables
have been created specifically for this method VIZ. Costald Acentric Factor and Costald
Volume. See the model description for more details.
It is possible to swap between the alternative density models at various places within the
program. The main point where the change is done is within the Preferences Dialog 157 .
2.3.6.1

Standing Katz Density

The Standing-Katz procedure for estimating Oil Densities was originally developed as a
graphical method in 1941.
As computers evolved , the graphical method was adapted as a series of analytical
expressions.
The method involves a series of discrete steps:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Estimate the H2s + C3plus density


Correct for C2 concentration
Correct for CO2 concentration
Correct for C1 and N2 concentration
Pressure correction
Temperature correction

In general, the Standing-Katz method gives accurate densities for liquid phases with high
concentrations of heavy components. It is less accurate for light oils and unsuitable for vapour
phases.
Within the PVT package this density is displayed as a guide to the matched accuracy of the
Equation of State equivalent.
See also
Density Calculation 116
Costald Density 118
Automatch Densities 230

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PVTP

Preferences Dialog 157


2.3.6.2

Costald Density

One of the most successful and extensively saturated liquid density models is the HankinsonThomson (HT) model, often called COSTALD. It is used extensively in surface facility
modeling as an alternative to the density derived from the Equation of State 91 .
The Hankinson-Thomson model is reported to be one of the most accurate and most general
models for saturated liquid density prediction. This method is used extensively in the chemical
and petrochemical industries for compressed liquid density calculation. The saturated liquid
density is obtained first and then the effect of pressure is taken into account. The COSTALD
model requires two additional component properties VIZ COSTALD Critical Volume and
COSTALD Acentric Factor.
These additional parameters can be viewed and adjusted in the View Properties 247 and in the
Pseudo Properties 220 dialogs.
The saturated liquid molar volume Vs is given by:

For equations (2) - (3) the parameters have the following values:
a = -1.52816 b = 1.43907 c = -0.81446 d = 0.190454
e = -0.296123 f = 0.386914 g = -0.0427258 h = -0.0480645
The pure-component parameters within the equations are the characteristic volume V*, a
slightly adjusted critical
temperature Tc,HBT and the SRK-acentric factor SRK. These are tabulated for many
compounds in Reid et al.
[3]. Reid et al. recommended the use of these special parameters to get best accuracy.
Hankinson and
Thomson [9] also give their original parameter collection.
In this program the Tc used is the standard one. The V* has a similar value to the standard
Vc and is called the COSTALD Critical Volume within the program. The density calculated is

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

User Guide

very sensitive to the values given to the individual COSTALD Critical Volumes.
becomes the COSTALD Accentric Factor property.

119

SRK

Mixture properties are calculated by a series of mixing rules which are detailed in reference 2.
References
1.
2.
3.

Hankinson, R.W., Thomson, G.H., AIChE J. 25 (1979) 653-663


Thomson, G.H., Brobst, K.R., Hankinson, R.W., AIChE J. 28 (1982) 671-676
Reid, R.C., Prausnitz, J.M., Poling, B.E., The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 4th
edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987

See also
Density Calculation 116
Standing Katz Density 117
Automatch Densities 230
Preferences Dialog 157

2.3.7

Splitting Pseudo Components

All fluids require the matching of measured lab data before the Equation of State Method can
then be used to predict non-measured fluid properties. Much of the matching effort focuses on
the pseudo components. Normal operation would be to start with one pseudo which
represents the plus fraction. This may be C7+ C10+, C20+ etc. Oils can usually be matched
with only one pseudo component but there may be good reasons to create more. The
Splitting operation is used to create these additional pseudos. Any single pseudo represents
hundreds of components with a wide variety of properties. During the splitting process the
pseudo is broken down or de-lumped into many components. The amount of each component
is determined by a continuous distribution which varies with the splitting method. The
components are then recombined or lumped to give the desired number of splits.
See Step by Step Guide 472
Pseudo splitting can be very beneficial in
dealing with difficult fluids
providing a better match when use of pure component properties for matching is
restricted
operating with multiple samples at varying depths
decontaminating samples
creating multiple pseudos to help in surface separation calculation
Several Splitting method are available in PVTP. Each method corresponds to a different way
of describing the components' distribution within the defined pseudo component.
The splitting methods available are:

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PVTP

Original
Method

This was the first method to be used within PVTP.


The distribution of components is made up of a combination of rising and
falling exponential functions which meet at the input average molecular
weight of the pseudo.
Figure 1 gives an example of this type of distribution. This method was
found to be reasonable for oils but did not produce the large pseudos
required to model higher saturation condensates. A single falling
distribution as in Petroleum Experts 2 was found to be better for this
application.

Figure 1
Petroleum
Experts 1
Petroleum
Experts 2

PVTP Help And Manual

This method is an upgrade of the Original Method to give more consistent


results. Method 1 was retained for backwards compatibility
The distribution of components is made up of a single falling exponential
function.
Figure 2 gives an example of this type of distribution. This method was
found to be better for modeling higher saturation condensates. As the last
pseudo is split into 2 several times a much larger pseudo is produced than
with methods 1 or 2. The interaction of this large component with methane
tends to drive up the fluid saturation pressure. Matching a higher dewpoint
is normally the key to modeling this type of fluid (see Step by Step Guide
472 )

February, 2011

User Guide

Follow
Profile

121

Figure 2
This feature allows the user to determine all or part of the component
distribution. this can be extremely helpful in dealing with contamination or
fluids with distinctive distributions e.g. biodegraded fluids. To set up a
profile click on the Setup Profile button within the Pseudo Properties 220 or
the Advance Splitting 233 dialogs. This brings up the Split Profile 245 dialog
where the relevant data can be entered. When the distribution is
recalculated the split algorithm will give the components the values
defined and follow a declining distribution for the rest.
This methodology is key to the decontamination 261 procedure. Figure 3
gives an example of this type of distribution.

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PVTP

Whitson
Method

Figure 3
The most recent and most flexible method. This uses a gamma function to
produce a distribution which an vary considerably in shape.
In this method a three parameter gamma probability function is used to
generate a series of distributions for the plus fraction. Unlike the previous
methods a series of possible distributions can be calculated for the same
fluid by changing the main parameter alpha. Figure 4 shows a typical set
of curves.

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123

Figure 4
For molecular weight x the probability density function, p(x) is given by
p( x)

( )

(x

exp[(x
( )

)/ ]

.............................(1)

is the gamma function.

The three parameters used within the Whitson gamma distribution are
alpha, beta and eta. The main shape function is alpha and this is always a
user input in the program. See Advanced Splitting 233 dialog and Whitson
Splitting Options 238 for more details on parameter entry.
Beta is normally a calculated value the formula for which is
(M n

)/

....................(2)

is the average molecular weight, alpha and eta are the other two
distribution parameters.
Eta is the start molecular weight and is normally estimated from
14n 6 ............................(3)

where n is the plus fraction number.


By default, beta and eta are calculated using equations 2 and 3
respectively. The user can however override this and enter the values
instead.
Ref: Curtis H. Whitson : "Characterizing Hydrocarbon Plus Fractions" ,
Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal , August 1983,683-693
A facility is provided within the program which helps the user to find the
best combination of alpha and number of pseudos for the fluid being
matched. See Whitson Split Analysis 242 dialog for more details

2.3.8

Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity Models

Various viscosity models have been introduced into the PVTP program.Only one model is
active in a file at any one time. The active model is selected via the combo box which appears
on all the calculation input and regression selection displays.

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PVTP

The models available are listed below. To obtain details of any model click on the name.
Lohrenz, Bray Clark 124 based on Jossi et al with reduced density written in terms of Vcs
Pedersen et al 125
corresponding states model with methane as the reference
substance
Zhou et al 127
corresponding states model with nC14 as the reference substance
129
Little and Kennedy
correlation based on oil density molecular weight, specific gravity
and weight fraction of C7+
With unmatched fluids the Pedersen model tends to give the best results. Lohrenz Bray Clark
is the most commonly used model but it gives high errors for liquids if the viscosity is not
matched. When matched the LBC model gives the best match. In most cases LBC is the only
practical options as export formats to other packages are written in terms of LBC inputs. The
Little and Kennedy correlation is very good at predicting the viscosity of oils above bubble
point. Below saturation pressure results are mixed with some fluid values being totally
unsatisfactory.
The thermal conductivity 130 model that is included within PVTP is very similar in derivation to
the viscosity model from Pedersen et al
See also
Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity References 132
2.3.8.1

Lohrenz,Bray,ClarkViscosity Model

Various viscosity models have been introduced into the PVTP program. The Lohrenz-BrayClark model(ref 5 132 ) is probably the most commonly used for hydrocarbon mixtures.
It is an adaptation of a model proposed by Jossi et al (ref 11 132 ).
At the core of this model is a fourth-degree polynomial in reduced density.
[(

*)

10

4 1/ 4

a1

a2

a3

2
r

a4

3
r

a5

4
r

where a1 = 0.10230
a2 = 0.023364
a3 = 0.05833
a4 = -0.040758
a5 = 0.0093324
x2

is the low-pressure gas mixture viscosity and is determined by the method proposed by
Herning and Zippener (ref 12 132 )
N

zi

*
i

MW i1 / 2 /

i 1

z i MW i1 / 2
i 1

the individual component viscosities are given by the following expressions

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

User Guide

34 x10

Tri0.94
for

Tri

1.5

17 .78 x10

( 4.58Tri

1.67 ) 5 / 8

for

Tri

125

1.5

is the component viscosity-reducing parameter.


For a mixture this variable is determined as follows:
2

1/ 6

N
i 1

1/ 2

z i Tci
i 1

2/3

z i MW i

z i Pci
i 1

in equation 1 is the mixture density divided by the critical density of the mixture.
r
c

The variation introduced by Lohrenz et al was in the calculation of the critical density.
This variable was rewritten in terms of the critical volumes of the mixture components.
1

1
Vc

( z iVci )

z c 7 VcC 7

i 1
i C7

The origins of the LBC model lies in gases rather than liquids. Its dependence on the density
term causes inaccuracies with viscous fluids.
NOTES on REGRESSION
Without matching the LBC model cannot reliably reproduce the viscosity of oils. The
introduction of Viscosity Automatching into the PVTP program was designed to help address
this weakness.
In regression the program uses the component critical volumes to match lab data. Since the
Vc values are not used anywhere else within the EoS models, this matching can be done in
isolation.
See Viscosity Matching 288 for more details on the procedure used.

2.3.8.2

Pedersen et al Viscosity Model

In this model viscosity is calculated using a corresponding states model. This method is very
similar to the corresponding states thermal conductivity model. The basic model is described
in reference 1 132 . The corresponding states theory suggests the reduced conductivity
1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

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PVTP

is a function of reduced pressure and temperature

f ( Pr , Tr )

and the reduced viscosity is given by


r

(Tc )

1/ 6

( Pc ) 2 / 3 ( MW )1 / 2

The basic premise of the corresponding states theory is that the function
f is the same for all the similar substances within the group.
Pedersen et al (refs 1, 3, 4) have proposed the following relationship for the viscosity of
mixtures.
mix

( P, T )

(Tc , mix / Tco )

1/ 6

( Pc , mix / Pco ) 2 / 3 ( MW mix / MW o ) 1 / 2 (

mix

)(

( Po , To ))

...........1)

where
To
Po

T /(

Tc , mix

P /(

mix

Tco

and

Pc , mix

mix

Pco

The subscript o indicates the reference substance methane.


The critical temperature of the mixture is given by:
z i z j [(
Tc , mix

Tci 1 / 3
)
Pci

z i z j [(
i

Tcj

)1 / 3 ]3 [Tci Tcj ]1 / 2

Pcj

Tci 1 / 3
)
Pci

Tcj
Pcj

)
)1 / 3 ]3

with the critical pressure being given by:


8
Pc , mix

z i z j [(
i

Tci 1 / 3
)
Pci

z i z j [(
i

Tci 1 / 3
)
Pci

Tcj
Pcj

)1 / 3 ]3 [Tci Tcj ]1 / 2
(

Tcj
Pcj

)
)1 / 3 ]3 ) 2

The molecular weight is calculated using the expression


MW mix

1.304 x10

2.303

( MW w

2.303

MW n

MW

In function 1) the important elements still to be found are


a) The viscosity of the reference substance VIZ methane
b) The correction factor
for the mixture and the reference substance
x

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127

The model for the viscosity of the reference substance is based on the work of Hanley et al (
reference 9 132 ).
This has been extended by Pedersen and Fredenslund (ref 1, 3 132 ) to become:
( ,T )

(T )

(T )

F1

' ( ,T )

F2

"( ,T )

Each element is a polynomial in temperature and methane density. See reference 1 and 4 132
for details.
The methane density comes in the form of a modified BWR EoS. Details of this polynomial
are given in reference 10 132 .
Pedersen et al have suggested that the correction factors should take the following form:
1

mix

7.378 x10

0.031

1.847
ri

0.5173
MW mix

and

1.847
ri

NOTES on REGRESSION
In general, without matching the Pedersen model gets closer to the range of petroleum
mixture viscosities. There are still inaccuracies, however, particularly with viscous oils. In an
effort to reduce this error a matching facility has been added to this model. Unfortunately, the
main variables within the model are the component Tcs and Pcs. Since these values are set
by PSAT matching etc. it is not practical to use them again for viscosity matching. As an
alternative, a shift and multiplier option has been added to match viscosity with this model i.e.
Visc = Visc*Multiplier + Shift
See Viscosity Matching 288 for more details on the procedure used.

2.3.8.3

Zhou et al Viscosity Model

This viscosity model is similar to the model proposed by Pedersen et al. it is also a
corresponding states model.
The function is less complex than that applied by Pedersen. The other significant difference is
that nC14 rather than methane is used as the reference substance.
The corresponding states theory suggests the reduced conductivity
is a function of reduced pressure and temperature
r

f ( Pr , Tr )

and the reduced viscosity is given by


r

(Tc )

1/ 6

( Pc ) 2 / 3 ( MW )1 / 2

The basic premise of the corresponding states theory is that the function
f is the same for all the similar substances within the group.
Zhou et al (ref 6) have proposed the following relationship for the viscosity of mixtures.

1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

128

mix

PVTP

(Tc , mix / Tco ) 1.3845374 ( Pc , mix / Pco )

( P, T )

0.756972

( MW mix / MW o )

0.532041
o

( Po , To )

...........1)

where
To
To

T /(
T /(

Tc , mix
Tco

Tc , mix
Tco

and
)

The subscript o indicates the reference substance nC14.


The viscosity of the reference substances given by the expression:
o (T , P )

exp aP 2

bP

dP 4 eP 3
fP 2
T (iP 2
jP

gP
k)

where P is the pressure in bars and T is the temperature in degrees C.


The constants used in the formula have the following values:
a = -4.868729x10-6
b = 6.162691x10-3
c = -3.461585
d = 1.545022x10-9
e = -3.443880x10-6
f = 4.187426x10-3
g = -2.527380
h = 874.0397
i = -2.985316x10-4
j = 0.3435125
k = -182.6151
NOTES on REGRESSION
In general, the Zhou model does not get as good an initial value as that of Pedersen et al.
There are significant inaccuracies, particularly with viscous oils. In an effort to reduce this
error a matching facility has been added to this model. Unfortunately as with Pedersen, the
main variables within the model are the component Tcs and Pcs. Since these values are set
by PSAT matching etc. it is not practical to use them again for viscosity matching.
As an alternative, a shift and multiplier option has been added to match viscosity with this
model i.e..
Visc = Visc*Multiplier + Shift
See Viscosity Matching 288 for more details on the procedure used.
See also
Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity References 132

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2.3.8.4

129

Little and Kennedy Viscosity Model

This viscosity model has been derived empirically from measurements of pure component and
petroleum mixture viscosities(ref 7) 132 .
The equation is a cubic in viscosity:
B

B0

1
T

B1

B2

1
T

B3

B4

c7

B5

c7

4
c7

4
m

B6

B7 ( M )

B8 ( M

B9 ( M

)4

B10 (

)3

B11 (

)4

where
B is the viscosity, T is the temperature in degrees Rankin and P is the pressure in psia.
The values of
x
and
x
are given by the following functions:
i
i

am

exp log e A

bm

exp log e B

A and B in turn are given by polynomial expansions:


A

A0

A1

1
T

A2 ( M ) c 7

A3

A4
c7

2
m

A5

A7 ( M ) 3

A6 ( M )

A8 ( M

A9 ( M

)3

A10 (

)2

and
B

B0

B1

1
T

B2

1
T

4
3

B3

c7

B4

c7

B5

4
c7

B6

B7 ( M )

B8 ( M

B9 ( M

)4

B10 (

)3

B11 (

)4

with
M c7
c7

M
x

the molecular weight of the C7+ fraction


the specific gravity of the C7+ fraction
the average molecular weight of the mixture
the density of the mixture at reservoir conditions

The value of the A and B constants are given in the table below:
0
1
2
3
4

A Value
21.918581
-16815.621
0.023315983
-0.019218951
29938.501

B Value
-2.6941621
3757.4919
-0.31409829x10(12)
-33.744827
31.333913
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130

PVTP

5
6
7
8
9
10
11

-2802762.9
0.24400196x10(-10)
-0.096858449
0.700237064x10(12)
0.54324554x10(-5)
-0.037022195
0.13129082
0.070811794
-0.10526154x10(-5) -0.83033554x10(-9)
-31.680427
21.710610
-31.083554

See also
Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity References 132
2.3.8.5

Thermal Conductivity Model

Thermal conductivity is calculated using a corresponding states model. This method is very
similar to the corresponding states viscosity models . The basic model is described in
reference 1 132 . The corresponding states theory suggests the reduced conductivity
is a function of reduced pressure and temperature
x

f ( Pr , Tr )

and the reduced conductivity is given by


r

1/ 6

(Tc )

( Pc )

2/3

( MW )1 / 2

The basic premise of the corresponding states theory is that the function
p is the same for all the similar substances within the group.
Pedersen et al (refs 1,3,4) have proposed the following relationship for the thermal
conductivity of mixtures.
mix

x(

( P, T )
ix

(Tc , mix / Tco )

)(

( Po , To )

1/ 6

( Pc , mix / Pco ) 2 / 3 ( MW mix / MW o )

int, o

( Po ))

int, mix

1/ 2

(T )

1)

where
To
Po

T /(
P /(

Tc , mix

mix

Tco

and

Pc , mix

mix

Pco

The subscript o indicates the reference substance methane.


The critical temperature of the mixture is given by:
z i z j [(
Tc , mix

Tci 1 / 3
)
Pci

Tcj
Pcj

T
z i z j [( ci )1 / 3
Pci

)1 / 3 ]3 [Tci Tcj ]1 / 2
(

Tcj
Pcj

)
)

1/ 3 3

with the critical pressure being given by:


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February, 2011

User Guide

8
Pc , mix

z i z j [(
i

(
i

Tci 1 / 3
)
Pci

Tcj
Pcj

T
z i z j [( ci )1 / 3
Pci

131

)1 / 3 ]3 [Tci Tcj ]1 / 2
(

Tcj
Pcj

)
)

1/ 3 3

] )

The molecular weight is calculated using an expression put forward by Mo and Gubbins (ref. 8
132 )
1
[
8

MW mix

1 / MW j )1 / 2 (Tci / Tcj )1 / 4 ) /[(

( z i z j (1 / MW i
i

Tci 1 / 3
)
Pci

Tcj
Pcj

)1 / 3 ] 2 ] 2 Tc , mix

1/ 3

Pc , mix

4/3

In function 1) the important elements still to be found are


a) The thermal conductivity of the reference substance VIZ methane
b) The correction factor
for the mixture and the reference substance
Most workers suggest that the thermal conductivity can be separated into two contributions i.
e. the internal and the translational:
x

tr

int

The internal part is given by the following functions:


1.18653 1 (Cp id 2.5 R ) f ( r ) / MW
int
f(

0.053432

0.030182

2
r

0.029725

3
r

where
is the gas viscosity is the gas viscosity at temperature T and 1 atm.
Cp
is the Ideal Gas Heat Capacity at temperature T. R is the gas constant.
is the reduced density.
The model for the thermal conductivity of the reference substance is based on the work of
Hanley et al (reference 9 132 ).
This has been extended by Pedersen and Fredenslund (ref 1,4) to become:
,,
( ,T )
F1 , ( , T ) F2
( ,T )
o (T )
1 (T )
c ( ,T )
x

id

Each element is a polynomial in temperature and methane density. See reference 1 and 4 for
details.
The methane density comes in the form of a modified BWR EoS. Details of this polynomial
are given in reference 10 132 .
Tham and Gubbins reported
values for the smaller molecules found in hydrocarbon mixtures(ref 11 132 ).
Pedersen and Fredenslund (ref 4) extended this past C7 using the function:
x

2.043
ri

0.0006004

MW i1.086

with the value for mixtures given by:

zi z j (

mix
i

) 0.5

..................2)

This expression was modified by Pedersen and Fredenslund (ref 4 132 ) to be:
mix

/ 2.6605 ) 2.4049 (

1)
1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

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PVTP

where
is equal to the
C
value in equation 2)
ji

2.3.8.6
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

2.3.9

Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity References


Properties of Oils and Natural Gases by K.S.Pedersen,A.Fredenslund and P.
Thomassen :- Gulf Publishing Company.Houston
Pedersen K.S. et al ,"Viscosity of Crude Oil", Chem. Eng.Sci.,39,1984,pp 1011-1016
Pedersen, K.S. and Fredenslund,Aa.,"An Improved Corresponding States Model for
the Prediction of Oil and Gas Viscosities and Thermal Conductivities",Chem. Eng.
Sci.,42,1987,pp 182-186
Christensen, P.L. and Fredenslund,Aa.,"A Corresponding States Model for the
Thermal Conductivity of Gases and Liquids",Chem. Eng.Sci.,35,1980,pp 871-875
Lohrenz,J.,Bray,B.G., and Clark, C. R.," Calculating Viscosities of Reservoir Fluids
from Their Compositions",J.Pet.Technol.,Oct.1964,pp 1171-1176
Ducoulombier,D.,Zhou H.,Boned,C.,Peyrelasse,J.,Saint-Guirons,H., and Xans P.,J.
Phys.Chem. 1986,90,pp 1692-1700
Little,Kennedy,Soc.Pet.Eng. J.,June 1968 ,pp 157
Mo,K.C. and Gubbins,K.E., "Conformal Solution Theory for Viscosity and Thermal
Conductivity of Mixtures",Mol.Phys.,31,1976,pp 825-847
Hanley H.J.M.,McCarty,R.D. and Haynes,N.M.,"Equation for the Viscosity and
Thermal Conductivity of Methane",Cryogenics,15,1975,pp 413-417
McCarty,R.D.,"A Modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State for Methane Using
Recent Experimental Data",Cryogenics,14,1974,pp 276-280
Jossi,J.A.,Stiel,L.I.,and Thodos,G.,"The Viscosity of Pure Substances in the Dense
Gaseous and Liquid Phases",AIChE J.,8,1962,pp 59-63
Herning,F.and Zippener, L.,"Calculation of the Viscosity ofTecnical Gas Mixtures from
the Viscosity of Individual Gases"Gasu. Wasserfach,79,1936,pp 69-73

Water Modeling

The presence of water in most reservoirs and surface networks creates the requirement to
model the multiphase mixtures produced. The conventional equations of state such as Peng
Robinson(PR) or Soave Redlich Kwong(SRK) are not adequate for reproducing the special
interaction of the aqueous phase.
Workers in this area (refs 1 and 2), have concentrated their efforts in modifying the attractive
function a(T) of water and providing binary interaction coefficients between water and the
other species within the mixture.
Soreide and Whitson Model
This model is outlined within reference 1. The main element is the introduction of a
temperature dependent binary interaction coefficient(BIC), the magnitude of which depend
both on the species involved and the type of phase i.e. aqueous or non-aqueous.

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User Guide

Aqueous
Phase

133

In general the value of the BIC in this phase is given by:


k ij

A0 (1

c sw )

A1Tri (1

c sw )

A2Tri2 (1

c sw )

where j represents water, csw is the salinity of the water and Tri is the reduced
temperature of component i.
The constants in the equation have the following values:
0.1

Ao

1.1120

1.7369

A1

1.1001

0.8360

A2

1.15742
4.7863 x10

0
1

1.0988

1.438 x10

13
i

2.1547 x10

In addition the authors proposed specific correlations for N2,CO2 and H2S
N2
k ij

1.70235 (1

0.7505
0.25587 c sw
)

0.44338 (1

0.75
0.08126 c sw
)Tri

CO2
k ij

0.31092 (1

0.7505
0.15587 c sw
)

0.23580 (1

0.979
0.17837 c sw
)Tri

21 .2566 exp( 6.7222 Tri

c sw )

H2S
k ij

0.20441

0.23426 Tri

Non-aqueous In the non-aqueous phase only H2S is given a temperature dependent BIC:
Phase
k ij

0.19031

0.05965 Tri

Some of the lighter components are given the values shown below , the rest
are given a value of 0.5
C1 = 0.485
C2 = 0.492
C3 = 0.5525
nC4 = 0.5091
N2 = 0.4778
CO2 = 0.1896
In addition , the normal a(T) function is replaced for water with the equation :
1/ 2

0.453 (1

Tr (1

0.0103 c 1sw.1 ))

0.034 (Tr

1)

The fact that the BICs are temperature and phase dependent means that they
cannot be manually set by the user.
See Streams 412 Menu on how streams containing water may be prepared.

1990-2011 Petroleum Experts Limited

134

2.3.9.1

PVTP

Water Modeling References

1.

Peng-Robinson predictions for hydrocarbons,CO2,N2 and H2S with pure water and
NaCl brine ,I. Soreide and C.H. Whitson, Fluid Phase Equilibria,77:217-290

2.

EoS Predictions of Compressibility and Phase Behaviour in Systems Containing


Water, Hydrocarbons and CO2, A.Firoozabadi,R.Nutakki,T.W. Wong and K.Aziz.SPE
15674
Multicomponent CO2/Water/Hydrocarbon Phase Behaviour modeling: A
Comprehensive Study,D.Y. Kuan,P.K. Kilpatrick,M.Sahimi,L.E. Scriven and H.T.
Davis, SPE 11961
Predicting Phase Behaviour of Water/Reservoir-Crude Systems Using the Association
Concept,A.A. Shinta and A.Firoozabadi , SPE 27872

3.

4.

2.3.10

Separator Calculations and the Path to Surface

Black oil properties are traditionally referenced to surface or standard conditions. Properties
like gas to oil ratio, condensate to oil ratio and gas and oil FVFs allow the petroleum engineer
to relate surface production rates and volumes to the equivalent downhole amounts. All these
properties are path dependent.
In the past the path to surface was fairly straightforward composing of a straight flash to
standard conditions or at the passage of the fluid through a train of two or three separators.
Ever more complex surface facilities are being developed making the path difficult to define
and the various separation processes time-consuming to calculate.
Efforts have been made to develop a representation of the overall separation process which
simplify the calculations and give information on the traditional streams of oil and gas as well
as newer requirements such as LNG and LPG 135 .
In addition to the traditional paths of straight flash and separator train the program now allows
the surface plant to be represented by K values or Split Factors. The traditional separator
train has also enhanced by the addition of a train of chillers. This allows the separator gas to
be further processed into LPG and LNG streams.
Included in this section are:
Use of Chillers 135
K Values 138
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135

Split Factors 144


2.3.10.1 Separators and Chillers LNG values
See also Separator Calculations and the Path to Surface 134 .
Chiller trains are introduced within the surface facilities to separate methane from the other
gaseous products of the separation train.
The final methane-rich liquid is sold as LNG (liquefied natural gas). The other chiller products
are sold as gas or LPG (liquefied petroleum gas).
The overall efficiency of the separation processes is measured in terms of recovery.
With 1 mole of feed to the separators as the basis the recovery of any of the three products
is the mole fraction that exits the plant.
RECOVERY(oil) + RECOVERY(gas) + RECOVERY(lng) = 1
It should be noted that all products which cannot be identified as oil or LNG are labeled as
gas.
Typical configurations of the separator/chiller combinations would be

In this case all the gas produced by the separator train ends up as feed for the chillers. The
last chiller produces only liquid and this fluid are therefore labeled as LNG (liquefied natural
gas).
The liquid products from the other chillers are combined and labeled as GAS. This is also
commonly called LPG (liquefied petroleum gas).
The OIL is the liquid product from the stock tank.
This scheme can be represented within the CCE 330 and CVD 341 dialogs as:

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PVTP

Within the Separator Calculation 286 the same scheme would become:

Alternatively not all gas may be diverted to feed the chillers.

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137

In this scheme only the first stage gas is sent to the chiller train. The last chiller produces only
liquid and this fluid are therefore labeled as LNG(liquefied natural gas).The OIL is the liquid
product from the stock tank. All other products from the separators and chillers are combined
and labeled as GAS.
This scheme can be represented within the CCE 330 and CVD 341 dialogs as:

Within the separator 286 calculation this scheme becomes:

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PVTP

The last scheme is where the last chiller does not produce a stream which is completely
liquid. In this case no LNG can be identified. All streams which are not oil are combined as
gas.
This is not a scheme which should be pursued as it offers very little more information than one
where no chillers have been defined.
The only additional information is the compositions and fractions of the fluids produced within
the chillers.
This information is available within the separator analysis display.

2.3.10.2 K Values
See also Separator Calculations and the Path to Surface 134 .

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Ki

139

yi / xi

Kvalues are the ratio of the mole fraction of component i in the gas yi to the mole fraction of i
in the liquid xi.
K Values are used as an alternative to multiple flashes to calculate the component separation
that occurs by passing a fluid through a separator train.
By avoiding the need for a flash they allow the EoS PVT calculations to proceed faster.
The values are used to calculate any property that requires a path to surface to be defined i.
e. GOR,CGR,Bo.
The GOR etc. calculated using K values will be accurate where the working composition is
closest to the composition used to derive the K Values.
Two types of K Value are available:
K values for each separator stage
One set of values that represent the total separator train
The single set covering all separator train will calculate faster but not be as accurate at lower
pressures.
Having a set for each separator is slower but more accurate over a wider range.
K Values can be used to represent complex separation processes or surface facilities. They
will however require periodic update as the plant and the feed compositions evolve.
yi values

yi values

xi values

K Values can be viewed and produced within PVTP from the Separator Calculation Analysis
362 Display,.
In addition the K value dialog 139 allows the user to enter, edit import and export K Values.
See Also:
Separators and Chillers 135
Split factors 144

2.3.10.3 K Value Dialog


K Values 138 are used as an alternative to multiple flashes to calculate the component
separation that occurs by passing a fluid through a separator train.
This dialog can be accessed from any display that contains a separator train panel e.g. the
Constant Composition Calculation 330 Dialog.
Select Use K Value from the separator calculation method combo box and click on the View|
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PVTP

Setup K Values button that appears

A typical display is shown below:

For each defined separator stage there is a K Value for each component.
The K Values can be
entered in the table provided
Imported in a *.pks file format using the Import K Vals button
Imported from another IPM suite program using the *.prp format 35
Transferred from the PVTP separator calculation via the separator analysis 362 dialog.
If multi-stage K values are used separator pressures and temperatures are required for each
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stage.
If overall K values are used the pressure and temperature of stock tank conditions should be
entered as shown below

Any K Values entered can be exported in *.pks file format by clicking on the Export KVals
button
Clear Stream will clear the K value and separator data for the current stream.
See Also:
Separator Calculations and the Path to Surface 134 .
Separators and Chillers 135
Split factors 144
2.3.10.4 K Value Export/Import Dialog
The dialog is called by clicking on the Export K Values button within the Separator Analysis
Dialog (related topic 358 )

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The options are to send out the K values in the *.pks file format by clicking on the Send to
File button or to transfer the values internally within the stream using the Copy to this
Stream button.
There is also the option to send out values that represent each stage or an overall set to
represent all the stages.
Simply select the set to be sent and click on the destination button.

2.3.10.4.1 K Value Export File Format


K Values are used as an alternative to multiple flashes to calculate the component separation
that occurs by passing a fluid through a separator train.
They can be exported and imported into all compositional IPM programs using the I*.pks
format. An example of the ASCII file format is given below.
NOTE
1) The file has a version number #1 to allow future upgrades
2) All separator temperatures and pressures are output in field units
3) Stages where no separation occurs are marked by zero K Values
*
* Petroleum Experts - PKS Separator K Values Export File
*
*
*Export File Signature
*#PetexPKS
*Export File Version
*#1
*
* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! FILE
DETAILS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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* FILE NAME : C:\PVTP_Files\SpeedUpEoS\K Value Test\Heavy Oil.pks


* Exported : Thu Apr 15 13:52:34 2004
* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
*
*
*
* Number of Components
*
12
*
* Number of Separators
*
5
*
Press(psig)
Temp(deg F)
* ---------------------------100
176
55
158
10
95
0
85
0
60
*
*
* KVal Stage 1
KVal Stage 2
KVal Stage 3
KVal Stage 4
KVal Stage 5
Component
* ------------- ------------- ------------- ------------------------- ------------*
79.4653
0 "N2"
11.8237
0 "CO2"
5.74145
0 "H2S"
35.379
0 "C1"
4.33171
0 "C2"
2.04756
0 "C3"
3.28627
0 "IC4"
1.76212
0 "NC4"
1.82152
0 "IC5"
1.48696

129.57

345.699

573.654

17.1818

29.8777

45.6997

8.16493

13.2977

20.0985

55.4653

129.672

209.9

6.02048

9.22303

13.7735

2.7173

3.51073

5.0754

4.42557

6.8563

10.2465

2.307

2.81598

4.02689

2.37614

2.8624

4.08232

1.90983

2.17889

3.07514
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0 "NC5"
0.820698
0 "C6"
1.12141e-006
0 "PS-1"

1.00098

1.0013

1.37697

6.05775e-007

3.26366e-008

2.57221e-008

*
*# End of file

2.3.10.5 Surface Split Factors


See also Separator Calculations and the Path to Surface 134 .

Surface Split Factors are used as an alternative to multiple flashes to calculate the component
separation that occurs by passing a fluid through a separator train.
Each split factor represents a fluid stream recovery on a component by component basis.
Three fluids are represented by the split factors VIZ OIL,GAS and LNG. See help on Chillers
and LNG calculations.
If the separator input feed has a composition given by Fi....n. mole fraction. The mole
recoveries for each component in each fluid stream becomes.
Zi oil

Si oil Fi

Zi gas

Si gas Fi

Zi gas

Si gas Fi

where Zi is the moles produced of each component in each fluid and Si is the individual
component split factor for that fluid.
Summing the individual Zi values gives the recoveries for fluid .
Since
RECOVERY(oil) + RECOVERY(gas) + RECOVERY(lng) = 1
then
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Zioil
i

Zi gas
i

Zi LNG

145

The compositions are then normalised to give the values in the usual form e.g.. for the oil
Zi oil
Zioil

xi
i

If a fluid does not exist the equivalent recovery and split factors will be set to zero
One set of split factors only represents one feed composition. To represent the many
variations in composition that enter the separator train, many sets of split factors are
required.
The program will then interpolate between the sets to give a values that better represent the
feed composition. The key to the interpolation is the concentration of a marker component.
This is normally taken as the heaviest component but this can be changed.
It is a weakness of the interpolated method that the calculation cannot handle effectively a
fluid which is outside the split factor range generated.
If only a gas table is generated for example the method would give a totally unrealistic result if
an oil composition is interpolated. Great care should be taken in the creation of the Surface
Split Factor tables.

2.3.10.6 Split Factor Setup Dialog


Split Factors are used as an alternative to multiple flashes to calculate the component
separation that occurs by passing a fluid through a separator train.
They can be expanded to include information on the amount and composition of any LNG
produced by the defined separation process.
See help on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and the background to Split
factors.
This dialog can be called from the CCE or CVD calculation screens by selecting Use Split
Factors as the separation method and clicking on the View/Calc Separator Split Factors
button that appears.

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PVTP

Alternatively this dialog can be accessed from the Separator Analysis Dialog (related topic 358 )
by clicking on the Export Split Fac button.

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A typical display looks like this:

Fluid
Marker
Component

Split Factors normally come as a series of tables. Each table represents a


different composition which has been used to feed the separator/chiller
train.
The tables are differentiated from each other by the inclusion of the molar
concentration of the selected marker component.
As a default, the heaviest component is used. The combo box at the base of
this dialog allows the user to select between all the components in the
stream.
When finally utilised the split factor tables are interpolated, the key to the
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PVTP

Calculation
Methods

interpolation being the concentration of the marker component in the


separator inlet composition
There are two alternative methods for calculating split factors:
Use Single
This method will send the stream fluid through the defined
separator/chiller train and produce a single set of split
set of
factors.
values
This option only has one marker concentration and cannot
from
therefore be interpolated as the separator feed
separator
concentration changes. As a result the generated split
calculation
factors will always produce the same values for the GOR,
fluid recoveries and compositions.
As such the method is of limited use
Calculate
Split factors work best when they represent the full range
of fluid which might be encountered by the separators.
a series
The final usefulness of the split factors generated are very
of values
dependent on how representative the selected
from
concentrations are.
mixing
This option allows the user to generate a range of fluids
gas and
using a constant composition expansion (CCE) calculation
oil derived
and some blending as the basis for the variability.
from a CCE
The user can select a temperature and a range of
calculation
pressures at which the calculation is done. Since the
composition is constant above the saturation pressure
(PSAT) it is not useful to do multiple values above PSAT.
If this is found to be the case the program will warn the
user as shown below and adjust the pressure range
appropriately. If All is selected the number of tables
generated will be spread through a range of gas oil and
mixture calculations.

A CCE calculation below PSAT will generate a gas and oil


composition. The user is given the choice of sending the oil
gas or both(All) compositions through the separator/chiller
train.
This is changed via the combo box within the dialog. It is
advisable to use the All option. It is a weakness of the
interpolated method that the calculation cannot handle
effectively a fluid which is outside the split factor range
generated.

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If only a gas table is generated for example the method


would give a totally unrealistic result if an oil composition is
interpolated
Number of Tables Generated
It is possible to generate up to 50 tables of Split Factors each of which contains a marker
concentration and three split factors for each component.
The three split factors allow recoveries to be calculated for each component within the three
outlet fluids VIZ OIL,GAS and LPG.
Command buttons
Calc Split Factors
View Split Factors
Exit
Cancel

Calculates the split factors using the options selected and calls the
Split Factor View|Export Dialog
If split factors exist this option calls the Split Factor View|Export
Dialog
This option saves any changes that have been made and exits the
dialog
This option closes down the dialog ignoring any changes that have
been made

2.3.10.7 Split Factor View|Export Dialog


Split Factors are used as an alternative to multiple flashes to calculate the component
separation that occurs by passing a fluid through a separator train.
They can be expanded to include information on the amount and composition of any LNG
produced by the defined separation process.
See help on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and the background to Split
factors.
This dialog can be called from the Split Factor Setup Dialog by calculating split factors or by
clicking on the View Split Factors button.
A typical dialog is shown below:

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It is possible to generate up to 50 tables of Split Factors each of which contains a marker


concentration and three split factors for each component.
The three split factors allow recoveries to be calculated for each component within the three
outlet fluids VIZ OIL, GAS and LPG.
The listbox on the left of the dialog lists the tables that have been filled. Click on this listbox or
on the numbered tab to change the table displayed.
As the table changes the new split factors and table concentration are displayed the overall
stream recoveries generated with the table are also displayed if available.
The tables are automatically ordered to aid in the interpolation process.
Note that the NLG split factors may not be available after calculation. NLG values will only be
available if a chiller train has been used for their creation.
In addition, the program has also to identify that NLG has in fact been produced by the
chillers. The test used is that the last chiller produces only liquid.
If this is not the case all the products from the chiller train are combined as gas.
Split factors imported may also only contain oil and gas. If this is the case the NLG recoveries
will be set to zero during any subsequent calculation using the split factors.
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Command buttons
Export

The generated split factor table can be exported in Eclipse format.


Selecting this option calls a small dialog which allows the user to select
between the three output options VIZ GPTABLE3,GPTANBLEN and
GPTABLE.

This dialog also allows the user to select the range of Split Factor Tables
to be sent to file. The data is exported as an ASCII *.inc file.
Eclipse requires a table number to be given to this block of data. This
number is entered using the edit box provided. This value has no effect
other than to be added to the output file
Import
The program allows the user to read an eclipse *.inc file in the three main
formats VIZ GPTABLE3,GPTANBLEN and GPTABLE. The information
retrieved depends on the format used.
The imported data must match the number of components in the target
stream. The tables imported are automatically ordered to aid in the
interpolation process
Copy Data to All This option allows the user to copy the currently viewed list of split
factors to all the streams within the project file
Streams
Clear Table
Clicking on this button will clear the split factor table currently selected.
The tables are automatically reordered after this operation as the empty
table is sent to the back of the list
Clear All
This operation will remove all split factor data from the currently selected
stream
Exit
This option saves any changes that have been made and exits the dialog
Cancel
This option closes down the dialog ignoring any changes that have been
made

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2.3.11

PVTP

Calculating Interfacial tension

The interfacial tension of a pure substance is given by the equation:

where is the interfacial tension , P is the parachor and M is the molecular weight of the
substance. l and g are the densities of the liquid and gas.
This equation can be extended to mixtures of hydrocarbons and becomes:

Ml and Mg are the molecular weight of the gas and liquid at equilibrium. P x and y are the
component parachors, liquid and gas mole fractions respectively.
Reference:
Weinaug, C.F. and Katz,D.L "Surface Tension of Methane-Propane Mixtures" Ind. Eng. Chem.
(1943) 35,239-242

2.3.12

Using Material Balance to Calculate Bo

The Oil FVF or Bo of oil going to reservoir conditions is defined as:

where

is the volume of oil at reservoir conditions and

is the resultant volume in

the stock tank. Since

depends on the path to surface, Bo is also path dependent. The


volumes included in this formula could be calculated in a variety of ways. Within the PVTP
program the calculation is done on the basis that mass balance should be conserved.
The mass of oil in the reservoir is given by:

where o ilre s is the density of the oil at reservoir conditions:


The mass of fluid produced at surface is given by the mass of oil in the stock tank plus the
mass of gas produced.
The mass of oil in the stock tank is given by:

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The mass of gas produced from the oil is:

where GOR is the solution GOR of the oil and


surface conditions.
If mass is to be conserved:

gas

is the density of the gas produced at

giving

As the Bo is determined from a mass balance, that means that mass balance is forced
in the EOS. This honouring of mass balance has allowed to safely use methods like
Volume Shift, which as methodology would cause the mass to change in the path from
downhole to surface.
see also
Mass Balance Calculator 454

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2.4

PVTP

Main menu and Preferences

All PVTP functions are listed as menu options. Simply select the menu required and choose
an item from the list displayed. This will activate an option or display the relevant screen.
Every option selected has a visible result . The user will automatically be taken through the
necessary steps to enter data and perform calculations. The intention is to move from left to
right and top to bottom across the main applications menu.
To start PVTP, select the appropriate icon and press or double-click the program icon. A
screen similar to the following will appear:

The menu options across the top of the screen are the PVTP main menu options. Each is
described below.
File

Options

PVTP Help And Manual

The File menu is a management menu with commands that enable to


open, save or create new data files. One can use this menu to move
between open files and set-up printer options
The Options menu is the starting point of PVT and the key to the
program. Use this menu to define the application and principal features
of the PVT model to be used. The options to select are unique to the
current file and apply until changed by the user, or another file is recalled.
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Data

Calculation

Calc. Solids
Streams

Reporting

Utilities
Window

155

These options also determine the subsequent screens, menus and


commands which are displayed. This menu is also used to define the
input and output units of measurement. A flexible system of units is
provided allowing to customise the internal units system
Use the Data menu to define mixture compositions and properties
including pseudo-components. PVT correlations can be modified to match
laboratory measured data using a non-linear regression technique. In
addition, grouping of components, and setting of reference conditions
The Calculation menu provides with the relevant calculation options.
Calculations include critical temperature and pressure, phase envelopes,
constant volume depletion, depletion study, constant composition
expansion, differential expansion, separator compositions, and
compositional gradient and swelling tests
The Calc. Solds menu provides with access to calculations involving
hydrates and waxes
Within a PVTP file the data is packaged up as streams. Each stream
being equivalent to a PVT report. This menu allows to setup new
streams, delete a stream etc
The Report menu is used to generate the reports of the input data,
analysis data and results. Results can be viewed on the screen, sent to
the Windows clipboard or saved in a file
A series of useful calculators are included within the Utilities menu. These
include API conversion, material balance and enthalpy balance
This menu offers the user the standard options available from an MDI
(Multi Document Interface)

The PVT package can load multiple PVT Project Files each of which
occupies its own window.
The windows can be selected, cascaded, arranged and tiled via this
menu

2.4.1

Toolbar

Two toolbars are available below the main menu:


Main
Toolbar

This toolbar contains the main options to create new files, open a file, save,
manipulate streams

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Data + Calc
Toolbar

This toolbar contains access links to all the available calculations and
regression features

Each icon represents one of the most used menu options. As the mouse pointer passes over
the icon a short description of the option is displayed in the Status line which is situated at the
bottom of the main PVT window.

When an option is unavailable the icon is greyed-out.


To select an option, place the pointer over the icon button and press the left-hand mouse
button.
The main icons perform the following functions:

2.4.2

Preferences

This section describes the options available from the File | Preferences menu option of the
main PVT menu.

Alternatively the dialogs can be called by hitting change within the options section of any
calculation display.

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The initial area covered is Calc General 157 . Other areas covered can be called by clicking on
the appropriate tab.
The areas are covered in sections called:
Directories 163
Regression 164
Units 166
View 167

2.4.2.1

General

The initial area covered is Calc General 157 . Other areas covered can be called by clicking on
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PVTP

the appropriate tab:


Directories 163
Regression 164
Units 166
View 167
These are the fields available:
Save As
Default
Method
Eq. of State
Use Peng
Robinson AF
Correction
(PRCORR)

Volume
Shift
Stream
Setting
Volume
Shift
Default
Settings

Volume
Shift All
Streams

PVTP Help And Manual

This button allows the user to set these options as the default set for any
new file that is created
This is a non-editable field that defines the PVT method in use (Black oil or
Equation of State). The field is set by the main program Options 168
The Equation of State to be used VIZ Peng Robinson or Soave Redlich
Kwong can be set here or within the Main Options Dialog
This switches on/off the 1978 Peng Robinson correction by the acentric
factor ( ).
The correction considers the following:
for values of <0.49 the correction to the a(T) is by means of a
polynomial of of the second order
for values of
0.49 the correction to the a(T) is by means of a
polynomial of of the third order
Refer to EOS information 91 further in the user Guide.
The switch is by default on, which means that by default Peng Robinson
(1978) Equation of State is used. If the switch is disabled, then Peng
Robinson (1976) will be used, where the correction is a polynomial of the
second order only.
This allows to change the Volume Shift set up for the active stream (the
one that is selected in the main program panel)

This option defines if any new EOS model is volume shifted or not. The
volume shift can be applied to the Full composition and/or the Lumped
composition (if existing).
NEW!!!
Each stream can have its own set up with regards to the Volume Shift.
This means that in one PVTP file there can be streams with and without
Volume Shift at the same time
The volume shift type and parameters can be set selected by clicking on
the All Streams Volume Shift button.

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Viscosity
Method
and Oil
Density
Method
CCE
Calculations
Options
Water
Flash
Method
Solids
Options
Phase
Detection

159

For each stream it is possible to enable/disable the volume shift.


Accessing the Setup button will call the Volume Shift Setup Dialog 160
containing all the options related to the volume shift set up.
Note that each stream has its own independent set of options (NEW!!!)
The user can chose between the viscosity models 123 available using the
combo box supplied. LBC is the industry-standard viscosity correlation,
however, other can be selected here.
Similarly, the user can select between alternative oil density models 116 that
can be used fro QC purpose (Standing-Katz and Costald are correlations
that predict very well density of liquid at Standard Conditions)
These variables control whether the listed calculations are carried out as
part of the Constant Composition Expansion calculation.
Note that the thermal conductivity calculation is relatively slow and
complex. This checkbox gives the user control over whether it is
undertaken See Thermal Conductivity Model help for more details
When water is added to the fluid, the CCE and Separator calculations
become 3 phase flashes by default. This flag optionally changes the
calculation back to being two phase.
An option to enable the calculation of solids during the three phase flash is
available
The Combo Box allows the user to select between the Wax Models
available. The heavy-end components (pseudos) can be also split to
increase the number of components, which can improve the model
prediction accuracy in many cases
A flag is available to switch on and off the advanced phase detection on a
file by file basis. Running with this check on is more secure with problem
fluids but there is a considerable penalty in speed. The Phase
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Use
Advanced
Phase
Detection
(default
value ON)
Override
All Phase
Detection
(default
value OFF)

Determination numbers below refer to the advanced method


There are two phase determination functions which are used throughout
the Equation of State Calculations. The advanced function described above
and a simpler function based on determining the Critical Point of the
mixture. This check box allows the user to try either method. Oils tend to
have well defined Critical Points giving a faster calculation speed with this
feature used to check phase
This function removes all attempts to override the phase detected by the
main method. This should only be used for extremely difficult fluids where
the normal phase detection procedures do not work effectively. If it is
selected two radio buttons will appear which allow the user to set the
phase. Forcing the phase can lead to contradictions in some functions e.g.
phase envelope generation and compositional gradient calculation

2.4.2.1.1 Volume Shift Setup


This dialog is loaded by the Setup button within the volume shift control panel (see example
below)

The File| Preferences 157 dialog contains the volume shift control panel.
A typical display is shown below

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The main body of this dialog is a grid which displays the parameters used to calculate volume
shift Vol Shift S . All data within the grid can be edited manually and stored. The grid has a
tab control to swap between streams.
In this screen it is possible to Clear all or only the pseudos' S values, Calculate all of only the
pseudo's S values.
Min S Value
and
Max S Value

(NEW!!!)
Validity range for S value can be entered in the corresponding fields. In
general using high values of the Volume Shift parameters can lead to
erroneous results at pressure and temperature vary, like for example
negative densities or volume factors. The objective of the validity range for
the S shift parameters is to prevent the use of high S value

Regarding the Method used to calculate the Si values, More background is provided the
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Volume Shift Help 99 .


The Jhaveri and Joungren method has two edit boxes for the D and e variables which are
used to calculate the component S values.

This button allows the user to get a feel for the degree to which the volume shift is varying the
fluid properties. When pressed the program will flash the fluid to standard condition with and
without the shift on. The results are presented as shown below

Exit and Save


Cancel

PVTP Help And Manual

closes down the dialog with all changes retained


closes down the dialog with all changes ignored

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2.4.2.2

163

Directories

The main directories used by the program can be set here.


If the checkbox at the bottom is set the program will create a copy of the current file prior to
regression. This allows the user to retrieve data after a crash.
The option at the bottom of the screen "Use temporary file to protect regression" allows to
save temporary files (.psv extension) which contain the model data before a regression.
To recover the file, rename the .psv file to .pvi and re-open it with PVTP.

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2.4.2.3

PVTP

Regression

The variables within this dialog are normally set to the default values and should not be
changed for the majority of systems.
The chosen options can be saved as the default values and will be selected for any new files
created using the Save as Default button.
Regression

PVTP Help And Manual

Allow Regression
with Pure
Component Tc,
Pc, AF

Within the matching 267 and regression 278 operations,


the component properties used can be limited to
pseudo components by clicking on the checkbox
provided. Volume shift 99 matching can be separately
selected. Deselecting components is particularly
Allow Regression useful when preparing matches for applications where
the changing of pure component properties is
with Pure
forbidden, for example in process simulation tool in the
Component Vol
context of preparing PVT models for fully integrated
Shift
models (from reservoir to process)
Maximum
This value relates to the number of regression cycles
which
will be done before the calculation automatically
Number of
exits. Raising the value will allow more time for a
Steps
slowly regressing system to find a solution . No upper
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(default
value 200)
Optimize
PSAT,CCE,
SEP,GRAD,
Regression
for Speed
(default
value ON)
Optimize
CVD
Regression
for Speed
(default
value ON)
Property
Range
Limit Multiplier

Phase
Determination

Maximum
Iterations

Minimum
Pressure
Step

165

limit has been set , but any value lower than 10 will be
set to the lower allowed limit of 10
There are many steps which have been taken within
PVT to speed up the regression .This speed up may
cause problems with some very difficult compositions.
This option allows the user to switch off the shortcuts,
forcing the calculations to proceed through the
maximum number of checks. Due to its complexity,
CVD has been given a separate flag

These values set the limit for variable movement


during regression.
The regression is initiated with a limit on each
property. The maximum allowed value is the current
value times the maximum multiplier. Similarly with the
minimum. The multipliers are for BICs are
independent of the rest. The range of allowed
movement can be reduced or enlarged on a stream
by stream basis
(default value 500)
There is a phase determination function which is used
throughout the Equation of State Calculations. The
function starts at a high pressure and goes down in
steps until a two phase area is detected. This value
limits the number of steps allowed before the function
is stopped with a single phase at all pressures
assumed. Increasing the value will slow down the
PVT calculations
(default value 0.5)
There is a phase determination function which is used
throughout the Equation of State Calculations. The
function starts at a high pressure and goes down in
steps until a two phase area is detected. This value
limits the smallest allowed step before the function is
stopped with a single phase at all pressures
assumed. Decreasing the value will slow down the
PVT calculations. Increasing the value may cause

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FLASH
Library
Initialization

Number Of
Iterations

Degree Of
Precision

2.4.2.4

phase changes to be missed


(default value 60)
The BUT Library is at the core of all the Equation of
State Calculations. This value controls the action of
many programs within the Library ,limiting the number
of times a solution is sought in any particular
subroutine. Adjusting this value will have an
indeterminate affect on the systems accuracy and
performance
(default value 3)
The BUT Library is at the core of all the Equation of
State Calculations. This value controls the action of
many programs within the Library ,limiting the
accuracy sought in any particular subroutine. If a
more precise solution is required the value should be
increased. Adjusting this value will have an
indeterminate affect on the systems accuracy and
performance

Units

Units are set up in detail within the Units Dialog. This dialog allows the user to set the
directory where the units database file is stored and the units system to which a new file will
default to.

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167

View

This dialog allows to enable/disable features of the visualization of the main panel and dialogs
of PVTP.

Clicking on the Change Dialog Fonts calls the font dialog. This screen allows the user to
select a font for the heading and data text used within the screen.
First select a text type by clicking on a name in the list, then use the Font, Style and Size
combo boxes to choose the text characteristics that are required. An example of choice is
given in the dialog panel.
Clicking on OK will change the font in the summary screen and close down the selection
window .
Pressing Apply will change the screen without closing the window.
Selecting Cancel will close down the display without implementing the changes.
Clicking off the Embolden All Dialogs
all dialogs.

check box will reduce the weight of the screen font in

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2.5

PVTP

Options Menu

The Options menu is the starting point of PVT and the key to the program. Use this menu to
define the application and principal features of the PVT model to be used.

The options to select are unique to the current file and apply until changed by the user, or
another file is recalled.
These options also determine the subsequent screens, menus and commands which are
displayed.
This menu is also used to define the input and output units of measurement. A flexible system
of units is provided allowing to customize the internal units system.
Options
Units

2.5.1

Options Dialog

This dialog is called from the Options Menu 168 .

The Options dialog screen is used to define the characteristics of the PVT project. The
options selected establish the input data required and the calculation options available.
The selections made apply to the current session. The data entry screens, input fields and
variables are limited to those relevant to the particular application. Input options may be
changed at any stage of the processing. New choices may require other information to be
supplied. Therefore the user is advised to ensure that all relevant input is still valid for the
new option selection.
To access this screen click on Options within the Options menu or press ALT-O
Alternatively, click on the PVT Options Icon within the toolbar.

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The entry screen is divided in three sections:


System options 170
User information 171
User Comments 171
Under the System options section, define the PVT model characteristics such as Method, fluid
type, Separation Stages, Equation of State, etc. These selections determine information that
the user will be required to enter later. The user Information and user Comments section of
the screen allows the user to enter data , comments and dates which help identify the project
and which are printed out in the report Input Data section .
Option Selection
To select an option, click on the arrow to the right of the required field. The list of available
choices will be displayed.

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2.5.1.1

PVTP

System Options

These options are available within the Options Dialog 168 .


Method

The first and most fundamental selection to be made is PVT Method. This
determines what model will be used and , consequently, the data input
required.
There are three methods currently defined:
Black Oil
Equation of State
Press on Method Name and/or.
See Separator topic 358 of the PVTP Manual for more details
Eq. of State
This is only required for the Equation of State Method and involves the
selection of the specific cubic equation to be used.
The choice is between a series of equations provided via the main
calculation library
Peng-Robinson
Soave-Redlich-Kwong
Stream Volume This option is available only when Equation of State Method has been
selected.
Shift
Each stream in PVTP can independently have or not the Volume Shift
enabled (NEW!!!). This is why the options available are:
Full
Lumped (in case Lumping/Delumping has been applied to
the stream)
and the switch is available for each selected stream.
This means that this setting is applied to the active stream (the one that is
selected in the main panel):

Volume Shift can be added to the Equation of State also using the
Preferences Dialog 157 .
All Streams

Fluid Type

PVTP Help And Manual

This allows to access the dialog screen 160 were it is


possible to set volume shift for each stream
independently

(only when Black Oil has been selected)


Options available:
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Separator

2.5.1.2

171

Oil
Dry and Wet Gas
Retrograde Condensate
(only when Black Oil has been selected)
Options available:
Single Stage
Two Stage

User Information

These options are available within the Options Dialog 168 .


This section is designed to help the user keep track of which project is associated with the
PVT file data.
None of the entries are mandatory and none of the information entered in the boxes is
checked.
Entries available are:
Company
Field
Location
Platform
Analyst
The user Information is printed as part of any PVT report.
2.5.1.3

User Comments

These options are available within the Options Dialog 168 .


This window allows the user to enter any comments which may be required to track the
history of the data or calculations within the PVT file.
To enter the comments area click the left hand mouse button when the cursor is over the
desired point.
A new line is entered in the comments block by typing Ctrl+Enter at the desired point.
Pressing the Date Stamp Button places the current date and time at the end of the
comments block.
The user Comments are printed as part of any PVT report.

2.5.2

Units Dialog

This dialog is called from the Options Menu 168 .

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A typical display is:

This section describes the system of units. The built in flexibility of the units system enables
to select any variable and define the unit of measurement to be used. This feature makes it
possible to modify the units system so that it corresponds to data reports supplied by a
service company or customise the units system to suit own personal preferences.
PVTP always works internally in Field units.. To facilitate data entry and output display in any
units system, PVTP accepts data in the specified Input units and converts it to Field units for
calculation. The results (in Field units) are converted back to the specified Output unit set if
necessary. By making selections from the different categories, the user can work in the
preferred units and save the results in the units required by company policy.
The changes made to the units system are file specific, each holding its own unit set. The
program allows to create user-defined units system. To access the units system, point to
the Units menu and click the mouse, or click on the icon shown above.
Units Summary

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The Units Summary screen is divided into two main sections:


Variables

Validation

Select any item from the list of variables displayed. To select an item,
move the scroll box up or down, until the required variable appears on the
screen
Used to set up the error checking limits for each selected input variable

Unit Systems
The following default Units Systems are provided:
Oilfield Units
Norwegian S.I.
Canadian S.I.
German S.I.
French S.I.
Latin S.I.
Customised unit systems can be created and saved under new names. Different units can be
selected for both input and output.
Changing the Units
The Input and Output units for each variable on the list can be changed.
To change or customise the default Units System:
Scroll through the measurement variables list until the unit item to modify is visible on
the screen.
Select the unit category (Input and/or Output) to modify.
Select the unit field corresponding to the measurement item and click on theunit name
to make a combo box arrow appear.
Select the preferred measurement unit.
To save the changes for this file only click on OK and then save the file from the main menu.
To save changes as a default set, click Save. The user will be prompted to enter a name for
the new Units System. This new system can now be recalled and applied to any file. Default
Custom unit sets can be erased by clicking the Delete button, then selecting the unwanted
units system. The ability to have separate input and output unit systems allows the user to
work with familiar units and to create reports in any required unit system. PVTP calculates
internally in Oilfield Units. To validate unit conversion factors, click the button located to the
right of the particular variable and the multiplier and shift used for unit conversion will be
displayed.
Validation Limits
To reduce the possibility of entering incorrect data, PVTP checks that input data falls within
predetermined validation limits. For most purposes, the default validation limits are adequate.
For particular applications, the user can change the validation limits if required by entering
new values directly from the units definition screen.
Find the required variable by scrolling through the list, then enter required changes in the low
and high validation limit boxes. Enter the custom validation limits in the units currently in use.
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To permanently attach the new validation limits to a custom units system, click Save before
leaving the validation screen by clicking OK.
2.5.2.1

Units Save Dialog

To save changes made to a Unit System within the Units Dialog 171 , click Save. The user will
be prompted to enter a name for the new Units System.
This new system can now be recalled and applied to any file. The ability to have separate
input and output unit systems allows the user to work with familiar units and to create reports
in any required unit system.
PVT calculates internally in S.I. Units.
If some particular units have been modified during the course of a PVT session, the changes
will be written into the .PVI file when the input data are saved. Irrespective of the current
units system settings, recalling a previously saved .PVI file will cause PVT to revert to the
units saved in the recalled .PVI file.
To permanently impose a new set of units on the recalled file, open a custom units file (or use
one of the internal unit sets) and then save the .PVI file.
The new units settings will be used whenever the .PVI file is loaded.

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175

Black Oil Input

This section describes the Data Input options for the Black Oil Models in PVTP.
The first stage in Black Oil PVT modelling is to select the Model and the major variations i.e.
Fluid Type and Separator setup using the OPTIONS display. A typical Options dialog 168 for
Black Oil is shown below.

The methods available are:


BLACK OIL 91
EQUATION OF STATE 91
The Black Oil Method originated as a series of empirical oil correlations. With time, the
methodology was extended to cover gases and condensates. The input and correlation
options change with fluid type. Use the Fluid Type listbox to match the fluid under study.
Depending on the Method, options of one, two, or multiple stage separator inputs may be
available.When a Black Oil is used, the PVT summary screen and its icon toolbar adjust to
provide the correct information and menu options. A typical Summary Screen is shown below.
The example chosen is a Retrograde Condensate fluid using the Black Oil Method 91 .

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Black Oil Modelling techniques originated with oils and subsequently spread to gases and
condensates.
The basis of the method is the use empirical correlations to calculate oil characteristics.
Matching with measured data is used to select the best fitting correlation for the oil being
studied.
The correlations available are:
for Pb,Rs,Bo
1) Glaso et al
2) Standing et al
3) Lasater et al
4) Vasquez-Beggs
5) Petrosky
for Viscosity
1) Beal et al
2) Beggs et al
3) Petrosky
The method to follow is as follows:
STEP 1

Select Black Oil /Oil from the Options display using the icon below:

STEP 2

the black oil properties of the fluid is entered via the the Data | Input Data

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menu selection or using the icon below. See Black Oil Input Dialog

STEP 3

Enter the known PVT characteristics of the oil within the Lab Data / Match
display using the icon below.

STEP 4

Use the Regression option to optimize the match parameters. The


regression display is called via the Data | Regress option or using the icon
below.

STEP 5

Use the Calculate dialogs to provide the information required. Use the icon
below to set up the calculation ranges.

See also
Black Oil Toolbar 177
Black Oil - Oil 178
Black Oil - Dry and Wet Gas 184
Black Oil - Retrograde Condensates 185

2.6.1

Black Oil Toolbar

A toolbar of icons is attached to the bottom of the main menu. Each icon represents one of
the most used menu options. As the mouse pointer passes over the icon a short description of
the option is displayed in the Statusline which is situated at the bottom of the main PVT
window. When an option is unavailable the icon is greyed-out.
To select an option, place the pointer over the icon button and press the left-hand mouse
button.
The icons perform the following functions:
Selecting Options
Changing Units
Enter Separator and Reservoir Data 178
Enter Lab Data 178
Regress to Lab Data 178
Perform Calculations 178

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Black Oil - Oil 178


Black Oil - Dry and Wet Gas 184
Black Oil - Retrograde Condensates 185

2.6.2

BLACK OIL PVT - Oil

The steps below can be followed to define a black oil model for oil:
Input Data

Match Data

PVTP Help And Manual

Select the Data | Input Data option from the main menu to display the
following PVT Input data screen:

Enter the required data in the fields provided. It is possible to move


from one box to another by pressing the TAB key. Next, select the
correlation methods to apply and click OK.
Enter PVT laboratory measured data to match to as shown on the
example screen below. The correlations can be adjusted using nonlinear regression techniques (using the Regression button) to best fit
the measured data.

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Regression

179

For each match data table, enter the temperature and bubble point,
then enter pressure versus gas oil ratio, oil FVF and oil viscosity.
Where data is incomplete or not available, leave the field blank
This option is used to perform the non-linear regression which adjusts
the correlations to best fit laboratory measured PVT data. The nonlinear regression matching technique can be used on up to five PVT
match tables, each with a different temperature. The following PVT
properties can be used as match variables:
Pb
GOR
FVF
Oil viscosity

Bubble point pressure


Gas oil ratio versus pressure
Oil formation volume factor versus
pressure
Oil viscosity versus pressure

It is not necessary to match on all properties. In cases where the


PVT data is incomplete or of poor quality, good results can often be
obtained by matching on the best characterised parameters only.
However, because bubble point can be difficult to accurately predict
from correlations, it is recommended that where possible, it is used
as a match parameter. The minimum data required to perform a

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PVTP

regression match is the bubble point and GOR.

Match

From the Regression screen, individual correlations can be


matched to selected measured PVT data by:
Selecting the correlations
Selecting the fluid properties to match to
Clicking on Match

Match-all

All correlations can be matched to all the fluid property data in


one key stroke by selecting the Match All command button
Having performed the matching process the match parameters
are displayed by clicking on Params. The non-linear
regression technique applies a multiplier - Parameter 1, and a
shift - Parameter 2 to the correlations. The standard deviation
is also displayed which represents the overall quality of fit.
The lower the standard deviation, the better the fit.
The Params button displays the PVT correlations parameters
screen. This shows the match parameters and the standard
deviation for each matched correlation. Use these statistics to
select the best correlation for the application. A plot should be
made (refer calculation and plot sections) and a visual check
of the fit quality performed before making the final selection.
The match parameters can all be reset (i.e. returned to the unmatched state) by selecting the reset option. The following is
an example of a correlation parameters screen:

Params

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Calculations

181

In order to make a plot or listing of fluid property data, PVT must first
calculate the values over a specified range of temperatures and
pressures. Using the calculated data points plots of fluid properties
versus temperature or pressure can be generated. The following is
an example of the Calculate | Calculations screen. If the correlations
have been matched, then the fluid properties will be calculated using
the modified correlations.

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Calculating PVT
Data

PVTP Help And Manual

To generate tables and plots of PVT data:


Select Correlations (use the best matched ones)
Enter the temperature range and number of steps
Enter the pressure range and number of steps
Select whether the matched or unmatched correlations should be
used
(Click on Use Match Data for Calculations checkbox)
Click OK
Click Calculate to compute PVT data for the entire range of
pressures and temperatures required by the application. The
following calculation screen will be displayed:

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Plotting the
Calculated Data

183

The calculated data can be displayed on a plot. The variables which


are plotted are defined under the Variables option on the plot. After
performing a PVT calculation click on Plot from the PVT calculation
screen.
Select Pressure for the X-axis.
Select Oil FVF for the Y-axis.

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PVTP

Carefully examine the PVT plots for consistency with the match data.
If necessary, select a different correlation and repeat the PVT
calculations until the results are satisfactory.
Black Oil Toolbar 177
Black Oil - Dry and Wet Gas 184
Black Oil - Retrograde Condensates 185

2.6.3

BLACK OIL PVT - Dry and Wet Gas

The program assumes that all the liquid drop out occurs at the separator. For pressure drop
calculations, an equivalent gas rate is used allowing for the Condensate and water production
by ensuring a mass balance is observed.
Input Data

PVTP Help And Manual

When Dry and Wet Gas is selected as the PVT option, the following Input
data screen is displayed:

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Match Data

Please refer to Match data in Oil PVT section 178 .


properties can be matched:
GOR
Z factor (gas compressibility factor)
Gas FVF
Gas viscosity

185

The following fluid

All other operations are carried out as for Oil PVT 178
Black Oil Toolbar 177
Black Oil - Oil 178
Black Oil - Retrograde Condensates 185

2.6.4

BLACK OIL PVT - Retrograde Condensate

The PVT Retrograde Condensate (Black oil) model has been developed in house by
Petroleum Experts. This model predicts liquid drop out. The reservoir gas gravity is
determined using the principle of mass balance for an equivalent density of the oil.
Input Data

When Retrograde Condensate (Black oil) Method is selected the following


input data screen is displayed:

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PVTP

Enter the required data. Note if tank GOR and tank gas gravity are
unknown, they can be left at 0. For such cases, the total produced GOR
should be entered under separator GOR. Condensate gravity is at
standard conditions.
If the separator pressure is above dewpoint, then there can be no
liquids production. PVTP handles conflicting input data by dropping
the separator pressure to atmospheric, and increasing the
separator gas gravity as required to account for the liquid
production indicated by the Separator GOR. The mass balance is
respected at all times.
Match Data

Please refer to the Match data in Oil PVT 178 . The following fluid properties
can be matched to:
Dew point
Produced CGR (condensate to gas ratio)
Z (gas compressibility factor)
Gas viscosity
Gas FVF
The temperature and dew point must be entered for each set of
match data.

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CAUTION: When matching oil density, there should be no input pressure higher
than Dew Point, since the oil density does not exist beyond that point

All other operations are carried out as for Oil PVT 178 .
Black Oil Toolbar 177
Black Oil - Oil 178
Black Oil - Dry and Wet Gas 184

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2.7

PVTP

Input Data EoS

This section describes the data input required for the Equation of State PVT model.

2.7.1

PVTp Project Data Structure

PVTP project files act as containers for multiple sets of PVT data. These may be from
different attempts to solve the same sample match, eg. using different recombination GORs;
they may originate from different samples at different depths or regions within a field; they
may be from totally unconnected systems.
Stream
A stream is the main structure for holding data within a PVT file. A project must have at least
one stream. Each stream is independent with the following data contained within it:
Composition

This is the identification of the components, the mole percents of each and
the component properties. The composition may be grouped and/or
matched.
The most important element of this set of data is the Working
Composition. This contains the components, composition and properties
which can be viewed and manipulated via the View Properties display
(see below 247 ). This composition is the one which is stored with the PVT
file and used as the basis for Regression and the other PVT EoS
calculations.
The View Properties Display allows the user to manually change any
component property within the Working Composition.
The first step in producing a composition is to select components from one
of the package databases. This is combined with values generated for
Pseudo Components to produce the Initial Composition. At this stage the
Working Composition and the Initial Composition are the same.

Regression on this composition is shown by a Regressed Ungrouped


label at various points within the PVT package. Alternatively, the
composition can be Grouped and then Regressed shown by the
Regressed Grouped label. Some files may have been regressed in both
forms. At each stage, the new properties generated become part of the
Working Composition
Calculation Data Calculation inputs and results are held independently for each stream.
Multiple streams can be selected for each major calculation. See CCE
Calculation and Phase Envelope for examples of this facility
Reference Data Each Stream contains its own reference data i.e. Standard Temperature,
Standard Pressure, Reservoir Temperature, Reference Pressure and
Reference Depth. These variables are set up in the Data/Reference Data
dialog and within the View Properties display

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Match Data

Match or Lab Data is held separately for each stream, allowing the
streams to be individually regressed upon. See Match Data for more
information on the types of entry required
Regression Data Regression selections i.e. processes to be matched to and properties
used in matching are held for each stream. See Regression Parameters
for more details
See also:
Select Components 189
Edit Mole Percents 215
Add_Stream 413
Delete_Stream 415
Edit_Stream_details 412

this display has an option to add an empty stream


streams can be copied and their compositions edited using this
option
copies existing streams or imports streams from other files
removes unwanted streams
change stream name and comment

PSEUDO STORAGE
An additional smaller storage area is provided for Pseudo Properties for each stream via the
Pseudo Properties Display. This allows the initial values or a later selected set to be held as
the active values are worked upon.

2.7.2

Selecting Components From List

The first stage in any Equation Of State PVT project is to select the Model Type and Equation
as described in Options 168 and the Step by Step Guide 472 .
The next step is to select components from the Petroleum Experts database or one of the
user databases.

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The display which is used for component selection is shown below. This screen can be called
by clicking on the Select Components from list option within the Data menu or on the icon
shown above.

Input fields
Components

The program automatically fills the Components list box with the
component names in a short label and longer, more descriptive, form.
Components can be selected or de-selected by clicking on the
component name. The number of components chosen is given on the
display.
Up to 200 components can be selected
No Components

Num Pseudo
Components

If pseudo components are required, the number needed should be


entered in the edit box provided
No Pseudos

Stream
PVTP Help And Manual

clears the pure component selections

clears any pseudo definitions that have been


entered

This selects the stream of which to select the components


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Main database
User Created
User Database

191

This selects the database of components and properties in use in the


program
This reports the list of components present in a User-defined
database 192
This selection menu allows to import in PVTP a User-defined
database 192

Command buttons
Enter Composition

Recombination

New Stream

Exit

If a reservoir or feed composition is available, Press the Enter


Composition button when all selections have been made. This
action brings up the Composition Entry 203 display
Allows a composition to be calculated from stock tank and separator
data. Clicking on this button brings up the Recombination 198 display.
this option can also be useful as a quality check on the compositional
lab data
creates a completely empty stream with no components selected.
See Streams/Add Stream 413 and Data/Edit Mole Percents 215 for
methods of creating streams containing copied data
Leave the screen with no changes recorded

See also
User Database Entry 192

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2.7.2.1

PVTP

User Database Entries

A more extensive user database can be setup using the database create 464 , import and edit
dialogs. This may contain the same components as the Petroleum Experts' database with
different properties, or components which are not covered by the Petex database. The user
database points are held within an ASCII file with a UDB extension. The directory where these
files are stored is saved within the PROSPER.ini file. This directory can be set using the Set
user database Directory button which calls the user Database Directory 465 dialog. If any *.
UDB files exist their names will be displayed in the combo box provided. If the file has been
created with user data, but the specific UDB file is not on the users machine the components
will be listed within the user area for identification but cannot be extended or reset to the
original *.UDB values.
See user Database Help 463 for more details.

2.7.2.2

What Number of Components to Select

Modern reports identify many more components than in the past.


Unfortunately, although one may know how much C12 there is, it is not possible to know in
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detail all the species involved or the resulting properties of the mixture. If C12 is selected as a
component within the program, the package must provide an average value which is likely to
be inconsistent. In addition the regression and flash calculation complexity increases as the
square of the number of components.
Therefore increasing the number of components slows down the calculations, without
necessarily improving accuracy.
Based on quite a large experience we have found it better to stop at C7 + and split than to
add more reported components.
The additional component information is however useful in gas condensates to identify the
amount and relative molecular weights of the very heavy material.
It can be advantageous to combine nC4 and iC4 and nC5 and iC5. This reduces the number
of components and speeds up all calculations. However, if an integrated model is being
produced including surface simulation, it is necessary to include the iC4 and iC5 along with the
nC4 and nC5.
See Selecting Components from List 189 .

2.7.3

Enter Components as Table

The first stage in any Equation Of State PVT project is to select the Model Type and Equation
as described in Options 168 and the Step by Step Guide 472 .

The next step is to select components and provide a composition. This can be done by
selecting components from a database list 189 or by transferring data as a table from the
clipboard to the program. The last option is described here.

The display which is used for component table entry is shown below. This screen can be
called by clicking on the Enter Components as Table option within the Data menu or on the
icon shown above.

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The principle behind this dialog is that data in the form of component names and compositions
will be pasted from an electronic report or spreadsheet into the two columns provided. The
program will then attempt to identify the component from the name either in the Petroleum
Experts database or any user database that is loaded.The identification process is triggered
by clicking on the Verify button. If the identification is incomplete the user can change any
component by clicking on the Select button at the end of the appropriate line. This will bring
up the Component Identification Dialog 197 .
Normal procedure would be:
1) Select data that will be transferred i.e. names composition or both.
2) Place the data on the clipboard.
3) Click on the Copy/Paste button. This will produce a display like the one below:

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4) Click on Verify to start component identification. The display will change to something
like this

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PVTP

5) If some components have not been identified or have been wrongly identified click on
the appropriate Select button to bring up the Component Identification Dialog 197 . If
everything is correct click on Enter Composition to proceed to the Enter Composition
Dialog 203 and beyond.

This section allows the user to select the composition input mode. This may be as mole
percent or fraction. As an alternative, weight percent or fraction may be used by choosing
weight from the combo box provided.

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This add-on can be loaded with a user database 463 which can be selected within this section
of the dialog. Any entries will be compared with the Petroleum Experts database and then
the user database for a match.
Recombination

IPM Table

2.7.3.1

As an alternative to the enter composition path, the Recombination


option allows a composition to be calculated from stock tank and
separator data. Clicking on this button brings up the Recombination 198
display. this option can also be useful as a quality check on the
compositional lab data
If the user is more familiar with the IPM Compositional table entry and
tools, this button gives access to the Composition Entry Dialog. A
standard Petroleum Exports *.prp 35 file can also be imported via this
route.

Component Identification Dialog

This dialog can be called from the Enter Components as Table 193 option or from the
Composition Editor 208 .
A typical display is shown below:

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The user can choose between the four types of component available using the radio buttons
or clicking on a component name. Any other selection than pseudo component requires a
selection from the appropriate listbox.
See help on user Databases 463 .

2.7.4

Recombination

This display is called by clicking on the Recombination button within the Select Data base
dialog.
Recombination can either be used as:
A method of calculating the reservoir composition from separator and stock tank
compositions and volumetric properties or,
A quality check on feedstock analysis i.e.
By comparing the recombined
composition with the lab reported composition
Mode

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The recombination calculation comes in two modes. The default version is Simplified. The
mode can be changed using the radio buttons at the top right of the display. The simplified
mode reflects the basic recombination done in most PVT reports. The table inputs and
controls are the same as those described in more detail below for the extended mode
version.
One oil and one gas composition is entered. These are normally from a separator test.
Additional inputs include an oil density and either gas density or gas gravity. The GOR
entered must be referenced to Stock Tank conditions. The average molecular weight can be
entered directly or, alternatively, it can be calculated automatically from the composition
entered for the oil and the molecular weight of each component. For non-pseudos the
molecular weight is taken from the Petroleum Experts database. Pseudo molecular weights
must be entered, either on this dialog or via the Pseudo Properties Display.
A typical Simplified display is shown in the figure below:

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PVTP

An Extended recombination is shown in the figure below.


The reservoir fluid composition is obtained by combining the analysis of the stock tank oil,
stock tank gas and the gas from up to 5 separator stages.
The table at the top of the display allows the user to enter the required compositions. The first
column contains the result of any recombination which has been previously carried out. For
comparison purposes, the second column gives the current reservoir composition (if one has
been entered).
Next follow the entry columns for stock tank oil, stock tank gas and separator gas. To enter a
number, click on the appropriate cell, type in the number, click away or hit tab.
After each entry, the program will automatically calculate and display the composition total
and the average molecular weight of the column. On calculating the result of recombination,
the program checks that each column total, if used, equals 100.
Only separator stages for which data exists should be filled in.
The program ignores any separator stages with a zero total composition.
The recombination calculation is basically a mass balance. To achieve this balance additional

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data is required. The Stock tank oil density is needed along with the oils average molecular
weight to relate oil composition in moles to volume.
An entry box is provided for oil density. The average molecular weight can be entered directly
or, alternatively, it can be calculated automatically from the composition entered for the oil
and the molecular weight of each component. For non-pseudos the molecular weight is taken
from the Petroleum Experts database. Pseudo molecular weights must be entered, either on
this dialog or via the Pseudo Properties Display.
Data is also required to link the amount of gas produced with respect to the stock tank oil.
This is entered in the form of GOR data for the stock tank and the utilised separator stages.
NOTE: All GOR data must be entered with respect to Stock Tank Barrels (STB)

The only other additional information required is the temperature of the stock tank and
separator stages. This information is used to relate moles of gas to volumes.
Command buttons

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Recombine

Copy Rec. to
Comp.
Exit and Save
Cancel
Units
Quick Calc

Cancel
PVTP Help And Manual

When all entries have been made, press the Recombine button to
initiate the calculation. The results will appear in the first column of the
table
If one wishes the recombined fluid to become the reservoir
composition, copy the data across by clicking on the Copy Rec to
Comp button
Leave this dialog using the Exit and Save button if one wishes any
results and/or changes to be recorded
Cancel will close down the dialog with the loss of any changes which
may have been made
Units will bring up the standard units dialog, allowing the user to
modify units without going out to the main display
The Quick Calc button allows the user to the small calculation menu
(below).When this is called the recombined fluid composition is used
to produce a temporary stream which is the used to calculate phase
envelopes, saturation pressure etc.

The program at this point will create a temporary stream using the
recombined composition. Calculations, including a phase envelope,
can be carried out with this composition and compared directly with
the other stream results.
See Quick Calculation topic 384 for more details
Will close down the dialog with the loss of any changes which may
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have been made

2.7.5

Enter Composition

This option is only made available when components have been selected as described in
Selecting Components 189 .
This dialog acts upon the working composition of the selected Stream. The active stream can
be changed via the TABS at the bottom of the composition grid. See PVT Project Data
Structure 188 for a more detailed description of streams.

The display which is used for composition input is shown below. This screen can be called by
clicking on the Enter Composition... option within the Data menu or on the icon shown above.
It is also automatically brought up when Enter Composition is pressed on the Select
Components from list 189 dialog or Enter Components as Table 193 dialog.

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Input fields
The display is made up of several sections:
Component Data

For every component name, type, composition and molecular weight


data is tabulated.The component names can be edited at this point.
Compositions can be pasted into the table here using Ctrl + V. This
operation may be better done, however, in the Enter Components as
Table 193 dialog. A running total and remainder for the composition is
shown at the bottom of the dialog

Composition Input
Options

Composition can be changed from Percent to Fraction using the radio


buttons within this area. Entry can also be changed from molar to
weight. When weight is selected the dialog changes to

To use this option enter the composition in weight percent or fraction.


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Enter the average molecular weight of the composition and click on


the Calculate Moles button
Reference Data

An entry box is provided for the three main reservoir reference


variables viz.
Reservoir Temperature at Depth
Reservoir Reference Depth
Static Pressure at Depth
These numbers are entered in the units displayed at the right hand
side of the box. See Units Help if another set of units is required.
Please note that these variables can also be changed by using the
Reference Data 259 option within the Data menu
Grouping/Matching

The 2 boxes within this area indicate whether the current file is
Grouped or Matched to Laboratory Data. Either condition may be
destroyed by choosing the Exit and Save ,Pseudo Properties or View
options within this display. Several choices within this dialog are
designed to operate with ungrouped compositions. A composition
which has been grouped and/or matched after grouping will revert to
the ungrouped composition. If any function is chosen which might
result in loss of data, the warning shown below is issued.
To view the properties of a Grouped or Matched file the View
Properties 247 option within the Data menu should be chosen.

User Database

If any components are derived from data bases other than the
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Components 463

Petroleum Experts database the components will be identified by the


user DB type

Streams containing
Water
If a stream contains water as a component the composition will be
drawn in blue text and an edit box will be shown which allows the user
to enter the water salinity. See also Water Modeling 132
Command Buttons
The control buttons have the following functions:
Exit and
Save
Cancel
Pseudo
Props

BI
Coefficients
View

Quick Calc

PVTP Help And Manual

This option registers the changes made and closes down the display
This option shuts down the display and ignores any changes which have
been made
This option activates the Pseudo Properties 220 dialog which allows the user
to enter all the properties for the pseudo components or use a correlation
to calculate them. This option will destroy any grouping or matching which
may have been done
To view the properties of a Grouped or Matched file the View Properties 247
option within the Data menu should be chosen
This option calls the Binary Interaction Coefficients 216 Display dialog which
allows the user to enter all the Binary Interaction Coefficients for any or all
component pairs or use a correlation to calculate them. The basis for using
Binary Interaction Coefficients is described in EoS modeling 97
This option brings up the full View Properties 247 display which allows the
user to view and change all the component properties, binary interaction
coefficients etc of the pure components. This option will destroy any
grouping or matching which may have been done
To view the properties of a Grouped or Matched file the View Properties 247
option within the Data menu should be chosen
A subset of the Equation of State Calculations is available by clicking on
the Quick Calc. control button within the Recombination; Enter Composition
and View Properties displays.

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This feature provides the user with access to a subset of the calculation
menu as a means of checking the consistency of the entered composition
information.
Calculation modes
The small display above provides options to calculate:
Phase Envelope 321

This allows to visualise the phase envelope

Critical Point 321

This determines the critical pressure and


temperature of the mixture
Saturation
This determines the saturation pressure
corresponding to the reference reservoir
Pressure_at_ 328
Reference_Conditions temperature as entered in the Reference Data 259
section
328
134
Flash to Standard
This performs a straight flash to standard
conditions and displays parameters like GOR,
134
Conditions
gas gravity and oil gravity
Flash Through 286
This performs a flash to standard conditions
through separator trains and displays parameters
Separator Stages 286
like GOR, gas gravity and oil gravity

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PVTP

Calculate Maximum 388 This allows to determine the amount of water that
saturates the hydrocarbon. A bigger quantity of
Water in the 388
Hydrocarbon Phase 388 water would form a separate liquid phase
Input fields
Options

The major model options are displayed. Only one set are
allowed per file.

Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences


Dialog 157 .
This display contains radio buttons which allow the user
to swap between User Selected and Automatic modes.
In addition, data entry boxes are provided for entering
the limits of the temperature and pressure ranges to be
covered and the number of points to be calculated for
each variable.
The points will be spread evenly throughout the
temperature and pressure ranges selected.
All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to the
Calculation Dialog 370

2.7.6

Composition Editor Add,Delete,Edit.Import

The display which is used for composition editing is shown below. This screen can be called
by clicking on the Edit Composition option within the Data menu or on the icon shown above.

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This dialog provides comprehensive access to all the editing features within the program. All
the visible properties including the component name can be edited.(see also View Properties
247 ). Components can be inserted, deleted, moved, imported, split, lumped and set to a
specific value.
The user is asked if the stream should be copied prior to entering this dialog. An exact copy
with the same name plus a number will be produced.
Input fields
The display is made up of several sections:
Component
Selection

Components can be selected by clicking on the component number or


on the name within the list box:

Stream Selection

The stream to be worked on can be changed using the list box


provided. See PVTP Project Structure 188 for more on streams.

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PVTP

Function buttons
Delete
Component(s)
Set
Component
Value
Insert
Component

Import
Component(s)

Lump
Component(s)

Set
Component
Value
Move
Component(s)

Select a component or components and click on the Delete


Component(s) button. Click on the Normalise button to re-normalise
the composition after all deletions have been made
This allows the user to set a component to a specific value of mole
percent. Select a single component. Enter the percentage required
and click on the Set Component Value button. The remaining
components will be re-normalised to make up the remainder
A new component can be inserted before or after a selected one using
the combo boxes at the bottom of the selection area. Select the
position and click on the Insert Component button. This action will call
the Component Identification Dialog 197
Components can be imported from streams within the current file or
any other PVTP file. The imported components will be set to a zero
amount. Select the position of the import and click on the Import
Component(s) button. This action will call the Component Import
Dialog 214
Select the components to be combined and click on the Lump
Components button. Note that any component created in this way will
become a pseudo. Unlike a grouped composition, the combined
component may not be able to be split back to its original source
components. If a fully grouped composition is required the Grouping
function 257 should be used
If a single pseudo component is selected, this option becomes
available. Clicking on the Split Component button calls the Advanced
Splitting 233 dialog. See also the Pseudo Properties 220 dialog for more
help on splitting
Select the components to be moved and the place that they are to be
moved to. Click on the Move Component(s) button

Command Buttons
The command buttons have the following functions:
Exit and Save
Cancel
Copy Stream
PVTP Help And Manual

This option registers the changes made and closes down the display
This option shuts down the display and ignores any changes which
have been made
This will create a copy of the stream currently selected within the
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Quick Calc

211

stream list
Clicking on this button will call the Binary Interaction Coefficient 216
dialog allowing the user to view or change these values
A subset of the Equation of State Calculations is available by clicking
on the Quick Calc. control button within the Recombination; Enter
Composition and View Properties displays.

This feature provides the user with access to a subset of the


calculation menu as a means of checking the consistency of the
entered composition information.
Calculation modes
The small display above provides options to calculate:
Phase Envelope 321

This allows to visualise the phase envelope

Critical Point 321

This determines the critical pressure and


temperature of the mixture
Saturation
This determines the saturation pressure
328
corresponding to the reference reservoir
Pressure_at_
Reference_Condition temperature as entered in the Reference Data
259 section
s 328

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Flash to Standard
Conditions 134

This performs a straight flash to standard


conditions and displays parameters like GOR,
gas gravity and oil gravity
Flash Through 286
This performs a flash to standard conditions
through separator trains and displays
286
Separator Stages
parameters like GOR, gas gravity and oil
gravity
Calculate Maximum This allows to determine the amount of water
388
that saturates the hydrocarbon. A bigger
388
Water in the
quantity of water would form a separate liquid
Hydrocarbon Phase phase
134

388

Input fields
Options

BOil Properties
Auto Match
Data Reset

PVTP Help And Manual

The major model options are displayed. Only one set


are allowed per file.

Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences


Dialog 157 .
This display contains radio buttons which allow the
user to swap between User Selected and Automatic
modes.
In addition, data entry boxes are provided for entering
the limits of the temperature and pressure ranges to
be covered and the number of points to be calculated
for each variable.
The points will be spread evenly throughout the
temperature and pressure ranges selected.
All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to
the Calculation Dialog 370
Clicking on this button will calculate the black oil properties of the fluid
by calling the Black Oil Properties 254 dialog
This option performs the same function as the AutoMatch 230 button
within the Pseudo Properties 220 dialog
This feature is available at various points within the PVT package The
small menu allows the user to revert back to data base or stored
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values. (see PVT Project File Structure )

The options are:


All non-pseudo
components to
database values

Restore Archived
Pseudo Values

Reset Omega A
and Omega B values

Initially all pure component property values are


taken from the Petroleum Experts database.
These numbers can be changed manually or
by matching . This option will restore any
changes back to those from the database.
This operation also occurs if the Select
Database Components display is used
This function is identical to the Restore of
original numbers described in Pseudo
Properties 220 Display The pseudo values
stored are used to replace those in the
Working composition. If no values have been
stored , the existing values will be left
unchanged
If OmegaA and OmegaB values have been
used in regression 296 this option will reset the
numbers to the default values.

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2.7.6.1

PVTP

Component Import Dialog

This dialog is called from the Composition Editor. Components may be imported from a
stream within this file or from any PVTP file.
Select the source from the top list box. The user can then choose to select from any
component within the stream or only from the pseudo components. If the latter option is
selected, the Component Import Select 214 dialog will be loaded with all pseudos selected.
2.7.6.1.1 Component Import Select

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This dialog is called from the Composition Editor 208 import component option. The example
shown has been selected as all pseudos from the Component Import 214 dialog. Components
can be selected by clicking on the name within the list box or on the line numbers within the
table. A label can be used to identify the source of the component. This can be added as a
prefix or suffix. When the selections have been made click on the Import button to return to
the composition editor dialog.

2.7.7

Edit Mole Percents

This option is called via the Data menu. A typical display is shown below

.
Use this option to:
Edit the percentages of existing stream components , and
Copy an existing stream and then edit the percentage compositions if required
The display is loaded from the Data|Edit Mole Percents menu option(see DATA MENU)

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To edit an existing stream :


Select the required target by clicking on the tabs beneath the stream list table and click on
Edit All Streams.
Type in the required percentages up to 100% and press Exit and Save.
To create and edit a new stream :
Edit the stream name and comment of the next stream.
Select the stream from which the copy is to be taken by clicking on the tabs beneath the
stream list table.
Press on the Copy Stream Button to create the new stream. type in the required
percentages up to 100% and press Exit and Save.
A copied stream carries all the data with it from the target stream i.e. component properties ,
reference data , match data etc.
NOTE:
If the stream being copied is grouped the new stream will become
one with only pseudo components , each group being replaced by a
pseudo with the same properties. This is required as no information
is available to the program on how the new percents should be
spread across the components making up the group.
NOTE:
When a composition is grouped, the components within each group
can be seen by clicking on the group name and clicking on the
dropdown box arrow that
appears.Clear will remove all
percentages from a selected stream if editing is available for that
stream ( the background colour is white)
See also:
PVT PROJECT STRUCTURE 188 . -where streams fit in to the overall data structure
ADD STREAM 413 - copies existing streams or imports streams from other files
COMPOSITION EDITOR 208 - this dialog offers more edit features including the change of
composition.

2.7.8

Binary Interaction Coefficients

This option is invoked by clicking on the B I Coeffs... button within the Enter Composition
display.
The grid displayed shows the pseudo properties of the currently active stream. The stream
being acted upon can be changed via the TABS at the bottom of the grid.
See PVT Project File Structure 188 for a more detailed description of streams.
The basis for using Binary Interaction Coefficients is described in EoS modeling 97 . As with
pseudo properties, it is very important that care is taken in the choice of coefficients. Again no
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correlation will accurately model all mixtures. The BI Coefficient acts as matching variable
which bends the idealized cubic Equation of state to meet the measured properties of the real
mixture.
It is therefore, advisable to try several options within this display to be confident to have a
match for the project conditions (see also Hint on Method 230 ).
A typical screen is shown below.

Two combo boxes are available at the top of the display which allows the user to select a
correlation.
There are three choices for pure components i.e.
Peng Robinson
Soave Redlich Kwong
Chevron Method (NEW!!!)
In addition, there are four choices for pseudo components i.e.
Petroleum Experts Method
Molecular Weight Correln
Semi-Theoretical Method
Chevron Method (NEW!!!)
Choose an option from the combo box by clicking on the down arrow and then clicking on the
selection.
Command buttons
Calculate New
Values

After selecting the method of calculation for the BICs, this option will
calculate the BIC.

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Note that any value of BI coefficient can be changed by clicking


within the displayed table and entering a value
Set max value to

Zero range From


Exit and Save
Cancel
Reset Pure
Reset All
Quick Calc

PVTP Help And Manual

It is possible to limit the highest value of BICs used by entering a value


in this field and selecting the Set Values button.

When selecting Set Values, the program will search for any previously
entered BIC in the table that is higher than the entered maximum limit
and will reset it to the maximum value
This option is useful whenever one wants to lower the saturation
pressure ad reproduce measured values
This option sets a range of BICs to zero
Register the changes made and closes down the window. It is also
advisable to save the file if many edits have been made
This option shuts down the display and ignores any changes which
have been made
This option sets all non-pseudo components to zero
This option sets all components to zero
A subset of the Equation of State Calculations is available by clicking
on the Quick Calc. control button within the Recombination; Enter
Composition and View Properties displays.

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This feature provides the user with access to a subset of the


calculation menu as a means of checking the consistency of the
entered composition information.
Calculation modes
The small display above provides options to calculate:
Phase Envelope 321

This allows to visualise the phase envelope

Critical Point 321

This determines the critical pressure and


temperature of the mixture
Saturation
This determines the saturation pressure
corresponding to the reference reservoir
Pressure_at_ 328
Reference_Condition temperature as entered in the Reference Data
259 section
s 328
Flash to Standard 134 This performs a straight flash to standard
conditions and displays parameters like GOR,
Conditions 134
gas gravity and oil gravity
Flash Through 286
This performs a flash to standard conditions
Separator Stages 286 through separator trains and displays
parameters like GOR, gas gravity and oil
gravity

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Calculate Maximum

This allows to determine the amount of water


that saturates the hydrocarbon. A bigger
Water in the 388
quantity of water would form a separate liquid
Hydrocarbon Phase phase
388

388

Input fields
Options

The major model options are displayed. Only one set


are allowed per file.

Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences


Dialog 157 .
This display contains radio buttons which allow the
user to swap between User Selected and Automatic
modes.
In addition, data entry boxes are provided for entering
the limits of the temperature and pressure ranges to
be covered and the number of points to be calculated
for each variable.
The points will be spread evenly throughout the
temperature and pressure ranges selected.
All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to
the Calculation Dialog 370

2.7.9

Pseudo Properties

This option is invoked by clicking on the Pseudo Properties button within the Composition
Entry 203 display. It can also activated by pressing Exit and Save on the same display if no
pseudo properties have been set.
The pseudo name defaults to PS-1, PS-2 etc. This may be changed to something more
meaningful by clicking within the name box and editing the name. All subsequent displays will
show the new name.
A typical display is shown below:

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The grid displayed shows the mole percents and properties of the currently active stream.
The stream being acted upon can be changed via the TABS at the bottom of the grid. See
PVT Project Data Structure 188 for a more detailed description of streams.
Input Fields
Correlations for
Boiling Point and
Tc, Pc, Vc and
Omega

Select the correlation that can be used to estimate the pseudo


components' properties.
As no correlation will accurately model all pseudo components, it is
advisable to try several options within this display to be confident in
the match.
See Hint on Method 230 for some direction.
Calc Values
Clar BPts

Properties

This button allows to re-calculate the pseudo


components properties
Delete al the Boiling Points for all the components

Two modes of data input are available:


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Automatic

In this mode the pseudo properties are calculated


using the correlation chosen from the Options
section.
he options display is composed of two combo
boxes
The top combo box contains 3 options for
calculating the pseudo component boiling point viz.
Petroleum Experts
A.N. Other Correlation
Standing and katz
The bottom combo box contains 9 alternative
methods for calculating the acentric factor
(Omega) and the critical temperature, pressure
and volume of a pseudo component, viz.
TWU/Edmister
Bergman(PNA) and Cavett
Bergman(PNA) and Cavett/Edmister
Cavett/Edmister
Mathew, Roland and Katz/Edmister
Robinson and Peng(PNA)
Lee and Kessler/Edmister
Riazi and Daubert/Edmister

Manual

Pseudo
Properties

PVTP Help And Manual

Choose an option from the combo box by clicking


on the down arrow and then clicking on the
selection.
The % aromatics within the properties grid allows
the user to fix a limit on the % used within the
various calculations.
To fix the value enter the required number in the
appropriate edit box. To remove the limit blank out
the value within the edit box.
After choosing the options press Calc Values
In this mode all the pseudo properties can be
entered or adjusted by the user. To change a
value, click or double-click inside the appropriate
box, type in the number and tab or click away

This is a table describing the different pseudo components (or splits)


and their properties.
It is very important that care is taken in setting pseudo component
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properties as the values can have a critical effect on the results of


subsequent calculations. The PVT package keeps track of when
matching has occurred with a composition. This may be when the
package was grouped or ungrouped. Grouping and any subsequent
matching is destroyed prior to entering this display. However, a
composition matched while ungrouped can be displayed and
manipulated with the functions described here. Any manipulation is
assumed to change the match and is preceded by a warning.
The pseudo name defaults to PS-1, PS-2 etc. This may be changed to
something more meaningful by clicking within the name box and editing
the name. All subsequent displays will show the new name
Automatch of
This feature enables the user to perform a reality check of the EOS
Densities Via BPts by adjusting the pseudo components' properties in order to reproduce
the same density at standard conditions as empirical correlations
(Standing-Katz or Costald) that are proven to be reliable references.
See Automatching 230 topic for further information
Split/Profile
This group of options allows to modify the way the pseudo
components are split from an original pseudo.
See Pseudo Splitting 227 for further details.
Original Numbers In this area it is possible to store, recall and view any pseudo
component set up.
Since Pseudo Component data is the key to the characterisation of
petroleum mixtures, it is important to keep track of the link to the initial
lab data. Some operations carried out on pseudo properties e.g.
splitting can destroy the original entries. The program contains a
facility to Store, View and Restore the original or a designated set of
entries for pseudo properties. The program will automatically store the
first encountered data when this dialog is exited using the Exit and
Save button. Pressing View will display the current contents of the
store can be used at any time to overwrite the store with the values
within the Pseudo Properties Table. Restore will take the values from
the store and use them to replace those within the Pseudo Properties
Table.
The Pseudo Components to Original Values option within the Data
Reset Display 249 acts in a similar way to the Restore option, taking
values from the store and replacing those in the Working PVT
composition
Excluding Pseudos
As a default all pseudo components will get involved in all calculations such as Automatching
or Recombine All. Clicking on the button within the Use first column of the grid will exclude any
pseudo as shown below. Clicking again will include the pseudo.

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Command Buttons
The control buttons have the following functions:
Exit and Save
Cancel
Order

Edit All
Quick Calc

PVTP Help And Manual

This option registers the changes made and closes down the display
This option shuts down the display and ignores any changes which
have been made
Clicking on this button will re-order by molecular weight the pseudo
components within the selected stream. The smallest pseudo will be
first , the largest will be last
This option brings up the Composition Editor 208 dialog. This display
allows the user to move,delete,import components etc
A subset of the Equation of State Calculations is available by clicking
on the Quick Calc. control button within the Recombination; Enter
Composition and View Properties displays.

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This feature provides the user with access to a subset of the


calculation menu as a means of checking the consistency of the
entered composition information.
Calculation modes
The small display above provides options to calculate:
Phase Envelope 321

This allows to visualise the phase envelope

Critical Point 321

This determines the critical pressure and


temperature of the mixture
Saturation
This determines the saturation pressure
corresponding to the reference reservoir
Pressure_at_ 328
Reference_Condition temperature as entered in the Reference Data
259 section
s 328
Flash to Standard 134 This performs a straight flash to standard
conditions and displays parameters like GOR,
Conditions 134
gas gravity and oil gravity
Flash Through 286
This performs a flash to standard conditions
Separator Stages 286 through separator trains and displays
parameters like GOR, gas gravity and oil
gravity

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Calculate Maximum

This allows to determine the amount of water


that saturates the hydrocarbon. A bigger
Water in the 388
quantity of water would form a separate liquid
Hydrocarbon Phase phase
388

388

Input fields
Options

The major model options are displayed. Only one set


are allowed per file.

Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences


Dialog 157 .
This display contains radio buttons which allow the
user to swap between User Selected and Automatic
modes.
In addition, data entry boxes are provided for entering
the limits of the temperature and pressure ranges to
be covered and the number of points to be calculated
for each variable.
The points will be spread evenly throughout the
temperature and pressure ranges selected.
All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to
the Calculation Dialog 370
See also
AutoMatching of Densities and Viscosities 230
Pseudo Splitting 227
Original Numbers Store 232
Automatic and Manual Mode 227
Hint on Method 230
Advanced Splitting 233
Split Profile Dialog 245
Decontamination 261
Step by Step Guide 472

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User Guide

2.7.9.1

227

Automatic and Manual Mode

Automatic

In this mode the pseudo properties are calculated using the correlation
chosen from the Options section.
he options display is composed of two combo boxes
The top combo box contains 3 options for calculating the pseudo component
boiling point viz.
Petroleum Experts
A.N. Other Correlation
Standing and katz
The bottom combo box contains 9 alternative methods for calculating the
acentric factor (Omega) and the critical temperature, pressure and volume of
a pseudo component, viz.
TWU/Edmister
Bergman(PNA) and Cavett
Bergman(PNA) and Cavett/Edmister
Cavett/Edmister
Mathew, Roland and Katz/Edmister
Robinson and Peng(PNA)
Lee and Kessler/Edmister
Riazi and Daubert/Edmister

Manual

2.7.9.2

Choose an option from the combo box by clicking on the down arrow and then
clicking on the selection.
The % aromatics within the properties grid allows the user to fix a limit on the
% used within the various calculations.
To fix the value enter the required number in the appropriate edit box. To
remove the limit blank out the value within the edit box.
After choosing the options press Calc Values
In this mode all the pseudo properties can be entered or adjusted by the user.
To change a value, click or double-click inside the appropriate box, type in the
number and tab or click away
Pseudo Splitting

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The Pseudo Components represent the largest source of unknowns within a mixture. They
also tend to have a significant influence on the overall mixtures characteristics. It is logical,
therefore, to concentrate on the pseudo properties when matching and regression operations
are being done. Sometimes the number of pseudos does not provide enough freedom to carry
out the matching required. One option for overcoming this situation is to split the last pseudo
into two or more components. Surface facilities may also require ten or more pseudos to
model surface separation processes.
The program offers a facility to do this in a controlled manner.
The pseudo can be split in various ways. The options available are described in more detail in
Pseudo Component Splitting 119 within the modeling section. Basically, the pseudo selected,
normally the last, is split out into up to 200 components before being regrouped into the the
required number of pseudos.
The radio buttons select which combination of pseudos should be split:
Last Pseudo
All pseudos

Selected

This would be the normal mode where the last usually the largest
pseudo is split
With this option all the available pseudos are recombined before the
splitting operation takes place. Note that psudos can be excluded
from this operation by clicking on the Use column( see Pseudo
Properties Dialog 220 )
Selecting this option produces a combo box which lists the pseudos
available

Method
The combo box allows the user to select between the splitting methods within the program
VIZ.

Each method corresponds to a different way of describing the components' distribution within
the defined pseudo component
Original
Method
Petroleum
Experts 1
Petroleum
Experts 2

PVTP Help And Manual

This was the first method to be used within PVTP.


The distribution of components is made up of a combination of rising and
falling exponential functions which meet at the input average molecular
weight of the pseudo.
This method is an upgrade of the Original Method to give more consistent
results. Method 1 was retained for backwards compatibility
The distribution of components is made up of a single falling exponential
function.

February, 2011

User Guide

Follow
Profile

This feature allows the user to determine all or part of the component
distribution. this can be extremely helpful in dealing with contamination or
fluids with distinctive distributions e.g. biodegraded fluids. To set up a
profile click on the Setup Profile button within the Pseudo Properties 220 or
the Advance Splitting 233 dialogs. This brings up the Split Profile 245 dialog
where the relevant data can be entered. When the distribution is
recalculated the split algorithm will give the components the values
defined and follow a declining distribution for the rest.
This methodology is key to the decontamination 261 procedure.
Setup
Profile

Whitson
Method

229

Clicking on this button will bring up the Split Profile 245


dialog.
This is used within the decontamination
procedure 261 .

The most recent and most flexible method. This uses a gamma function to
produce a distribution which an vary considerably in shape.
In this method a three parameter gamma probability function is used to
generate a series of distributions for the plus fraction. Unlike the previous
methods a series of possible distributions can be calculated for the same
fluid by changing the main parameter alpha.
See Whitson Split Analysis 242 dialog for more details

See Pseudo Component Splitting 119 within the modeling section for more on all these methods
Function buttons
Recombine All
Split in 2

Advanced

Clicking on this button will initiate the lumping of all pseudos back to
a single pseudo component
When selected the pseudo is split out using the method and species
selected. The split components are then regrouped to as close to 2
equal molar parts as can be found. The suggested practice for
condensates is to Split in 2 three or four times, automatching after
each splitting operation( see Step by Step Guide 472 )
This option calls the Advanced Splitting 233 dialog which has more
facilities to produce the split required

See also
Pseudo Properties Dialog 220
AutoMatching of Densities and Viscosities 230
Original Numbers Store 232
Automatic and Manual Mode 227
Hint on Method 230
Advanced Splitting 233
Split Profile Dialog 245
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Decontamination 261
Step by Step Guide 472
2.7.9.3

Hint on Method

The following correlations can be used for the calculation of BPts, Tc, Pc, Vc and Omega
(AF):
For Volatile Oils or
Condensates

For Oils

2.7.9.4

Try:
A. N. Other Correlation for Boiling Point
Bergman(PNA) and Cavett/Edmister for Acentric Factor
The values of binary coefficient varies greatly depending on fluid.
The most effective number is between the C1 and heaviest
component.
Try:
Petroleum Experts Correlation for Boiling Point
TWU/Edmister for Acentric Factor
Start with a small value of BIC e.g. 0.05 between the C1 and
heaviest component

Auto-Matching of Densities and Viscosities

Within the PVT package two liquid densities are calculated by two different methods. The first
is based on a choice of empirical correlation. The second is calculated from the Equation of
State Z factor. The density correlations 116 available are Standing and Katz or Costald. The
choice is made from the combo box provided
Experience has shown that the Standing and Katz value which is derived mainly from specific
gravities is always fairly close to the measured density at standard conditions. Costald is
used extensively in surface facilities modeling and also gives good results in most cases. The
results are however very sensitive to the value of Costald Volume and Acentric Factor and Tc
which are calculated from the property correlation. See Automatic and Manual Mode 227 for
more information on property correlation selection.
The Equation of State value suffers from the main problem of the method i.e. the EoS
equation will not generally predict an accurate value from initial entries. Matching to laboratory
data must always be done before any calculated value can be used with confidence.

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231

A wayward set of EoS parameters normally shows up as a large deviation between the two
density values when the mixture is subject to a Constant Composition Expansion at standard
conditions (60 deg F , 1 atm)
This method allows the user to tune the parameters of the greatest unknowns within the
mixture i.e. the pseudos to bring the densities in line.
We advise that this option is used right at the start after the mixture composition has been
entered, however, if an existing file is being used enter the procedure below at step 3
The complete method would then be (see also Step by Step Guide 472 ):
1. Select a NEW PVT file and enter Equation of State Options 168
2. Select Components 189 and Enter the Composition 203
3. Select Pseudo Props option from the Composition Entry 203 Display
dialog

to bring up this

4. Enter values for pseudo(s) Molecular Weight and Specific Gravity .


5. Select Automatic mode 227
6. Select a method for Boiling Point and TC,PC,Omega calculation.
7. Press on the Auto Match button .
The PVT package will now automatically go through a process of
a) Adjusting the pseudo(s) boiling point(s)
b) Calculating new Tc Pc etc.
c) Flashing at standard condition to find the difference in densities
d) Based on the difference found re-adjust and repeat or exit process
The matching will halt when a match has been found to within o.2% or 100 iterations have
been completed. If no match is made try adjusting the pseudo properties or selecting new
options in step 6
8. With densities OK now use the binary interaction coefficient(s) to match the saturation
pressure at reference conditions. Normally only one coefficient (heaviest component lightest component ) is required (see Step by Step Guide 472 ). This matching does not
greatly affect the densities.
When this procedure is followed most petroleum mixtures will immediately give close to the
measured values e.g. separator GOR, liquid dropout etc. Any differences can be readily
reduced using the PVT packages regression 274 functions.
This procedure is normally carried out with zero-ed Binary Interaction Coefficients . Auto
Match automatically stores and zeros the BI Coefficients . After matching the coefficients are
restored. The check box on the display allows the user to skip the zeroing step , giving more
flexibility with difficult mixtures.
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The option of Use original pseudo props from Store can be very valuable when a
condensate is being matched. Normally this type of fluid requires splitting.
This option will try and match the liquid density at STD to the same Costald or Standing-Katz
density determined on the basis of the Stored pseudo component.
This option is useful to make sure to reproduce the same density at STD as the one that has
been found at the beginning of the matching process, no matter if the pseudo component is
split.
When splitting occurs the Standing and Katz value of the mixture changes a little i.e. the
Automatch reference drifts away from its original accurate value. To prevent this, the
automatch process can be told to use the original unsplit value from the pseudo store to
calculate the Standing Katz density by putting this option on. Care should be taken however to
make sure the stored value is valid.
Since Volume Shift directly affects density an opportunity is given on this display to control this
feature. See Volume Shift Help 99 for more details.
AutoMatching of Viscosities
Selecting AutoMatch will also automatch the viscosity of an oil. This changes the Vc values to
bring the Lohrenz , Bray and Clark (LBC) calculated oil viscosity to a more reasonable level.
See Viscosity Modeling 123 .
By default, this operation will automatically be carried out if the AutoMatch button is operated.
A checkbox allows the user to switch this feature off.
Lohrenz , Bray and Clark is the most commonly used viscosity model but it tends to give high
errors for oils. The Little and Kennedy correlation is very good at predicting the viscosity of
oils above bubble point. Below saturation pressure results are mixed with some fluid values
being totally unsatisfactory.
This Automatching feature follows the procedure outlined below:
Find the type of fluid. If the fluid is not an oil do not proceed
Find the saturation pressure at the reference temperature
Use the Little and Kennedy model to calculate the viscosity of the oil at a pressure just
above saturation
Adjust the Vc values of the pseudo components until the LBC viscosity matches that
predicted by Little and Kennedy

2.7.9.5

Original Numbers Store

This is part of the Pseudo Properties 220 dialog.

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User Guide

233

Since Pseudo Component data is the key to the characterisation of petroleum mixtures, it is
important to keep track of the link to the initial lab data. Some operations carried out on
pseudo properties e.g. splitting can destroy the original entries. The program contains a
facility to Store, View and Restore the original or a designated set of entries for pseudo
properties. The program will automatically store the first encountered data when this dialog is
exited using the Exit and Save button. Pressing View will display the current contents of the
store can be used at any time to overwrite the store with the values within the Pseudo
Properties Table. Restore will take the values from the store and use them to replace those
within the Pseudo Properties Table.
The Pseudo Components to Original Values option within the Data Reset Display 249 acts in
a similar way to the Restore option, taking values from the store and replacing those in the
Working PVT composition.

2.7.10

Advanced Splitting Dialog

The Advanced Splitting Dialog is called via the Advanced button on the Pseudo Properties 220
display.
As the name implies this display allows the user to have more control over how pseudo
splitting is done, both in terms of the distribution of components and where the split limits are
set.
This can be very beneficial in:

dealing with difficult fluids


providing a better match when use of pure component properties for matching is
restricted
operating with multiple samples at varying depths
decontaminating samples
creating multiple pseudos to help in surface separation calculation
Normally, this operation would be carried out on a single pseudo e.g. C7+ or C10+ and typical
display would be:

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The table shows how the splitting algorithm has broken down the pseudo component giving
each C number a composition . From the composition the program corrects the database
MWts and SGs to match the pseudo from which the table was created. The split method
determines the shape of the composition distribution. Use the combo box to change the split
method. The split will recalculate automatically if the selection is changed. Alternatively, press
recalculate split to activate the calculation.
The methods currently available are :
Original
Method

PVTP Help And Manual

This was the first method to be used within PVTP.


The distribution of components is made up of a combination of rising and
falling exponential functions which meet at the input average molecular
weight of the pseudo.
February, 2011

User Guide

Petroleum
Experts 1
Petroleum
Experts 2
Follow
Profile

This method is an upgrade of the Original Method to give more consistent


results. Method 1 was retained for backwards compatibility
The distribution of components is made up of a single falling exponential
function.
This feature allows the user to determine all or part of the component
distribution. this can be extremely helpful in dealing with contamination or
fluids with distinctive distributions e.g. biodegraded fluids. To set up a
profile click on the Setup Profile button within the Pseudo Properties 220 or
the Advanced Splitting 233 dialogs. This brings up the Split Profile 245 dialog
where the relevant data can be entered. When the distribution is
recalculated the split algorithm will give the components the values
defined and follow a declining distribution for the rest.
This methodology is key to the decontamination 261 procedure.
Setup
Profile

Whitson
Method

235

Clicking on this button will bring up the Split Profile 245


dialog.
This is used within the decontamination
261
procedure .

The most recent and most flexible method. This uses a gamma function to
produce a distribution which an vary considerably in shape.
In this method a three parameter gamma probability function is used to
generate a series of distributions for the plus fraction. Unlike the previous
methods a series of possible distributions can be calculated for the same
fluid by changing the main parameter alpha.
See Whitson Split Analysis 242 dialog for more details

See Pseudo Component Splitting 119 within the modeling section for more on all these
methods.
Manual Splitting
Once an initial distribution is settled upon, the user can then define how the lumping or
regrouping is done. The number of required splits can be typed in or set using the + and buttons. Any number up to the displayed maximum can be entered.
Select the number of pseudos to be created and hit the Set Even Split button. The display
will change to one like this:

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The split boundaries are confirmed by the table colours and the details which have appeared
for the new 3 pseudo components.
The split can be changed from this even distribution by clicking on + and - beside the newly
defined pseudos.
Once the split is defined the program automatically calculates a MWT and SG for each
pseudo. From these values and a correlation a BPt. is set. From the BPt and a second
correlation all the important EoS numbers are calculated for the pseudo. As for the Pseudo
Properties display, the correlation can be selected by the user using the combo boxes
provided.
Whitson Method

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237

The dialog options change when the Whitson method is selected. See Whitson Splitting
Options 238 for more details.
Split Preferences

These include:
1) Selecting the method used to adjust both the SG and the MWts of the split out
components to renormalize back to the input pseudo values. Available are:
Adjusting all values
Adjusting only the final value
Doing no adjustments
2) Setting a maximum value for SG and MWt within the split out components
3) Viewing and selecting within the databases available for the extended S.G and MWt
properties. The user can also create and export a customized database from this dialog.
More options are available within the Split Preferences 240 dialog.
Function and Command buttons
Recalculate
Split
Automatch

BI Coeffs
Quick
Calc
Plot

This button allows to recalculate the pseudo components' distribution after


any change in the Method or the options in use
The AutoMatch 230 feature is also proved on this display to allow the user
to work on the new pseudo values prior to accepting the results. Using
Automatch does not affect the split it changes only some of the properties
associated with the resultant pseudos
Similarly , the user is provided with access to the Binary Interaction
Coefficients 216 Dialog from this display
This button brings up the standard Quick Calc 384 display , allowing the
user to calculate the effects of the completed split
This option removes all pseudos which have been created and returns the
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Clear
Exit and
Save
Cancel
Copy
Stream
Split

display to a single pseudo entry. Plotting allows the user to see the trend
in compositions and properties.
Erase all the modifications
Click on this button when all the changes that have been made are ok.
This will return the program to the Pseudo Properties display
This option clears all changes and returns the program to the Pseudo
Properties display
This option is useful for complex systems where samples have been
taken at various depths and a compositional gradient analysis is to be
done to prove linkage between the samples. If another stream within the
file has been through a splitting operation and the detailed information on
the split is stored. ,the file name will appear in the list box. Selecting the
stream name and clicking on Copy stream Split will cause the program to
match the current streams split to the one stored for the other stream.
This synchronization of pseudos helps the streams to be similarly
characterized and the compositional gradients of each stream to align

See also
Pseudo Properties dialog 220
Decontamination 261
2.7.10.1 Whitson Splitting Options
The splitting options within the Advanced Splitting Dialog 233 change when the Whitson method
is selected:

Three parameters are used within the Whitson gamma distribution i.e. alpha, beta and eta.
The main shape function is alpha and this is always a user input. To find the effect of the
alpha value change the entered number and click on Recalculate Split.
Beta is normally a calculated value the formula for which is

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

User Guide

(M n

)/

239

....................(1)

is the average molecular weight, alpha and eta are the other two distribution parameters.
Eta is the start molecular weight and is normally estimated from
14n 6 ............................(2)

where n is the plus fraction number.


In the auto mode both factors are calculated, in user mode the values can be entered in the
edit boxes provided.

Click on Recalculate Split after the values have been entered. It should be noted that the
methodology can produce very erratic results if the values entered vary greatly from the
default calculated values. Since beta is normally inversely proportional to alpha, if alpha is
changed the user beta value should reflect this change.
Background to the Whitson method can be found in Pseudo Component Splitting 119 within the
modeling section. The shape factor alpha offers many alternative shapes to the expanded
component distribution. Each when regrouped to a number of splits will give a different value
for fluid saturation pressure pressure and separator fluid properties. The Whitson Split
Analysis 242 dialog assists the user in finding the best combination of alpha value and split
number for the fluid being matched. Click on Find Best Alpha to call this dialog.

Normal operation is to contine the distribution until the end. However, the mode combo box
allows the user to stop at a particular C plus value.
Pseudo Properties Dialog 220
Advanced Splitting 233
Split Profile Dialog 245
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Step by Step Guide 472


Pseudo Component Splitting 119
2.7.10.2 Splitting Preferences Dialog
This dialog is available from the Advanced Splitting 233 dialog if Split Preferences button is
pressed.
A typical display looks like this:

Input fields
Split Method

PVTP Help And Manual

A combo box is provided to select which method is to be used to provide


the composition distribution curve on which the final split is based.

February, 2011

User Guide

Properties
Database
Selection

241

In addition the user can select between continuing the distribution to the
end on limiting it with an entered Cn+ fraction
As components are extended in the range of C7 to C200 they are given
molecular weights and specific gravities from the selected extended
properties database. The utilized database can be different for each
property, selected by the combo boxes shown above.

The database used would normally be that associated with the split
method. This automatic selection can be switched off using the check box
provided. The active database values are displayed in the Working
Values table.

Find Best

An extended properties database called customized in the list can be


created by the user. As a minimum values must be entered by the user for
C7 to C30. Additional values will be added as a polynomial to complete
the numbers to C200. These values can be saved in a simple ASCII file by
clicking on the Export button. The Import facility allows the user to retrieve
a saved set of values
This facility helps the user find the best combination of database
properties. When the option is selected the program selects each
database in turn and performs the split. This is done with the normalization
of the final SG and MWt values switched off. The program will then select
the combination of databases that gets closest to the input SG and MWt
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Property
Normalization

properties
This area allows the user to control how the data base proerties are
normalized to reproduce the input SG and MWT

Available are:
Adjusting all values
Adjusting only the final value
Doing no adjustments
In addition a maximum value for SG and MWt can be set within the split
out components
2.7.10.3 Whitson Split Analysis Dialog
This dialog is available from the Advanced Splitting 233 dialog if the Whitson Method is selected
and the Find Best Alpha button is pressed.
A typical display looks like this after calculation:

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243

Background to the Whitson method can be found in Pseudo Component Splitting 119 within the
modeling section. The shape factor alpha offers many alternative shapes to the expanded
component distribution. Each when regrouped to a number of splits will give a different value
for fluid saturation pressure and separator fluid properties. This dialog assists the user in
finding the best combination of alpha value and split number for the fluid being matched.
The procedure is as follows:
1. Enter the range of steps and alpha factors to be studied
2. Enter the PVT report data for saturation pressure and separator fluid properties
(normally GOR and oil density). Click on Copy Lab Data if the information has already
been entered as match data 267 .
Weighting can also be set for the various properties. For example, one may want to
reduce the weighting on GOR, which is usually affected by a higher measurement error
than properties like PSAT or density
3. Click on the Calculate button.
4. When all the calculations have been done the program lists the values found, the
percentage error for each test variable and the total error for that combination of alpha
factor and split number.
5. The combination with the lowest total error is highlighted at the end. If the user wishes
to use this combination or any other, click on the Select button at the beginning of the
desired row. This will return to the Advanced Splitting 233 dialog with the selections
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loaded.
Input fields
Setup

This panel contains the main options that will be applied to the Whitson
Pseudo-Splitting

Automatch
densities
during
calculations
Zero all
BICs prior
to addition
below
BIC
Mode
(NEW!!!)

PVTP Help And Manual

If this checkbox is ticked each fluid combination will go through


the Automatch 230 process prior to calculating the saturation
pressure and separator values. The combo box allows the user
to control which calculations are done
Before adding the BIC, if any BIC were previously present, they
will be reset to zero

Various options are available:


No addition of BICs. No BICs will be applied
C1 with Last Pseudo. A value for the Binary Interaction
Coefficient 216 will be set between methane and the heaviest
pseudo produced by the split.
The value used for the BIC is entered in the BIC Value entry
field.
C1 with All Pseudos. A value for the Binary Interaction
Coefficient 216 will be set between methane and each pseudo
produced by the split.
Recalculate All BICs. All the BIC will be re-calculated based
on one of the BIC estimation models, which can be selected
under More:

February, 2011

User Guide

245

Volume Shift

This panel allows to enable/disable the volume shift for the main stream
(Full) and for the eventual lumped stream associated (Lumped)
See also
AutoMatching of Densities and Viscosities 230
Pseudo Splitting 227
Binary Interaction Coefficients 97
Original Numbers Store 232
Automatic and Manual Mode 227
Hint on Method 230
Advanced Splitting 233
Split Profile Dialog 245
Decontamination 261
Step by Step Guide 472

2.7.11

Pseudo Split Profile Dialog

See also
Decontamination 261
Pseudo Properties Dialog 220
Advanced Splitting Dialog 233
This Dialog is called via the Setup Split Profile button on the Advanced Splitting Dialog.
A typical display looks like this:
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Enter the composition of each component that the split routine will follow.
Only key areas should be profiled e.g. the components with maximum contamination.
The program will fill in the other components using a standard distribution.
Command buttons
Plot

Plotting allows the user to see the trend in the compositions that
have been entered.
Clear
This option removes all entries
Exit and Save
Click on this button when happy with all the entries that have been
made. This will return the program to the Advanced Splitting display
Cancel
This option clears all changes and returns the program to the
Advanced Splitting display
Copy Stream Profile If another stream within the file has a profile stored its name will
appear within the list box.

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247

To copy a profile select the stream name an click on Copy.

2.7.12

View Properties

This display can be called directly from the main Data menu by selecting the View Properties
option. In addition, the screen is also invoked by clicking on the View button within the
Composition Entry display or by selecting Group on the Grouping Display 257 . A typical display
for a matched and grouped stream is shown below.

The stream being acted upon can be changed via the TABS at the bottom of the composition
grid.
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See PVT Project File Structure 188 for a more detailed description of streams.
The display shows the Working Composition of the selected Stream. The composition can
be viewed and manually changed if required. in common with all grids the blocks of data can
be copied to and from the clipboard with standard Control C Control V etc.
The top section of the display shows the components a, their mole percents and the
properties of each component pseudo component or group.
The corner of the properties grid gives a coloured message which indicates the status of the
composition i.e. GROUPED or MATCHED.
When a composition is grouped the components which make up each group can be found by
clicking on the component name. Click then on the down arrow which appears. As shown
below a subgrid appears containing the names of the grouped components.

The properties listed are:


Critical Temperature Tc
Critical Pressure Pc
Acentric Factor (Omega)
Critical Volume Vc
Omega A
Omega B
Molecular Weight
Boiling Point Tb
Specific Gravity
Apparent Density (Rho App)
Parachor
Volume Shift C
Volume Shift S
Costald Volume
Costald Acentric Factor
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249

Z Rackett
Critical Compressibility Zc
Melting Point
Heat of Melting
Change in Volume at Melting
Molar Volume
Solubility Parameter of Liquid
Solubility Parameter of Solid
The values for pure components normally come from the selected database 189 . Mixing rules
and correlations are used for groups and pseudos. The values within the tables can be edited
on this display by clicking within a cell and entering a new number. The Edit Mole Percents
dialog should be used to change percentages of components after matching has been done .
If no matching has taken place use the Enter Composition 203 Dialog
Volume Shift S and Volume Shift C are properties used in alternative methods of calculating
Volume Shift 99 . Z Rackett is used in one method to estimate Volume Shift C .
Costald Volume and Costald Acentric Factor are used within the Costald model 116 for fluid
density.
The third section of the display shows the Binary Interaction Coefficients 216 for pairs of pure
components, groups , and pseudos. Again values can be changed within this section.
The Composition Editor 208 has much of the functionality of this dialog. In addition the user can
move,delete,change type and import components within the editor dialog.
See Control Buttons 249 for a detailed description of the button operation within this dialog.

2.7.12.1 Command Buttons


The command buttons within the View Properties 247 dialog have the following functions.
Exit and
Save
Cancel
Quick
Calc

Registers the changes made and closes down the display


Shuts down the display and ignores any changes which have been made
A subset of the Equation of State Calculations is available by clicking on the
Quick Calc. control button within the Recombination; Enter Composition and
View Properties displays.

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This feature provides the user with access to a subset of the calculation menu
as a means of checking the consistency of the entered composition
information.
Calculation modes
The small display above provides options to calculate:
Phase Envelope 321

This allows to visualise the phase envelope

Critical Point 321

This determines the critical pressure and


temperature of the mixture
Saturation
This
determines
the
saturation
pressure
corresponding
to
the
reference
reservoir
Pressure_at_ 328
Reference_Conditions temperature as entered in the Reference Data 259
section
328
134
Flash to Standard
This performs a straight flash to standard conditions
and displays parameters like GOR, gas gravity and
134
Conditions
oil gravity
Flash Through 286
This performs a flash to standard conditions through
separator trains and displays parameters like GOR,
Separator Stages 286
gas gravity and oil gravity

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Calculate Maximum 388


Water in the 388
Hydrocarbon Phase 388

251

This allows to determine the amount of water that


saturates the hydrocarbon. A bigger quantity of
water would form a separate liquid phase

Input fields
Options

BOil
Properties
Data
Reset

The major model options are displayed. Only one set are
allowed per file.

Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences Dialog


157 .
This display contains radio buttons which allow the user to
swap between User Selected and Automatic modes.
In addition, data entry boxes are provided for entering the
limits of the temperature and pressure ranges to be covered
and the number of points to be calculated for each variable.
The points will be spread evenly throughout the temperature
and pressure ranges selected.
All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to the
Calculation Dialog 370
Clicking on this button will calculate the black oil properties of the fluid by
calling the Black Oil Properties 254 dialog
This feature is available at various points within the PVT package The small
menu allows the user to revert back to data base or stored values. (see PVT
Project File Structure 188 )

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The options are:


All non-pseudo
components to
database values

Restore Archived
Pseudo Values

Reset Omega A
and Omega B
values
Plot

Initially all pure component property values


are taken from the Petroleum Experts
database. These numbers can be changed
manually or by matching . This option will
restore any changes back to those from the
database. This operation also occurs if the
Select Database Components display is used
This function is identical to the Restore of
original numbers described in Pseudo
Properties 220 Display The pseudo values
stored are used to replace those in the
Working composition. If no values have been
stored , the existing values will be left
unchanged
If OmegaA and OmegaB values have been
used in regression 296 this option will reset the
numbers to the default values

This option brings up the Component Properties Plot.


A typical plot would be:

The program automatically creates a stream containing the original database


properties.
This allows the user to assess the changes which have been made during
regression.
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See Plotting for more details on the options available


2.7.12.2 OmegaA and OmegaB
This section describes the use of the OmegaA and OmegaB within the View Properties 247
dialog.
In the normal mode of operation OmegaA and OmegaB are constants(see Help on
Regression with OmegaA and OmegaB 296 ). The values are the same for each component and
are displayed.
The numbers cannot be edited in this mode. However, when a different regression mode is
chosen within the Regression Match Data 274 Dialog, the display changes to reflect that the
values are now in use.
If the Global mode is selected a single value is used for all components and the display looks
like this:

In Individual mode each component can have a different value for OmegaA and OmegaB.
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These values can be edited by the user if required.

In order to be able to modify single components'


OmegaA and OmegaB, access the Regression 274
section and set the Data Match Model to regress on
these parameters:

2.7.12.3 Black Oil Properties Dialog


This option is invoked by clicking on the Properties option within the View Properties 247 Dialog
and the Composition Editor 208 Dialog.

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The program will send the total composition to surface through the designated path and report
the black oil properties found. A typical display is shown below:

The GOR represents the total GOR from the fluid. The inverse is the CGR. The OIl Gravity is
the final gravity of the oil at standard conditions. The Gas Gravity is that of the accumulated
gas at surface. This calculation mimics one that is used within compositional IPM. In common
with the IPM equivalent , if no property can be calculated default values will be displayed.
The stream being viewed can be changed using the combo box provided.
Function and Command buttons
Calc

More

Separator
Data

Changing any major option within the display ,eg. changing stream or
separator calc method, automatically triggers a recalculation of the properties.
If however, this does not happen eg. when a separator pressure is changed,
clicking on this button will recalculate the properties
Clicking on the More button gives all the data calculated, including
compositions for the stock tank oil and the accumulated gas. This is shown
within the More Black Oil Properties Dialog
The CCE input displays contain a section for Separator Data. This allows the
user to define a separator train through which the CCE 330 liquid will be flashed
to correct the Oil FVF and GOR. The processes which are used to return an
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oil to standard conditions can significantly change the final oil characteristics
and the amount of gas liberated on the way. The stream separator settings
can be accessed via the tabs at the bottom of the table.All stages do not need
to be entered and a last flash to standard conditions is always included.The
combo within the separator data area switches between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train 134
Use K values 138
Use Split Factors 144
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored separately
from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator Calculation into
the Separator Data area.The Clear button removes all values from within the
Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value Dialog 139
See help on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and the
background to Split factors
2.7.12.3.1 More Black Oil Properties Dialog
This option is invoked by clicking on the More option within the Black Oil Properties Dialog 254 .
The program will send the total composition to surface through the designated path and report
the black oil and the molar properties found. A typical display is shown below:

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The GOR represents the total GOR from the fluid. The inverse is the CGR. The Oil Gravity is
the final gravity of the oil at standard conditions. The table contains the composition of this oil
The Gas Gravity is that of the accumulated gas at surface.The table contains the composition
of this gas
This calculation mimics one that is used within compositional IPM. In common with the IPM
equivalent , if no property can be calculated default values will be displayed.

2.7.13

Grouping

This Grouping Options display can be viewed by selecting the Grouping option within the D
ata menu. A typical display would be :

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Grouping allows a complex mixture of many components to be represented by a smaller


number of representative groups.
This operation greatly increases the speed of calculation. Mixing rules are used to give the
group properties which represent the combination of the group members. The simplification of
the system, however, does bring with it the potential risk of not being able to match fully the
complex properties of the real mixture. The stream to be grouped is selected using the
stream combo box..
The method radio buttons allow the user to choose between two major options:
Automatic (Elf Aquitaine) Method, and
Manual Method
When Automatic Method is selected along with the number of groups , the pure components
are sorted automatically into groups.
The number of groups required is entered in the edit box provided. The smaller the number of
groups the faster the calculation will go.
However, if too small a number is used the Equation of State may not be able to match the
more complex properties of the mixture, e.g. regression on a particular combination of
separator measurements may not find a reliable solution.
A choice of 5-6 groups seems to work for most systems. When streams are to be mixed it
may be beneficial to keep the second or injected stream separate during grouping. This can
be done be selecting an inject stream and clicking on the Injected Stream checkbox. When
a regressed stream is being grouped it is possible to say whether the regressed or basic
properties are used in the grouping via the Use Regressed Properties checkbox. Clicking
on the Group control button will initiate the grouping and bring up the View Properties display.
The Manual Method option in combination with pressing the Group control button brings up
the Manual Grouping Display.
NOTE the total group number will be the group number specified in this dialog + the number
of injected stream components.

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Manual Method
Selecting this option and clicking the Group button will enter the display shown below. The
top of the screen shows the groups defined so far. The bottom half contains two list boxes
one for components and another for groups. Groups are created by clicking on the desired
components , clicking on the desired group within the list box and clicking on Add Group.
Components grouped are removed from the components list box and placed in the table.
Delete Group will remove components from the selected group and place them in the
components list box. Reset Groups will delete all groups and place all components back in the
component list box. When Grouping selection are complete click on the OK button. This action
will bring up the View Properties 247 display.

2.7.14

Reference Data

This display can be viewed by selecting the Reference Data option within the Data menu.
This dialog shows the Reference Data for the currently active Stream. Each Stream contains
its own version of this data (see PVT Project File Structure 188 ). The stream can be changed
using the combo box provided.
A typical display is shown below.

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Data for Reservoir Temperature, Reference Depth and Static Pressure can be entered for
each stream. The temperature is used to calculate the saturation pressure in the quick
calculation 384 dialog and to act as a starting temperature for the compositional gradient 113
calculation. The reference depth is also taken as a starting point for the compositional
gradient calculation.The static pressure at depth is used in the compositional gradient and
represents the pressure in the reservoir at which the sample has been taken. Please note that
these variables can also be changed by using the Enter Composition 203 display
The second section of this dialog allows the user to modify the standard temperature and
pressure.These variables are used throughout the PVT package to determine the volumetric
properties of the oil and gas. Some PVT reports particularly from warmer areas demand
values other than the default numbers of 0 psig and 60 degrees F. Although the differences in
FVF and GOR are not large , use of the wrong reference conditions can make matching
difficult. When the PVT file is saved the Standard conditions used are also saved with it.The
Save as Default button will store the values and use them in any new PVT file.
When changing the reference P and T conditions it
is important to remark that:
the gas volumes at Standard Conditions will
always correspond to the Units System in use. For
example, in Oilfield the "scf" corresponds to cubic
foot at 60 deg F and 0 psig
the oil volumes will change depending on the
entered reference conditions

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2.7.15

261

Decontamination

Where data is limited and the contamination can be isolated as a single pseudo component,
the edit mole percents facility can be used. Normally a procedure like that described in the
Decontamination procedure 525 should be followed.

2.7.15.1 Decontamination Control Dialog


This display is called by the main display via the Data|Decontamination menu option.
See the Decontamination procedure 525 on how the file should be prepared prior to using this
facility. A typical display is shown in the figure below:

Mode
PVTP allows to perform decontamination in two ways:
Use Contaminant
Composition
Yes (NEW!!!)
Use Contaminant
Composition No

If the composition of the contaminant is available, this can be used


as basis fro the decontamination of the reservoir fluid
This model consists of entering directly the composition of the
uncontaminated fluid in the region of contamination. The program will
then determine the total uncontaminated fluid composition

The main table on the left hand side shows the components and the distribution of
components within the pseudo components. The colours indicate the components which are
calculated to make up each pseudo.
The distribution of the pseudo split components is determined by the path taken in
characterising the pseudo within the Pseudo Properties Dialog and the Advanced Splitting
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Dialog which is accessed from it. The correct setup of this split and the matching of the
fluid must be done prior to using the decontamination feature.
The split method indicated above the table is the key to the shape of the pseudo component
distribution. This can be selected within the Advanced splitting dialog 233 .
An important split option in decontamination is to follow a profile. A profile would be
contaminant-rich part of the extended sample component distribution (C12-C20). Using this
method a profile can be created within the Split Profile Creation Dialog.
This display is entered by a stream with a fixed pseudo distribution and a set of pseudo
properties which characterises the fluid. The program splits out the composition and the main
properties used by the EoS i.e. Tc,Pc,Vc,AF, BPt and the SG.
The following table summarizes the two mode of decontamination calculation:
Entering the
Contaminant
Composition

PVTP Help And Manual

In this mode the user can enter on the table on the right hand side the
composition of the contaminant, its average molecular weight and the
weight % of contaminant in the reservoir fluid. If available this information
can be entered in molar form and the weights calculated.
A normal procedure would be
1) Select the use contaminant composition using the yes|No combo box
2) Select the input form as weight using the combo box above the table.
3) Review the contaminant analysis data and select the range of input
required. Use the Start C and End C inputs to enter the desired range.
Click on Setup Table to resize the input grid. Note that a Cn+ line will
always be added to the range but this data does not need to be entered
if not available.

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4) Enter or cut and paste (cntrl + c) the contaminant analysis in weight %


5) Enter the average molecular weight of the contaminant.
6) Enter or cut and paste (cntrl + c) the contaminant molecular weights if
present in the report. It should be noted that these values will be set to
those of the main fluid if not entered. The values are used to calculate
the moles of contaminant to be removed and also used in a balance
calculation to find the molecular weight of the decontaminated fraction.
7) Enter or cut and paste (cntrl + c) the contaminant specific gravities if
present in the report. The values are used in a balance calculation to find
the specific gravity of the decontaminated fraction.
8) Click on Calc Moles to calculate the molar composition. Compare the
average molecular weight calculated from the composition (bottom of
grid) with that entered. Adjust the values if there in a large inconsistency.
9) Enter the weight percent of contaminant found in the fluid. Click on
remove contaminant to find a new composition for the decontaminated
fluid
10) Click on Decontaminate to finish the procedure. This step will use
the contaminant composition molecular weights and specific gravities to
create a final decontaminated fluid.
Note that if the Decontaminate button is hit at step 8) all the calculations
will be done automatically in sequence.

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Entering
In this mode the user can give the program new values for the important
components i.e. where the contamination was.
directly the
uncontaminated Type the new values into the New Mole % column.
fluid
composition

Alternatively, values can be transferred from the clipboard using the


standard Control + C (copy) and Control + V (paste) combination
Function buttons
Quicklook

Decontaminate

To get an idea of which results the decontamination process will


produce click on the QuickLook button.
This option executes the decontamination and creates a temporary
decontaminated stream and brings up the QuickLook Selection
Dialog
To carry out the decontamination click on the Decontaminate button.
The user will now enter the option (via the Mode Selection Dialog) of
copying the results of the decontamination to the existing stream or
to a newly created one.
The decontamination calculation proceeds as follows:
The individual component mole percents are set equal to the
New Mole% values, where defined.
The remaining component mole percents are adjusted to make
up the 100% total and to follow the trend of the original values.
The new full composition appears as the Calcd. %.
The Calcd% are used in conjunction with the initial properties

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to generate a new set of properties for each component and a


combined version for each of the pseudo components. The
pseudo component start and end values can be seen by
clicking on the View/Change button.
The trend in the individual compositions can be seen by using the
Plot button.
The Clear button erases all the New Mole % values.
2.7.15.1.1 Decontamination Mode Selection Dialog
This display is called via the Decontaminate control button. A typical screen is shown below:

The options available are two:


Keep existing
stream and overwrite
component values
Create a new stream
with the new
component values

This option creates the new decontaminated stream and


replaces the existing (contaminated) one
This option creates a new stream alongside the contaminated
one. The stream name and comment can be edited at this stage

Press Decontaminate to carry out the decontamination and return to the control dialog.
See also Decontamination Procedure 525 .
2.7.15.1.2 Decontamination Quick Look Dialog
This display is called via the Decontamination Control Dialog. A typical screen would be:

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As part of the quick look procedure the program creates a temporary stream and does the
decontamination procedure within this stream.
This dialog allows the user to see the results of this process as a table of component
properties by clicking on View Properties.
Alternatively, the standard quick calc dialog can be called by clicking on the Quick Calc 384
button.

See also Decontamination Procedure 525 .


2.7.15.1.3 Decontamination Pseudos Dialog
This display is called via the Decontamination Control Dialog.
This is the View/Change feature to change the pseudo components' properties:

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When the decontamination screen is entered and exited , the program stores the properties of
the pseudo components at this time. These values are then taken as the reference for any
further decontamination calculations. When decontaminate is pressed within the control
display , the program looks to these values to set compositions and properties.
It is for this reason that the decontamination screen should only be activated after the
fluid is fully matched.
The top table shows these reference values. The bottom table gives the current working
pseudo component numbers. These would normally be the result of the decontamination
operation.
If, however, it was found necessary to do further work on the contaminated fluid, and the user
wishes to change the stored reference values, this display allows the user to overwrite the
archived values with the working set by clicking on the Copy button.
See also Decontamination Procedure 525 .

2.7.16

Match Data

This series of displays allows the user to enter PVT laboratory measured data for matching.
on a stream by stream basis. Each Stream holds its own separate set of data points.(see
PVT Project File Structure) The stream being acted upon can be changed using the combo
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box provided. After supplying the data, the system individual or grouped properties can be
then be adjusted using non-linear regression techniques (using the Regression option from the
Data menu) to best fit the measurements. This combination represents a powerful technique
for adjusting the idealised equation of state to mirror the real world.
The Matching option is invoked by selecting Enter Lab Data within the Data menu.

Match data tables are available for the following measurements:


Saturation Pressure (PSAT) and critical temperature
Constant Composition Expansion (CCE)
Constant Volume Depletion (CVD)
Differential Liberation (DIFF)
Separator Data (Sep)
Compositional Gradient (CmpGrd)
Swelling Test (Swell)
Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT)
Wax Amount (% SOLID)
For each match data table, enter the required information. The PVT Step by Step Guide 472
gives recommendations and examples of which data should be used.
A reference temperature is required for CCE, CVD match data. The program will prompt for
any missing information. In the CVD and DIFF sections only one temperature is required: the
program will automatically copy this information to each row. The CCE calculation can be
done at multiple temperatures.
When the Compositional Gradient table is selected, the reservoir reference conditions are

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shown in read only form.


Adjustment of these values is available using the Reference Data 259 option within the Data
Menu.

The grid tab buttons shown above allow the user to move between the match input tables.
The tabs also indicate which tables contain data. Tables with data have coloured tabs.
Important Note on Differential or CVD
The calculation of GOR and FVF for a differential liberation is done with respect to
residual volume. In order that this volume can be determined all the steps must be
added as in the example below

In the same way, the CVD is a path-dependent process, that is why it is important
to enter all the pressure steps followed in the lab
SOLIDS
Note that the grids which contain Wax Options are at the end of
the scroll bar and must be scrolled along to:

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Feature buttons and commands


Include/Exclude Any data point or groups of points can be excluded from the regression
process. Simply highlight the desired points and press exclude. Excluded
points are indicated by a GREY text background colour. To include points
highlight again and press include. This feature can be very useful with
liquid dropouts. Enter all values, exclude all and select values as required
for inclusion
Weighting
Any data point or groups of points can be given a different weighting
between high 10 and low 1.This will affect how the regression algorithm
responds to the error generated by this point. This weighting is combined
with the process weighting (high,medium,low) available within the
regression display to give an overall value. To change a weighting, select
a point or group of points, change the weighting value and press Set
Weighting. Weightings of less than 10 are indicated by the point having a
BLUE text colour
Grid Assist Sub Place the cursor anywhere in the table and press the right hand mouse
button. A small dialog will appear as shown below:
Dialog

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Reset

Plot

Cancel

271

The Reset button causes the user to be prompted to select if the


displayed table or all matching tables should be zeroed. Note that the
cleared table or tables will not become part of the project until OK is also
selected
The Plot button brings up a display of the entered data where applicable.
Clicking on OK registers any changes which may have been made and
closes down the display
Will close the display ,loosing any data which may have been entered
Notes:
Oil Viscosity can be selected as a match variable within the
CCE Table
the Oil FVF within the multi-stage Separator calculation. is
corrected through all the succeeding stages. This correction
can add up to 10 % to the un-corrected value. To activate the
correction add all stage temperatures and pressures to the
match table, even if no other matching is done within the lower
stages

2.7.16.1 Matching on Mixture Critical Temperature


Matching on critical temperature is available on the first line of the PSAT table. This option is
intended to help with difficult fluids where the phase is problematic to reproduce with the
Equation of State. A measure of phase is the position of the critical point within the phase
envelope. If the reservoir temperature is left of the mixture critical temperature the fluid is an
oil. If right, the fluid is a gas.
If the critical point does not exist the fluid is assumed to be a gas. This match point allows the
user to push the critical point in the desired direction. One not uncommon use is where a
condensate shows up as an oil at the start of regression. Initially the fluid below shows up as
an oil. The reservoir temperature is 200 deg F but the mixture critical temperature is 500 deg
F.

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To help the situation enter a target value of 180 for the Tc within the PSAT Match Data Table.
An important option to use for this type of application is the checkbox which prompts the
program to assume that the non detection of the critical point is taken as the target being
reached. This means that if the critical point disappears the temperature will be set as the
target of 180 giving an error for this calculation of zero. The disappearance of the critical point
is not uncommon with HTHP condensates.

Select the Critical temperature within the Regression Match Data dialog.

Regression produces the following beneficial result. There is no critical point and the fluid is
now a condensate.

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2.7.16.2 What Data Should be Used in Regression


An important principle to understand at this point is that the Equation of State does not
respect the fundamental law of conservation of mass. The figure below illustrates why this
may be a problem.

Assume the example is a gas condensate. It is fairly straightforward to match the reservoir
conditions i.e. Zgas, PSat, in isolation. This will give a model which works reliably in the match
area. However , the non-predictive nature of the EOS and its weakness towards material
balance means that this matching does not give valid results as the pressure changes rising
up the wellbore to separator conditions. Liquid dropout and Separator GOR etc. become very
suspect.
Similarly, the separator area can be well matched in isolation , but this model would not be
valid if used to predict reservoir properties.

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Treating the areas separately essentially describes two different models for the same fluid.
The constant mass expansion going from well to surface cannot be resolved. The error this
approach causes can be very significant and will come out in many ways e.g. in the inability to
resolve reserves with production.
To avoid such problems we recommend that reservoir and separator matching must always
be done together Densities or density derived data must be included for reservoir and
surface to force a material balance on the system.
NOTE The EOS calculation initially calculates Zliquid and Zvapour. Densities are calculated
directly from the Zs. Matching Z matches density
The recommended minimum information to be used for matching is:
OILS

Bubble Point pressure


A measure of density (oil density or Zliquid) at reservoir or
saturation pressure conditions
Some measure of Separator volumetric properties i.e. GOR or oil
FVF
A measure of density (oil density or Zliquid) at separator or
stock tank conditions

GAS
CONDENSATES

Dew Point pressure


A measure of density (gas density or Zvapour) at reservoir or
saturation pressure conditions
Some measure of Separator volumetric properties i.e. GOR or oil
FVF
A measure of condensate density (oil density or Zliquid) at
separator or stock tank conditions
Liquid Dropout (CCE or CVD) from reservoir pressure to
surface conditions

See also
Step by Step Guides 472

2.7.17

Regression

This option is made available when PVT laboratory data 267 has been entered for matching.
The option is invoked by selecting Regression within the Data menu and is used to perform
the non-linear regression which adjusts the components' properties to best fit the laboratory
measured PVT data.

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The non-linear regression matching technique can be used on up to six PVT match tables.
Data Match Model
Five model options can be selected within the program VIZ:
1.

2.

3.

Original: All
Component
Tcs Pcs AFs etc

This model makes all component Pcs, Tcs and Acentric Factors
available for regression. When selected this model allows the
user to also limit the movement of the selected properties via the
checkbox which becomes visible. When invoked this option
restricts the movement of all properties such that the
progression with molecular weight remains reasonable.
Component property values can be plotted within the View
Properties Dialog. It should be noted that limiting property
movement will inevitably reduce the flexibility of the EoS method
and may decrease the accuracy of the final match with some
fluids
Global OmegaA,
This will use one value of Omega A and B common for all
components. In addition, the pseudo component and grouped
OmegaB plus
component Tcs Pcs and AFs will be available for regression.
Pseudo
See help on Regression with OmegaA and OmegaB 253 for more
Tcs Pcs AFs
details
Individual OmegaA, This will use an individual value of Omega A and B for every
component. In addition, the pseudo component and grouped
OmegaB plus
component Tcs Pcs and AFs will be available for regression.
Pseudo
See help on Regression with OmegaA and OmegaB 253 for more
Tcs Pcs AFs
details.
The Reset Omega A and Omega B Values button that appears
with models 2 and 3 will set these values back to their default
EoS levels
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4.

Tcs Pcs AFs with


Multiplier on Each
Property (NEW!!!)

5.

Tcs Pcs AFs with


Shift/Multiplier on
Each Property
(NEW!!!)

This applies a unique multiplier parameter on all the selected


properties (Tcs, Pcs, AFs and Volume Shift, if present). The
objective of this option is to preserve the trend of Tcs (increasing
with carbon number) and Pcs (decreasing)
This applies a unique multiplier and shift parameters on all the
selected properties (Tcs, Pcs, AFs and Volume Shift, if present).
The objective of this option is to preserve the trend of Tcs
(increasing with carbon number) and Pcs (decreasing)

As OmegaA and OmegaB are hard-coded in process simulation tools,


if the objective is to create an EOS that will be used in a process
simulator, then it is not recommended to use modes 2 and 3
Mode
The program has two modes for Equation of State regression :
Single Stream
Multi-stream
The mode is changed by way of the radio buttons at the top of the dialog.
Single
Stream
Mode

The initial regression display is shown below.

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As the name implies this mode regresses only one stream i.e. the
component properties of one stream are changed to match its Lab Data.
The stream being manipulated is selected by clicking on the tab containing
the stream name. The tab background colour is changed to BLUE if any
selections have been made for the stream 188 .
This display highlights all the variables available for regression .
Choose a variable by clicking on the checkbox alongside the name. The total
number of variables selected is shown on the left of the dialog
The variable can then be set at high, medium or low weighting in the
overall regression calculation. All selections for the selected stream can be
removed by clicking on the Clear This Stream button.
It is not necessary to select all variables, especially in cases where data
may be suspect.
The High, Medium and Low radio buttons allow the user to adjust the
weighting given to each selection. See also Lab Data Entry Dialog 267 for
more information on weightings.
When selection is complete click on the Regress control button. This action
will bring up the Regression Parameter Selection Dialog 278 .
Main closes down the dialog, saving all changes
Cancel closes down the dialog, ignoring all changes
Multi-Stream
Mode

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This mode is designed for projects where multiple samples and


corresponding PVT data is available from the same reservoir. This may be
from wells at different depths or surface/reservoir samples. The fluid
components are generally the same but the compositions and therefore the
measured characteristics are different.
The principle is to match all the data with one set of component properties.
Each stream represents one sample with its own composition and Lab Data
267 . All the stream component properties will end up the same, but the initial
set will be taken from the Master stream. This can be changed using the
combo box provided.
Selection is carried out in the same way as described above for a single
stream. As selections are made the Stream Summary shows the number
chosen for each stream.
Note that a maximum of 25 properties are allowed to be regressed upon.
The Clear All Streams button will set all stream selections to zero.
Stream Selections can be individually cleared by clicking on the name or
names within the Stream Summary and pressing on the Clear Selected
button.
When selection is complete click on the Regress control button.
This action will bring up the Regression Parameter Selection Dialog 278
See also:
Match Data 267
Viscosity Matching 288
Notes on Regression 295
Regression with OmegaA and OmegaB 296

2.7.17.1 Regression Parameter Selection Dialog


The component selection displayed depends on which regression model was selected within
the Regression Match Data 274 dialog .
ORIGINAL
MODEL

If not regressing on viscosity, for each group or component , the user can
select whether to regress on any or all of the following:
Critical Temperature Tc
Critical Pressure Pc
Critical Volume Vc
Acentric Factor AF
Volume Shift C or S
In addition for wax modeling 292 (if WAT or solids % have been entered in
the Lab Data 267 ) the following properties are added:
Melting Point
Heat of Melting

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A typical display shown below.

This display is called by the Regress Option in the Regression Match Data
dialog 274 .
For each group or component , the user can select whether to regress on
any or all of the
Our latest methodology for parameter selection is given in What Properties
to use in Regression 287 .
The matching of viscosity requires a particular procedure which is
described in Matching Viscosity 288
Limit the Movement
of Properties with
Respect to Each Other
GLOBAL
OMEGA A
AND
OMEGA B
MODEL

This option will try and match the experimental


data trying to keep the trends of the various
regressed properties

With this model a single value for Omega A and Omega B are applied to
all components. The values are displayed within the grid. A Checkbox is
supplied to select each parameter. Clicking on Reset at the top of the
column will set the respective omega parameter to the EoS default value.
In this mode the Tcs, Pcs and AFs of the pseudo and grouped
components can also be selected. In all models the volume shift
parameters and BICs are selectable See Regression with OmegaA and
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OmegaB 296 .

INDIVIDUAL
OMEGA A
AND
OMEGA B
MODEL

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With this model a each component has its own value for Omega A and
Omega B. A Checkbox is supplied to select each parameter for every
component. Clicking on All at the top of the column will set on all the
respective omega parameters. None will switch them off. In this mode the
Tcs, Pcs and AFs of the pseudo and grouped components can also be
selected. In all models the volume shift parameters and BICs are
selectable. See Regression with OmegaA and OmegaB 296 .

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WITH
MULTIPLIER
ON EACH
PROPERTY

281

With this option each of the properties (Tc, Pc, AF) will be corrected by
means of a common multiplier.
The outcome of using this mode is that the trends of various properties (for
example, Tc increasing with carbon number) are preserved.
As components' thermal properties are directly calculated from Tc and Pc
using the principle of corresponding states, keeping the trend of these
properties will also hold the trend of the thermal properties themselves.
This is a benefit when the EoS is used in a process simulation tool, where
single components/cuts thermal properties are at the basis of any
calculation.

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TCs PCs AFs


WITH SHIFT/
MULTIPLIER
ON EACH
PROPERTY

With this option each of the properties (Tc, Pc, AF) will be corrected by
means of a common multiplier and shift parameter.
The outcome of using this mode is that the trends of various properties (for
example, Tc increasing with carbon number) are preserved.
The Regression screen is the same as the previous figure

In the regression screens for each of the modes illustrated above common features can be
found:
Options

The Preferences Dialog 164 contains several selections which are directly or
indirectly relevant to the regression process. These options can be viewed
and/or changed by clicking on the Change button. Included in this set is
the maximum number of regression steps and the selection and deselection of the pure components. If pure components are switched off for
regression the display changes to:

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When an equation containing the Volume Shift option is used, the


parameter list expands to contain the appropriate shift parameter ( see
Volume Shift Help 99 ). Volume shift is set within the File|Preferences Dialog
157

Binary
Interaction
Coefficients

Since the Binary Interaction of the lightest and heaviest components are
important , it is also possible to regress on the Binary Interaction
Coefficient of them. For regressing on the Binary Interaction Coefficient,
there are three options available as can be seen in the figure below.

Last
Pseudo
Only

This will allow for performing the regression between the


last pseudo component and the lightest components only.
When this option is selected, the display section will be
updated with the Name of the Last pseudo component.

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All
Pseudos
to Same
Value

All
Pseudos
by Same
Multiplier

This option will apply the same value of the BIC for all the
pseudo components with respect to the lighter components
selected. for example, if there are four pseudo components
and the regression with respect to C1 is applied, then the
same value of the BIC will be applied to all the pseudo
components. an example is as seen in the figure below:

Please note that this option may not be suitable for all fluids,
as the requirement for a BIC is purely dependent upon the
fluid being characterised. Although the option 'ALL
PSEUDOS TO SAME VALUE' is the default option, if this
method does not provide a good match with respect to the
lab data, then the user may wish to consider using the other
options for the BIC Regression
This option will multiply the BIC that are initially specified for
the fluid (before starting the regression) with a constant
multiplier value to get the final value of the BIC.
Clearly, if the initial values of the BIC are zero, then
the multiplier will not have any effect for that BIC.
An example is given in the two figures below. the first
figure gives the initial value for the BIC, and the second
figure gives the BIC values after regression. It can be
analysed that the Multiplier calculated by the regression
engine has a certain value (0.78517 in this example) and the
initial BIC are multiplied with this same value.

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Command buttons
The control buttons have the following functions:
Ok
Cancel
Regress

Properties
Results
All On
Clear All
Clear Pure

This option stores the values entered (in memory , not on disk) . and
closes down the display
This option shuts down the display and ignores any changes which have
been made
This option starts the regression process. When complete, the Regression
Information screen is automatically displayed. See the note on regression
below
This option allows to view the composition and components' properties
(see View Properties 247 )
This option displays a summary screen that reports the comparison
between the lab data and the EOS. See the note on regression 295 below
This button selects all the available component properties for regression
This button switches off all the available regression parameter options
This button switches off all the available regression parameter options from

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the non-pseudo components


All/None
Tc,Pc,Vc,AF,
S Shift

This button sets all the variables within the column on/off

see also
Mouse Shortcuts 286
Separator 286
What Properties to Use in Regression 287
Matching Viscosity 288
Regression with Solids 292
Notes on Regression 295
Regression with OmegaA and OmegaB 296

2.7.17.1.1 Mouse Shortcuts


Within the Regression Parameter Dialog 278 the mouse shortcuts have been designed to give
quick access to a series of options.
Clicking on the component name in various ways sets data on and off. The options are:
left mouse button
right mouse button
shift key and
left mouse button
shift key and
right mouse button

switch on AF Tc and Pc
switch on all properties
switch off AF Tc and Pc
switch off all properties

2.7.17.1.2 Separator

The Separator data option within the Regression Parameter Dialog 278 mirrors the feature
available within the individual calculation sections. The user can define a separator train
through which the oil produced within CCE 330 , GRAD 365 etc. will be flashed to correct the Oil
FVF and GOR. The processes which are used to return an oil to standard conditions can
significantly change the final oil characteristics and the amount of gas liberated on the way.
All stages do need to be entered and a last flash to standard conditions is always included.

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The checkbox within the separator area switches the correction on and off. Setup brings up
the small dialog where the separator conditions are defined.

All stages do not need to be entered and a last flash to standard conditions is always
included. The combo within the separator data area switches between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values 138
The Setup button allows the stage characteristics to be changed by calling this dialog.
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored separately from those within
the Separator calculation. The Copy Sep button will copy the first five stages from the
Separator Calculation 358 into the Separator Data area.
The CLEAR button removes all values from within the Separator Data area.
OK will return to the calling dialog with any changes stored. Cancel will return to the calling
dialog with any changes ignored.

2.7.17.2 What Properties to Use in Regression


Component properties for regression are selected within the Regression Parameter Selection
Dialog 278 .
Our recommendations for which variables to use have changed with our experience of a wider
and wider variety of fluids and systems.
Create a composition with 5 or more pseudo components. Use the Whitson gamma method
within the Advanced Splitting Dialog 233 to get the best set of pseudo components. Add BICs
where practical.
Use the Preferences Dialog 164 to switch off regression with pure components. In the
Regression Parameter Dialog select all pseudo component Tcs and Pcs and any BICs that
may be available. Initially match with volume shift off.
If match is not adequate add volume shift and pseudo AFs to the match parameters. With the
restrictions placed on the match parameters it may not be possible to fully match all the
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properties of the fluid.


The problems encountered with heavily volume-shifted compositions basically arise from an
inconsistency in mass balance. Much work has been done within the IPM suite to reduce the
effects of this. A late inclusion to the match of the volume shift 99 will help to reduce its effect.
See also Step by Step Guide 472 for a detailed methodology in creating a fully matched
composition.
see also
Regression Parameter Selection 278
Regression with Solids 292
Notes on Regression 295
Regression with OmegaA and OmegaB 296
Viscosity Matching 288
2.7.17.3 Matching Viscosity
Matching viscosities start with viscosity data entry within the Match Data Dialog 267 and
process and model selection within the Regression Dialog 274 . In the Equation of State model ,
viscosity is calculated by a range of methods.
The default method is Lohrenz, Bray and Clark (LBC).See Viscosity Models 123 for more
details of the models available.
The LBC model is default as it the only model in general use within other programs.
Only one model is active in a file at any one time. The active model is selected via the combo
box which appears on the regression selection display.

Regression with LBC


This method uses composition , specific gravity and , more importantly, critical volume to get
the value for viscosity(see help on LBC model 124 ).Critical Volume (Vc) is the property which is
used in the viscosity regression.
The key to understanding the procedure outlined below is the fact that, although LBC viscosity
is dominated by Vc, in all other calculations the property has little on no effect. The matching
of viscosity can be effectively de-coupled from the
total fluid matching exercise.
The procedure to adopt is as follows:
1. Set up and carry out the fluid matching for all variables except viscosity e.g. PSat,PSat
density, separator GOR , Stock Tank density etc. Suggestions for the variables to use
are given in the Step by Step Guide 472 . See also What Properties to use in
Regression.
2. Enter the viscosity values to be matched to using the CCE table within the Match Data
267 Tables. Please note that there are limitations to what the LBC method can do (see
NOTE below).

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3. Within the Match Selection Dialog ,click on the viscosity or viscosities to be matched.
This action will switch off all non-viscosity selections (psat etc. ). A typical display
would be:

4. Click on Regress to bring up the Parameter Selection Dialog . No Selections will be


available other than component Vcs. Select all the Vcs using the Vc All button. A
typical display would be:

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5. Click on Regress to match viscosity.


6. Return the matching system to the selections prior to step 1 i.e. PSat etc and Tc Pc
AFs selected. Regress again .This step is not really necessary as the matching should
not be disturbed. The operation does ,however ,re-establish the selections which
made the overall match possible.
NOTE on LBC
The LBC is probably not the best compositional correlation for viscosity that we
have tested to date. It does,unfortunately, have some limitations of which the user
should be aware. The values calculated for oils ,without matching, are generally
not very good and can sometimes be wrong by an order of magnitude. This
limitation is counteracted to a great extent by the Automatching of Viscosity
feature. Unfortunately, another problem arises from the inflexibility of the
algorithm. With heavier oils it can be difficult to get a full match from reservoir
pressure to surface. If this occurs and the output is to be in the form of Black Oil
tables it may be better to match the viscosity within PROSPER or MBAL using
Black Oil correlations.
However, LBC is the standard correlation adopted in viscosity modelling for oil and
gas fluid
Regression with Models other than LBC
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Unlike LBC which uses Vcs, the other viscosity models use Tcs,Pcs and liquid densities to
calculate viscosity. Matching directly on these properties would destroy the match to the main
fluid properties such as saturation pressure and separator GOR. As an alternative, these
models have been given a shift and multiplier mechanism to improve the match.
After matching the viscosity becomes:
Visc = Visc*Multiplier + Shift
The procedure to match becomes:
1. Set up and carry out the fluid matching for all variables except viscosity e.g. PSat,
PSat density, separator GOR , Stock Tank density etc. Suggestions for the variables
to use are given in the Step by Step Guide 472 . See also What Properties to use in
Regression.
2. Enter the viscosity values to be matched to using the CCE table within the Match Data
Tables.
3. Within the Match Selection Dialog ,click on the viscosity or viscosities to be matched.
This action will switch off all non-viscosity selections (psat etc. ). A typical display
would be:

4. Click on Regress to bring up the Parameter Selection Dialog . No component


selections are available. A typical display would be:

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5. Click on Regress to match viscosity. The shift and multiplier parameters are
displayed. Gas and Oil values are matched separately. The Reset Params button
can be used to undo any matching that has taken place.
6. Return the matching system to the selections prior to step 1 i.e. PSat etc and Tc Pc
AFs selected. Regress again .This step is not really necessary as the matching should
not be disturbed. The operation does ,however ,re-establish the selections which
made the overall match possible.
see also
Regression Parameter Selection 278
What Properties to Use in Regression 287
Regression with Solids 292
Notes on Regression 295
Regression with OmegaA and OmegaB 296
2.7.17.4 Regression With Solids
In the Equation of State model ,viscosity is calculated by the method of Lohrenz, Bray and
Clark (LBC).
This display is called by the Regress Option in the Regression Match Data dialog. if a Solid
option has been entered in the Match Data Tables.
The possible entries include Wax Appearance Temperature and Amount of Wax.
If either of these option is chosen the display expands to include two further columns as
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shown below:

From the expressions within Wax modeling and Wax Model Details it can be seen that the
important variables as far as solid formation are concerned are Melting Point and Heat of
Melting.
Since a component is only allowed into the solid if its melting point is greater than the test
temperature only the heaviest components have any effect.
Melting Point is the key variable and it should be used first.
Heat of Melting has little effect on Wax Appearance Temperature but it significantly changes
the percentage of wax produced.
The lack of significant properties to change and the inflexibility of the underlying correlations
may mean that the model cannot fully match the variability found in complex wax forming
fluids.
NOTE: From the models it is obvious that the other component properties used in regression
i.e. Tc,Pc,AF etc. do not significantly influence solid formation. Their effect comes in the
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composition and fugacity of the liquid solvent. It is therefore possible to match solid formation
in isolation from the other match points e.g. PSAT in a similar way to that proposed for
matching viscosities.
The procedure to adopt is as follows:
1. Set up and carry out the fluid matching for all variables except solids e.g. PSat,PSat
density, separator GOR , Stock Tank density etc. Suggestions for the variables to use
are given in the Step by Step Guide 472 . See also What Properties to use in Regression.
2. Enter the Wax values to be matched to using the WAT and %Solids tables within the
Match Data Tables.
3. Within the Match Selection Dialog, switch off all selections (psat etc. ) except solids.
4. Click on Regress to bring up the Parameter Selection Dialog . Use the Clear All button
to remove the Tc,Pc AF etc. Selections. Select the component Melting Points and if
necessary Heats of Melting (as above)
5. Click on Regress to match wax properties.
6. Return the matching system to the selections prior to step 1 i.e. PSat etc and Tc Pc
AFs selected. Regress again .This step is not really necessary as the matching should
not be disturbed. The operation does, however, re-establish the selections which made
the overall match possible.
Note:
If a different wax model is to be selected, then it is possible to change the model by
accessing the Change button in the Regression screen and selecting the desired was
calculation option:

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See Wax modeling 100 for more details on the model types available.

2.7.17.5 Notes on Regression


During the regression process the computer will display the elapsed time, the number of
iterations to date , the best and latest error (Chi) found. A cancel dialog also allows the user
to stop the process and use or discard the results at that point.
If allowed to complete the regress option automatically brings up the Regression Results
Display(same as View Properties Dialog)
If the calculation completes due to the number of regression cycles and a satisfactory error
has not been achieved , it is possible to regress again with the composition set at the
regressed value.
NOTE 1
NOTE 2

The maximum number of regression cycles completed before an automatic


stop can be adjusted using the Preferences Dialog 164
The Oil FVF within the multi-stage Separator calculation. is corrected
through all the succeeding stages. This correction can add up to 10 % to
the un-corrected value. To activate the correction add all stage
temperatures and pressures to the match table, even if no other matching is
done within the lower stages
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NOTE 3

The matching of viscosity using the Lohrenz-Bray-Clark method requires a


particular procedure which is described in Regression - Matching Viscosity
288

NOTE 4

If no satisfactory regression can be achieved the problem may be within the


following:
1) Incorrect or incompatible data entered for lab matching
2) Too few groups used to give the system flexibility to match see
Grouping
3) Composition setup particularly of pseudos not adequate for matching
The regression may succeed if a different path is taken to the solution e.g.
by
1) Taking each calculation consecutively i.e. regressing on one calculation
then using the regressed values as input to the next. A reasonable order
is Psat, followed by CCE then Separator etc.
2) Selecting a different BI Coefficient correlation or entering new values
manually. Most calculations are very dependent on the value of coefficient
between the lightest and heaviest components.
3) Taking care to match the Pseudo properties to the best lab
measurement available.
4) Selecting a different set of properties to regress e.g. density is
sensitive to Pc,Tc values while viscosity(see CCE matching) is almost
totally dependent on Vc.
5) Increasing the number of groups or ungrouping completely as this
gives the calculation more flexibility

see also
Regression Parameter Selection 278
What Properties to Use in Regression 287
Regression with Solids 292
Notes on Regression 295
Regression with OmegaA and OmegaB 296
2.7.17.6 Regression with OmegaA and OmegaB
Selection of this method is done within the Regression Dialog 274 .
Within the 2 most common Equations of State 91 i.e.. Peng Robinson and Soave Redlich
Kwong OmegaA and OmegaB are empirically derived constants .
How these variables fit into the overall equation is given in the help on Acentric Factors.
In the Peng Robinson(PR) equation the a(T) function at the critical point is given by the
empirical relationship
a (Tc )

0.45724 (

R 2TC2
)
PC

The constant 0.45724 is the OmegaA parameter.


In addition the repulsive factor b within PR is given by:
b

0.0778 (

RT C
)
PC

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The constant 0.0778 is the OmegaB parameter.


The equivalent values for the Soave Redlich Kwong(SRK) equation are 0.427 for OmegaA
and 0.08664 for OmegaB.
A methodology has developed within the industry to treat OmegaA and B as variables for use
within the matching process.
This is really an alternative to using individual components Tc and Pc properties.
One advantage of this approach is that it leaves measured properties such as the Tc and Pc
of methane untouched while giving additional parameters to match with.
This methodology is particularly important if a corresponding states model for viscosity or
thermal conductivity is to be calculated.
One problem which may arise with going this route for regression is passing the match on to
other programs (like Hysys or Unisim process simulators).
In addition, with some fluids this approach will not give as complete a match as using
individual Tcs and Pcs.
There are 2 versions of the OmegaA and OmegaB match available within the program:
Global
Individual

the same value for OmegaA and OmegaB are used for all components and
each component can have a different value for OmegaA and OmegaB

The regression model is chosen within the Regression Dialog 274 using the list box provided:

Selecting mode 2 or 3 will change the options within the Regression Parameter Selection
Dialog 278 and also within the View Properties Dialog.
As OmegaA and OmegaB are hard-coded in process simulation tools,
if the objective is to create an EOS that will be used in a process
simulator, then it is not recommended to use modes 2 and 3
see also
Regression Parameter Selection 278
What Properties to Use in Regression 287
Regression with Solids 292
Notes on Regression 295

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Plot Test Points

This feature has been added to help the user compare Lab or other experimental data with
the curves generated by plotting the results of the various PVT EOS calculations.
Access to the input screen, shown below, is gained when either
a) the Enter Plot Test Points option within the Data menu is selected or
b) the Set Test Pts. button is clicked within an EOS calculation plot 441 .

The table allows the user to configure up to 100 points. Entries are defined by setting up a
calculation and column name for each or a group of points. If the point matches the variables
and range of a calculated plot the Test Points will be drawn in the same way as match data is
done.The points can be defined in any pattern and ordered using the Sort Table option. The
table is automatically sorted when this dialog is first displayed.
To define test points follow the following procedure:
1) The first step in this process is to select a row or range of rows. This is done by
clicking on the raised row number at the start of the row. Adjacent rows can be selected
by holding down the mouse button and dragging the cursor across multiple row numbers.
2) Once selected the rows can be setup, cleared or the data only erased.

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3) When the rows have been selected ,choose a calculation and a pair of variables. The
click on the Setup Rows button .
The program will setup the calculation type , X and Y variable names and units within the
grid.
4) Enter the test data in the X Value and Y Value columns
5) Click on Exit and Save when all selections have been made
Display of the test points can be toggled on and off with the Show Test Points on Plot
checkbox.
Clear Rows

This option removes any definitions or data within a selected area


This option removes data within a selected area but leaves the calculation
and variable definitions intact

Clear Row
Data
Clear All
This option removes all definitions and data from the table
Exit and Save This option closes down the dialog with all the changes saved
This option closes down the dialog with all the changes abandoned
Cancel

If any test points are detected which match a Plots variables and range they are automatically
plotted as shown below.

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Lumping/Delumping

NEW!!!
As described in the Technical Overview 7 , the Lumping/Delumping feature provides with a
unique methodology to:
Determine a pair of EOS models, one with a large number of components (called
"Full" or "Delumped" further below) and the other with a small number of components
(called "Lumped"), equivalent to each other
Determine the logic followed to create the pair - the Lumping Rule. The Lumping
Rule describes the correspondence between the Full and the Lumped compositions
and is used to pass from the Full composition to the Lumped or viceversa
QC the pair Full/Lumped compositions and export them to IPM as .PRP file
The steps to create a pair Full/Lumped compositions are the following:
Creating
the Lumped
from the Full
composition

Quality
checking the
pair Full/
Lumped are
consistent to
each other

2.8.1

The starting point is an EOS that has been matched to a PVT lab report.
This initial EOS represents the "Full" composition as it has been matched
using as large as necessary a number of components. For example, if
the EOS is to be used in a process simulator, a large number of
components can be chosen (for example 20 or more).
The process of creation of a "Lumped" composition consists of defining
the various groups of components manually or recalling an existing
grouping of an existing Lumping Rule. In the first case (manual Lumping)
a Lumping Rule is created, which contains the logic followed to create
the lumping. In the other two cases, the Lumping rule comes from an
already existing grouped composition or from an already existing Lumping
Rule.
When creating the Lumping Rule the program makes sure that the
most important PVT properties (saturation pressure, GOR and
density at surface) in the Full and Lumped compositions are
consistent with each other
This can be achieved by running all the most common calculations and
comparing important parameters like CCE Oil FVF and density, CVD
liquid dropout, etc. obtained with both the Full and the Lumped
compositions

Lumping/Delumping options

The Lumping/Delumping can be accessed from the Data menu:

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Command buttons
View...

Quick Calc

Stream
Lumping

This allows to view the compositions and their properties. If a pair Full/
Lumped compositions are available, it is possible to view the two. Refer to
the View Properties topic 247 for further details
This calls a series of calculations (phase envelope, PSAT, flash to
Standard, etc.) that can be used to QC (ref. Quick Calc topic 384 ). When a
pair Full/Lumped compositions are available, each calculation is performed
for each composition
At the top of the section there is the list of all the streams included in the
PVT file along with information about if a Lumped composition is available
for each stream, the number of lumps and the methodology followed
(Manual, From Rule or From Group), if certain components are held and
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the Rule Tag identifying the rule followed for the lumping.
In the centre-left part of the there are the main options to define the
method used for the Lumping/Delumping:

PSAT, GOR

Volume Shift
Target GOR
Method

Lumping
Method

These are results fields and are used to quickly verify that the Full and
Lumped compositions give similar results. The Reservoir Temperature entry
determines the temperature at which the PSAT is calculated
These options allow to enable/disable the volume shift independently for the
Full and Lumped compositions
The Target GOR is used as part of the Lumping/Delumping to make sure
that the Lumped composition reproduces the same GOR as the Full
composition. The drop-down menu allows to select the sources of gas and
liquid used to recombine the fluid to a target GOR (ref. Target GOR 416
section)
This menu allows to select the methodology used for the Lumping:
Manual
Lumping
Lump from
Group
Lump from
Rule

The user defines the various components lumps and creates


the Lumping Rule used for the lumping
If an existing grouped composition 257 is available, it is
possible to create a new lump based on the same logic
present in the grouped composition
If an Lumping Rule is already available, or if one has been
defined manually and is present in the model, this can be
used to lump and existing Full composition

Separator Data The separator train conditions are used to determine properties like GOR
and oil density at Standard Conditions. The options available are the same
as see in the various calculation screens (for example, in the CCE
calculation 333 )

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Stream
Lump/Import/
Export

In the centre-right part of the section, other options are available, which
allow to enable further options, create, import/export compositions and
Lumping Rules.

More
Setup

This button allows to define the Lumping Method and which properties to
match:

Lumping
Method
Active Rule
Match with
Target GOR

Match with
PSAT

Hold Amount

Same as seen above 304 . This option allows to specify how


to perform the lumping, if manually defining the lumps, or
using an existing group, or using an existing Lumping Rule
This allows to select the Lumping Rule used for the Lumping
This enables/disables the matching of the GOR when
creating a lumped composition. The option will make sure
that the lumped composition reproduces the same GOR and
the Full compositionand to achieve that it will recombine the
Lumped composition to the GOR of the Full composition
This enables/disables the matching of the Saturation
Pressure when creating a lumped composition. The
matching of the PSAT is achieved by applying a BI
coefficient multiplier to the BI coefficients of the Lumped
composition to match the PSAT of the Full composition
If single components are present (for example: CO2 alone),
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of Single
Components

when passing from the Full to the Lumped composition or


viceversa, the amount of these components are kept
constant to guarantee they are preserved when converting
from one composition to the other. This is an option
particularly useful in the cases where one wants to
accurately track the quantity of a certain component, for
example in case of CO2 injection
Lumping
This button leads to the section where the Lumping Rules
are present, can be defined or edited. See further 312 below
Rules
for a more detailed description
Manual
This button allows to enter the section where the Manual
Lumping is performed (see further 307 )
Lumping
Set As Default Allows to set the selections in this dialog as default for the
model
Lump
Stream

This button allows to create the Lumped composition based on the Full one.
Depending on the Lumping Method 304 selected the Lump Stream button
operates in different ways:
If Manual Lumping is selected, the Manual Lumping section is accessed
If Lump from Rule is selected, the lumped composition is created
directly using the Lumping Rule
Import Group If a grouped composition is available in the model (created with the
Grouping feature of fro Lumping/Delumping itself by exporting To Group), it
is possible to apply the grouped composition embedded rule to the main
composition (see the example below 317 )
Clear Lumping This option eliminates the Lumped composition of the selected stream (the
selected stream is in cyan colour)
Export..prp
This option exports the Full and Lumped compositions to .PRP file, which
can then be used to import the compositions in the IPM Suite
To Stream
This option exports the Full and Lumped compositions to a new stream
within PVTP
To Group
This option exports the Lumped composition only to a stream in PVTP. This
stream, of course, is going to be a Grouped stream
Lumping Rules This button leads to the section where the Lumping Rules are present, can
be defined or edited. See further 312 below for a more detailed description
Active Rule
As see above, this allows to select the Lumping Rule used for the Lumping
Important Note:
When the options Match with GOR, PSAT and Hold Amount of Single Components are
enabled, the program will try and honour all of them at the same time.
However, it is important to note that in many cases it is not possible to physically
respect all of them at the same time.
For example, if a single component is to be held and at the same time the GOR of the
Lumped is to be matched to the Full composition GOR, the program will have to iterate
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by setting the single component composition the same as the Full composition,
recombine the fluid to Target GOR to match the GOR, then re-set the single
component composition again same as the Full, recombe with Target GOR until the
GOR is honoured and the single component composition is kept the same. In many
cases it is not possible to achieve the matching of the GOR keeping the same mole
fraction.
That is why a hierarchy has been established in respecting the properties:
the Hold Amount is honoured first,
then the GOR second
then the PSAT third
This is because matching of the PSAT is relatively easy by manipulating opportunely
the EOS. Hold Amount is first in the
In any case, it is important to note that the user has full control about which options can
be selected, as well as any manual adjustments can be performed to achieve the most
suitable matching

2.8.2

Manual Lumping

The Manual Lumping has the objective of creating the Lumped composition from the Full by
manually specifying the various lumps, generating in this way a Lumping Rule.
The Manual Lumping feature can be called:
When the Lumping Method is set to Manual Lumping and the Lump Stream 306 button
is clicked, or
When selecting Manual Lumping from the More Setup 305 section
The Manual Lumping is performed in the same way as the manual grouping (see above 259 ):

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Select the components from the list on the bottom right, select the Lump and Add lump, as
shown below:

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Then Lump:

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The program will ask if a Lumping Rule is to be created:

After saying Yes, it will be possible to see that a Lumped composition has been created and
a Lumping Rule has been created (PVT1 in the example below)

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Clicking on View at the to of the screen it is possible to visualise the two compositions:

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To switch from one composition to the other use the toggle on the top-right of the panel.
Auto Lump Select
This feature allows to quickly creating lumps by using the ELF grouping 257 technique. The
Lumping/Delumping will then apply the Match with Target GOR and PSAT to reproduce the
fluid GOR and saturation pressure.

2.8.3

Lumping Rules dialog

The Lumping Rule section allows to view, add, edit and delete Lumping Rules.

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This section can be accessed:


By clicking directly the Lumping Rules button 306 in the main Lumping/Delumping
section
By clicking on the Lumping Rules button 302 in the More Setup section

These are the options available:


Add Rule
Delete Rule

This option adds a new empty Lumping Rule, which can be modified by the
user as necessary
This option enters a Delete mode that allows to delete rules as required:

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Export /
Import Rule
List of
Lumping
Rules

These options allow to export/import Lumping Rules using an ASCII file with
extension .pxlrule . This allows to transfer Lumping Rules from one PVTP
model to another
The list of the Lumping Rules describes the various rules present in the
PVTP file.
Tag
Number of
Lumps
Last Edited
Description

Select
2.8.3.1

Name used in the program to identify a Lumping Rule


Number of components used in the Lumped
composition
Each rule is also identified by a date
This is an editable label that the user can enter to give
more information about the Lumping Rule. When
creating a Lumping Rule using the Manual Lumping, the
program will enter a default label ("Created from
lumping of ...pvi) that can be modified at will
See further 314

Select

This option allows to view the details of each Lumping Rule, create a rule manually or edit an
existing one.
The Lumping Rules Summary Dialog contains the logic followed in creating the each lump
from the Full composition:

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For example, in the figure above the lump N2C1 has been lumped by grouping together
components whose name are N2 and C1. Therefore the lumping is done in this case "by
Name". In the Description these is the correspondence.
Add Lump
Delete Lump
Last Edited
PSAT
Adjustment
Rule Number,
Tag and
Description
Name
Lumped by
Description

This adds a new lump, which can be edited


Opens up a delete dialog that allows to delete lumps
This field reports the date - automatically set - when the Lumping Rule was
created
This allows to enter the BIC Multiplier (see above 305 in More Setup) to
match the PSAT. Note that the user can change this parameter as required
to achieve a better matching
Identifiers of the Lumping Rule

Name of each lump


Rule followed to create the lump. Several options are available, which can
be chosen when setting up the Lumping Rule (see further 316 )
Explicit description of each lump

Set up
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This option allows to create/edit each lump.

Next and
These buttons allow to pass from one lump to the following/previous
Previous
Lump and
Order number and name of the lump
Lump Label
Lumping Mode This drop-down menu allows to define how the components are lumped.
Several option are available, which allow to lump components according to
different methodologies (by name, molecular weight, etc.)

Selected
Components
by Name /
Select from
Database /
Pseudo
Components

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Components part of the lump


Options that allow to choose the components to add to the lump. The
Pseudo Components options can include in the lump the last pseudo, all
except the last or all the pseudos. To include a component in a lump, select
<<<Add

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317

Import Group

The example below shows the process of importing a grouped composition and using it to
create the lumped composition.
The main composition Example 1 is selected (in cyan in the figure below). A grouped
composition "Grouped" is also present:

Selecting Import Group it is possible to select the grouped stream:

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Then select the components to hold and Ok:

In the main dialog it is now possible to see that a Lumped composition has been created:

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2.9

PVTP

Calculation EoS

This section describes the calculation input required for the Equation of State PVT model and
the various forms of results.
Calculations can be initiated in three ways:
I. By selecting an option from the Calculation section of the main menu
II. By clicking on one of the calculation icons within the main toolbar
III. By clicking on the Calculate control button within the Enter Composition and Properties
displays
Methods I. and II. Give a choice of the following:
Calculate Critical Pressure and Temperature 321
Calculate Phase Envelope 321 for a range of Vapour Fractions
Calculate a range of Saturation Pressures 328
Calculate the results of a Constant Composition Expansion 330
Calculate the results of a Constant Volume Depletion 341
Calculate the results of a Depletion Study 348
Calculate the results of a Differential Expansion 352
Calculate the results of a Composite Differential Expansion 355
Calculate the results of a Separator Process 358
Calculate the results of a Compositional Gradient 365
Calculate the results of a Swelling Test 371
Calculate the results of a Slim Tube Simulation 374
Calculate Steam Properties 392
Where applicable, the last set of entries for each calculation are saved with the other data in
the PVT project file.
Method III. Provides the user with access to a subset of the calculation menu as a means of
checking the consistency of the entered composition information. The Quick Calc 384 display
provides options to calculate:
Phase Envelope
Critical Point (Temperature and Pressure)
Saturation Pressure (at the reference temperature)
Flash to Standard conditions
Flash Through Separator Stages
Maximum water in Hydrocarbon Phase
All calculation results are retained for inclusion in the Reports 437 available with the PVT
package.

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321

Critical Point Calculation

A critical point calculation can be initiated by selecting the Critical Point option from the
calculation menu or clicking on the icon shown above. Alternatively, the Critical Point within the
Quick Calc 384 dialog can be used.
The result of the calculation is in a message box as shown below.

Contained within the display are values for


Critical Temperature Tc
Critical Pressure Pc
Critical Volume/Gas Constant Vc/R
Critical Compressibility Zc
In addition indication is given of the kind of system at reference conditions i.e. Dew Point
(gas) or Bubble Point (liquid)
It should be noted that the Critical Point may not always be resolvable for complex mixtures.
If this proves to be the case try adjusting the values of Binary Interaction Coefficient, Acentric
Factor of the heaviest components and the properties of any pseudo components which have
been defined. Remember that the equation of state is not predictive, if a match point is
available; always use this to guide the changes.

2.9.2

Phase Envelope

A Phase Envelope calculation can be initiated by selecting the Phase Envelope option from
the calculation menu or clicking on the icon shown above. Alternatively,the Phase Envelope
option within the Quick Calc 384 dialog can be used.
The display below shows an example of the phase envelope input parameters screen. As the
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display loads it automatically calculates the phase envelope for vapour fraction 1.0. and the
currently active stream.

The display is made up of several sections:


Stream
Selection
Additional
Calculations
(Solids)

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate

This section controls the calculation of solids. Two calculations are


available, a Hydrate Formation Pressure 405 and the Wax Appearance
Temperature 402 . The calculations are initiated by selecting yes in the
appropriate combo box and clicking on the Calc button. Once calculated
the results will appear on the Phase Envelope Plot. Hydrate pressure
results can be viewed by clicking on the Results button. The values
found for the Wax Appearance Temperature will be listed along with the
stream name in the WAT combo box.
The solids calculation data can be copied to the clipboard using the
facility described below
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323

There are 2 modes of entry:


Auto

the entry boxes are loaded with values of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7,
0.8, 0.9, and 1.0
Manual entry Eight entry boxes are provided for entering vapour
fractions from 0.1 to 1.0.
The Clear button will remove all entries in Manual Entry
mode
Calculation
Options/Limits

Entry boxes are provided to change the following values used to limit the
phase envelope calculation:
Pressure
dictates the gap between pressure movements used
to detect phase envelope
Step
Min Pressure sets the bottom limit of the calculation
Max. Pressure sets the upper limit of the calculation
Integration
dictates the size of movement of the Integration
function
Step
Max.
dictates the maximum size of movement of the
Integration function
Integration
Step

Plot Area

This shows the shape of the phase envelope calculated. No adjustments


are available for this plot. However, the graph can be enlarged and then
manipulated by using the Expand Plot button
This shows the critical points calculated during the phase envelope
calculation and also includes a status message area which indicates the
progress of any calculations. Note that the Critical Pressure Pc, Critical
Temperature Tc ,Cricondenbar ,Cricondentherm etc. may not always be
resolved for complex systems

Status Area

Command buttons
Included in this area are a series of control button which have the following functions:
Exit
Calc
Expand Plot
Set Test Points

This option stores the values entered (in memory , not on disk) and
closes down the display
This option recalculates the phase envelope(s) using the latest inputs
This option brings up a full-sized plot of the phase envelope
This option calls the Phase Envelope Test Points 324 display. This allows
the user to enter ten values for Saturation Pressure versus Temperature.
The values will be displayed on the Phase Envelope plot as Match Point
crosses

Clipboard

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This option brings up the selection dialog above. Any result and entered
profile data can be transferred to the clipboard
This option brings up the Phase Envelope Results 327 dialog

Results

Use of Streams
The option of calculating multiple curves is a very powerful aid in the analysis of
petroleum mixtures. Since streams can be filled with varying compositions changes in
fluid characteristics can be visualized. For example the program can illustrate how a
fluid changes as a result of a compositional gradient. Stream 1 and 2 can contain the
compositions of gas and oil calculated before and after the gas cap has been
detected. The phase envelopes are very different but they intersect at the gas cap
temperature and pressure.
The compositions are transferred into the stream via the calculation analysis display.
Since the stream can also contain compositions from other PVT files (using Import or
Add Stream 413 ),compositions from multiple fluid samples can be viewed side by side
Note
Phase envelope calculations are complex and may take some time. If the plot does
not match expectations or is unresolved try adjusting the values of Binary Interaction
Coefficient between C1 and the heaviest component , Acentric Factor of the heaviest
components and the properties of any pseudo components which have been defined
Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394
2.9.2.1

Phase Envelope Test Points Dialog

This dialog is called by clicking on the Set Test Pts. button within the Phase Envelope
Calculation 321 dialog.
Saturation
Points

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This display is called by pressing the Set Test Pts. command button on
the Phase Envelope 321 control screen or on the expanded Phase
Envelope plot.This screen allows the user to enter ten values for
Saturation Pressure versus Temperature for each Stream (see PVT
Project File Structure 188 ) The active stream can be changed using the
stream combo box. The values will be displayed on the Phase Envelope
plot as Match Point crosses using the Match Point colour. The drawing
of test points can be switched on and off by using the combo box
provided. The Copy Lab Data button will transfer any Lab Data
Saturation Pressure values into the table.
Clear removes any entered values
PT Profile Points

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This display is called by clicking on the PT Profile tab. Up to 100 pairs of


points can be entered.
The values are shown on the phase envelope plot. Values can also be
imported or exported by clicking on the appropriate button.
If displayed the points in the danger area for wax or hydrate formation
will change colour.

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The colours used can be changed with the Colour selection dialog.
2.9.2.2

Phase Envelope Results Dialog

This dialog is called by clicking on the results button within the Phase Envelope Calculation 321
Dialog.
The user can view all the stream phase envelope data by scrolling down the tables and
moving between the tables by way of the stream tabs.If the Hydrate Formation Pressure 405
has been selected for calculation the values found will also be displayed.
The results can be copied to the Clipboard or to another package such as EXCEL by
highlighting the values required and pressing Ctrl + C.Ctrl + V will insert the values into the
target program.

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2.9.3

PVTP

Ranged Saturation Pressure

A Saturation Pressure calculation can be initiated by selecting the Saturation Pressure option
from the calculation menu or clicking on the icon shown above. This dialog is used for
Automatic and User Selected Input .
The automatic version looks like this:

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The user selected version replaces the ranged input with a series of entry boxes which can be
used to enter any temperature.

The options available are:

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Stream

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams.
This display contains radio buttons which allow the user to swap
between User Selected and Automatic modes.
In addition, data entry boxes are provided for entering the limits of the
temperature and pressure ranges to be covered and the number of
points to be calculated for each variable. The points will be spread
evenly throughout the temperature and pressure ranges selected. All
boxes should have an entry before proceeding to the Calculation Dialog
409

Calc
Cancel
Clear
Options

To bring up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button


Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values

The major model options are displayed.Only one set are allowed per
file. Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences Dialog 157 .
Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394

2.9.4

Constant Composition Expansion (CCE)

A CCE calculation can be initiated by selecting the Constant Composition Expansion option
from the calculation menu or clicking on the icon shown above.
Constant Composition Expansion is a flash process where all the products are retained i.e.
the total amount of each component at the initial conditions is the same at all the measured
values, only the phase splits (K values ) change as part of the calculation.

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The calculation input screen comes in two forms viz. Automatic and User Selected Entry, as
shown in the two figures below:

In the User Selected version the ranged input is replaced by a grid where any mixture of
pressures and temperatures can be entered

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Input fields
These are the options available:
Data Points

This option defines how the ranges of temperature and pressures are
entered in the CCE calculation. Two modes are available:
User Selected
Automatic

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The user manually enter the range of T and P


A range generation automatic feature can be used to
define the ranges

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Streams

Options

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams
The major model options are displayed. Only one set are allowed per
file.

Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences Dialog 157 .


This display contains radio buttons which allow the user to swap
between User Selected and Automatic modes.
In addition, data entry boxes are provided for entering the limits of the
temperature and pressure ranges to be covered and the number of
points to be calculated for each variable.
The points will be spread evenly throughout the temperature and
pressure ranges selected.
All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to the Calculation
Dialog 370
Separator
Data

The CCE input display contains a section for Separator Data. This
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allows the user to define a separator train through which the oil or gas
will be flashed to correct the Oil FVF, GOR and CGR. The processes
which are used to return an oil to standard conditions can significantly
change the final oil characteristics and the amount of gas liberated on
the way. When multiple samples are being analysed, it may be
necessary to have individual separator settings for each stream. In this
case, the individual radio button should be clicked on. The stream
separator settings can be accessed via the tabs at the bottom of the
table. All stages do not need to be entered and a last flash to standard
conditions is always included. The combo within the separator data area
switches between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator
Calculation into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all
values from within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value 138 help
See more details on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and
the background to Split factors in Separator Calculations and the Path
to Surface 134
Command buttons
Calc
Cancel
Clear

Brings up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button.


Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values

Gas Heating Values


The gas gross and net heating values are now calculated as columns within the
calculation table. The value given is derived from the composition of the
accumulated gas after sending the fluid through the indicated separator train
(the units are BTU/scf)
Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394
2.9.4.1

The Calculation Display

A typical CCE display is given below


This dialog allows the user to initiate calculations and view the results.
.

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The Calculation Screen is loaded when the Calculate button is pressed on an Automatic or
User Selected Input Dialog.
The display is in the form of a table with input values on the left and the required calculation
variables listed in columns on the right.
If multiple streams have been selected (see Constant Composition Expansion), the user can
move between the streams by clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the display. (See PVT
Project File Structure 188 for more information on streams).
Each column has a variable name and unit as a heading.
Scroll bars are provided to show more variables and results.
Colours have been used with grids to indicate phase:
Red
Blue
Black

gas only
mixture of oil and gas
oil only

If the values have been already calculated the display will show the last set of values
calculated.
Command buttons
The display has several control buttons along the top which have the following functions:
Calc
Plot
Layout
Analysis

This option recalculates the table using the latest inputs provided
This generates a full sized plot of the calculated results
This option allows the user to select which columns are displayed in the
results table. See Calculation Layout display
This option produces a secondary screen giving the compositions

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Cancel
Main
Clipboard

calculated at each measurement point. The analysis screen 336 also


provides access to the EXTRACT function which allows the user to export
a particular line of the calculation to a PVT file. Alternatively, the
intermediate composition can be copied to a stream within this project file.
With Separator calculations further information Viz. Total GOR, Gas
Gravity and Oil Gravity are also provided through a more option
This option closes down the display and passes the control back to the
input screen
This option closes down both the calculation and the input displays and
passes the control back to the main PVT screen
This sends all or part of the results data to the clipboard by calling the
Copy to Clipboard 340 Dialog

Note on Density
The Calculation table provides 2 alternative values for Oil Density i.e. EOS and
one from a correlation (Standing/Katz or Costald). The EOS value derives
strictly from the Equation of State value for Compressibility z and PV=zRT while
the other stems from the composition being input into a Standing-Katz or
Costald density correlation. The values in combination can be used as a guide
to the appropriateness of the values used to generate the EOS model e.g. BI
coefficients, acentric factors, pseudo characterization etc.The EOS density is
used in all subsequent calculations for FVF, GOR etc.
2.9.4.2

The Analysis Display

The screen shows the compositions and calculated K values for each temperature and
pressure combination. For CCE, the separator compositions represent the result of taking
the total composition through the separator/chiller combination.
Alternatively K values 138 or Split Factors 135 may have been used to replace the separator
system. In addition the recoveries of the three exiting fluids are displayed. If the dialog is
called by a CVD experiment the gas evolved in the experiment is sent through the separators.
Similarly with an oil CVD the produced oil acts as the feed for the separators
In addition, intermediate compositions can be extracted for further work as separate files or
streams.

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The stream being viewed can be changed using the combo box provided.
The temperature value displayed can be changed by clicking on the down or up arrow within
the temperature area ( top left). The pressure value displayed can be changed by clicking on
the down or up arrow within the pressure area ( top right).
The command buttons perform the following functions:
Exit
Clipboard
Extract

Quality
Plot

Close down the display and return to the calculation screen


This sends all or part of the analysis data to the clipboard by calling the
Copy to Clipboard 340 Dialog
This option allows the user to save the composition (total, vapour or liquid)
being stored as a separate PVT file (To File) for later retrieval.
Alternatively, a stream can be created within the current PVT Project File
(To Stream). The analysis display for a separator calculation is more
complex
Clicking on the Quality Button will automatically generate a quality plot of
the type shown below. Background to this plot is described in the utility
menu help for the Hoffmann Quality Plot. If the properties of the
components give a consistent flash, the light components should roughly fall
along a straight line.

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2.9.4.3

PVTP

Layout Dialog

The Layout screen allows to select which variables to report in the calculation.

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To select or de-select a parameter click on the checkbox beside its name


Command buttons
OK
Cancel
Show All
Hide All
Defaults

To validate any change done and exit the screen


To discard any change done and exit the screen
To select all the parameters to be displayed in the calculation
To remove all selections for a particular calculation
This button resets the selection of the parameters to display to a default
minimum list, showed below:

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2.9.4.4

PVTP

The Copy to Clipboard Dialog

There are two forms:


Calculation
Results

This dialog is called by clicking on the Clipboard button within the


Calculation Results 334 Dialog.

Calculation
Analysis

Among the option available are to include the results column names and/or
units. In addition the order of the results within the table can be reversed.
To send the data to the clipboard, click on OK
This dialog is called by clicking on the Clipboard button within the
Calculation Analysis 336 Dialog.

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341

Among the option available are to include the analysis column names. All
the analysis created within the calculation on the target stream can be sent
to the clipboard by clicking on option 2.The last option indicates whether
data other than the compositions should be sent

2.9.5

Constant Volume Depletion (CVD)

A CVD calculation can be initiated by selecting the Constant Volume Depletion option from the
calculation menu or clicking on the icon shown above.

Constant Volume Depletion is an isothermal flash process where the volume of the system is
kept equal to the volume at Dew Point. At each flash stage volume in excess of this is
removed as excess gas. The excess gas products, i.e. equal to the increase in volume over
the initial value, are removed at each stage to become the wellstream production.
The liquid and gas equal to the initial volume goes on to be flashed at the next set of
conditions.
The CVD calculation concentrates on the gas and liquid left in the reservoir, while the
Depletion Study 348 is used to find the produced gas (Wellstream) data. For example, the GOR
displayed for the CVD is that of the oil within the reservoir.
The CVD screen has a manual mode and automatic mode. The normal mode is User Selected
as PVT reports only have a small number of steps. The Automatic mode allows the user to
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introduce a larger number of small steps. This better represents the calculation path of a
program like MBAL.
Data points
User
Selected Mode
Automatic
Mode

The user can manually enter the temperature and pressure steps for
the depletion
The pressure range can be generated by entering the maximum and
minimum values and the number of steps

Input fields
Stream

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams
Options

The major model options are displayed. Only one set are allowed per
file.
Clicking on the Change Button calls the File|Preferences 156 Dialog
Recycling
Produced Gas

This option provides more information on the effects of gas recycling on


a matched fluid. Once selected the program will recycle the input
percentage of accumulated separator gas back into the system at each
pressure stage

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The CVD input display contains a section for Separator Data.

This allows the user to define a separator train through which the oil or
gas will be flashed to correct the Oil FVF, GOR and CGR. The
processes which are used to return an oil to standard conditions can
significantly change the final oil characteristics and the amount of gas
liberated on the way. When multiple samples are being analysed, it
may be necessary to have individual separator settings for each
stream. In this case, the individual radio button should be clicked on.
The stream separator settings can be accessed via the tabs at the
bottom of the table. All stages do not need to be entered and a last
flash to standard conditions is always included. The combo within the
separator data area switches between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator
Calculation into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all
values from within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value 138 help
See more details on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and
the background to Split factors in Separator Calculations and the Path
to Surface 134
Command buttons
Calc
Cancel
Clear

Brings up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button.


Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values
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Note on Oil Density


The calculation screen shows two Oil Densities 116 for comparison purposes. The EOS
value is determined directly from the equation of state calculation of liquid
compressibility Z. This value is used to derive all the related properties i.e. Oil Gravity,
Oil FVF and GOR. The second value is taken from the correlation put forward by
Standing and Katz or Costald. The non-predictive nature of the Equation of State
method and its weakness in calculating liquid properties makes the value of Oil Density
particularly suspect in non-matched systems. The EOS Density is, however, sensitive
to composition and property changes, making it a suitable value for matching and
regression.The Standing-Katz or Costald value is empirically derived and in our
experience predicts well the density of most fluids. The average nature of the number
and its lack of sensitivity make it unsuitable for regression. Matching the EOS density
to good experimental data usually results in the two densities having very similar
values. Conversely, if the values are very dissimilar, it usually means that good
matching has not been achieved
Copying and Pasting
In common with all the grids within the PVTP program the main grid within this display
can be copied onto the clipboard by selecting all the cells and typing Control+C.
Pasting from the clipboard is done by clicking within the target cell and typing
Control+V
Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394

2.9.6

Constant Volume Oil Depletion

An OIL CVD calculation can be initiated by selecting the Constant Volume Oil Depletion option
from the calculation.
This is a similar process to the Constant Volume Depletion 341 . The difference is that the
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produced fluid is the oil from the reservoir. As in the CVD this is a flash process where the
volume of the system at Bubble Point is preserved. At each flash stage volume in excess of
this is removed as excess oil. The excess oil products, i.e. equal to the increase in volume
over the initial value, are removed at each stage to become the production. The liquid and gas
equal to the initial volume goes on to be flashed at the next set of conditions.This process is
analogous to that in the depletion of many oil reservoirs and as such the results calculated can
be a useful precursor to the production of a more advanced model.
As with the gas CVD, this version has a manual and an automatic mode. The automatic mode
is shown below:

Data points
User

The user can manually enter the temperature and pressure steps for
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Selected Mode
Automatic
Mode

the depletion
The pressure range can be generated by entering the maximum and
minimum values and the number of steps

Input fields
Stream

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams
Options

The major model options are displayed. Only one set are allowed per
file.
Clicking on the Change Button calls the File|Preferences 156 Dialog
Recycling
Produced Gas

Separator Data

PVTP Help And Manual

This option provides more information on the effects of gas recycling on


a matched fluid. Once selected the program will recycle the input
percentage of accumulated separator gas back into the system at each
pressure stage
The CVD input displays contains a section for Separator Data.

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This allows the user to define a separator train through which the oil or
gas will be flashed to correct the Oil FVF, GOR and CGR. The
processes which are used to return an oil to standard conditions can
significantly change the final oil characteristics and the amount of gas
liberated on the way. When multiple samples are being analysed, it
may be necessary to have individual separator settings for each
stream. In this case, the individual radio button should be clicked on.
The stream separator settings can be accessed via the tabs at the
bottom of the table. All stages do not need to be entered and a last
flash to standard conditions is always included. The combo within the
separator data area switches between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator
Calculation into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all
values from within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value 138 help
See more details on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and
the background to Split factors in Separator Calculations and the Path
to Surface 134
This calculation also allows the user to gauge the effect of recycling all or part of the
separator gas back into the reservoir.
All other options are the same as those described for the normal gas CVD 341 .
Command buttons
Calc

Brings up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button.


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Cancel
Clear

PVTP

Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values

Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394

2.9.7

Depletion Study (DEPL)

A DEPL calculation can be initiated by selecting the Depletion Study option from the
calculation menu or clicking on the icon shown above. The Depletion Study is similar to a
Constant Volume Depletion 341 . The process is the same. The difference between them lies in
the emphasis of the calculations undertaken.

A Depletion Study is used where the main product is the gas removed at each stage. The
calculations are designed to provide an insight into the Wellstream properties and composition
as the reservoir depletes.
The Depletion Study is a flash process where the volume target is kept constant throughout
the stages. The excess gas products, i.e. equal to the increase in volume over the initial value,
are removed at each stage to become the wellstream production.The composition, produced
mole % and Surface GOR of this wellstream gas are reported. The produced mole %
reported in this instance refers to the produced dry gas recovered.
In addition a Cumulative Production figure is worked out from the Gas in Place value which is
input by the user.
The liquid and gas equal to the initial volume goes on to be flashed at the next set of
conditions. A Reservoir Liquid Dropout is also reported.
The DEPL screen has only a manual mode as shown below.

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Entries are provided for the temperature at which the process is to be carried out and the
pressure stages involved in the operation.
Data points
User
Selected Mode
Automatic
Mode

The user can manually enter the temperature and pressure steps for
the depletion
The pressure range can be generated by entering the maximum and
minimum values and the number of steps

Input fields

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Stream

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams
Options

Separator Data

The major model options are displayed. Only one set are allowed per
file.
Clicking on the Change Button calls the File|Preferences 156 Dialog
The Depletion input display contains a section for Separator Data.

This allows the user to define a separator train through which the oil or
gas will be flashed to correct the Oil FVF, GOR and CGR. The
processes which are used to return an oil to standard conditions can
significantly change the final oil characteristics and the amount of gas
liberated on the way. When multiple samples are being analysed, it
may be necessary to have individual separator settings for each
stream. In this case, the individual radio button should be clicked on.
The stream separator settings can be accessed via the tabs at the
bottom of the table. All stages do not need to be entered and a last

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351

flash to standard conditions is always included. The combo within the


separator data area switches between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator
Calculation into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all
values from within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value 138 help
See more details on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and
the background to Split factors in Separator Calculations and the Path
to Surface 134
The Copy from CVD button copies across the entries which have been
made for the Constant Volume Depletion 341 calculation.

Command buttons
Calc
Cancel
Clear

Brings up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button.


Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values

Note on Oil Density


The calculation screen shows two Oil Densities 116 for comparison purposes. The EOS
value is determined directly from the equation of state calculation of liquid
compressibility Z. This value is used to derive all the related properties i.e. Oil Gravity,
Oil FVF and GOR. The second value is taken from the correlation put forward by
Standing and Katz or Costald. The non-predictive nature of the Equation of State
method and its weakness in calculating liquid properties makes the value of Oil Density
particularly suspect in non-matched systems. The EOS Density is, however, sensitive
to composition and property changes, making it a suitable value for matching and
regression.The Standing-Katz or Costald value is empirically derived and in our
experience predicts well the density of most fluids. The average nature of the number
and its lack of sensitivity make it unsuitable for regression. Matching the EOS density
to good experimental data usually results in the two densities having very similar
values. Conversely, if the values are very dissimilar, it usually means that good
matching has not been achieved
Copying and Pasting
In common with all the grids within the PVTP program the main grid within this display
can be copied onto the clipboard by selecting all the cells and typing Control+C.
Pasting from the clipboard is done by clicking within the target cell and typing

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PVTP

Control+V

Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394

2.9.8

Differential Expansion (DIFF)

A DIFF calculation can be initiated by selecting the Differential Expansion option from the
calculation menu or clicking on the icon shown above.

Differential Expansion or Liberation is an isothermal flash process where all the gas products
are removed at each stage. The liquid goes on to be flashed at the next set of conditions.The
Differential Liberation screen has only a Manual Method, a typical display being shown below.
Entries are provided for the temperature at which the process is to be carried out and the
pressure stages involved in the operation. A Clear button removes all entries.

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Data points
User
Selected Mode

The user can manually enter the temperature and pressure steps for
the differential liberation

Input fields
Stream

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams

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Options

Copy from CVD

The major model options are displayed. Only one set are allowed per
file.
Clicking on the Change Button calls the File|Preferences 156 Dialog
The Copy from CVD button copies across the entries which have been
made for the Constant Volume Depletion 341 calculation.

Command buttons
Calc
Cancel
Clear

Brings up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button.


Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values

Points to Remember about a DIFF calculation:


The liquid in the initial stage of a differential liberation, by definition, MUST be
at Bubble Point. Any gas detected by the calculation is ignored and does not
appear in any calculated value.
The calculation is very sensitive to the number of steps and the value of each
step. Taking a different route to the end point gives very different results
The calculation of GOR is carried out with respect to the Residual Volume of
the oil making it very sensitive to each step and particularly to the last. A last
step to atmospheric is normal. Unlike the other calculation all stages must be
complete before the values at each stage can be properly calculated.
Note on Oil Density
The calculation screen shows two Oil Densities 116 for comparison purposes. The EOS
value is determined directly from the equation of state calculation of liquid
compressibility Z. This value is used to derive all the related properties i.e. Oil Gravity,
Oil FVF and GOR. The second value is taken from the correlation put forward by
Standing and Katz or Costald. The non-predictive nature of the Equation of State
method and its weakness in calculating liquid properties makes the value of Oil Density
particularly suspect in non-matched systems. The EOS Density is, however, sensitive
to composition and property changes, making it a suitable value for matching and
regression.The Standing-Katz or Costald value is empirically derived and in our
experience predicts well the density of most fluids. The average nature of the number
and its lack of sensitivity make it unsuitable for regression. Matching the EOS density
to good experimental data usually results in the two densities having very similar
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values. Conversely, if the values are very dissimilar, it usually means that good
matching has not been achieved
Copying and Pasting
In common with all the grids within the PVTP program the main grid within this display
can be copied onto the clipboard by selecting all the cells and typing Control+C.
Pasting from the clipboard is done by clicking within the target cell and typing
Control+V
Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394

2.9.9

Composite Differential Expansion (COMPOS)

A COMPOS calculation can be initiated by selecting the Composite Differential Expansion


option from the calculation menu
As suggested by the name this option is very like the standard Differential Expansion 352 or
Liberation. COMPOS is a flash process where all the gas products are removed at each
stage. The liquid goes on to be flashed at the next set of conditions. Unlike the standard
DIFF, the GOR and FVF of the excess vapour estimated for the composite option is not
calculated with respect to the residual volume. Instead the values are arrived at in a similar
way to a CCE or CVD calculation i.e. by doing a series of separator flashes back to stock
tank conditions. If no separator stages are entered a single flash is carried out. This removes
the heavy dependence on the number of steps and the accuracy of estimating the residual oil
which characterizes Differential Liberation. It also is closer to what happens in a reservoir.
The Composite Differential Liberation calculation is similar to the standard version; a typical
input dialog is shown below:

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Input fields
The difference lies in the standard separator input section at the bottom of the dialog.
Separator Data

PVTP Help And Manual

The COMPOS input display contains a section for Separator Data.

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357

This allows the user to define a separator train through which the oil or
gas will be flashed to correct the Oil FVF, GOR and CGR. The
processes which are used to return an oil to standard conditions can
significantly change the final oil characteristics and the amount of gas
liberated on the way. When multiple samples are being analysed, it
may be necessary to have individual separator settings for each
stream. In this case, the individual radio button should be clicked on.
The stream separator settings can be accessed via the tabs at the
bottom of the table. All stages do not need to be entered and a last
flash to standard conditions is always included. The combo within the
separator data area switches between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator
Calculation into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all
values from within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value 138 help
See more details on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and
the background to Split factors in Separator Calculations and the Path
to Surface 134
will copy across entries from the standard Differential Liberation 352
calculation

Command buttons
Calc
Cancel
Clear

Brings up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button.


Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values
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Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394

2.9.10

Separator Process

A Separator calculation can be initiated by selecting the Separator option from the calculation
menu or clicking on the icon shown above.

The separator process flashes the mixture at a fixed set of conditions. The liquid and gas are
split off to go on to the next stage of the process. The gas is assumed to collect together in
an accumulator.
The Separator option has only one input mode.

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A Separator Input screen has Data entry boxes which are provided for up to 20 separator
stages. Enter the pressure and temperature of each stage and click on the Calculate control
button.
The separator calculation screen is the same as that described for Constant Composition
Expansion 330 .
The analysis screen is also much the same as that described for CCE. The differences are
listed in the help on the Separator Analysis 362 dialog. For each calculation carried out, the
analysis display presents information on compositions K values,gas and oil gravities etc. In
addition, intermediate compositions can be extracted for further work as separate files or
streams.
Input fields
Mode

Two options are available:


Individual

Global

All streams will be subjected to their own separator conditions.


The tabs at the bottom of the grid can be used to move
between the stream inputs. The Copy Settings to All Streams
will set all stream settings to the current stream value
A common separator train will be applied to al the streams in
the PVTP archive

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Stream
to
Calculate

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to calculate.
See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on streams
Options

Separator
Train

Chiller
Train

The major model options are displayed. Only one set are allowed per file.
Clicking on the Change Button calls the File|Preferences 156 Dialog
The Temperature and Pressure conditions of each stage of the separation
train can be defined here. Note that the assumption is that the liquid exiting
one stage is the input to the next stage, for example:

The gas from the separation process can be sent through a chain of up to 10
chillers. The first choice is to select the source of the gas to be chilled. The
default option is to use the accumulated gas from all the separator stages
which would include any gas evolved in the stock tank. The alternative would
be to use the gas up to a specified stage. If this option is selected an edit box
appears to allow the user to enter the final source stage.
See Separator Calculations and the Path to Surface 134 for more on chillers

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and LNG calculations.

If chillers are used the results dialog is split into two tables, the lower one
giving information on the chiller results

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Command buttons
Calc
Cancel
Clear

Brings up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button.


Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values

Note on Oil Density


The calculation screen shows two Oil Densities 116 for comparison purposes. The EOS
value is determined directly from the equation of state calculation of liquid
compressibility Z. This value is used to derive all the related properties i.e. Oil Gravity,
Oil FVF and GOR. The second value is taken from the correlation put forward by
Standing and Katz or Costald. The non-predictive nature of the Equation of State
method and its weakness in calculating liquid properties makes the value of Oil Density
particularly suspect in non-matched systems. The EOS Density is, however, sensitive
to composition and property changes, making it a suitable value for matching and
regression.The Standing-Katz or Costald value is empirically derived and in our
experience predicts well the density of most fluids. The average nature of the number
and its lack of sensitivity make it unsuitable for regression. Matching the EOS density
to good experimental data usually results in the two densities having very similar
values. Conversely, if the values are very dissimilar, it usually means that good
matching has not been achieved
Copying and Pasting
In common with all the grids within the PVTP program the main grid within this display
can be copied onto the clipboard by selecting all the cells and typing Control+C.
Pasting from the clipboard is done by clicking within the target cell and typing
Control+V
Note on Oil FVF (Bo)
The Oil FVF in a multistage separator is corrected by flashing to atmospheric through
the remaining stages. This correction can add up to 10 % to the un-corrected value.
To make sure the correction takes place always add all stage temperatures and
pressures.
This correction also takes place when the value is regressed upon
A Clear button removes all entries.
Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394
2.9.10.1 Separator Analysis
The analysis display is similar to that described for CCE 330 ; a typical example is shown below.

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At each separator stage the gas evolved is added to that coming from the previous stages to
give the Accumulated Vapour Composition. This composition can be extracted to file or
stream in the same way as the total vapour and liquid. The mole% data indicates how much
of the original feed is left as vapour liquid etc. after each stage. The Total GOR, Oil Gravity
and Gas Gravity are also reported. If the composition is ungrouped, net and gross heating
values are also calculated.
Command buttons
The command buttons perform the following functions:
Exit
All Stages

Closes down the display and return to the calculation screen


The All Stages button brings up a display which summarizes the GOR and
other data for all separator stages:

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Quality
Plot

Clicking on the Quality Button will automatically generate a quality plot of the
type shown below. Background to this plot is described in the utility menu help
for the Hoffmann Quality Plot. If the properties of the components give a
consistent flash, the light components should roughly fall along a straight line.

Clipboard

Sends all or part of the analysis data to the clipboard by calling the Copy to
Clipboard 340 Dialog
This option allows the user to save the composition (total, vapor or liquid)
being stored as a separate PVT file for later retrieval. Alternatively, a stream
can be created within the current PVT Project File.
If chillers have been used continuing down the stages will eventually show the
chiller stage data
Separator K Values can be used throughout the IPM Suite to replace multiple
separator stages and represent complex separation plant. The K values for

Extract

Export
K Values

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Split
Factors

2.9.11

365

individual and total separation plant are listed in the analysis table. These
values can be exported or sent internally to a stream by clicking on the Export
K Values button
Separator Split Factors can be used throughout the IPM Suite to replace
separator/chiller combinations. The analysis display lists the Split Factors for
the overall plant.
Additional values can be calculated and exported by calling the Split Factor
Setup dialog. This is done by clicking on the Export Split Fac button

Compositional Gradient

A Compositional Gradient calculation can be initiated by selecting the Compositional Gradient


option from the calculation menu or clicking on the icon shown above. Compositional Gradient
calculates the changes in composition with depth above and below the reference depth.

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Input fields
Reservoir
Reference

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The reservoir reference conditions are displayed.

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These variables cannot be changed from this display. Use the Data |
Reference Data 259 option if a change is required.
The small table allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. Selected stream are highlighted in red.
See PVT Project File Structure for more information on streams.
The reservoir reference conditions are also displayed within this table.
These variables can be changed from this display.
Alternatively, the Data | Reference Data option can be used to view or
change these values. An input screen contains radio buttons which allow
the user to swap between User Selected and Automatic modes
Multiple Streams - When 2 or more streams are selected an edit box appears in the top
Master Reference right of the dialog. This value acts as the common reference for all the
selected streams.
Depth

Data Points

Calculation
Points

This option defines how the ranges of temperature and pressures are
entered in the CCE calculation. Two modes are available:
User Selected
Automatic

The user can manually enter the range of depths


A range generation automatic feature can be used to
define the ranges of depth for which to run the
calculation

User Selected

Data entry boxes are available where one can


manually enter depths
Data boxes are provided for entering the limits of the
depth to be covered above and below the reference
depth and the number of points to be calculated for
each direction. The points will be spread evenly
throughout the ranges selected

Automatic

Temp. Gdnt.
Calculate
Saturation
Pressure

Temperature Gradient must also be entered in the appropriate box.


This check box enables/disables the calculation of the saturation
pressure.
As part of the gradient calculation, the saturation pressure of the mixture
can be calculated at each depth. Since this calculation takes some time
the option is given to leave out the calculation. Both User Selected and
Automatic dialogs contain a check box for this option. If the Saturation
Pressure is calculated a plot with Pressure Gradient against depth
becomes available. A typical plot is shown below:

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User Relative
Depths
Options

NOTE the additional information on the plot i.e. Reference Depth,


Reference Pressure etc. using the Match point colour (see Plotting)
A check box is provided for swapping between relative and absolute
depths.
The major model options are displayed. Only one set are allowed per
file.

Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences Dialog 157 .


This display contains radio buttons which allow the user to swap
between User Selected and Automatic modes.
In addition, data entry boxes are provided for entering the limits of the
temperature and pressure ranges to be covered and the number of
points to be calculated for each variable.
The points will be spread evenly throughout the temperature and
pressure ranges selected.
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All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to the Calculation


Dialog 370
Separator
Data

The input display contains a section for Separator Data. This allows the
user to define a separator train through which the oil or gas will be
flashed to correct the Oil FVF, GOR and CGR. The processes which
are used to return an oil to standard conditions can significantly change
the final oil characteristics and the amount of gas liberated on the way.
When multiple samples are being analysed, it may be necessary to
have individual separator settings for each stream. In this case, the
individual radio button should be clicked on. The stream separator
settings can be accessed via the tabs at the bottom of the table. All
stages do not need to be entered and a last flash to standard conditions
is always included. The combo within the separator data area switches
between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator
Calculation into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all
values from within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value 138 help
See more details on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and
the background to Split factors in Separator Calculations and the Path
to Surface 134
Command buttons
Calc

Brings up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button.


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Cancel
Clear

PVTP

Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values

To initiate the calculation click on the Calc control button. The Calculation Screen and its
options are described in Calculation Display 370 help.
Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394

2.9.11.1 Calculation Results Display


A typical results display is shown below. The results are reported against the gradient points
entered. The controls on this display have the same effect as those described for Constant
Composition Expansion 330 .
See Density Modeling 116 for more information on oil density options.
Matching the EOS density to good experimental data usually results in the two densities
having very similar values. Conversely, if the values are very dissimilar, it usually means that
good matching has not been achieved.

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371

Swelling Test

A Swelling Test calculation can be initiated by selecting the Swelling Test option from the
calculation menu or clicking on the icon shown above.
This option only becomes available if a second stream or more streams have been defined.
The Swelling Test mixes a pre-entered amount of the second stream with the first. The
Saturation Pressure of this new mixture is determined. The mixture is the flashed at the
Saturation Pressure to get the phase properties.
The Swelling Test option has only one input mode. A typical input display is shown below

A Swelling Test Input screen has Data entry boxes which are provided for up to 10
temperatures. In addition 10 second stream compositions can be entered for each
temperature. When mixed these numbers represent the mole percent of the second stream
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within the first. If the component exists within the first stream the values are added together
and the properties of the primary stream (e.g. from regression) are used for both. If no
component exists of the same type a new component is created with the properties shown for
the second stream.
Input fields
Primary Stream
Injected Stream
Test
Temperature
Secondary
Stream Values

These selection boxes allow to select which stream is injected in the


other
This field allows to enter the temperature at which the swelling test
experiment is performed
The Swelling Test has two input options for composition VIZ
Mole %
Volume of gas per volume of oil
The input type is set by two radio buttons which are situated beneath
the input columns.
When either option is selected, the other is automatically calculated and
appears on the calculation display.
The unit for vol/vol input can be changed on the units display by scrolling
down to the Swelling Input unit. At present the units are set as volumes
of gas at standard conditions being added to oil at its saturation
pressure. The first step in the calculation is therefore to find the
saturation pressure of the oil and the density at that pressure. This
density allows the vol/vol input to be translated to its equivalent mole %
value. The calculation then proceeds as normal using this value.
Auto Set
Clear

Options

sets the compositions to a range between 0 and 90%


removes all composition entries

The major model options are displayed. Only one set are allowed per
file.

Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences Dialog 157 .


This display contains radio buttons which allow the user to swap
between User Selected and Automatic modes.
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In addition, data entry boxes are provided for entering the limits of the
temperature and pressure ranges to be covered and the number of
points to be calculated for each variable.
The points will be spread evenly throughout the temperature and
pressure ranges selected.
All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to the Calculation
Dialog 370
Separator
Data

The input display contains a section for Separator Data. This allows the
user to define a separator train through which the oil or gas will be
flashed to correct the Oil FVF, GOR and CGR. The processes which
are used to return an oil to standard conditions can significantly change
the final oil characteristics and the amount of gas liberated on the way.
When multiple samples are being analysed, it may be necessary to have
individual separator settings for each stream. In this case, the individual
radio button should be clicked on. The stream separator settings can be
accessed via the tabs at the bottom of the table. All stages do not need
to be entered and a last flash to standard conditions is always included.
The combo within the separator data area switches between the modes
available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator
Calculation into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all
values from within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value 138 help
See more details on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and
the background to Split factors in Separator Calculations and the Path to
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Surface

134

Enter the temperatures and compositions required and click on the Calculate control button.
Note
The Swelling Test Saturation Pressure is available for matching 267
Calculations with Lumping/Delumping 394

2.9.13

Slim-tube Simulation

A slim-tube calculation can be initiated by selecting the Slim-tube simulation option from the
calculation menu.
This cell to cell model simulates gas injection into an oil reservoir. The program sets up a
series of cells as shown in figure below .
The cells do not need to be the same size but usually are. The temperatures of all the cells
remain the same at the initial reservoir value.
If the cell orientation is horizontal all the cells start at the designated reservoir pressure. If the
cells are inclined or vertical, the pressures are adjusted for the column of oil above the cell.

Fig 1 Slim-tube Simulator


Injection gas

Excess Gas & Oil

Cell 1

Wellstream
Excess Gas & Oil

Cell 2

Cell n

In each time step gas is added to the system. The gas injected into cell 1 is mixed with the
fluid there and the combination is flashed to find the new amount of gas and oil and their
properties.
Material Balance calculations and phase mobility criteria are used to calculate how much of
each phase is moved to cell 2. Again the new mixture is flashed and the excess is moved to
cell 3.
This process is repeated until the production cell is encountered. At this point the excess
volume and composition appear as wellstream products.
Whether multiple contact miscibility is achieved is usually taken from the estimation of the
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minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). Definitions of the MMP can vary, but it is usually taken
as the pressure at which the recovery is 90% wnen 1.2 pore volumes of gas have been
injected. At pressures above MMP the gas is assumed to be miscible.

2.9.13.1 Slim-tube Input dialog

This Dialog is the main one for the slim tube simulation calculation.

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The reasoning behind the calculation is described in Background to Slim-tube Simulation 374 .
The screen is brought up by selecting the Slim-tube Simulator option from the main
Calculation menu.
The dialog gives access to the other slim tube setup dialogs i.e.
Cells Setup 378
Rel Perms Setup 379
Times and Material Balance Setup 380
Input Fields
Stream Data

Temperature

Data Points

The reservoir stream is the oil which will fill the slim-tube cells. The
injected stream is the gas which will be introduced to test its miscibility in
the oil
The slim-tube experiment is normally done at reservoir temperature. This
value will default to the entered reservoir temperature (see Reference
Data) , but it can be changed to a different value using the edit box
provided
This option defines how the ranges of temperature and pressures are
entered in the CCE calculation. Two modes are available:
User
Selected

If discrete pressure values are required the mode should


be changed to User Selected and the pressures entered
as shown below:

Automatic

Test for
MMP

PVTP Help And Manual

A range generation automatic feature can be used to


define the ranges of pressures.
A pressure range is entered as a minimum and maximum
pressure plus a number of steps. It should be noted that
the slim tube simulation is a complex calculation and can
be slow.
The minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) is normally taken as the
pressure at which there is 90 percent oil recovery at 1.2 pore volumes of
gas injected. Above this pressure the gas is taken as being miscible. The
test values can be changed from the defaults using the edit boxes
provided. The selected values appear as reference lines on the plot of
recovery versus pore volume injected. A typical plot is shown below:

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Cells

Setup
Relative
Permeability
Controls
(Times +
Material
Balance)
Set All
Values to
Default

377

The number and dimensions of the cells within the slim-tube are setup in
the Cells Setup Dialog.
Select the button Setup Cells 378 to define for each cell the dimensions
and its porosity and permeability.
The relative permeability and associated data are entered within the Rel
Perms Setup 379 Dialog
The number and size of the time steps are setup within the Times and
Material Balance Setup Dialog

The slim-tube calculation is complex to set up. As it is trying to simulate a


physical test , many variables (physical sizesates permeabilitys) have to
be tuned to realistic values.
To help in this process a set of typical default values are provided.
Clicking on this button will fill all the Slim-tube dialogs with numbers which
will work for most oil/gas combinations.
Using this button will overwrite all previously entered data (except
pressures) on all Slim-tube dialogs.

Options

The major model options are displayed.Only one set are allowed per file.
Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences Dialog 157

Command Buttons
Clear
Calc

Clear will remove the current pressure inputs


When all entries have been made click on Calc to bring up the Slim-tube
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Calculation Dialog
2.9.13.2 Slim-tube cell data dialog
This Dialog sets up the dimensions and other data related to the cells that make up the slimtube. The display is called by the Slim-tube Input 375 Dialog.
A typical screen would be as shown below:

The first step is to define the number of cells. The Production cell is normally the last and the
injection is the first. The depth is only for reference.The cells are normally horizontal. In this
case they are all at the same depth and pressure. If they are vertical, they are at different
pressures depending on the cell height and the oil density.The cells can contain the same
data. To do this enter the data into cell 1 and click on the Copy Cell 1 Data to All button.
Alternatively, all data can be individually entered within the table.
The first three columns define the dimensions of each cell. The last two indicate the Porosity
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and Permeability of each cell.

2.9.13.3 Slim-tube rel perm dialog


This Dialog sets up the relative permeability and capillary pressure data which governs the
relative movement of fluids in the slim-tube.
In addition, the rock compressibility can be entered within this dialog. The display is called by
the Slim-tube Input 375 Dialog.
A typical screen would be as shown below:

The Relative Permeability data can only be entered in table form at present. The exponents
are entered as fractions with respect to the oil saturation. A Capillary Pressure curve can also
be entered as a function of oil saturation.
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2.9.13.4 Slim-tube time steps dialog


This Dialog sets up the time steps and material balance options within the slim tube simulator.
The display is called by the Slim-tube Input 375 Dialog.
A typical screen would be as shown below:

Enter the number of time steps required. This action will set the size of the table. The times
can be set as a fixed value or with a different value for each step. To set the same time for
each step click on the fixed time step radio button and enter the time required in the edit box
provided. If different times are required, click on the variable time step radio button and enter
the times within the table.
Adaptive Time Steps
It should be noted that the program will automatically change the value of a time step or add
more time steps if it is failing to meet its convergence criteria.

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2.9.13.5 Slim-tube calculations dialog


This Dialog allows the user to initiate calculations and view the results.

The Calculation Screen is loaded when the Calculate button is pressed on the Slim-tube Input
375 Dialog.
The display is in the form of a table with a Cell Detail button as the first column. The
properties listed are those of the fluid exiting the last cell at the end of the time step.The time
steps listed may change from those entered initially as the calculation will create new values
to reflect the intermediate flow changes within the model.
Results fields
Cell Detail

Tabs

Clicking on any of these buttons will bring up the Cell Detail 383 Dialog. This
displays the phase, properties and compositions in each cell at the
selected timestep. Any composition can be extracted as a stream for
further analysis. (See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information
on streams)
If multiple pressures have been selected (see Slim-tube Input 375 Dialog)
the pressures appear as separate tables with tags at the bottom. The

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user can move between the pressures by clicking on the tabs at the
bottom of the display
Each column has a variable name and unit as a heading. Scroll bars are provided to show
more variables and results.
Colours have been used with grids to indicate phase:
Red

gas only

Blue

mixture of oil and gas

Black

oil only

If the values have been already calculated the display will show the last set of values
calculated.
Command buttons
The display has several control buttons along the top which have the following functions:
Calc
Plot
Analysis

Cancel
Main
Clipboard

This option recalculates the table using the latest inputs provided
This generates a full sized plot of the calculated results
This option produces a secondary screen giving the compositions
calculated at each measurement point along with details of the material
balance found at the end of the time step. The analysis screen also
provides access to the EXTRACT function which allows the user to export
a particular line of the calculation to a PVT file. Alternatively, the
intermediate composition can be copied to a stream within this project file.
See Slim-tube Analysis 382 dialog
This option closes down the display and passes the control back to the
input screen
This option closes down both the calculation and the input displays and
passes the control back to the main PVT screen
This option allows the user to send the table results with/or without
headings to the clipboard

2.9.13.6 Slim-tube analysis dialog


This dialog is called by clicking on the Analysis button within the slim-tube calculation 387
display. The compositions shown are those of the fluids being produced from the designated
production cell. The numbers within the table give an indication of the material balance of each
component after the time step.
The composition within each cell can be viewed using the Slim-tube Cell Detail 383 dialog.

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The pressure run being viewed can be changed using the combo box provided. The time step
value displayed can be changed by clicking on the down or up arrow on the units or tens
control. Units will add or subtract 1 to the time step. Tens will add or subtract 10 to the time
step.
Command buttons
The command buttons perform the following functions:
Exit
Extract

Close down the display and return to the slim-tube calculation display
This option allows the user to save the composition (total, vapour or liquid)
being stored as a separate PVT file for later retrieval.
Alternatively, a stream can be created within the current PVT Project File

2.9.13.7 Slim-tube cell detail dialog


This gives more detail on the contents of each cell during a time step. The display is called by
clicking on the Cell Detail button within the slim-tube calculation 381 dialog.

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For each cell the table gives details of the phase, cell pressure, IFT, oil saturation and oil and
gas viscosities. In addition the composition within the cell is given. If the calculation goes into
adaptive mode, the result number will not be equivalent to the time step.
The cell compositions can be extracted to another stream for further analysis by:
1. Entering the required cell number in the edit box, or clicking on the arrow buttons until the
required value is reached.
2. Clicking on the Cell Composition to Stream Button.

2.9.14

Quick Calculation Dialog

A subset of the Equation of State Calculations is available by clicking on the Quick Calc.
control button within the Recombination; Enter Composition and View Properties displays.

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This feature provides the user with access to a subset of the calculation menu as a means of
checking the consistency of the entered composition information.
Calculation modes
The small display above provides options to calculate:
Phase Envelope 321

This allows to visualise the phase envelope

Critical Point 321

This determines the critical pressure and temperature of the


mixture
This determines the saturation pressure corresponding to the
reference reservoir temperature as entered in the Reference
Data 259 section
This performs a straight flash to standard conditions and
displays parameters like GOR, gas gravity and oil gravity

Saturation Pressure_at_ 328


Reference_Conditions 328
Flash to Standard 134
Conditions 134
Flash Through 286
Separator Stages 286
Calculate Maximum 388
Water in the 388
Hydrocarbon Phase 388

This performs a flash to standard conditions through separator


trains and displays parameters like GOR, gas gravity and oil
gravity
This allows to determine the amount of water that saturates
the hydrocarbon. A bigger quantity of water would form a
separate liquid phase

Input fields
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Options

The major model options are displayed. Only one set are allowed per
file.

Clicking on the Change button calls the Preferences Dialog 157 .


This display contains radio buttons which allow the user to swap
between User Selected and Automatic modes.
In addition, data entry boxes are provided for entering the limits of the
temperature and pressure ranges to be covered and the number of
points to be calculated for each variable.
The points will be spread evenly throughout the temperature and
pressure ranges selected.
All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to the Calculation
Dialog 370
2.9.14.1 Saturation Pressure and Flash to STD
The Phase Envelope and Critical Point calculations are identical to those accessed from the
Calculations Menu .The Saturation Pressure option does not use the same method as the
ranged equivalent . The calculation is done at reference conditions only giving an output of the
type shown below.

The Flash to Standard Conditions option takes the fluid and does a CCE calculation at 60
degrees F and 14.7psia. The GOR, oil gravity and gas gravity are then reported as shown
below.

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The Flash through Separator Stages option mimics the full separator calculation but reports
only some of the results. See Quick Calc Separator Calculation Dialog 387 for more details.
2.9.14.2 Quick Calculation Separator Calculation Dialog
This display is called from the Quick Calculation Dialog 384 .

The objective is to provide a separator calculation which quickly provides the basic data of Oil
density and Gravity, Gas Gravity and GOR.
If separator conditions have already been defined the values will appear. If not enter the
temperatures and pressures in the Edit Boxes provided in the Values section of the display.
When ready click on Calc.
Command buttons

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Calc

Perform the calculation and displays results

Load Stock Tank

Clear the table and load the current values for standard
temperature and pressure
Within the PVT package two liquid densities are calculated by
two different methods. The first is based on a choice of
empirical correlation. The second is calculated from the
Equation of State Z factor. The density correlations 116
available are Standing and Katz or Costald. The choice is
made from the combo box provided
removes all entries and results

Oil Density method

Clear

2.9.14.3 Maximum Water in Hydrocarbon Phase

Use this option to create a stream which contains the maximum percentage of water before a
water phase forms. This operation is normally done to a matched stream .

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The display is loaded from the Streams|Add Water to a Stream.... menu option
(see STREAM MENU) or from the icon above. The calculation can also be reached from the
Quick Calc dialog 384
Input fields
Mode

The calculation is available in two forms:


Range of
This calculates the water concentration over a range of
temperature and pressures
Values
Single Point This option calculates the value at single temperature and
pressure and allows the user to create a new stream
Stream Create
containing the calculated amount of water

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Stream

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to calculate.
See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on streams
Reservoir T Temperature and pressure of the reservoir fluid, and salinity of the saturating
water
and P
Salinity
Output fields
Mole %H2O
at saturation
To Stream

Molar % of water to saturate the hydrocarbon


Enter a stream name and comment if required and click on To Stream to
extract the saturated fluid (hydrocarbon + water) to a separate fluid
stream in PVTP

Command buttons
Exit

Validate all the entries and exit the screen

Cancel

Discard any change and exit the screen

Calculate

Run the calculation

Running the range of Values calculation


In case of Mode set to range of Values the display to:

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Enter the range of pressures and temperatures required and click on Calculate.
This brings up the calculation results table. Click on Calc again.

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See also:
PVT Project Structure 188 . -where streams fit in to the overall data structure
Water Modeling 132
Add fixed amount of water to a stream 429
Quick Calc dialog 384

2.9.15

Steam Calculations

The Steam Calculator allows to perform calculations to determine the properties of water/
steam for either a range of P and T or for a point in the pressure/Enthalpy chart.
Two modes are available:

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Calculate
Range

Determines the properties of water/steam in a range of pressure and


temperatures. Note that given only P and T, it is not possible to determine the
conditions where saturated steam is present (equilibrium liquid vapour), as in
equilibrium both temperature and pressure are constant:

Calculate
Single

Determines the properties of steam/water given pressure and enthalpy. As


the Enthalpy is provided, from the figure above it is possible to see that this
calculation allows to determine the conditions of equilibrium and the steam
quality (fraction of total fluid in vapour phase)

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2.9.16

PVTP

Calculations with Lumping/Delumping

NEW!!!
If Lumping/Delumping has been applied to a stream, a pair of compositions (the "Lumped"
and the "Full") are available.
When running any calculation selecting the stream with Lumping/Delumping, the program
offers the possibility to run the calculation using both the Lumped and the Full composition or
one of the two.
This allows to compare the results obtained with the two compositions and quality check them
to make sure they are equivalent.
In the calculation screen a selection drop-down box appears:

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By means of this menu it is possible to specify if to run the calculation with both the Full and
Lumped compositions or only with the Full or only with the Lumped.
For example, in the case of CCE, the screen will have this aspect:

Highlighted in the figure is the selection box.


The same option appears in any of the other calculations.
Note that if no Lumped composition is available (that is to say: no Lumping/Delumping is
performed on a stream), the selection box will not be available.
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In the case of the Quick Calculation 384 , the following calculation will be performed by with both
the Full and the Lumped compositions: Critical Point, Saturation Pressure at Reference
Conditions, Flash to Standard Conditions and Flash through Separator Stages.

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397

2.10 Calculation of Solids


This section describes the calculations available for solids. The alternatives are:
Waxes

Two options are available:


Wax Amount 397

Wax 402
Appearance
Temperature 402
Hydrates

Enter a range of temperatures and pressures and


perform a multiphase flash to find the amount in the
solid phase
Select a pressure and find the temperature at which
wax just starts to form

Two options are available:


Hydrate 405
Formation 405
Pressure 405
Minimum 409
Inhibition 409
Concentration 409

Enter a range of temperatures and find the minimum


pressure at which hydrates will form
Select a temperature and pressure and find the
concentration of inhibitor at which hydrate just starts
to form under these conditions

Details of Wax 100 and Hydrate 109 modeling and the model alternatives and references are
given in Models and Model Options Section.

2.10.1

Wax Amount Calculation

This calculation can be initiated by selecting the Wax Amount (Multiphase Flash) from the Calc
Solids 397 menu.

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See Wax Modeling 100 for more details.


Input fields
Data
Points

PVTP Help And Manual

The mode can be changed using the radio buttons at the top right of the
display. Two modes are available for data input.
User
Selected

The ranged input is replaced by a grid where any mixture of


pressures and temperatures can be entered by the user

Automatic

Data entry boxes are provided for entering the limits of the
temperature and pressure ranges to be covered and the
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number of points to be calculated for each variable. The


points will be spread evenly throughout the temperature and
selected pressure ranges

Stream

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams
Options

Split out
Pseudo
Components

The major model options are displayed.Only one set are allowed per
file. Clicking on the Change Button calls the Preferences Dialog 157 .
A combo box within the preferences dialog allows the user to select
between the various wax models.Clicking on the Reset Props button
resets the important component properties back to the default values
outlined by the model's author. WARNING using this button will reset
any solids regression that has been done.
See Wax Modeling Help 100 for more details on the model types
available.
See Lab Data/Matching 267 Help for more details on what can be
matched for solids
Wax deposition is driven mainly by long-chain paraffins. This means that
in order to properly characterize waxes it is required to define in detail
the hydrocarbons with high carbon number. This option splits the

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pseudo components in its SCN components to more accurately model


waxes
Note that the wax formation effect is very much driven by temperature and very little pressure
dependence is shown.
At least one pressure and temperature should be defined before proceeding to the Calculation
Dialog 409 .
Command buttons
Calc

Cancel
Clear

To bring up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button. The
calculation dialog which appears is similar in structure and features to that
described for the two-phase flash CCE 330 calculation.
With regards to the Phases reported in the Wax Dropout calculations
screen, the units are : The percentage that is reported is Mol%, the solid
phase is taken as the mol% of the original process feed. The new
composition, with the solid fraction removed is then flashed to give the mol
% of liquid and gas remaining, since the solid is no longer in equilibrium with
the fluid it is neglected
Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values

2.10.1.1 The Analysis Display


This display is called by clicking on the analysis button within the calculation table display 409 .
The screen shows the compositions for each phase at each combination of temperature and
pressure.

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The temperature value displayed can be changed by clicking on the down or up arrow within
the temperature area (top left).
The pressure value displayed can be changed by clicking on the down or up arrow within the
pressure area (top right).
Command buttons
The command buttons perform the following functions:
Exit
Clipboard
Extract

Quality
Plot

Close down the display and return to the calculation screen


This sends all or part of the analysis data to the clipboard by calling the
Copy to Clipboard 340 Dialog
This option allows the user to save the composition (total, vapour or liquid)
being stored as a separate PVT file (To File) for later retrieval.
Alternatively, a stream can be created within the current PVT Project File
(To Stream). The analysis display for a separator calculation is more
complex
Clicking on the Quality Button will automatically generate a quality plot of
the type shown below. Background to this plot is described in the utility
menu help for the Hoffmann Quality Plot. If the properties of the
components give a consistent flash, the light components should roughly fall
along a straight line.

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2.10.2

PVTP

Wax Appearance Temperature

This calculation can be initiated by selecting the Wax Appearance Temperature from the Calc
Solids 397 menu:
See Wax Modeling 100 for more details.

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Input fields
Stream

Method
Data
Points

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams
A list of models are provided.
See Wax Modeling 100 for more details.
The mode can be changed using the radio buttons at the top right of the
display. Two modes are available for data input.
User
Selected

The ranged input is replaced by a grid where any range of


pressures can be entered by the user

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Automatic

Data entry boxes are provided for entering the limits of the
pressure ranges to be covered and the number of points to
be calculated for each variable. The points will be spread
evenly throughout the selected pressure ranges

At least one pressure should be defined before proceeding to the


Calculation dialog
Calculation
Limits

Some of the limits of the calculation can be adjusted in this section of the
dialog. The minimum and maximum temperatures dictate the range in
which wax will be looked for. The maximum number of steps sets how
many iterations the program allows before it gives up looking for a
solution. The minimum test solid percent is the value used to determine if
wax is just forming i.e. the WAT. The program looks for a value of
percent solids between zero and the Min Test Solid % to say that it is at
the Wax Appearance Temperature
Split out
Pseudo
Components

PVTP Help And Manual

Wax deposition is driven mainly by long-chain paraffins. This means that


in order to properly characterize waxes it is required to define in detail
the hydrocarbons with high carbon number. This option splits the
pseudo components in its SCN components to more accurately model
waxes

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405

Note that the wax formation effect is very much driven by temperature and very little pressure
dependence is shown.
At least one pressure and temperature should be defined before proceeding to the Calculation
Dialog 409 .
Command buttons
Calc

Cancel

2.10.3

To bring up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button. The
calculation dialog which appears is similar in structure and features to that
described for the two-phase flash CCE 330 calculation.
With regards to the Phases reported in the Wax Dropout calculations
screen, the units are : The percentage that is reported is Mol%, the solid
phase is taken as the mol% of the original process feed. The new
composition, with the solid fraction removed is then flashed to give the mol
% of liquid and gas remaining, since the solid is no longer in equilibrium with
the fluid it is neglected
Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen

Hydrate Formation Pressure

This calculation can be initiated by selecting the Hydrate Formation Pressure Option from the
Calc Solids 397 menu:
See Hydrate Modeling 109 for more details.
Hydrates (known also as clathrates) are important to the petroleum industry because they
form at temperatures above that of normal ice.
Plugging due to hydrate formation can potentially occur at any location from the reservoir to
surface where the pressure is greater than the minimum value for the fluid temperature. For a
range of Temperatures the program will calculate the minimum pressure at which hydrates will
form.
More details on the formation of hydrates is given in Background to Hydrates 107 .

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Input fields
Data
Points

The mode can be changed using the radio buttons at the top right of the
display. Two modes are available for data input.
User
Selected

PVTP Help And Manual

The ranged input is replaced by a grid where any range of


temperatures can be entered by the user

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407

Data entry boxes are provided for entering the limits of the
temperature ranges to be covered and the number of points
to be calculated for each variable. The points will be spread
evenly throughout the selected temperature ranges

At least one pressure should be defined before proceeding to the


Calculation dialog
Stream

Hydrate Type
Assume
free water
phase exists

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams
The user can choose between Hydrate types I or II or both
(New!!!)
The normal model assumption within PVTP is that free water exists
within the system (see Hydrate Modeling 109 ). If water is defined within
the composition and the composition is a gas at the calculation pressure
and temperature a second model is called. This calculates the formation
pressure required to form hydrates directly from molecules within the
gas phase. The mechanism for this is described in Hydrates with no
water phase 111 . Formation of hydrates directly from a gas phase
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PVTP

containing water is possible and occurs at a higher pressure than the


equivalent when a discrete water phase is present. This checkbox, if
on, forces the program to assume that a water phase is present
Inhibitor
Data

This area allows the user to calculate the effect of adding various
inhibitors to the fluid.
A combo box allows the user to select from a list of common inhibitors.
Up to 5 inhibitor concentrations can be entered using the edit box
provided. All values should be in weight percent. The Clear Percents
button removes all entries while the check box allows the user to switch
on and off the calculation without loosing the entries. More information
on inhibitors is given in Hydrate Inhibition 112 . See also help on the
Minimum Inhibitor Concentration 409 calculation
All boxes should have an entry before proceeding to the Calculation dialog.
Restrictions
No hydrate calculation can be carried out with a Grouped composition. The modeling
of hydrates is dependent on the identification of the type and amount of the individual
small gas molecules which become entrapped in the ice. Only ungrouped compositions
allow these species to be identified. See Background to Hydrates 107 for more details.
Attempting to enter a hydrate calculation with a grouped composition will produce the
following message:

Command buttons
Calc

Cancel
Clear

PVTP Help And Manual

To bring up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button. The
calculation dialog which appears is similar in structure and features to that
described for the two-phase flash CCE 330 calculation.
Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Clear removes any entered values

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2.10.3.1 Calculations Dialog


The Calculation dialog is very similar to that described for the Constant Composition
Expansion 330 calculation. The difference occurs when any inhibitor concentrations are
requested.
A typical display is shown below:

The selected inhibitor concentrations are coloured red and the new pressure values are
shown immediately afterwards.
When complete the results are available for export to Prosper 44 by clicking on the Export
button.
Hydrate Export

2.10.4

If a hydrate formation Pressure 405 calculation is done the analysis button


is replaced by an export version. This allows direct output to an ASCII
file which can be taken into PROSPER.

Hydrate Minimum Inhibitor Concentration

This calculation can be initiated by selecting the Hydrate Min. Inhibitor Concentration from the
Calc Solids 397 menu:
See Hydrate Modeling 109 for more details.
Hydrates are important to the petroleum industry because they form at temperatures above
that of normal ice.
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Plugging due to hydrate formation can potentially occur at any location from the reservoir to
surface where the pressure is greater than the minimum value for the fluid temperature.
Inhibitors raise the pressure at which a hydrate forms for a particular temperature.
This calculation estimates the amount of a selected inhibitor required to provide no hydrate
formation at an entered temperature and pressure.
More details on the formation of these troublesome clathrates is given in Background to
Hydrates 107 .

Input fields
Stream

Protection up to...
Pressure
Temperature
Inhibitor
Results
PVTP Help And Manual

The combo box allows the user to select the active stream and
archives to calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more
information on streams
Data entry boxes are provided for entering the target P and T. The
program calculates what inhibitor concentration which gives the start
of hydrate formation at the entered T and P.
Select from the combo-box the type of inhibitor to use
At the bottom of the screen a Results section summarises the amount
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of inhibitor required in both mass and mole %.


The % are defined as :
(mass or moles of inhibitor) / (mass or moles of water+inhibitor) * 100
Procedure
1) Enter a T and P.
2) Select an inhibitor and a model.
3) Press Calc. and the answer will appear as a weight and mole percentage in the results
section at the bottom of the display.
See also Hydrate modeling and Hydrate Inhibition 112 .
Command buttons
Calc

Cancel
Exit

To bring up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button. The
calculation dialog which appears is similar in structure and features to that
described for the two-phase flash CCE 330 calculation.
Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Validate the entries and close the screen

Restrictions
No hydrate calculation can be carried out with a Grouped composition. The modeling
of hydrates is dependent on the identification of the type and amount of the individual
small gas molecules which become entrapped in the ice. Only ungrouped compositions
allow these species to be identified. See Background to Hydrates 107 for more details.
Attempting to enter a hydrate calculation with a grouped composition will produce the
following message:

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2.11 Streams Menu


This menu allows the user to manipulate the individual data packages (STREAMS) within the
overall PVT project file. Where streams fit in to the overall data structure within the program is
described in Pvt Project Structure 44 Using the Streams menu details can be edited, streams
deleted or added and streams blended together.
These are the main features available:
Edit Stream Details 412
Add/Import/Copy Stream 413
Delete Stream 415
Create a Stream to a Target GOR 416
Create a Stream to a Target PSAT 420
Add Water to a Stream 429 - Saturation Value 425 , Fixed Amount 429
Blend Streams 431
Allocate:Blending Streams to a Target GOR 433
Other major stream features are contained within:
DATA MENU - Select components 189 ( a new empty stream can be created)
DATA MENU - Edit Mole Percents 215 ( a stream can be duplicated and its
composition edited)

2.11.1

Edit Stream Details

This option allows the user to change the stream name and the comment associted with the
stream.
Load the display from the Streams|Edit details option within the STREAM MENU
Select a stream using the combo box ,change the comment or name and press EXIT when
complete.
See also:
PVT PROJECT
STRUCTURE 188
SELECT
COMPONENTS 189
EDIT MOLE
PERCENTS 215
ADD STREAM 413

PVTP Help And Manual

where streams fit in to the overall data structure


this display has an option to add an empty stream
streams can be copied and their compositions edited using this option
copies existing streams or imports streams from other files

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DELETE STREAM 415 removes unwanted streams

2.11.2

Add/Import/Copy Stream

Use this option to copy an existing stream or to import a stream from another PVT project file
.The display is loaded from the Streams|Add stream menu option(see STREAM MENU 412 )

Command buttons
New
Empty
Stream
Copy
Existing

To create an empty stream with no components selected click on the


New Empty Stream button . This will bring up the component selection
dialog, which can be used to define the new composition
This option creates a duplicate of an existing stream.
Press Copy Existing Stream.This selection brings up this dialog
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Stream

To copy:
1. Rename stream if required
2. Highlight stream to copy
3. Click on Copy Stream button
Import from PVI File This option allows to extract a stream from another PVTP file
(extension .PVI) and import it in the current file. After selecting this
option a dialog is displayed.

Select Import and open the .PVI to extract the stream from.

PVTP Help And Manual

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In the List of streams all the streams available are reported. Enter a
New Stream Name and Comment and then select Read Stream
to import the EOS composition
Import from ASCII
File

This option allows to enter EOS composition in PVTP from a variety of


ASCII files:
.PRP from Petroleum Experts IPM
.PVO from PVTi
.GEM from CMG simulators
.EQL from ELF Type

See also:
PVT PROJECT STRUCTURE 188 - where streams fit in to the overall data structure
SELECT COMPONENTS 189 - this display has an option to add an empty stream
EDIT MOLE PERCENTS 215 - streams can be copied and their compositions edited using this
option.
DELETE STREAM 415 - removes unwanted streams.
.

2.11.3

Delete Stream

Use this option to remove an unwanted stream .The display is loaded from the Streams|
Delete .Stream menu option(see STREAM MENU 412 )
Select the required stream(s) and press Delete Stream. The user will be prompted to
confirm this operation. If only one stream is available the delete option is not allowed.
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PVTP

See also:
PVT PROJECT STRUCTURE 188 . -where streams fit in to the overall data structure
SELECT COMPONENTS 189 - this display has an option to add an empty stream
EDIT MOLE PERCENTS 215 - streams can be copied and their compositions edited using this
option.
ADD STREAM 413 - copies existing streams or imports streams from other files

2.11.4

Create a Stream to a Target GOR

The display is loaded from the Streams|Create a Stream.... menu option (see STREAM
MENU 412 ) or from the icon above.
The Target GOR method is a unique feature of Petroleum Experts IPM software that allows to
recombine the fluid to match a certain GOR.
Use this option to create a stream with a particular GOR by combining the separator gas and
stock tank oil from a matched stream.
This is particularly useful when one wants to estimate the correct composition of a wrongly
recombined (or sampled) fluid or when the GOR changes due to the reservoir depletion below
saturation pressure.

PVTP Help And Manual

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Input fields
These are the options available:
Source
Stream

Target GOR
Stream GOR
Target GOR
Method

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams
This is the value of GOR the original fluid will be recombined to match
This is the original fluid GOR
Two methods are available. The alternatives refer to the source of the gas
and oil which are mixed to create the new fluid which matches the target
GOR.
Use
The stream performs a full separator calculation using the
separator train input at the bottom of the dialog. The
Separator
accumulated gas and dead oil compositions found during
fluids
this flash are then mixed in the GOR target calculation. The
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PVTP

Use fluids
from near
PSAT

Maximum
iterations
Test for
Convergence
Separator
Data

input separator train is used to calculate the GOR of the


new mixture
The stream has its saturation pressure calculated at the
reservoir temperature. A flash is then carried out a pressure
just below this pressure value. The gas and oil compositions
found during this flash are then mixed in the GOR target
calculation. The input separator train is used to calculate the
GOR of the new mixture.

Note that the resulting composition can be very different using the two
methods. Since the PSAT method uses gas and oil which already have a
significant GOR mixing these two fluids cannot produce a fluid with a GOR
outwith the range of the intial values . To help the user these limits are
displayed as the maximum and minimum GOR for this method
The number of iterations carried out and the accuracy tolerance (% error) of
the final value can be changed using the edit boxes provided

PVTP Help And Manual

This section is active when the Target GOR Method is set to Use
Separator Fluids.
The input display contains a section for Separator Data. This allows the
user to define a separator train through which the oil or gas will be flashed
to correct the Oil FVF, GOR and CGR. The processes which are used to
return an oil to standard conditions can significantly change the final oil
characteristics and the amount of gas liberated on the way. When multiple
samples are being analysed, it may be necessary to have individual
separator settings for each stream. In this case, the individual radio button
should be clicked on. The stream separator settings can be accessed via
the tabs at the bottom of the table. All stages do not need to be entered
and a last flash to standard conditions is always included. The combo within
the separator data area switches between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator Calculation
into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all values from
within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value 138 help
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See more details on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and the
background to Split factors in Separator Calculations and the Path to
Surface 134
IMPORTANT NOTE
When this stream is created it is done with surface gas and oil. The process
therefore mimics a fluid recombination. If the objective is to reflect a loss or gain
of gas at reservoir conditions then the approach is not entirely appropriate. The
gas evolved near saturation or that present in the gas cap may be quite
different to that produced from the separators. Using the swelling test or other
methodologies may produce better results.
The procedure for creating the stream is as follows:
Select the stream which is to be used as the source of the gas and oil. This will be flashed
to surface directly or through a separator train to provide the dead oil and gas
compositions.
If the target GOR is to be with respect to a separator train setup the required stages in
the edit boxes provided and click on the Use Separator Train.... check box. If no
selections are made in the Separator Data area the fluid will be flashed straight to stock
tank conditions i.e.. standard temperature and pressure.
Select the source of the fluids to be mixed.
Enter the target GOR and click on the Create Stream button.
As the program iterates the iteration number and best solution to date will be displayed
When a solution is found ( within the convergence test limit) the stream will be created and
labelled with the GOR value.
On successful completion the dialog will shut down and return to the main display
Command buttons
Exit
Cancel
Create Stream
Delete
View

will close down the dialog and retain any entries which have been made
will close down the dialog and discard any entries which have been made
will create a new stream matching the entered Target GOR
will take the user to the stream delete dialog where any unwanted streams
can be removed
will bring up the View Properties 247 dialog.This allows the user to see the
stream produced and check its properties using the Quick Calc function

See also:
Technical Overview

General information about the program capabilities

11

PVT PROJECT
STRUCTURE 188
SELECT
COMPONENTS 189

where streams fit in to the overall data structure


this display has an option to add an empty stream

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EDIT MOLE
PERCENTS 215
ADD STREAM 413
DELETE STREAM 415

2.11.5

streams can be copied and their compositions edited using this


option
copies existing streams or imports streams from other files
removes unwanted streams

Create a Stream to a Target PSAT

The display is loaded from the Streams|Create a Stream.... menu option(see STREAM MENU
412 ) or from the icon above.
The Target GOR method is a unique feature of Petroleum Experts IPM software that allows to
recombine the fluid to match a certain Saturation Pressure (PSAT).
Use this option to create a stream with a particular Saturation Pressure by combining the
separator gas and stock tank oil from a matched stream.
This is particularly useful when one wants to estimate the correct composition of a wrongly
recombined (or sampled) fluid.
Use this option to create a stream with a particular PSAT 328 by combining the separator gas
and stock tank oil from a matched stream .

PVTP Help And Manual

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421

Input fields
These are the options available:
Source
Stream

Target PSAT
Temperature
Target Fluid
Type

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to
calculate. See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on
streams
This is the value of PSAT the original fluid will be recombined to match
This is the original fluid GOR
When recombining oil and gas, depending on the proportions either an oil or
a gas can be obtained, both having the same PSAT.
The phase envelope illustrates that:

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In correspondence of the same PSAT two fluids are possible, an oil and a
gas.
Target PSAT
Method

Maximum
iterations
Test for
Convergence
Separator
Data

Two methods are available. The alternatives refer to the source of the gas
and oil which are mixed to create the new PSAT fluid.
Use
The stream performs a full separator calculation using the
separator train input at the bottom of the dialog. The
Separator
accumulated gas and dead oil compositions found during this
fluids
flash are then mixed in the PSAT target calculation
Use fluids
The stream has its saturation pressure calculated at the
input temperature. A flash is then carried out a pressure just
from near
below this PSAT value. The gas and oil compositions found
PSAT
during this flash are then mixed in the PSAT target
calculation
Note that the results can be very different using the two methods. In general
a much higher maximum PSAT can be found using method 2.
The number of iterations carried out and the accuracy tolerance (% error) of
the final value can be changed using the edit boxes provided

PVTP Help And Manual

This section is active when the Target PSAT Method is set to Use
Separator Fluids.
The input display contains a section for Separator Data. This allows the
user to define a separator train through which the oil or gas will be flashed
to correct the Oil FVF, GOR and CGR. The processes which are used to
return an oil to standard conditions can significantly change the final oil
characteristics and the amount of gas liberated on the way. When multiple
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423

samples are being analysed, it may be necessary to have individual


separator settings for each stream. In this case, the individual radio button
should be clicked on. The stream separator settings can be accessed via
the tabs at the bottom of the table. All stages do not need to be entered
and a last flash to standard conditions is always included. The combo within
the separator data area switches between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator Calculation
into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all values from
within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value 138 help
See more details on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and the
background to Split factors in Separator Calculations and the Path to
Surface 134
The procedure for creating the stream is as follows:
Select the stream which is to be used as the source of the gas and oil. This will be
flashed to surface directly or through a separator train to provide the dead oil and gas
compositions.
Enter the Temperature at which the calculation is to be done
Select the phase to be produced. With most fluids a gas and oil can be produced with the
same PSAT .See Plot Profile below.
Select the method to be used.
Enter the target PSAT and click on the Create Stream button.
As the program iterates the iteration number and best solution to date will be displayed
If the saturation pressure target is above the maximum possible for the mixture a warning
will appear.See Plot Profile below
When a solution is found ( within the convergence test limit) the stream will be created
and labeled with the PSAT value.
On successful completion the dialog will shut down and return to the main display
Command buttons
Exit
Cancel
Create
Stream
Delete

will close down the dialog and retain any entries which have been made
will close down the dialog and discard any entries which have been made
will create a new stream matching the entered Target GOR
will take the user to the stream delete dialog where any unwanted streams
can be removed
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View
Plot
Profile

will bring up the View Properties 247 dialog.This allows the user to see the
stream produced and check its properties using the Quick Calc function
Unlike black oil models , EoS modeling is limited by the physical and
mathematical realities of mixing two fluids.e the separator liquid and gas. In
a typical system the saturation pressure of the mixture will rise from either
extreme to a maximum somewhere in middle. This feature highlights this
limitation by plotting the range of possible saturation pressures that can be
derived from mixing the gas and oil. The typical plot below is taken from a
condensate sample.

The points with the additional squares around are gas. The star on the plot
marks the original mixture's saturation pressure. It can be seen from this plot
that near critical fluids ,in general, will not produce a mixture saturation
pressure very much above that of the original mixture. See additional help on
Plotting 441 .
See also:
Technical Overview

General information about the program capabilities

11

PVT PROJECT
STRUCTURE 188
SELECT
PVTP Help And Manual

where streams fit in to the overall data structure


this display has an option to add an empty stream
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User Guide

COMPONENTS 189
EDIT MOLE
PERCENTS 215
ADD STREAM 413
DELETE STREAM 415

2.11.6

425

streams can be copied and their compositions edited using this


option
copies existing streams or imports streams from other files
removes unwanted streams

Add Water to a Stream - Saturation Value

This stream menu 412 item calls the Maximum Water Saturation 388 display which is also
available from the Quick Calculation Dialog 384 .
This allows the user to calculate the amount of water that will saturate the hydrocarbon
stream and create a stream containing this amount.

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PVTP

Input fields
Mode

The calculation is available in two forms:


Range of
This calculates the water concentration over a range of
temperature and pressures
Values
Single Point This option calculates the value at single temperature and
pressure and allows the user to create a new stream
Stream Create
containing the calculated amount of water

Stream

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427

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to calculate.
See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on streams
Reservoir T Temperature and pressure of the reservoir fluid, and salinity of the saturating
water
and P
Salinity
Output fields
Mole %H2O
at saturation
To Stream

Molar % of water to saturate the hydrocarbon


Enter a stream name and comment if required and click on To Stream to
extract the saturated fluid (hydrocarbon + water) to a separate fluid
stream in PVTP

Command buttons
Exit

Validate all the entries and exit the screen

Cancel

Discard any change and exit the screen

Calculate

Run the calculation

Running the range of Values calculation


In case of Mode set to range of Values the display to:

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PVTP

Enter the range of pressures and temperatures required and click on Calculate.
This brings up the calculation results table. Click on Calc again.

PVTP Help And Manual

February, 2011

User Guide

See also:
Technical Overview

429

General information about the program capabilities

11

PVT PROJECT
STRUCTURE 188
SELECT
COMPONENTS 189
EDIT MOLE
PERCENTS 215
ADD STREAM 413
DELETE STREAM 415

2.11.7

where streams fit in to the overall data structure


this display has an option to add an empty stream
streams can be copied and their compositions edited using this
option
copies existing streams or imports streams from other files
removes unwanted streams

Add Water to a Stream - Fixed Amount

Use this option to create a stream with a particular mole percentage of water. This operation
is normally done to a matched stream .
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PVTP

The display is loaded from the Streams|Add Water to a Stream.... menu option
(see STREAM MENU 412 ) or from the icon above.
PVT lab experiments are normally done on samples from which all the water has been
removed. The PVT report must therefore be matched with no water present. This feature
allows a known water to be added and the effect of the water on the phase equilibria to be
calculated.
A typical display would be:

Input fields
Source
Stream

Mole
Percent
Water
Salinity

The list box allows the user to select any combination of streams to calculate.
See PVT Project File Structure 188 for more information on streams
This is the desired mole % of water that will be achieved at the end of the
calculation
Salinity of the water to add

Command buttons
Create Stream

This button creates the new stream with added water

Cancel

Discard any change and exit the screen

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Enter the mole percent of water required in the edit box provided and click on Create Stream.
See also:
PVT Project
Where streams fit in to the overall data structure
188
Structure
Water Modeling Calculate maximum water in a hydrocarbon phase
132

2.11.8

Blend Streams

Two streams can be blended to form one with a combination of the original stream properties.
This option is available from the Streams Menu 412 .
A typical display looks like this.

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Input fields
Blend
streams
Blend to

Select the two streams to blend and enter the mole % of each of the two
streams
Two options are available:
New Stream
Existing Stream

The two mixed streams will form a separate new


stream, which will be added to the main Stream list
An existing stream will be modified by blending the
defined mole % of another stream.
The Existing Stream is selected from the Existing
Stream section

New Stream / This section allows to define the Name of the new created stream and a
Comment
Archive
Command buttons
Blend
Cancel

This button performs the blending calculation and creates the new
blended stream or modifies an existing one
Discard any change and exit the screen

These are the steps to follow to blend two streams:


Select the streams to be blended.
Select whether the result should be a new stream or to overwrite stream 1.
Enter a new stream name if required.
Enter the percentage of stream 1. Stream 2 will be automatically set to 100 - stream 1
Click on the Blend button.
After blending the View Properties 247 dialog will be displayed.
Click on OK to accept any changes that have been made.
See also:
Technical Overview

General information about the program capabilities

11

PVT PROJECT
STRUCTURE 188
SELECT
COMPONENTS 189
EDIT MOLE
PVTP Help And Manual

where streams fit in to the overall data structure


this display has an option to add an empty stream
streams can be copied and their compositions edited using this
February, 2011

User Guide

PERCENTS 215
ADD STREAM 413
DELETE STREAM 415

2.11.9

433

option
copies existing streams or imports streams from other files
removes unwanted streams

Allocate:Blending Streams to a Target GOR

This option allows the user to calculate the amount of two streams that would be required to
produce a mixture of the desired GOR. After calculation the stream can be created.
The display is loaded from the Streams|Allocate:Blend streams.... menu option(see
STREAM MENU 412 ) .

Input fields
Blend Stream 1
Blend Stream 2
Target GOR
Temperature
Target PSAT

These selection boxes allow to define the two streams to blend


This is the value of GOR the two fluids will be combined to match
This is the original fluid GOR
Two methods are available. The alternatives refer to the source of the
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PVTP

Method

Maximum
iterations
Test for
Convergence
Separator
Data

gas and oil which are mixed to create the new PSAT fluid.
Use
The stream performs a full separator calculation using the
separator train input at the bottom of the dialog. The
Separator
accumulated gas and dead oil compositions found during this
fluids
flash are then mixed in the PSAT target calculation
Use fluids
The stream has its saturation pressure calculated at the
input temperature. A flash is then carried out a pressure just
from near
below this PSAT value. The gas and oil compositions found
PSAT
during this flash are then mixed in the PSAT target
calculation
Note that the results can be very different using the two methods. In
general a much higher maximum PSAT can be found using method 2.
The number of iterations carried out and the accuracy tolerance (%
error) of the final value can be changed using the edit boxes provided

The input display contains a section for Separator Data. This allows the
user to define a separator train through which the oil or gas will be
flashed to correct the Oil FVF, GOR and CGR. The processes which
are used to return an oil to standard conditions can significantly change
the final oil characteristics and the amount of gas liberated on the way.
When multiple samples are being analysed, it may be necessary to
have individual separator settings for each stream. In this case, the
individual radio button should be clicked on. The stream separator
settings can be accessed via the tabs at the bottom of the table. All
stages do not need to be entered and a last flash to standard conditions
is always included. The combo within the separator data area switches
between the modes available.
Flash straight to stock tank
Use Separator train
Use K values
Use Split Factors
The values within this separator data area are loaded and stored
separately from those within the Separator calculation.
The Copy Sep button will copy the stages from the Separator
Calculation into the Separator Data area. The Clear button removes all
values from within the Separator Data area.
For more information on K values see K Value 138 help
See more details on the use of chillers to calculate LNG recoveries and
the background to Split factors in Separator Calculations and the Path
to Surface 134

Results
Mole % of Stream 1 and 2
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fluids to blend in order to achieve the target GOR

IMPORTANT NOTE
The calculation will assume that all the components are perfectly mixed and
come to thermodynamic equilibrium. In the real case of two fluids meeting at a
manifold the contact time and phase splits present may not allow this to occur
Command buttons
Exit
Cancel
Calculate
Create
Stream
Plot
Profile

will close down the dialog and retain any entries which have been made
will close down the dialog and discard any entries which have been made
will calculate the % of the two streams that are able to match the entered
Target GOR
will create a new stream based on the calculated mixing proportions
The Plot Profile button will display graphically the full range of possible
fluids.

The procedure for creating the stream is as follows:


Select the streams which are to be blended.

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If the target GOR is to be with respect to a separator train setup the required stages in
the edit boxes provided and click on the Use Separator Train.... check box. If no
selections are made in the Separator Data area the fluid will be flashed straight to stock
tank conditions i.e.. standard temperature and pressure.
Enter the target GOR and click on the Calculate button.
As the program iterates the iteration number and best solution to date will be displayed
When a solution is found ( within the convergence test limit) the mole percents and weight
percents of each stream requied will be displayed
Click on Create Stream if required.
On successful completion the dialog will shut down and return to the main display
See also:
PVT PROJECT STRUCTURE 188 . -where streams fit in to the overall data structure
SELECT COMPONENTS 189 - this display has an option to add an empty stream
EDIT MOLE PERCENTS 215 - streams can be copied and their compositions edited using this
option.
ADD STREAM 413 - copies existing streams or imports streams from other files
DELETE STREAM 415 - removes unwanted streams..

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2.12 Reporting
This section describes the reporting options and procedures used in the PVT package.

2.12.1

Setting Up the Reporting System

Under the Report option on the main menu there is a Setup Report Directories option. On
selecting this the user is presented with a dialog which requires three pieces of information.
The first of these is where the default or system report templates are stored. This is the path
to an archive file which contains the system report templates in a compressed form. This file
will normally be in the same directory as the PVTP executable. The next field in the dialog
requires the path to the default directory where reports printed to file are to be placed and the
final field is the path to a directory where user defined report templates are to be stored.

2.12.2

Reports

The reporting interface gives complete control over how the reports are formatted and what
information is utilised to make up the report. This is facilitated by the use of report templates
which can be edited to suit the user's own requirements. One can choose to use the default
report templates provided with the system or can choose to create slightly different versions
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of these reports. The selected templates can then be used to generate the actual reports
which can be sent to a variety of places (printer, file or screen). The report templates are
displayed in a hierarchy and all templates which have been selected (by double-clicking on it)
show an X in the check-box beside the template name. The colour of this X denotes whether
it is the system (black) template or a user defined (red) template which is being used.
There are two modes for the editing of report templates: System and user. System mode
does not allow to change any template whereas user mode allows to create new user defined
templates from scratch or based on an already existing system report template and also
allows to edit an existing user defined report template. Selecting user mode also makes the
user Reports section of the template hierarchy visible. The user Reports hierarchy contains all
report templates which have been tagged as being a derivation of a system report template
as well as any free standing user defined templates.

The reporting main window consists of four main parts: The command segment at the top of
the dialog containing the buttons, the report selection hierarchy, the output device selection
group and the template type selection group. The output device group is only used when
printing from selected report templates.
The available commands are:
OK

Print the selected reports to the selected output device and

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terminate the dialog


Cancel

Terminate the dialog

Help

Bring up the on-line help window

Setup

Select a Printer

User

Switches between System and user edit mode, this shows or


hides the user Reports section of the report hierarchy and
enables or disables the Create and Edit buttons. If in user
mode this button shows the text System and vice-versa.

View

View a previously saved native format file on-screen. This


brings up a file selection box for choosing the appropriate
report and passes this file name to the Report Executor

Print

Print the selected reports to the selected output device

Create

Create a new user report

Edit

Edit an existing user report template or create a new template


from a system template

Group

Allows the grouping of report templates references and the


storing of the group information in a file for later recall. This
allows batch printing of reports for any analysis

The available output types are:


Printer

Sent the report to the current printer

Screen

The reports are displayed on-screen in a report executor


window

Native File

The reports are saved as .FR files in the output reports


directory

RTF File

The reports are saved as RTF files in the output reports


directory

Text File

The reports are saved as tab delimited text files for easy
spreadsheet import

The native (.FR) file format can only be read by the reporting system whereas the RTF format
can be read by many Windows word processing applications. When printing to file the user
will be presented with the following dialog:

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The default directory will be set to the default output directory but this can be altered using
the Select Directory button. This can then be applied to all output files by using Change All. If
it is necessary to change the output directory of one of the files, this can be achieved by using
the Browse button associated with each report. The filenames can themselves be edited in
the text box which contains them.
For any given report in the system hierarchy the user can choose to view or print a report
using either the system report template provided or a user defined report template based on
that system report template (or at least that position in the hierarchy) or can choose a report
grouping which can be made up from a combination of user and system reports. The user can
choose between these options using the report template type selection group at the bottom
right of the main window. If one selects the user report template option for any hierarchy
position and there are multiple user defined report templates for that position then a dialog
appears which allows to select the particular desired template.
Double clicking on any of the report templates (or selecting and pressing Ok) will cause it to
become the user defined report template for that hierarchy position for the current reports
session. The default choice is the topmost user defined report template. One can stop a user
defined report template from being associated with that hierarchy position by selecting it and
then pressing Delete. This does not actually delete the report template (it can still be seen
within the user Reports section of the hierarchy).
If a report grouping is selected, then a similar dialog appears and the user can select the
appropriate group file. After selected a file all the reports referenced in the group will appear
checked in the hierarchy and one can then press print for all of these reports to be sent to
the selected output device.

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2.13 Plotting
This section describes the reporting options and procedures used in the PVT plotting
functions.
The Plot Display
Plotting is available in many forms and is initiated by the plot command button option on many
input and calculation screens. The plot window can also be removed by using the File|Close
menu option, typing Alt +F4, or pressing on the exit button.
The plot window contains may options which can be selected via a menu or toolbar. These
options are details in Plotting Menu and Toolbar section. A plot can present data form
multiple stream calculations, allowing the user to visualise the effect of different compositions,
matching scenarios etc. The plot below shows the variation in liquid dropout of samples taken
at different depths.

See also
Manipulating Streams 442
Manipulating Curves 442
Plot Menu and Toolbar 444
Changing Colours 446
Changing Labels 447
Changing Variables 449
Printing Plots 451

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2.13.1

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Manipulating Streams

Clicking on the small square to the side of the stream name allows the user to manipulate the
plotting of the stream Clicking on this square brings up a small menu as shown below:
Hide Stream
Show Stream
Change Colour

will change all the curves belonging to this stream to the background
colour, hiding it
returns the stream curves to view. Individual curves can also be
hidden using the curve menu described below
brings up the colour selection menu

See also
Plotting 441
Manipulating Curves 442
Plot Menu and Toolbar 444
Changing Colours 446
Changing Labels 447
Changing Variables 449
Printing Plots 451

2.13.2

Manipulating Curves

On each plot is a set of small squares which indicate values from which the plot was derived.
Passing over a square with the mouse pointer brings up a small window which gives the
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stream name and the point value.

Hide Curve
Hide Stream
Show Stream
Change Colour
Point Settings

will change all the curves belonging to this stream to the background
colour, hiding it
will change all the curves belonging to this stream to the background
colour, hiding it
returns the stream curves to view. Individual curves can also be
hidden using the curve menu described below
brings up the colour selection menu
allows the user to adjust the size and number of the points shown for
each curve in a stream.
Selecting this option brings up the small dialog shown below:

The Plot Point Ratio indicates what fraction of the points will be
displayed. The example above would show only one point in ten.
To show all points enter a value of one.
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Copy to Clipboard
Copy to Metafile

The Point size radio buttons allows the user to adjust the size of the
Point Square.
All point drawing can be switched off and on. See Labels and Options
447 Dialog
these options allow to export the plot to the Windows Clipboard or to
an export file (Metafile)

Menu options
PLOT TITLE
VARIABLES
DISPLAYED
MAIN PLOT
WINDOW
LEGEND BOXES

MOUSE
POSITION
INDICATOR
ZOOMING

This may be adjusted if required. See Labels and Options 447 Dialog
Up to 2 y axis variables may be displayed. This is done by calling the
Variable Selection 449 Dialog using the Variables. Menu option
The main Plot window shows the curves drawn in engineering units
Various legend boxes give additional information
Note the legend boxes and the plot labels can be switched off within
the Labels 447 Dialog
A mouse position indicator (bottom right of main plot) which shows the
current position in the units of the plot. This function can be used to
find the value of an intermediate point on any drawn curve
Any part of the plot can be enlarged by adopting the following
procedure
1. Place mouse pointer at top left of the area to be enlarged.
2. Press the left mouse button down.
3. With the mouse button kept down, move the mouse pointer to the
bottom right of the required area. During this operation, a rectangle
will be drawn to show the area selected.
4. Release the mouse button. The enlarged plot will be drawn.
To return the plot to its original size, double-click the mouse anywhere
within the main plot area

See also
Plotting 441
Manipulating Streams 442
Plot Menu and Toolbar 444
Changing Colours 446
Changing Labels 447
Changing Variables 449
Printing Plots 451

2.13.3

The Plot Menu and Toolbar

The plot window is composed of:


MENU
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SUBMENUS
File

View

This menu contains the File new, open, save, etc., typical of Windows
programs
Printer Setup 87 standard Windows Printer Setup display
Print 451
Exit
This menu allows the user to adjust what is seen within the display.
Clicking on the menu item will toggle off and on the particular option.
The options are stored on a file by file basis

Display

Scales 448
Labels 447
Colours 446
Test Points 298
Units 171
Redraw

Output
Variables

Set the axes scales


Set the Axes Label and Plot Title Text
Select the colours of the various Plot Elements and sets
pen size
Measured points to be visualised but not necessarily
matched to
Change the Units used within the plot
Redraw the plot at its original size

Report Bring up the main Report Display


Brings up Variables 449 dialog which allows the user to select the
variables to be plotted

Toolbar

A toolbar with buttons for


font
colour 446
Units 171
Test Points 298
Printing 451
Scales 448
Labels 447
Help
Exit
See also
Plotting 441
Manipulating Streams 442
Manipulating Curves 442

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Changing Colours 446


Changing Labels 447
Changing Variables 449
Printing Plots 451

2.13.4

Plotting - Changing Colours

Clicking on the Colours. Control Button on Change Colour within the small point or stream
menu or on the Colours Option within the Main Plot Dialog Display Menu brings up this dialog
.

This option allows the user to change the colours used in the plot and set the default for all
new plots.This screen allows the user to select the colour for each of the text plot
components listed. A colour can be defined for 2 variables and 10 streams
First select the colour scheme to be applied to the plot i.e. Colour, Gray Scale or
Monochrome. Next select a plot component by clicking on a name in the list. The sample
panel will show the current colour. Press Change General Colour or the individual Change
button to bring up the standard color selection dialog shown below. Choose the colour that is
required and press OK. The sample panel will show the choice. The line width can also be
set up on this display . To change a line width press on the required check box and press OK.
Thicker lines are useful when printing out plots particularily for Fax use. Clicking on OK will
change the colours in the plot being viewed and close down the selection window . Pressing
Apply will change the plot without closing the window.
Clicking on Save Colours will save all the colour selections to disk to be applied as default to
all new plots.

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See also
Plotting 441
Manipulating Streams 442
Manipulating Curves 442
Plot Menu and Toolbar 444
Changing Labels 447
Changing Variables 449
Printing Plots 451

2.13.5

Plotting - Changing Labels and Options

Clicking on the Labels Option within the Main Plot Dialog Display Menu brings up this dialog

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To change the axes labels and the title of the plot enter the text required in the appropriate
Edit Boxes and press OK.
The plot will be redrawn automatically. Clicking off the Show curve labels on plot will
remove the small curve labels. Clicking off the Show legend boxes on plot will remove the
legend boxes , increasing the size of the main plot. Clicking off the Show Reference Data
Lines will remove the indication of reference depth , reference pressure and reservoir
temperature. Clicking off the Show Individual Plot Points will remove the small squares on
the curves which represent actual values (see Main Plot Dialog for more details). Cancel
shuts down the display without implementing any changes.
See also
Plotting 441
Manipulating Streams 442
Manipulating Curves 442
Plot Menu and Toolbar 444
Changing Colours 446
Changing Variables 449
Printing Plots 451

2.13.6

Plotting - Changing Scales

Clicking on the Scales Option within the Main Plot Dialog Display Menu brings up this dialog .

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To change the scaling of the plot enter the values required in the Change Scales Edit Boxes
and press OK. The plot will be redrawn automatically. Cancel shuts down the display without
implementing any changes.
See also
Plotting 441
Manipulating Streams 442
Manipulating Curves 442
Plot Menu and Toolbar 444
Changing Colours 446
Changing Labels 447
Changing Variables 449
Printing Plots 451

2.13.7

Plotting - Changing Variables

Clicking on the Variables Option within the Main Plot Dialog Display Menu brings up this
dialog .

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The variables available depends on the calculation depicted by the Plot.


Up to 2 y axis variables can be selected.
To deselect all the y axis variables right mouse click on the y axis list box

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The user can use the list boxes to select which variables are plotted on which axis.
Clicking on OK will close the display and redraw the plot.
Cancel shuts down the display without implementing any changes.
See also
Plotting 441
Manipulating Streams 442
Manipulating Curves 442
Plot Menu and Toolbar 444
Changing Colours 446
Changing Labels 447
Printing Plots 451

2.13.8

Plotting - Printing a Plot

Clicking on the Print Option within the Main Plot Dialog File Menu brings up this dialog .
This option will send the plot to the primary printer as set up under Windows or an alternative
, if selected using this dialog.

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The margin area allows the user to enter top, bottom, left, and right margins.
The units of margin size can be selected using the Inches and Millimeters radio buttons.
The listbox on the right of the display shows the printers available , with the current choice of
destination highlighted.
To select another printer , click once on its name. A small panel with radio buttons gives the
user the opportunity to select between the three main colour schemes i.e. Monochrome,
Greyscale or Colour.
Line Widths

It may be useful when printing a plot which may subsequently be faxed


to increase the line width This can be done via the Colours option
within the main display

Print

Close the display and print report with current settings via the standard
print control dialog shown below

Cancel

Close the display without printing the report

See also
Plotting 441
Manipulating Streams 442
Manipulating Curves 442
Plot Menu and Toolbar 444
Changing Colours 446
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Changing Labels 447


Changing Variables 449
[****] 451

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2.14 Utilities
This menu gives the user access to a series of utilities designed to help with general PVT
work and to validate PVT report data
The menu includes:
API/Density Calculator 454
Mass Balance Calculator 454
Enthalpy Balance Calculator 457
Hoffmann Quality Plot 460

2.14.1

API/Density Calculator

This small dialog is selected via the Utilities Menu 454 and can be used in two different modes:
To calculate
oil density
from API
To calculate
API from
oil density

Enter the API in the edit box and press Calc

Enter the oil density in the edit box and press Calc

The units of density displayed can be changed using the units dialog.

2.14.2

Mass Balance Calculator

This display is called from the main Utilities Menu 454 .


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The objective is to provide a tool which helps to validate PVT report Black Oil data.
The calculation does not use any Equation of State model; it works only on the mass values
within the dialog. If a report is consistent the mass of fluid removed at the reservoir should
tally with the mass of gas plus oil at the surface.
Fluid
The calculator comes in 2 forms depending on the reservoir fluid:
Oil

Using the basis of 1 stock tank barrel, it is possible from the stock tank oil
density GOR and gas gravity plus the equivalent separator data to calculate a
total mass of gas and oil associated with this volume of production. Similarly
from the oil FVF and density, we can calculate the equivalent mass of this barrel
of oil at reservoir conditions. If the two masses are not very similar then there is
an inconsistency in the reported results which must be further investigated and
eliminated.
To carry out this calculation:
1) Set the fluid to Oil using the radio button provided
2) Enter the reservoir, separator and tank data required.
3) Select Validate using the mode radio button.
4) Click on Calculate.
If all the data has been entered correctly, the program will show the masses
calculated for surface and reservoir plus the percentage difference between
them.

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Gas

In a similar way to that described for oils, the data from a gas or condensate can
be used to construct a mass balance between surface and reservoir.
Unfortunately, most condensate reports do not have enough information to do a
full balance. Instead the program uses the data entered and assumes the
masses are equal. With the data provided, it calculates a series of values for
gas FVF, density and molecular weight which can be validated against report or
EoS calculated numbers. Two gas FVFs and gravities are reported. The first or
dry value assumes that all the reservoir gas ends up as gas at surface. The real
value follows from the mass balance and takes into account the gas that turns to
condensate

Mode
Two calculation modes are available:
Validate
Calculate
Missing
Value
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After all the input parameters are entered, the program will compare the
mass calculated at surface with the mass calculated at reservoir level
This mode is useful if a key piece of Black Oil data is missing. Enter all
the data as above and press calculate. The program will assume the
mass at surface and reservoir are equal and fill estimate the missing
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value. If more than one piece of data is missing an error message will be
generated

2.14.3

Enthalpy Balance Calculator

This type of calculation is called from the main Utilities menu 454 .
The aim of the utility is to predict the change in temperature if a fluid is moved from one
pressure to another adiabatically. The temperature change is due to thermodynamic effects
only as no heat is allowed to transfer to or from the system.
The calculation comes in 2 forms a single or ranged multiple types.

2.14.3.1 Single Point Enthalpy Balance

This calculation performs


temperature condition.

a single point isoenthalpic flash from an initial pressure and

A typical display would be:

Input fields
Inputs

The inputs to the dialog are:


Initial temperature
Initial Pressure and
Final Pressure

Stream

A combo box is provided to select any stream within the PVTP file

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When these values are entered and Calc is pressed, the program flashes the fluid at initial
conditions and finds the total enthalpy of the system.
The program then iterates the temperature and flashes at the new T and P until the total
enthalpy is within 0.01% of the initial value.
During iteration intermediate values are shown in the right hand side of the dialog.
When a successful match is found the process stops and the value is transferred to the
results panel at the bottom of the dialog.
Results fields
Intermediate
Values

The program displays results in terms of final temperature, enthalpies of


vapour, liquid and total and vapour %

Command buttons
Exit
Calc
Cancel

Validates and closes the screen


Brings up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button.
Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen

2.14.3.2 Multiple Point Enthalpy Balance

The aim of the utility is to predict the change in temperature if a fluid is moved from one
pressure to another adiabatically. The temperature change is due to thermodynamic effects
only as no heat is allowed to transfer to or from the system.

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Input fields
Data points

This option defines how the range of final pressures to reach in the
isoenthalpic flash are entered . Two modes are available:
User Selected
Automatic

The user manually enter the range of final P


A range generation automatic feature can be used to
define the range of final pressures

Streams
A list is provided to select any stream within the PVTP file
Initial conditions The inputs to the dialog are:
Initial temperature
Initial Pressure

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Command buttons
Calc
Cancel
Clear

Brings up the calculation dialog click on the Calc control button.


Cancel will clear all entries and return the user to the Summary Screen
Delete all the entered input parameters

Steps to follow:
Auto Mode
1. Enter a Start Temperature and a Start Pressure.
2. Enter a minimum and maximum end pressure and the number of pressure values
required.
3. Press Calc.
User Selected Mode
1. Enter a Start Temperature and a Start Pressure.
2. Enter a series of end pressures.
3. Press Calc.

2.14.4

Hoffmann Quality Plot

This display is called from the main Utilities Menu 454 .


The principles behind this utility are described in the paper:
Equilibrium Constants for a Gas-Condensate System by A. E. Hoffmann, J. S. Crump and
C.R. Hocott, Trans., AIME (1953)198, 1-10.
The basis of the plot is that if log (KP) is plotted against a characteristic b function the
resultant values should approximate to a straight line.
Any gross deviations from this behaviour suggest that the X, Y combination for that
component is suspect.
A typical data entry and calculation dialog is shown below. This display is called by selecting
the Hoffmann Quality Plot option from the Utilities menu.
Normally the table is blank but if data is present the entire table values are automatically filled
in when the dialog is loaded.
The required entries are a set of matching vapour and liquid compositions at a known
temperature and pressure.
As each component percentage is entered a running total and remainder (100 - total) will be
displayed.
Mole fractions can also be entered. In this case, when Calc is hit the user will be prompted to
auto correct the values.
Where no value is available zero may be typed or a blank left. In the latter case the blank will
be written automatically as zero.

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When all component values have been entered, enter the temperature and pressure at which
the samples were taken.
Clicking on the Calc button will fill in the table as shown below.

Click on Plot to bring up the typical graph. The plot shown below uses a set of values from
the original paper.
It can be seen that the values follow a rough straight line. To help visualising this effect, the
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program draws a straight line on the plot.


The user can alter the position of this line by clicking on and dragging the handles at the either
end of the line.

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2.15 User Databases


This section describes the setup and use of user databases.
A Database menu has been added to the main PVTP screen. The dialogs within this allow the
user to create and maintain a set of customised component databases. In addition an import
facility has been added to extract components from the Petroleum experts or other usercreated databases. The database utilities are selected from the Database menu.

The databases can therefore be made up of entirely new components or existing components
with some properties adjusted. The user database points are held within an ASCII file with a
UDB extension. The directory where these files are stored is saved within the PROSPER.ini
file. This directory can be set using the Set user database Directory button which calls the
user Database Directory Dialog 465 .
Once created, the databases can be used via the Select Components Dialog 189 .

If any *.UDB files exist their names will be displayed in the combo box provided. If the file has
been created with user data, but the specific UDB file is not on the users machine the
components will be listed within the user area for identification but cannot be extended or
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reset to the original *.UDB values.

2.15.1

Creating a User Database

This dialog is called from the Database Menu. The dialog allows the user to create an empty
user database file (extension. UDB) and go on to add components via the database edit and
database import dialogs.
A typical display is shown above:
The procedure followed is as follows:
1. Enter the database name and either select
2. Exit and Save to create an empty file or
3. Edit DataBase to begin populating the file with components (see user Database: Edit
Dialog).
4. The Set user Database Directory button brings up the user Database: Directory
Dialog which sets up where the file will be stored.
See also
User Databases 463
Database Edit 466
Database Import 467
Selecting a Database Directory 465

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465

Selecting a User Database Directory

This dialog is called from the Select Components dialog 189 and from the various user database
screens. The dialog shown below allows the user to brows for a directory where the user
database files (extension. UDB) reside.
Selecting Browse will display a directory selection tree. When the selection has been made
click on OK to store the data within the PROSPER.ini file.
See also
User Databases 463
Database Create 464
Database Edit 466
Database Import 467

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Editing a User Database

His dialog is called from the Database Create Dialog 464 or from the Database Menu. The
feature allows the user to add or remove components from a user database. The properties
of each component can be adjusted manually or calculated. All the data is read from and
saved to an ASCII *.UDB file. A typical display is shown above.
The minimum amount of data required is a short name (16 characters), a long name (50
characters) and a molecular weight. The Fill in Values option will give reasonable values for
all missing data based on several criteria, starting with molecular weight. All fields can be
edited.
The main control fields are as follows:
User
Database
This allows the user to select the database to be edited. The Set user
Database Directory 465 button brings up the user Database: Directory Dialog
which sets up where the file is stored. This area also contains a field which
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indicates the version of database by giving when it was last edited


BPt.
Tc,Pc,Vc,
Omega
Exit and
Save
Cancel
Clear

These combo boxes allow the user to select which correlations are used to
determine the properties if required of the larger species within the database.
The same correlations are used within the Pseudo Properties Dialog 220
All changes are saved to the database file and the dialog is closed
All changes are ignored and the dialog is closed
All table entries are cleared

Fill In Values As indicated above this option allows the user to fill in any properties with reasonable
values based on the component's molecular weight etc.

Import
This option brings up the Database Import Dialog 467 . Within this display the
Components user can select components from any other user database or from the
Petroleum Experts database to import into the database being constructed.
The properties can then be adjusted within the edit database dialog
See also
User Databases 463
Database Create 464
Database Import 467
Selecting a Database Directory 465

2.15.4

Importing into User Database

From the Edit User Database section it is possible to import components from the existing
database by clicking on Import Components:

The selection dialog will be displayed:

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Within this display the user can select components from any other user database or from the
Petroleum Experts database to import 467 into the database being constructed. The
properties can then be adjusted within the Edit Database Dialog 466 .
A typical display would be as shown above.
The left hand area of the dialog allows the user to select any of the Petroleum Experts
components. To the right the user can call up any predefined user database and select
components for import. When all selections have been made click on Exit and Save to import
the values.
The Set user Database Directory 465 button brings up the user Database: Directory Dialog
which sets up where the file is stored.
See also:
User Databases 463
Database Create 464
Database Edit 466
Selecting a Database Directory 465

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Examples Guide

3.1

Examples Index

The following table can be used as reference for the example included in this Guide.
Application area

Topic

Fluid PVT Modelling /


PVT for Integrated
Systems

Quick step by step guide to build


EOS models for oil and condensate
Condensed Guide 473
fluid samples, export EOS or black
oil tables data to IPM and third party
simulators
Step by step guide to build EOS
models for oil and condensate fluid
samples, export EOS or black oil Step by Step Guide 475
tables data to IPM and third party
simulators
Step by step guide to generate a
consistent black oil model based on a Export Black Oil Data 513
matched EOS
Step by step guide to export the
Export EOS for IPM 521
EOS data to be used in IPM models
Step by step guide to import pseudo Procedure for Importing
components from another fluid EOS
Components from other
Fluid Matches 521
Step by step guide to perform the
Decontamination
decontamination of a downhole fluid
Procedure 525
sample starting from a PVT lab
report on the contaminated fluid
Building an EOS model for an oil fluid
sample, matching the EOS to lab
Example 1 535
report data, generating PVT black oil
tables for IPM and third party
simulators
Building an EOS model for a
retrograde condensate fluid sample,
Example 2 589
matching the EOS to lab report data,
performing hydrate formation study
and inhibitor calculations
Starting from a matched EOS,
creating a lumped composition using
Example 3 634
the Lumping/Delumping feature of
PVTP, then exporting the two full and

Fluid PVT Modelling /


PVT for Integrated
Systems

Fluid PVT Modelling

Fluid PVT Modelling


PVT for Integrated
Systems
Consistency of fluid
compositions

Fluid PVT Modelling

Fluid PVT Modelling /


Flow assurance

PVT for Integrated


Systems

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Consistency of fluid
compositions

lumped composition to IPM


Performing decontamination on a
downhole contaminated sample,
achieving an EOS characterization of
the original fluid knowing the
fingerprint of the drilling mud

471

Example 4 656

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Step by Step Guides

This section describes the steps which can by followed to characterize a fluid with the PVT
Package.
Note that this is only one of the possible routes followed, as in PVTP several other
paths can be followed by the more experienced users.
The steps followed here generates EOS with pure components untouched and volume shift
added (if necessary), therefore it is useful to achieve EOS that can be used in a process
simulator.
This help is available from the Help Menu on the main PVTP display.
See also
Condensed Guide 473
Step by Step Guide 475
Procedure for exporting Black Oil and EOS data 513
Procedure for importing components from other fluid characterisations 521
Decontamination Procedure 525

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473

Condensed Guide

General Matching Procedure in PVTP


The following steps can be followed once all the required quality controls (like Mass Balance)
have been performed on the lab report data.
0.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

9.
10.

11.

Enter the main program options introduce the Volume shift parameter by enabling it
in the main program options
Select Components (usually up to C6 and use a pseudo for the rest)
Enter Mole Percents
Use the Pseudo Props feature to enter the molecular weight and specific gravity of
the pseudo
Select the Density Method as Costald and use the Automatch button to regress on
the pseudo properties to get close to Costald densities
Just to be on the safe side, use the Quick Calc to do a flash to standard conditions
or a flash through separator stages and cross check GOR and densities from the
PVT report. This is to see what the program has matched the pseudo properties to
If the GOR and density do not match, the MW or specific gravity of the pseudo can
be changed by 5-10% to get close to the densities. Automatch every time to
preserve the match on the density at standard conditions.
Once a satisfactory match of the flash through separator stages is achieved, select
"Use Original Pseudo Props from Store", which will try and keep the existing
matching
Having checked the Automatch calculations, the phase envelope can now be created
from the Quick Calc again. Enter the Saturation pressure for a given temperature
from the report and see how far away the phase envelope is. If there is any
difference between the saturation pressure from the EOS and the test, later BI
coefficients will be used to make them consistent
From the Advanced Pseudo Splitting section select Whitson Method.
Access the Advanced section, then in the Preferences select the best property
databases. After that, change the Alpha factor and recalculate split until the
distribution of the pseudo components follows the trend as per composition (in case
this is not available, for example, if the C6 % was 2.5%, then the C7 component may
start from values slightly lower than 2.5%)
Select Split Number as 10 (or over) and then select Set Even Split to create the
pseudos. Automatch at the end
Use BI coefficients if necessary to increase the saturation pressure and match the
lab experimental saturation pressure. Care should be taken not to use the BI
coefficients too much since they can distort the phase envelope.
Use the Chevron model to calculate all the BI coefficients. If the model saturation
pressure is higher than the experimental, use the feature Set Max Value to and Set
Values to reduce the highest values and achieve the match of the saturation pressure
Enter lab data. Select the data to match using the Include/Exclude feature and set
the relative importance to the data to match using the weightings and Set Weighting

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12.

13.

PVTP

feature
Regress to get close to the match data. Set the mode to Tcs, Pcs, AFs with
Multiplier for each property. Regress on Pseudo components Tc and Pc, Volume
Shift and BI for all the pseudos
Verify the matching by performing with the EoS the various experiments from the lab
report to see how close the EOS is predicting the properties. If any of the
experimental data is not matched, add more weighting to it and regress again

See also
Step by Step Guides 472
Step by Step Guide 475
Procedure for exporting Black Oil and EOS data 513
Procedure for importing components from other fluid characterisations 521
Decontamination Procedure 525

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475

Step by Step Guide

This Step by Step Guide is designed for integrated systems where restrictions are placed on
what can be done as part of the matching process. Typically this would be multiple reservoirs
with varying fluids being connected through a GAP network to a process simulator such as
Hysys or Unisim.
Note that this is only one of the possible routes followed, as in PVTP several other
paths can be followed by the more experienced users.
The main characteristics of this procedure are:
Pure component properties cannot be used as match parameters. Process simulators, in
general, do not allow these components to be altered
All isomers e.g. nC4 and iC4 should be kept separate to allow identification and
separation in the process simulator
More pseudo components are used for all fluids. This gives more flexibility in pseudo
characterization and more component properties to match with. The surface simulation may
also require more heavy ends to model the separation processes effectively.
The Whitson Gamma distribution method for pseudo splitting will be used to modify the
pseudo components' distribution and reproduce the actual fluid distribution
Volume Shift will be required in many cases to produce an adequate match.
Hysys or Unisim use the Costald method of oil density estimation as default. This is
available within PVTp as a direct comparison to the calculated
Equation of State value.
The lack of a blending function within the surface simulator may require the build up of a
composition which contains all the pseudos within the gathering network. This optional step
which uses the component import facility is included in this guide.
The Steps followed are:
Step 1 476
Step 2 476
Step 3 479
Step 4 482
Step 5 484
Step 6 486

Create a New File


Select Equation of State and Volume Shift Options
Select Components
Enter Composition
Initialize the Pseudo Component Properties
Match the Surface Volumetric Properties (Density, GOR etc.) using the
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Step 7 490
Step 8 494
Step 9 498
Step 10 504
Step 11 508
Step 12 512

Automatch feature
Find the Pseudo Distribution (Whitson Alpha Factor) and Split the Pseudo
Use BI Coefficients to Improve Match on Saturation Pressure
Select Match Parameters
Use Regression to Match Fluid
Check and Refine the Fluid Characterisation
Calculate and Export

See also
Step by Step Guides 472
Condensed Guide 473
Procedure for exporting Black Oil and EOS data 513
Procedure for importing components from other fluid characterisations 521
Decontamination Procedure 525

3.2.2.1

Step 1: Create a New File

Create a new file by selecting the New command. from the File menu.
This can be done at any time.
3.2.2.2

Step 2: Select Equation of State and Other Options

Use menu item Options:

or use icon

The Options section is shown below:

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The program will default to the most commonly used combinations i.e.
1. Method set to Equations of State
2. Equation of State set to Peng Robinson
3. Volume Shift set to Yes
Clicking on OK is enough to move on to the next step
More detail on alternative entries is given in Options Help 168 .
If a different set of Units to Oilfield is used, access the Options/Units menu and select the
Units system from the drop-down menu, as shown below:

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At this point it would also be useful to set the regression preferences to avoid the accidental
use of Pure Component properties Tc and Pc. From the file menu select Preferences .....
Calculation Options.

This will bring up the preferences dialog 156 . Select the Regression tab to see the display

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shown below:

Select what parameters will be allowed. The chosen options can be saved as the default
values and will be selected for any new files created.

3.2.2.3

Step 3: Select Components

Use the Data|Select Components from List menu item

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or use icon

A typical display is shown below:

The important selections are:


1. Choose the required components by clicking on the names within the list box. Include all
isomers as they will be required by the surface simulation package.The number of
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components depends on the application and the information available within the PVT report.
The Reservoir or Wellstream analysis will contain a list of components up to C6, C10, C12,
Cxx etc. The plus fraction should have associated with it a Molecular Weight and a Specific
Gravity. This information is required to characterize the Pseudo Component(s) in Step 5
Normally, selecting up to C6 and having a C7+ pseudo is enough for all oils and most
condensates. C7,C8,C9 etc. are mixtures of components with the same carbon number and
should really be treated as pseudos. Identifying them as pure components will fix their
properties and reduce the number of variables that might be used in the match. If no
Molecular Weight and a Specific Gravity is available within the report a methodology is
outlined within the program help to estimate these values.
2. Enter the number of Pseudo Components (normally 1) and
3. Click on Enter Composition to proceed to next step
More detail on alternative entries is given in the help for Component Selection 189 .

3.2.2.3.1 Alternative composition entries


An alternative to this approach would be to paste the components directly from an electronic
report or spreadsheet using the Data|Enter Components as Table 193 menu option.

A typical display would be

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See the dialog help 193 for more details on the use of this feature.
3.2.2.4

Step 4: Enter Composition

Use Data|Enter Composition menu item

or use icon
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but normally the display is loaded using the

button on the Select Components page (Step 3 479 )


A typical display is shown below

Enter the composition in mole % from the Reservoir or Wellstream analysis for each
component (1) and pseudo component (2). A running total of the entries are displayed (3).
At this point reference data, especially the temperature at which the sample was taken,
should be entered in area (4). This temperature will be used to conduct the Saturation
Pressure calculations within Step 7

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When all entries are complete click on Pseudo Props. (5) to move on to the next step.
More detail on alternative entries is given in Enter Composition 203 Help.
3.2.2.5

Step 5: Initialise the Pseudo Component Properties

At least one pseudo component should have been identified in step 3 479 . After the pseudo
percentage(s) have been entered in step 4 , click on the Pseudo Props. button to display to
bring up the important Pseudo Properties 220 Display
The purpose of this step is to give the pseudo component(s) an initial set of properties.
A typical display is shown below:

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The pseudo is the greatest unknown within the composition and is always composed of a
mixture of many compounds with a wide variety of individual properties. It is therefore, not
surprising that the characterisation of these compounds is the key area of EOS PVT
matching.
The starting values for Tc, Pc , AF etc. are obtained from correlations.
Normally the PVT report will give SG and Molecular Weight information for the plus
component.
Enter the values in the table (1) and select Calc Values (3)
At this point the correlations (4) will calculate a Boiling Point and use this with SG and Mwt.
to fill in the other properties (2).
The default correlations are Petroleum Experts for BPt. and Twu/Edminster for Tc, Pc , AF.
The correlation can be changed by using the combo boxes in area (4)
NOTE : The properties of the pseudo(s) will only be recalculated if the Boiling Point value for
that pseudo is blanked out.
This is the result of the initial estimation:

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The Properties mode (5) should normally be set at Automatic. Manual mode assumes the
user will type in all the properties.
When the initial properties are in place, the User should move on to step 6 486 for further
pseudo characterisation.
More detail on alternative entries is given in Pseudo Properties.
Oil Density Correlation
The oil density method 116 can be changed to Costald at this point if the EOS will be used in a
process simulator (Hysys, Unisim). In instead the EOS is used in an upstream environment
(reservoir, wells, surface network), the Density Method can be left to the default StandingKatz.
Note that in general Standing-Katz and Costald give similar answer, both close to the real
density of liquid at standard conditions.
3.2.2.6

Step 6: Match the Surface Volumetric Properties (Density, GOR etc.) using
the Automatch feature

Automatching is the key to efficient fluid characterisation within the PVT Package
Background
The Equation of State model is not ,at present, predictive. This weakness leads to the need
for extensive fluid matching.
In addition, the model is particularly poor at estimating liquid densities.
The combination of these factors leads to an overall picture of an equation with many
variables ,many component properties and therefore many routes to matching a complex fluid
over a range of pressures and temperatures. If an efficient route is not taken, it can be very
difficult to resolve the overall picture especially with regard to reservoir and separator
densities.
Since all volumetric oil properties FVF GOR etc. are derived from density it is critical that this
area is accurately modelled.
What is Automatching
Within the PVT package two liquid densities 116 are calculated by two different methods. The
first is based on an empirical correlation from Standing and Katz or Costald. The second is
calculated from the Equation of State 91 liquid compressibility.
Experience has shown that the correlation value is always fairly close to the measured density
at surface conditions.
The Automatch process involves a series of flashes at 60 degrees F and 1 atm with an
adjustment to the pseudo properties after each flash. The aim is to bring the EOS density in
line with that calculated by the correlation. The boiling point (s) of the pseudo(s) are adjusted
after each iteration and the other properties recalculated using the new value.
Figure 1 illustrates the result of Automatch on a typical oil

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The effect of Automatching is to move the lower end of the phase envelope into a realistic
area giving close to the correct values for separator oil density GOR FVF etc.. The matching
of this area becomes minimal ,allowing the overall regression to move more smoothly to a
solution. In general, the top end of the phase envelope is little changed for oils during
Automatch . The process of finding the best Alpha factor described in Step 7 includes an
Automatch stage

3.2.2.6.1 Automatch
How to Automatch
Automatching is a very straightforward process. Enter the Pseudo Properties 220 dialog as
described in Step 5 484 .
A typical display would be :

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Simply select the density model to which the EoS oil density is to be compared (1), StandingKatz or Costald, and click on the Automatch button (2).

3.2.2.6.2 Initial QC
Once the Automatch has been used, it is possible to verify that the EOS is heading towards
the right direction by verifying for example the the access the Quick Calc and run the flash to
STD to through Separator Stages:

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And then Calc, enter the same separator stages' P and T conditions as in the lab report and
Calc again:

It is possible to compare the GOR and the Oil Density at the Standard Conditions stage.
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If the value are close enough (in the case above the density is 1% off, which is not bad as a
starting point, as well as the GOR is around 5% off the lab data, which is also not too far),
then one can go to the next step, otherwise one way to get a good starting point is to:
go back to the Pseudo Component entry screen, modify the Mw and/or the S.G of the
pseudo
Automatch again and
The-check with Quick Calc
This is because Mw and S.G. are properties that are affected by a certain tolerance. In any
case as a rule of thumb, one can set a maximum change of 10% to these parameters.
3.2.2.6.3 Store Pseudo
At the end, when the Quick Calc is considered satisfactory, go back to the Pseudo
Component Props screen and Store the pseudo component as it is now.
Store the pseudo component properties by clicking on Store (3).
Storing the Pseudo is important, as later, if necessary, it is possible to reset the Pseudo and
follow a different strategy to match the lab report.
Also, enable the option "Use Original Pseudo Props from Store 230 ". This will try and match
the liquid density at STD to the same Costald or Standing-Katz density determined on the
basis of the Stored pseudo component.
This option is useful to make sure to reproduce the same density at STD as the one that has
been found at the beginning of the matching process, no matter if the pseudo component is
split.
Storing the Pseudo is important, as later, if necessary, it is possible to reset the
Pseudo and follow a different strategy to match the lab report
3.2.2.7

Step 7: Find the Best Pseudo Distribution (Whitson Alpha Factor)_2

The aim of this step is to assist the package to smoothly get as close as possible to the fluid
saturation pressure and separator volumetrics without matching.
When Step 6 is complete the Pseudo Properties dialog will look like this:

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Select the Splitting Method to be Whitson (area 1) and click on the Advanced splitting button
(area 2).
Background to the Whitson method can be found in Pseudo Component Splitting within the
modeling section. The shape factor alpha offers many alternative shapes to the expanded
component distribution.
This will call the Advanced Splitting dialog as shown below:

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Select the databases for the Extended Properties as Whitson, as shown below:

After that, modify the Alpha factor and select Recalculate Split until the C7 % is such as to
follow the physical trend from the previous component C6.
For example, in this case the C6 molar percentage is 2.81%, hence the molar composition of
C7 should start from slightly below this value.
In this case a Alpha of 1.2 will give a composition of C7 of 2.6%, which is fine:

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NOTE: If in the report there is a detailed composition of the components from C7


onwards, then one can directly use that to determine the alpha factor that best
reproduces the trend of the components.
From the right hand side of the screen enter a number of pseudos equal to 10 (or more) and
select Set Even Split:

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Then Automatch. Check with Quick Calc the Flash Through Separator Stages to make sure
GOR and Oil Density at standard are reasonably reproduced (see Initial QC 488 ).

NOTE: The whole point of this initial adjustment is to come up to a Pseudo component
definition that drives the EOS towards the right direction. Therefore it is not important
to match all the properties perfectly at the beginning. In later stage the EOS will be fine
tuned to match the whole lab report.
When the check is complete click on Exit and Save within the Advanced Splitting dialog to
return to the Pseudo Properties dialog. Click on Exit and Save to return to the Enter
Composition dialog. Now proceed with Step 8 494 .

3.2.2.8

Step 8: Use BI Coefficients to improve the match

The aim of this step is to assist the package to smoothly find the reservoir fluid Saturation
Pressure. The aim is to use various techniques to get in the proximity (within 5%) of the
correct value. The regression mechanism can then be used to match the
value exactly.
When Step 7 is complete and the Pseudo Properties dialog is exited , the program will be
showing the Enter Composition dialog as shown below.

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From the Composition Input screen select BI Coeffs...:

Select the method of calculation for both Pure Components and Pseudos as the Chevron
method and select Calculate New Values:

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Check in Quick Calc the Phase Envelope. Enter Set Test Pts from the buttons available to
define the experimental saturation pressure (in this case 200 deg F, 2330 psig):

If the saturation pressure as per EOS exceeds the test data, like in the situation below:

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Then go back to the previous screen and set Set Max Value to a certain value and then Set
Values in order to reduce the highest values in the table (note that the BI between the C1 and
the heaviest components are the ones with the biggest effect) and match the saturation
pressure:

In the example a Max value of 0.03 was used and this is the predicted saturation pressure:

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After steps 7 and 8 the EOS is now reproducing separator experiment and saturation
pressure and is ready for the final matching.
See Binary Interaction Coefficients 216 Dialog for more detail on the options available.

3.2.2.9

Step 9: Select Match Parameters

Why Match?
The Equation of State model as a model is not predictive. Without matching, the equations will
work mathematically. Unfortunately, the results will, in many cases, diverge greatly from the
known characteristics of the fluid. Matching ties the model to real points in the PVT behaviour
of the fluid, giving the equations less freedom to drift into unrealistic areas.
NOTE
With the limitations of not using pure component properties in this route it may not be possible
to fully match all the important lab data. Engineering judgment may be required to guide the
program to the best match for the fluid within its application.
What is the minimum data to Match ?
An important principle to understand at this point is that the Equation of State does not
respect the fundamental law of conservation of mass. Figure 4 illustrates why this may be a
problem.

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Assume the example is a gas condensate. It is fairly straightforward to match the reservoir
conditions i.e. Zgas ,PSat, in isolation. This will give a model which works reliably in the match
area. However , the non-predictive nature of the EOS and its weakness towards material
balance means that this matching does not give valid results as the pressure changes rising
up the wellbore to separator conditions. Liquid dropout and Separator GOR etc. become very
suspect.
Similarly, the separator area can be well matched in isolation , but this model would not be
valid if used to predict reservoir properties.
Treating the areas separately essentially describes two different models for the same fluid.
The constant mass expansion going from well to surface cannot be resolved. The error this
approach causes can be very significant and will come out in many ways e.g. in the inability to
resolve reserves with production.
To avoid such problems we recommend that reservoir and separator matching must always
be done together Densities or density derived data must be included for reservoir and
surface to force a material balance on the system.
NOTE The EOS calculation initially calculates Zliquid and Zvapour. Densities are calculated
directly from the Zs. Matching Z matches density
The recommended minimum information to be used for matching is:

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OILS

Bubble Point pressure


A measure of density (oil density or Zliquid) at reservoir or
saturation pressure conditions
Some measure of Separator volumetric properties i.e. GOR or oil
FVF
A measure of density (oil density or Zliquid) at separator or
stock tank conditions

GAS
CONDENSATES

Dew Point pressure


A measure of density (gas density or Zvapour) at reservoir or
saturation pressure conditions
Some measure of Separator volumetric properties i.e. GOR or oil
FVF
A measure of condensate density (oil density or Zliquid) at
separator or stock tank conditions
Liquid Dropout (CCE or CVD) from reservoir pressure to
surface conditions

3.2.2.9.1 How is Match Data entered?


Click on Data|Enter Lab Data menu item

or use icon

This will bring up the match table dialog. This consists of a series of tables one for each
measurement/calculation.
Any cell can be filled in with data. Blanks are allowed where data is not available or
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unreliable.
Make sure all pressure steps are entered for SEP(Separator), CVD(Constant Volume
Depletion for gas condensate fluids) or Differential Liberation (for oils)
The figures below illustrate the data used for a real oil example.
Saturation Pressure

This information is reported usually separately in the report or in the CCE experiment data.
If it exists, it is better to enter a density at saturation pressure in this table.
CCE - Oil viscosity and density

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The oil viscosity and density have been entered. Note that the viscosity is kept as such (the
viscosity points reproduce the viscosity profile with pressure), whilst for the time being the Oil
Density values have been Excluded, as a value of the density of oil at saturation pressure is
already included in PSAT.
To Exclude point, select the corresponding cells and select Exclude. In the same way,
weighting cab be defined (select the cell, select the value of the weighting and click on Set
Weighting).
Separator GOR and Stock Tank Oil Density

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Note that all separator stages have been included as the final oil density depends on the path
to Stock Tank conditions.. With multiple stage separators it is best to match first on the main
stage.In the case above the GOR from the second stage has been excluded.
Note that the GOR from the 1st stage has been set to a medium Weighting, as the GOR as
property is affected by a bigger measurement uncertainty.
When GOR numbers are much smaller in the subsequent stages, it is unlikely that these
values are as accurate. We suggest to exclude them of that a lower weighting. eg. 3 is given
to these numbers. see help on Match Data Tables for Weighting and Inclusion/Exclusion.
When all entries are complete click on OK to move on to the next step.
More detail on alternative entries is given in Match Data Tables 267
NOTE on gas retrograde samples:
CCE or CVD Liquid Dropout
One important parameter characterizing gas condensate fluids is the Liquid Dropout, coming
from CCE and/or CVD experiments.

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The CVD process also includes all stages including the start point at the saturation pressure
value. Missing out any stage will alter the values for all stages below it. The CVD dropout
curve should only be modeled if the values have been experimentally determined. Be aware
that many recent values are the result of a modeling process with the errors that may involve.
NOTE: for CCE dropout the values expected are relative to the volume at step not the
volume at reservoir volume . Most PVT reports give dropout relative to reservoir. To convert
the values divide the dropout figure by the relative volume at each pressure step.
The alternative is to match on the PSAT liquid dropout and the relative volume. It is our
experience that the latter course is more difficult and does not produce the same quality of
match.
There are many ways to approach dropout matching and no best way to do it. One thing to
keep in mind is that the values are not as accurately measured as density or saturation
pressure. For that reason the values should all be given a lower weighting e.g. 3. This
prevents important numbers like PSAT moving to help dropout to match. It is also better not
to start with all values included in the match. Give the program 2 or 3 representative points,
match to them and view the result. If required include more points until a reasonable match is
produced. See help on Match Data Tables 267 for Weighting and Inclusion/Exclusion
3.2.2.10 Step 10: Use Regression to Match Fluid
Click on Data|Regression menu item

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or use icon

Regression is a two stage process. In the first, the user must select which calculations should
be matched.
Selecting regression brings up the dialog illustrated below:

Each column within the match table (Step 9 498 ) has an equivalent checkbox within this dialog.
Note that the Data Match Model is set to Tcs and Pcs with Multiplier on Each Property.
This mode ensures the physical trend of the properties is preserved.
It is recommended that all calculations with the exception of any liquid dropout or GRAD
variables should be selected at once.
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The total selected is displayed (area 1) Every calculation can be given a high , medium or low
weighting which changes its contribution to the overall error (area 2).
In the case above, the GOR from separator has been set to Medium Weighting.
Unless the match value is suspect or of lower accuracy , the weighting should be left as high.
When the calculations have been selected, click on Regress... (area 3) to move on to the
next stage
See Regression Match Data Help for details on alternative selections.
The next stage is to select the parameters to be used during regression.
A typical Regression Parameter dialog is shown below :

Generalising a regression strategy is difficult, however the tool allows to follow different paths
to achieve a realistic matching.
Initially select all the pseudo Pcs, Tcs and all the components' volume shift. In addition, select
the matching of the binary interaction coefficients applying the same multiplier to all pseudos.
See also What Properties to Use in Regression and Matching Viscosities 498 for more
information.
Click on Regress to initiate the matching calculations. The process stops when a maximum
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number of steps has been passed or the error term CHI falls to below 1e-09.The process can
be restated if not enough steps have been taken.
See Regression for more information on options and strategies.
When the first round regression has been completed more variables can be added and the
process repeated.
The steps to follow are:
Regress
Validate the EOS by running all the experiment available with the matched EOS.
If necessary, it is possible to add more parameters to the Regression, regress, and so on
At the end of the regression it is possible to view the parameters of the EOS and to Plot the
Tcs and Pcs:

To view the plots, select Plot and then in the Variables menu in the Plot area select Critical
Pressure and Critical Temperature:

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If after the validation the matching to the lab report data is not satisfactory, add more
parameters to the regression, or start again from step 5 484 defining a higher number of
pseudos, and re-start the process.

3.2.2.11 Step 11: Check and Refine the Fluid Characterisation


It is important to check and refine the model of the system.
Use the calculation menu options to check the values produced for the match parameters. In
addition , other non-matched parameters should be calculated and compared with the PVT
report values to test the validity of the model.
For example, to verify the oil density from CCE run the CCE experiment in the same
Temperature and Pressure conditions as the lab tests:

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Calculate and Plot. Each variable can be selected from the Variables menu in the Plot area:

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The same can be done for the saturation pressure and the separator experiment.
PSAT calculation:

Separator calculation:
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The validation above can be used to ensure that EOS matches properly the most
important PVT properties.
Again, if a satisfactory matching is not achieved, various paths can be adopted:
Selecting differently the properties used for the matching
Going back to Step 5 484 and selecting a higher number of pseudos
Repeating the matching process and including the volume shift for the pure
components in the regression
If an oil or condensate does not readily match using the method outlined here , our experience
has been that in many cases detailed investigation of the reported data has shown an
inconsistency. The error normally lies in the area of sampling and handling .
Compositional Gradient
Matching a compositional gradient 113 to fix a pressure or other variable with depth can be
done See Match Data Tables 267 for more information. This calculation is very important if a
significant gradient is anticipated or if there is a gas - oil contact within the reservoir If
modeling is to be done successfully, it is recommended that at least two sampled points
should be available within the oil leg.
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The reason for this suggestion is that the gradient is a function of fluid density The variability in
oil density with depth may not be well enough characterised with only one match point
Splitting can Help Compositional Gradient Matching
If matching a gradient becomes problematic, it is recommended that the Pseudo Splitting 220
function should be tried. The Compositional Gradient calculation is done on the basis of a
component's Molecular Weight. For the pseudos ,the individual species which will make up the
component are changing with depth. This should be represented as a change in pseudo
make-up and therefore Molecular Weight with depth. At present, however, within PVTP, the
pseudo is represented as having a fixed composition with depth. Splitting allows the program
to manipulate the new pseudos via their relative compositions to achieve the Molecular Weight
change.
3.2.2.12 Step 12: Calculate and Export
Characterising a fluid is not normally an end in itself. The aim is to make use of the model
produced in a way that helps us to understand and predict the effect of the fluid's PVT on all
aspects of its processing.
The main uses include:
Calculating values not covered by well tests or laboratory measurements. Use the
calculation menu options to carry out any of the many calculation options available with the
PVT package.
Utilizing Phase Envelope function to visualize the behaviour of the fluid over a wide range of
temperatures and pressures
Export the matched composition to the other IPM programs for compositional nodal
analysis (see Export Help)
Calculation of Black Oil properties which can by exported to Prosper ,MBAL etc. in the
form of Black Oil Tables. This is particularly important for characterizing condensates.(see
Export/Black Oil Tables)
Use Gravitational Gradient to understand the changes of phase and composition with
depth within a reservoir. This can in many cases explain what sometimes seems the
unnatural behaviour of complex reservoirs. Connection between wells can be confirmed.
Peculiar changes in GOR etc. with production can be explained. If the PVT of a reservoir is
understood , everything else becomes clearer.
Use Solids Calculation to predict the formation of hydrates and waxes from the matched
fluid.
Use the Extract function to sample the composition of the oil or gas which results from a
process change (separator calculation) , reservoir depletion (CVD, DIFF or DEPL) or
change of depth (GRAD)

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Procedure for exporting Black Oil and EOS data

This section will show how to export both Black Oil and Compositional data to IPM or to third
party.
Step by Step Guides 472
Condensed Guide 473
Step by Step Guide 475
Procedure for exporting Black Oil and EOS data 513
Procedure for importing components from other fluid characterisations 521
Decontamination Procedure 525

It is only possible to export black oil data in Eclipse file format for
instance from a characterized EOS. The black oil calculator can
be used if desired to calculate black oil properties for a given
range of pressures and temperatures.
3.2.3.1

Export Black Oil Data

When defining a black oil model in IPM (PROSPER, MBAL, GAP, REVEAL), two sets of data
are required:
1. Black Oil Input
These are the basic input data required by the black oil model in form of gas gravity, oil
gravity and GOR (or CGR), which are determined by flashing the fluid down to standard
conditions through separator train. This train defines the "path" to standard conditions used to
express the standard volumes (rates).
The meaning of the PVT input properties for a black oil model is illustrated in the following
figure and in the comments below:

Where:
i = specific gas gravities

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oilST = oil gravity


GORi=(Volume of gas @ STD at stage i) / QoilST
Total GOR: GORtot = GORsep + GORST
The average specific gravity is given by:

The oil gravity is by definition the ratio between the density of the oil and the water both at
STD.
The Impurities correspond to the mole % of CO2, N2 and H2S in the gas liberated in the
process shown above.
The formula above can be used to reduce a train of n separators to an equivalent one stage.

2. Black Oil Tables


These are table(s) of black oil properties (for example, bubble point solution GOR, oil FVF, oil
density for oil). Each table refers to one temperature and it contains a the variation of PVT
properties with pressure.
The tables are obtained by running a flash experiment (CCE) corrected by the separator train
used to determine the basic inputs.
The tables can be used as match data for the analytical black oil correlations or used as such
as Tables in IPM.
3.2.3.1.1 Export Black Oil Input data
As mentioned above, these data are determined by flashing the fluid to standard conditions
through a separator train.
To determine the black oil input data in PVTP one can run a separator experiment calculation
or, simply access the menu Data / View Properties or the button

located in the main screen of PVTP. After that at the top right corner select the button BOil
Properties as shown below:

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This will access the Black Oil Properties screen, which allows the user to read the basic input
data for the black oil model:

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These values can be then entered in IPM (PROSPER, MBAL, GAP, REVEAL) as input data for
the black oil model.
At the bottom of the screen one can enter the separator train used as path to standard. Press
Calc to re-calculate the properties.
With regards to the gas impurities, access the More button and read directly the molar
fraction of the impurities in the accumulated gas stream:

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3.2.3.1.2 Export Black Oil Tables for IPM


The Black Oil tables for Petroleum Experts IPM Suite are generated by going to File | Export
from the main menu. This will result in the following dialog screen to appear:

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On this screen select the Export File Type 4 and hit OK. This takes to the next screen, where
the table pressures and temperature is defined as shown below:

In this screen enter the Temperature and a profile of Pressure.

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The CCE simulation experiment can also be copied in the table to


be exported by clicking on Copy CCE button shown on the screen.
up to 10 tables for different temperatures can be defined
The saturation pressure will be calculated automatically.

As the table contains GOR and oil FVF information as well, the user needs to define a
separator train for this case consistent with the path to STD chosen as reference.
In this example the same separator train as see above 579 . To do so on the above screen, click
on Separator conditions and select Use separator train then click on the Set up button to
specify the separator conditions:

On this screen enter the separator scheme. Once this is done click on OK and this takes back
to the Export screen shown below. On this hit Calc. Table button. If more than one table is
selected for export, hit Calc. all. This populates the table with PVT data as shown below.
Once the table is filled, on the right hand side press MBAL select (this format is used by
MBAL and REVEAL, otherwise select PROSPER if the data are to exported to PROSPER).
This selects the columns to be exported.

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On this click on Export and it will come up with the following dialog:

On this screen select All Tables. Click on Export and it takes to the following screen, where
we can save a *.ptb file, which can be read by Petroleum Experts applications.

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The .ptb file can be then imported in the Match data sections of PROSPER, MBAL or
REVEAL using the devoted Import functions.

3.2.3.2

Export EOS for IPM

To export EOS compositional data to Petroleum Experts IPM Suite access the menu FIle/
Export and select the first option: IPM EoS Composition.
This will prompt the saving of the .PRP file, which is an ASCII file that contains the
composition and the components' properties used by the EOS.

Enter the name for the file and save it as a *.prp file which can be imported directly into any of
the programs of the IPM Suite.

3.2.4

Procedure for Importing Components from other Fluid Matches

A simple integrated model is shown below:

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The options available for the pseudos within this system are:
1) To keep them the same
2) To blend them
3) To keep them separate
If 3) is the desired option it is necessary to produce compositions which look like those below

The matched composition A contains pseudos from B and vice versa. The imported
components are initially set to zero and gain value as the fluids mix within the network. This
effect can be easily achieved by using the Composition Editor 208 Import function.
The display which is used for composition editing is shown below. This screen can be called
by clicking on the Composition Editor option within the Data menu:

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Click on Import Component(s) to bring up the dialog below:

Components may be imported from a stream within this file or from any PVTP file.
Select the source from the top list box. The user can then choose to select from any
component within the stream or only from the pseudo components. If the latter option is
selected, the Component Import Select 214 dialog will be loaded with all pseudos selected.

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This dialog is called from the Composition Editor 208 import component option. The example
shown has been selected as all pseudos from the Component Import 214 dialog. Components
can be selected by clicking on the name within the list box or on the line numbers within the
table. A label can be used to identify the source of the component. This can be added as a
prefix or suffix. When the selections have been made click on the Import button to return to
the composition editor dialog.
See also
Step by Step Guides 472
Condensed Guide 473
Step by Step Guide 475
Procedure for exporting Black Oil and EOS data 513
Decontamination Procedure 525

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Decontamination Procedure

This procedure represents one way of decontaminating a sample. It may not be applicable to
all situations and the results cannot be guaranteed. The flexibility of the program also allows
other paths to a solution to be followed.
The object of this exercise is to identify the effects of a contaminant within a fluid and to
remove this contamination in a controlled manner.
What should be available is
the characteristics of the contaminated fluid i.e. a PVT report
an extended analysis of the contaminated fluid and
an estimate of what the fluid composition would be without the contaminant
This example is in the samples directory under:
...\samples\pvtp/samples/PVTP/decontamination_final.pvi
The starting point (unmatched EOS) is under:
...\samples\pvtp/samples/PVTP/decontamination_start.pvi
STEP by STEP
The procedure consists of matching to the known characteristics with a split history which
reflects the addition of the contaminant.
This is done by using the Split Profile feature.
Matching gives the properties of the pseudo components and the split history identifies how
they were put together.
In the decontamination display the program breaks the matched fluid back down into the many
split parts along with compositions and properties associated with each part.
The user can then set the compositions to that of the uncontaminated fluid. When this is done
the program adjusts the compositions and properties to reflect the change and recombines
the split parts to workable pseudo components.
This new working composition can be used to generate data for an uncontaminated model.
STEP 1. Follow the Step by Step Guide until step 6 486 . A single C7+ pseudo component
should be sufficient for most fluids.

STEP 2. Enter the pseudo component MWt and SG. within the Pseudo Properties page
and click on the Advanced button within the Split/Profile area at the bottom of the display.

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STEP 3. Within the Advanced Splitting Dialog tick the box Follow Profile method using the
combo box provided above the table. Click on the Setup Split Profile button.

STEP 4. Within the Split Profile Dialog enter the detailed composition of the contaminated
fluid. Only the areas of strong contamination are required. The program will fill in the rest
with a standard distribution (for example, Whitson). Click on Exit and Save.

STEP 5. Back within the Advanced Splitting dialog click on Recalculate Split to implement
the profile.
STEP 6. Complete these operations and verify the new distribution by selecting Plot:

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This allows to verify the components' distribution:

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STEP 7. The Stream now contains a set of partly matched pseudo components with a full
history of how they were put together. Continue to fully match this fluid as described in the
Step by Step Guide (from step 7 490 onward keeping the option Follow Profile on).
STEP 8. When fully matched, select Decontaminate from the Data menu. This brings up
the Decontamination Control Dialog.

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Two are the possible routes to carry out the decontamination:


Route 1 530 . Entering directly the correct reservoir fluid composition
Route 2 532 . Entering the contaminant composition and using it to decontaminate the
sample
See also
Step by Step Guides 472
Condensed Guide 473
Step by Step Guide 475
Procedure for exporting Black Oil and EOS data 513
Procedure for importing components from other fluid characterisations 521

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Decontamination Route 1: entering directly the correct composition

The compositions presented are based on the split history of stream. This will contain the
profile created in Step 4. Click on Plot to view the component
distribution. the properties of the expanded pseudos are derived form the matched pseudos.
they therefore contain a measure of the effect of each
expanded component on the overall characteristics of the fluid.
STEP 9. Enter the estimated values for the composition of the un-contaminated fluid in the
New Mole% column.

This can be derived from the amount and composition of the contaminant and the original
composition of the contaminated sample. Only the area of obvious contamination needs to
be entered. Click on Plot to view the results. Click on the Quick Look button to view the
effects of these entries. this option creates a temporary stream containing the
decontaminated fluid.
STEP 10. To complete the decontamination process click on Decontaminate. The Output
Selection Dialog which appears allows to select between using the existing stream or
creating a new one. It would normally be better to create a new version as it allows the
starting point to be kept for comparison and future reference.

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STEP 11. On returning to the Decontamination Control Dialog the display will contain
information on the results of the decontamination.
The decontamination calculation proceeds as follows:
The individual component mole percents are set equal to the New Mole% values , where
defined.
The remaining component mole percents are adjusted to make up the 100% total and to
follow the trend of the original values.
The new full composition appears as the Cald. %.
The Calcd% are used in conjunction with the initial properties to generate a new set of
properties for each component and a combined version for each of the pseudo
components. The pseudo component start and end values can be seen by clicking on the
View/Change button.

The trend in the individual compositions can be seen by using the Plot button.

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STEP 12. The decontamination procedure is now complete. Click on Exit and Save and
then File|Save to store the results.
STEP 13. An effort should be made to confirm the accuracy of the fluid model against any
other known properties of the reservoir fluid eg. field separator data when it becomes
available or the reservoir fluid density from RFT measurements.
3.2.5.2

Decontamination Route 2: using the contaminant compositions

The compositions presented are based on the split history of stream. This will contain the
profile created in Step 4. Click on Plot to view the component
distribution. the properties of the expanded pseudos are derived form the matched pseudos.
they therefore contain a measure of the effect of each
expanded component on the overall characteristics of the fluid.
STEP 9. Select the Mode Use Contaminant Composition and then :
- Select the Start and End C of the contaminant distribution and select Setup Table
- Enter the composition of the contaminant fluid in the Wt% or Mole% column (in the case
of this example the weight % is entered)
- Enter the Contaminant MWt and Weight % of contaminant in fluid
- Select Calc moles and then Remove Contaminant

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Click on the Quick Look button to view the effects of these entries. this option creates a
temporary stream containing the decontaminated fluid.
STEP 10. To complete the decontamination process click on Decontaminate. The Output
Selection Dialog which appears allows to select between using the existing stream or
creating a new one. It would normally be better to create a new version as it allows the
starting point to be kept for comparison and future reference.

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STEP 11. On returning to the Decontamination Control Dialog the display will contain
information on the results of the decontamination.
The pseudo component start and end values can be seen by clicking on the View/Change
button.

The trend in the individual compositions can be seen by using the Plot button.

STEP 12. The decontamination procedure is now complete. Click on Exit and Save and
then File|Save to store the results.
STEP 13. An effort should be made to confirm the accuracy of the fluid model against any
other known properties of the reservoir fluid eg. field separator data when it becomes
available or the reservoir fluid density from RFT measurements.

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Worked Examples
Example 1 - EOS Calibration of an Oil Sample

The following example shows how PVTP can help the Engineer to build and quality check an
Equation of State PVt model of an oil fluid sample.

3.3.1.1

Objectives

A full lab analysis has been carried out on a recombined oil sample and a lab report is
available for the fluid.
The objective is to use the PVT Package to build an equation of state (EOS) model for an oil
sample.
Learning topics
To familiarise the user with building EOS models in PVTP.
To use PVTP to calibrate the EOS models to measured laboratory experiments.
To generate PVT tables for various applications.
Executive Summary
This example will take the user through the following steps:
1. Validate the PVT report
How to check the lab data honour Mass Balance
2. Build and calibrate an EOS Model
How to set up a PVTP model
How to enter the composition of the fluid
How to characterise the heavy ends
How to match the saturation pressure
How to match the separator results
How to match the density measured at reservoir condition (saturation pressure) - Use of
Volume Shift
3. Use PVTP to Generate tables
How to generate black oil tables for MBAL and PROSPER
How to generate black oil tables for Eclipse
How to generate the EOS input data for IPM (MBAL, PROSPER, GAP, REVEAL, RESOLVE
)
This example is in the samples directory under:
...\samples\pvtp/samples/PVTP/Example1_Oil_sample.pvi
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See also
Condensed Guide 473
Step by Step Guides 472

3.3.1.2

Data Available

The sampling was carried out in the field by means of a test separator. Bottles containing gas
and liquid were taken and sent to the lab for further analysis.
The oil and gas were recombined physically in the lab to reproduce the measured producing
GOR. Then the recombined sample underwent a complete set of lab experiments, herewith
reported:

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Initialise PVTp and set Units

The first objective is to initialise the program and set the correct Units system.
Step 1. New File
In PVTP start from a new file by selecting the menu File/New

Step 2. Main Options


The first section that needs to be defined is the Options. This can be done be selecting | O
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ptions | Options and then ensure that the Peng Robinson EOS is chosen and the Volume Shift
enabled:

Step 3. Set the Units


The pressure in the report is given in psia units. The default Units System in PVTP is Oilfield
Units, which uses psig as units for pressure.
Access the Units menu under Options/Units and modify the units for the Pressure parameter,
as shown below:

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ii)

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A completely different Unit System can be selected by clicking on the grey


box where by default the "Oilfield" system is chosen. This will drop down a
menu with the other unit systems available.
The units of a particular variable within a unit system can be changed by
clicking on the unit next to it and selecting a new unit from the list that is
displayed.
Validate the PVT report

A first check that can be performed on the lab data is to make sure they honor mass balance.
This is because the EOS as a model is a relationship between P, V and T and is not based on
mass balance, therefore mass balance has to be inferred in the EOS through matching. In
other words, the EOS has to be matched to lab data that respect the mass balance.
If the report is consistent, one kilogram of fluid at the saturation condition should give one
kilogram of oil plus gas at the surface condition, considering the separator path described in
the report.
The objective is to validate the PVT report Black Oil data, by checking the mass balance and
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to achieve that the Mass Balance Calculator 454 Utility in PVTP will be used.
3.3.1.4.1 Run Mass Balance Calculator
At this point it is possible to perform the mass balance QC of the report data
Step 1. Access the Mass Balance Calculator
Select the Mass Balance Calculator tool:

Step 2. Enter data


Enter the reservoir PVT properties as well as the separator train and stock tank PVT
properties, as given in the report:

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Notes:
- In the Reservoir section enter the density at saturation and the oil FVF at saturation. These
two will give the mass downhole per STB of oil at surface.
Note that in the Reservoir field theoretically one could enter density and oil FVF (from flash) at
any conditions above the bubble point. However, in reality only the oil FVF at saturation is
explicitly reported.
- In the Separator Train section all the separator stages before the last Standard Condition
(STD) stage should be entered
- In the Stock Tank section the data concerning the Standard Condition stage should be
entered. Note that in the case of this sample no gas is liberated at STD, therefore 0 GOR is
entered. The Gas Gravity has no effect, as no gas is present, therefore any value can be
entered here.

Step 3. Calculate
Click the "Calc" button to compute the mass balance. The "% Difference" reported on the right
of the screen (highlighted in the figure above) reflects the difference between the mass of the
fluid at reservoir condition and the mass of the oil and gas that evolved out of it at surface
condition.
The difference is around 0.03%, which is acceptable. This validates the PVT report.
Note:
In the QC was not passed, then the lab would need to be contacted in order to shed light on
the reason of the mass discrepancy.
Mass Balance Calculator 454
3.3.1.5

Build and Calibrate the EOS

3.3.1.5.1 Enter Composition and define the Pseudo


Step 1. Select the components
In order to select the components to be used in the EOS, click on "Data| Select Components
From a List" as shown below.

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To select components in the screen shown below click on the desired components. The
selected ones will be highlighted. Once finished the pure component selection, enter the
number of pseudo-components in the top right hand corner of the screen (highlighted below).
Then select Enter Composition.

i)

The user can un-select any selected component by clicking on it


again.

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The characterisation can begin with one pseudo, which will be split
later if necessary.

It is common practice to define the components up to a certain carbon


number (usually C6) and then lumping together all the heavy end in one
pseudo component. This is because the higher the number of carbons
the higher the uncertainty on the exact composition under each single
carbon number family.
Step 2. Entering the fluid composition and reference data
On the previous screen once defined the components, hit on Enter Composition which will
bring up the following screen, where the compositions are entered as shown:

On the right of this screen, the reservoir conditions i.e., pressure temperature and depth at
which the sample is taken is also entered.

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The data can be entered by hand or copied/pasted from an external


source by using the combination CTRL+C to copy and CTRL+V to
paste in PVTP
Step 3. Define the Pseudo-Component
The next step is characterising the C7+ component by clicking on the "Pseudo Props" button of
the above screen. This will bring up the following screen, whereby the specific gravity and
molecular weight of the C7+ component can be entered.

The specific gravity entered here is 0.858 and the molecular weight is 228. It is possible to
use this information and some correlations (Petroleum Experts for Boiling Point and TWU/
Edmister for Tc. Pc, Vc and omega) to determine the remaining properties of the Pseudo
Component.
This is achieved by using the Calc Values 227 button. The result of this is that the properties
Tc. Pc, etc. of the Pseudo component are populated:

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Step 4. Automatch
The "Auto Match" button can be used to modify the Pseudo component properties and
regress on them in order to match the density at standard conditions from either Standing
Katz or Costald (selected in the Density Method). The EOS will not predict the right densities
on its own at standard conditions so by matching it to correlations ensures a good start to the
matching process.
In the case of this example the EOS will have to be suitable to a process simulation
tool, that is why the Costald correlation will be selected.
i)

Experience has shown that the liquid densities predicted by Standing and Katz or
Costald methods are fairly close to the measured density under atmospheric
conditions, as these methods are based on the conservation of mass.

ii)

During Auto Match, we iterate on the Heavy end parameters until the EOS
predicted density at surface is equal to the Standing and Katz density calculated
at surface.

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This usually provides a good starting point for calibrating the EOS models further.

The results of the Automatch are reported below:

Step 5. First QC of the EOS


It is now possible to verify whether the EOS is heading towards the right direction by
comparing its results to the lab report data.
To do so from the above screen, hit the Quick Calc button.
This utility allows to compare various properties: saturation pressure, flash to STD, or flash
through Separator Stages.

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Select the Saturation pressure and Calc:

The lab report saturation pressure is 3540 psia. As the EOS is giving a lower saturation
pressure, it is possible to get closer to the saturation pressure by splitting the pseudo
component or adding BI coefficients. In the next steps this will be done by using the Whitson
Advanced Splitting Method 238 and the BI coefficient.
The same indication can be obtained by running the Phase Envelope calculation.
Hit on Calc. On the phase envelope screen popping up, select the "Set Test Pts." button to
enter the saturation pressure.

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Then in the Phase Envelope plot click on Expand Plot:

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The Phase Envelope is used here only for


qualitatively check the saturation pressure with
respect to the saturation pressure predicted by the
EOS. Note that the objective here is to match the
only available saturation pressure point and not the
Phase envelope.
After that, depending on the flash to STD data available, run the Quick Calc for Flash to STD
or through Separator Stages.
In this case the data available concern separator experiment.
Enter the separator train P and T conditions and Calc:

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Comparing these results with the lab report 536 , it is possible to see that the GOR and the Oil
Density at STD are very close.
The objective of this first part of the EOS matching is to get an EOS close enough to the real
fluid in order to reduce the amount of regression necessary later. Therefore, even larger
differences in the GOR and density obtained can be acceptable at this stage.
Howewer, if a tighter match is desired:
go back to the Pseudo Component entry screen, modify the Mw and/or the S.G of the
pseudo
Automatch again and
The-check with Quick Calc and repeat the process until the GOR and oil density are
closely matched.
Once a satisfactory separator test is achieved, Store the pseudo component properties by
clicking on Store in the Pseudo Component screen.
Also, enable the option "Use Original Pseudo Props from Store 230 ". This will try and match
the liquid density at STD to the same Costald or Standing-Katz density determined on the
basis of the Stored pseudo component.
Storing the Pseudo is important, as later, if necessary, it is possible to reset the
Pseudo and follow a different strategy to match the lab report.
This is the Pseudo Component set up after these initial steps.

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3.3.1.5.2 Splitting the Pseudo Component


During the first QC 546 it was noted that in order to get the EOS to match more closely the
Saturation Pressure the Pseudo need to be split.
This can be achieved by applying the Whitson Advanced Pseudo Splitting Method.
The Whitson 238 methodology consists of determining a distribution for the Pseudo component
such as to get the EoS closer to the final matching.
Step 1. Select Whitson Method
From the Split/Profile section select Whitson and then Advanced:

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Step 2. Set Split Preferences


In the Advanced Splitting section select the Whitson Extended Properties databases:

Step 3. Select the Whitson Alpha factor


As mentioned above, the objective of this feature is to come up to a definition of the Pseudo
component composition in order to have an EOS that closely match the lab data.
In the Advanced Pseudo Splitting 552 screen modify the value of the alpha factor and select
Recalculate Split in order to make sure that the distribution of the C7+ follows the trend from
the C6:

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In the case of this example the % of C6 is 2.23%. By entering Alpha equal to 1.2 will get the
C7 % slightly less than the % of C6, making sure to follow the trend of molar percent.
If the detailed composition is available in the PVT report, one could modify the Alpha factor in
order to reproduce the actual components' variation.
The selection of the best solution is based on judgement.

Step 4. Select the number of splits


On the right-hand side of the Advanced Pseudo Splitting screen enter a number of splits equal
to 10 and select Set Even Splits:
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After that select Exit and Save and Automatch. This is the situation at the moment:

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Step 5. QC with Quick Calc


Repeat the check with Quick Calc as seen in the previous step 546 to verify the EOS is on the
right track.
Saturation Pressure:

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The saturation pressure is still below target, which means that BI coefficients will have to be
used.
It is possible to verify that a close matching is achieved instead for the separator train
experiment.
Flash Through Separator Stages experiment:

If this was not satisfactory, the Pseudo needs to be Restored and the Splitting repeated.
Step 6. Add BI coefficients
Come back to the Pseudo Component screen and select Exit and Save to get back to the
Composition Input area.

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Select BI Coeffs, make use the Chevron Method is selected and then Calc Values:

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After that, check with Quick Calc the Phase envelope to verify the match on the only
saturation pressure available:

The match is pretty good. One can also verify that the separator train experiment is fine
again.
At this point it is possible validate with Exit and Save and pass to the next stage of
matching.
Save the PVTP file as Example1_Oil_Sample.pvi
Pseudo Properties Dialog 220
Advanced Splitting 233
Split Profile Dialog 245
Step by Step Guide 472
Pseudo Component Splitting 119
3.3.1.5.3 Enter and select data to match
The first part of the matching process had as objective to achieve a better definition of the
Pseudo component (heavy end) by splitting it and changing its components' distribution and
making sure that the overall EOS reproduces basic properties like PSAT and separator GOR
and oil density at STD.
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The next step is to make sure that all the other important properties included in the lab report
are matched and to achieve that the EOS parameters Tc and Pc of the pseudo components,
BI coefficients and eventually volume shift will be regressed upon.
The next steps are:

Step 1. Entering the measured data


The first step is entering the measured laboratory data. This can be done by going to Data |
Enter Lab Data from the main PVT screen:

A series of tab screens will be displayed, where the data concerning each experiment can be
entered.
With regards to the lab data to enter, refer to the lab report in the Data Available 536 section.
Enter the known data in the relevant sections as shown:

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PSAT contains the information about the saturation pressure and density of the oil at
saturation. In this case the data concerning PSAT will come from the CCE report data.
To enter the CCE click on the CCE tab that appears on the screen shown above and this
takes to the next screen, where the data is entered.

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Similarly enter the separator experiment data under SEP tab in the lab data screen as shown
(only the GORs and oil density are entered):

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Step 2.Selecting the Data to match to


It is important, at least in the first phase of the matching, to regress on only the minimum
necessary set of parameters.
The minimum set of data to match against are described in the Step by Step Guide, Step 9 498 .
Once the data is entered, select the data points that will be used in calibration. This can be
achieved by using the Include/Exclude and the Weighting features in the Match Data screen.
According to the Step by Step Guide, the minimum set of data required are:
Saturation Pressure
Density at saturation
GOR from separator
Density of oil at Standard Conditions
Viscosity (from CCE)
The first step to take is to disable some data points in CCE measurements. To do so in the
Match Data section select the CCE data tab as shown.
On this select the column of oil density and oil FVF by holding the down the mouse and
dragging across the cells to disable. This selects the cells. Once the cells are selected, click
on Exclude. This disables the data, i.e. the data will not be used for matching.

The properties are then greyed-out, sign that they have been excluded.

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The same is done for the GOR measured at the second stage separator and stock tank
conditions. Also for the GOR from the first stage can be set to a lower weighting by selecting
the cell containing the value of the GOR, selecting the Weighting (3) and clicking on Set
Weighting:

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i)

The disabled data is shown in grey shading.

ii)

A good model with predictive capabilities should use the minimum data to
calibrate and should predict other measured data reasonably well.

Once the properties that need to be matched against are selected, click OK to get out of lab
data entry screen.
3.3.1.5.4 Regression
The next step is to run a Regression by adjusting the pseudo components' Tc and Pc and BI
coefficient and Volume Shift .
Step 1. Matching the properties except viscosity
In the main Menu select Data | Regression. The Match Selection Screen Appears.

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In the Data Match Model field select Mode 4 - Tcs Pcs AFs with Multiplier on Each Property.
After that, in the Data to Match area select all the properties available (for the moment the Oil
viscosity is kept aside).
Then click on Regress. In the Matching screen select:
- the Tc and PC of the pseudo components only
- the BI coefficient All Pseudos by Same Multiplier
- and Volume Shift for all the components (except CO2 and N2)

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Then Regress. During the Regression pay attention to the Best error: this should be as small
as possible.

If the error does not decrease, just Cancel the Regression and retry following a different
route starting from the definition of the Pseudo component.
Also, in general it is indispensable to wait until the end of the 200 default iterations.
When to stop depends on the case. In general the Best error should be as close to

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zero as possible. In most cases it is possible to stop and then pass to the final
verification and check how the various properties have been matched.
Once the regression is done, there automatically appears the following screen showing the
tuned properties of all the components.

Clicking on Plot it is possible to view the Tc and Pc of the components.

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This plot can be used to visualise how Tc and Pc of the pseudos have been changed (use the
Variables menu to enable the viewing of both Tc and Pc properties).
On this screen, click on Exit and Save. It takes back to the regression screen. On this screen
click on "Exit" and save and it takes back to the regression data selection screen.
Step 2. Matching viscosity
In the Regression section select Viscosity:

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Then in the Matching screen select all the components' Vc. All the components can be
selected, as a correlation (Lohrenz Bray Clark) is used:

Regress and then Exit and Save and Main to go back to the main panel.

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Click "Main" to validate the results of the matching procedure.


3.3.1.5.5 Validation of the matched EOS
The last and most important step of the EOS calibration is making sure that the EOS
reproduces the lab report data.
To perform the validation, the Calculation menu will be used to simulate with the matched
EOS the same tests as in the lab.
The lab report data included in the Data Available 536 section will be used for the comparison.

Step 1. PSAT
Access the menu Calculation / Saturation Pressure, enter the temperature for which to
calculate the saturation pressure):

Then Calc and Calc:

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It is possible to verify that the data are matched perfectly.


Step 2. Phase Envelope
It is useful to verify the Phase Envelope to make sure this has a regular shape. Access the
menu Calculation/Phase Envelope, then select at the bottom-left the Auto option and Calc to
view the quality lines:

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Step 3. CCE
Access the menu Calculation/Constant Composition Expansion, then enter the ranges of
temperature and pressure according to the lab report and enter the separator train data (as
the Oil FVF will be compared, the same separator train as used in the lab must be used):

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If oil FVF and GOR etc, need to be compared, the separator scheme
needs to be entered. If one leaves it blank all the GOR and FVF values
reported in the simulated experiment assume single stage atmospheric
flash. In the former case the option is selected from the Separator
calculator method drop down box
Click on Calc and Calc and then Plot from the results screen. Choose the variables from the
variables menu and observe the oil density computed using the matched Equation of State .

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The oil density matches very well.


Also, it is possible to verify that the Oil FVF (not included in the matching) is matched quite
well:

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Plotting the oil viscosity, this one is also ok:

Step 4. Separator
Running the separator experiment in the same conditions as the test data, it is possible to
observe a very good agreement with the lab data:

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(Note: to view the oil density and GOR results at the same time, the Layout button has been
used to change the layout of the table)
All the properties have been matched properly.
This concludes the EOS calibration stage.
Note that if the EOS is not reproducing adequately any of the properties, one can review the
matching process by adding more data to the regression, like for example the oil density from
CCE, or repeat the whole matching process (by restarting from the Pseudo component
definition 541 ).
Save the PVTP file as Example1_Oil_Sample.pvi

3.3.1.6

Export Black Oil and EOS data

This section will show how to export both Black Oil and Compositional data to IPM or to third
party.
Step by Step Guides 472
Condensed Guide 473
Step by Step Guide 475
Procedure for exporting Black Oil and EOS data 513
Procedure for importing components from other fluid characterisations 521
Decontamination Procedure 525

It is only possible to export black oil data in Eclipse file format for
instance from a characterized EOS. The black oil calculator can
be used if desired to calculate black oil properties for a given
range of pressures and temperatures.
3.3.1.6.1 Export Black Oil data
When defining a black oil model in IPM (PROSPER, MBAL, GAP, REVEAL), two sets of data
are required:
1. Black Oil Input
These are the basic input data required by the black oil model in form of gas gravity, oil
gravity and GOR (or CGR), which are determined by flashing the fluid down to standard
conditions through separator train. This train defines the "path" to standard conditions used to
express the standard volumes (rates).
The meaning of the PVT input properties for a black oil model is illustrated in the following
figure and in the comments below:

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Where:
i = specific gas gravities
oilST = oil gravity
GORi=(Volume of gas @ STD at stage i) / QoilST
Total GOR: GORtot = GORsep + GORST
The average specific gravity is given by:

The oil gravity is by definition the ratio between the density of the oil and the water both at
STD.
The Impurities correspond to the mole % of CO2, N2 and H2S in the gas liberated in the
process shown above.
The formula above can be used to reduce a train of n separators to an equivalent one stage.

2. Black Oil Tables


These are table(s) of black oil properties (for example, bubble point solution GOR, oil FVF, oil
density for oil). Each table refers to one temperature and it contains a the variation of PVT
properties with pressure.
The tables are obtained by running a flash experiment (CCE) corrected by the separator train
used to determine the basic inputs.

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The tables can be used as match data for the analytical black oil correlations or used as such
as Tables in IPM.
3.3.1.6.1.1 Export Black Oil Input Data
As mentioned above, these data are determined by flashing the fluid to standard conditions
through a separator train.
To determine the black oil input data in PVTP one can run a separator experiment calculation
or, simply access the menu Data / View Properties or the button

located in the main screen of PVTP. After that at the top right corner select the button BOil
Properties as shown below:

This will access the Black Oil Properties screen, which allows the user to read the basic input
data for the black oil model:

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These values can be then entered in IPM (PROSPER, MBAL, GAP, REVEAL) as input data for
the black oil model.
At the bottom of the screen one can enter the separator train used as path to standard. Press
Calc to re-calculate the properties.
With regards to the gas impurities, access the More button and read directly the molar
fraction of the impurities in the accumulated gas stream:

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3.3.1.6.1.2 Export Black Oil Tables for IPM


The Black Oil tables for Petroleum Experts IPM Suite are generated by going to File | Export
from the main menu. This will result in the following dialog screen to appear:

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On this screen select the Export File Type 4 and hit OK. This takes to the next screen, where
the table pressures and temperature is defined as shown below:

In this screen enter the Temperature and a profile of Pressure.

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ii)
iii)

583

The CCE simulation experiment can also be copied in the table to


be exported by clicking on Copy CCE button shown on the screen.
up to 10 tables for different temperatures can be defined
The saturation pressure will be calculated automatically.

As the table contains GOR and oil FVF information as well, the user needs to define a
separator train for this case consistent with the path to STD chosen as reference.
In this example the same separator train as see above 579 . To do so on the above screen, click
on Separator conditions and select Use separator train then click on the Set up button to
specify the separator conditions:

On this screen enter the separator scheme. Once this is done click on OK and this takes back
to the Export screen shown below. On this hit Calc. Table button. If more than one table is
selected for export, hit Calc. all. This populates the table with PVT data as shown below.
Once the table is filled, on the right hand side press MBAL select (this format is used by
MBAL and REVEAL, otherwise select PROSPER if the data are to exported to PROSPER).
This selects the columns to be exported.

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On this click on Export and it will come up with the following dialog:

On this screen select All Tables. Click on Export and it takes to the following screen, where
we can save a *.ptb file, which can be read by Petroleum Experts applications.

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The .ptb file can be then imported in the Match data sections of PROSPER, MBAL or
REVEAL using the devoted Import functions.

3.3.1.6.2 Export EOS for IPM


To export EOS compositional data to Petroleum Experts IPM Suite access the menu FIle/
Export and select the first option: IPM EoS Composition.
This will prompt the saving of the .PRP file, which is an ASCII file that contains the
composition and the components' properties used by the EOS.

Enter the name for the file and save it as a *.prp file which can be imported directly into any of
the programs of the IPM Suite.

3.3.1.6.3 Export Black Oil Tables for Eclipse


The Black Oil tables for Eclipse are generated following the same route as was followed for
Petroleum Experts Applications. Start from File | Export from the main menu. On the dialog
screen that appears, select table Type 7 which is Eclipse Black oil Tables and hit OK.
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This takes to the following screen. On this screen, select the type of black oil tables that are
needed.

i)
ii)

First define the type of phase tables. In this case select oil with
dissolved gas, the gas being dry and no water type tables.
Based on the phase types selected, applicable keyword Options
become available. The keywords used are PVTO and PVDG for this
example.

Once the proper options are selected, click on Import. This takes to the following screen,
where the user can define the pressure and temperature range for which the tables need to
be generated.
Define also the separator scheme that will be used to calculate the GOR and oil FVF values.

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Once the data is input, click on Export and it takes to the following screen, where the tables
are displayed. Click on Calculate to populate the tables.

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Click on Export on the populated tables and it takes to the Save screen as shown below.

Save the table as a *.inc file, which can be used by Eclipse. Click on PVT Main to come back
to the main screen.

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Example 2 - EOS Calibration of a Gas Retrograde Condensate


Sample

The following example shows how PVTP can help the Engineer to build and quality check an
Equation of State PVT model of a Gas Retrograde Condensate fluid sample.

3.3.2.1

Objectives

A full lab analysis has been carried out on a downhole gas retrograde condensate sample and
a lab report is available for the fluid.
The objectives is to use the PVT Package to build an equation of state (EOS) model for a
gas sample.
Learning topics
To familiarise the user with building EOS models in PVTP.
To use PVTP to calibrate the EOS models to measured laboratory experiments.
To perform hydrate studies on the condensate sample
Executive Summary
This example will take the user through the following steps:
1. Build and calibrate an EOS Model
How to set up a PVTP model
How to enter the composition of the fluid
How to characterise the heavy ends
How to match the saturation pressure
How to match the separator results
How to match the liquid dropout from CCE experiment
2. Simulate Experiments
Perform hydrate formation study
Work out hydrate inhibitor concentrations.
This example is in the samples directory under:
...\samples\pvtp/samples/PVTP/Example2_Gas_Sample.pvi
See also
Condensed Guide 473
Step by Step Guides 472

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Data Available

These are the experimental data obtained after the lab analysis.

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A multi stage separator experiment performed on the reservoir fluid resulted in the following
results:

A Note about Liquid Dropout


i)

There are two common ways of reporting the liquid


drop out in laboratory reports:
As a % of the cell volume at dew point
pressure.
As a % of cell volume itself.
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ii)

iii)

In the PVT Package, both dropout definitions can


be entered. The recommended definition (2),
therefore
If the lab reports the dropout as % of the dew
point volume, this can be corrected to determine
the liquid dropout as % of total volume.
These reports also have a column called relative
volume in the reported in the CCE experiment.
By definition the relative volume
Vr

Vcell
Vdew

Vr

= relative volume
Vcell
= Total volume of the cell at given P,T

Vdew

= Volume of the cell at the dew point


pressure
iv) Thus to get liquid dropout as % of cell volume,
divide the liquid dropout number expressed as % of
dew point volume by the relative volume.

3.3.2.3

Initialise PVTp and set Units

The first objective is to initialise the program and set the correct Units system.
Step 1. New File
In PVTP start from a new file by selecting the menu File/New

Step 2. Main Options


The first section that needs to be defined is the Options. This can be done be selecting | O
ptions | Options and then ensure that the Peng Robinson EOS is chosen and the Volume Shift
enabled:

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Step 3. Set the Units


The Units in this example are set to Oilfield. Access the Options / Units menu and make sure
the Oilfield Units are selected.

i)

ii)

3.3.2.4

A completely different Unit System can be selected by clicking on the grey


box where by default the "Oilfield" system is chosen. This will drop down a
menu with the other unit systems available.
The units of a particular variable within a unit system can be changed by
clicking on the unit next to it and selecting a new unit from the list that is
displayed.
Build and Validate the EOS

Not enough data are available to perform the mass balance to QC the lab data, therefore the
EOS will be built straight away.

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3.3.2.4.1 Enter Composition and define the Pseudo


Step 1. Select the components
In order to select the components to be used in the EOS, click on "Data| Select Components
From a List" as shown below.

To select components in the screen shown below click on the desired components. The
selected ones will be highlighted. Once finished the pure component selection, enter the
number of pseudo-components in the top right hand corner of the screen (highlighted below).
Then select Enter Composition.

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Note that according to the lab data, the C4 and C5 are defined as such, without distinction
between the iso- and the n- alkane
i)
ii)

The user can un-select any selected component by clicking on it


again.
The characterisation can begin with one pseudo, which will be split
later if necessary.

It is common practice to define the components up to a certain carbon


number (usually C6) and then lumping together all the heavy end in one
pseudo component. This is because the higher the number of carbons
the higher the uncertainty on the exact composition under each single
carbon number family.
Step 2. Entering the fluid composition and reference data
On the previous screen once defined the components, hit on Enter Composition which will
bring up the following screen, where the compositions are entered as shown:

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On the right of this screen, the reservoir conditions i.e., pressure temperature and depth at
which the sample is taken is also entered.
The data can be entered by hand or copied/pasted from an external
source by using the combination CTRL+C to copy and CTRL+V to
paste in PVTP
Step 3. Define the Pseudo-Component
The next step is characterising the C7+ component by clicking on the "Pseudo Props" button of
the above screen. This will bring up the following screen, whereby the specific gravity and
molecular weight of the C7+ component can be entered.

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The specific gravity entered here is 0.77 and the molecular weight is 141. It is possible to use
this information and some correlations (Petroleum Experts for Boiling Point and TWU/
Edmister for Tc. Pc, Vc and omega) to determine the remaining properties of the Pseudo
Component.
This is achieved by using the Calc Values 227 button. The result of this is that the properties
Tc. Pc, etc. of the Pseudo component are populated.

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In this case the default correlations have been used, however, in many cases it can be
beneficial to try and use different correlations, as mentioned in the Hints on Method 230
topic of the user Guide.

Step 4. Automatch
The "Auto Match" button can be used to modify the Pseudo component properties and
regress on them in order to match the density at standard conditions from either Standing
Katz or Costald (selected in the Density Method). The EOS will not predict the right densities
on its own at standard conditions so by matching it to correlations ensures a good start to the
matching process.
In the case of this example Costald will be selected, as this correlation is the default
used in process simulation tools.

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i)

Experience has shown that the liquid densities predicted by Standing and Katz or
Costald methods are fairly close to the measured density under atmospheric
conditions, as these methods are based on the conservation of mass.

ii)

During Auto Match, we iterate on the Heavy end parameters until the EOS
predicted density at surface is equal to the Standing and Katz density calculated
at surface.

iii)

This usually provides a good starting point for calibrating the EOS models further.

The results of the Automatch are reported below:

Step 5. First QC of the EOS


It is now possible to verify whether the EOS is heading towards the right direction by
comparing its results to the lab report data.
To do so from the above screen, hit the Quick Calc button.
This utility allows to compare various properties: saturation pressure, flash to STD, or flash
through Separator Stages.

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Select the Saturation pressure and Calc:

The lab report 590 saturation pressure is 3548.3 psia. As the EOS is giving a lower saturation
pressure, it is possible to get closer to the saturation pressure by splitting the pseudo
component or adding BI coefficients. In the next steps this will be done by using the Whitson
Advanced Splitting Method 238 and the BI Coefficients entry screen.
The same indication can be obtained by running the Phase Envelope calculation.
Hit on Calc. On the phase envelope screen popping up, select the "Set Test Pts." button to
enter the saturation pressure.

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Then in the Phase Envelope plot click on Expand Plot:

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The Phase Envelope is used here only for qualitatively check the
saturation pressure with respect to the saturation pressure predicted
by the EOS. Note that the objective here is to match the only available
saturation pressure point and not the Phase envelope.
After that, depending on the flash to STD data available, run the Quick Calc for Flash to STD
or through Separator Stages.
In this case the data available concern separator experiment.
Enter the separator train P and T conditions and Calc:

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Comparing these results with the lab report 590 , it is possible to see that the Oil Density at STD
are very close, whilst the GOR is around 12% off. This is not a a problem, as in the final
regression matching will be performed to tune the EOS to the lab data.
In fact, the objective of this first part of the EOS matching is to get an EOS close enough to
the real fluid in order to reduce the amount of regression necessary later. Therefore, even
larger differences in the GOR and density obtained can be acceptable at this stage.
Howewer, if a tighter match is desired:
go back to the Pseudo Component entry screen, modify the Mw and/or the S.G of the
pseudo
Automatch again and
The-check with Quick Calc and repeat the process until the GOR and oil density are
closely matched.
In this example the Mw and SG of the pseudo will be modified respectively to 130 and 0.795
and after that Automatch perfomed:

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This will get the separator experiment a bit closer to the experimental data:

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Once a satisfactory separator test is achieved, Store the pseudo component properties by
clicking on Store in the Pseudo Component screen.
Also, enable the option "Use Original Pseudo Props from Store 230 ". This will try and match
the liquid density at STD to the same Costald or Standing-Katz density determined on the
basis of the Stored pseudo component.
Storing the Pseudo is important, as later, if necessary, it is possible to reset the
Pseudo and follow a different strategy to match the lab report.
This is the Pseudo Component set up after these initial steps.

3.3.2.4.2 Splitting the Pseudo Component


During the first QC 599 it was noted that in order to get the EOS to match more closely the
Saturation Pressure the Pseudo need to be split.
This can be achieved by using the Advanced Pseudo Splitting. In previous examples the
Whitson 238 splitting method was followed. In this exercise the Petroleum Experts 1
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methodology will be used instead.


Note that this method was developed for gas retrograde condensate fluids, however whether
use this method or Whitson depends on the fluid to match and on its composition, that is why
the decision of which method to adopt in reality will depend on which method best matches
the variation of the components' %.
Step 1. Select the Petroleum Experts 1 Method
From the Split/Profile section select Petroleum Experts 1 and then Advanced:

Step 2. Set Split Preferences


In the Advanced Splitting section Select the Whitson databases for Mole wt. and SG:

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Step 3. Select the number of splits


On the right-hand side of the Advanced Pseudo Splitting screen enter a number of splits equal
to 10 (the maximum in the particular case of this example) and select Set Even Splits:

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After that select Exit and Save and Automatch. This is the situation at the moment:

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Step 4. QC with Quick Calc


Repeat the check with Quick Calc as seen in the previous step 546 to verify the EOD is on the
right track.
It is possible to verify that a close matching is achieved already:
Saturation Pressure:

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Flash Through Separator Stages experiment:

Step 5. Add BI coefficients


Come back to the Pseudo Component screen and select Exit and Save to get back to the
Composition Input area.

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Select BI Coeffs, make use the Chevron Method is selected and then Calc Values:

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After that, check with Quick Calc the Phase envelope to verify the match on the only
saturation pressure available:

As the EOS predicts a higher PSAT than the experimental data, then it is possible to gain a
good matching by reducing the maximum BI coefficient. This can be achieved by setting the
option Set Max Value to 0.01 and selecting Set Values:
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When accessing the Quick Calc screen, it is possible to see good agreement of the predicted
saturation pressure with the experimental data:

One can also verify that the separator train experiment is fine again.

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If this was not satisfactory, the Pseudo needs to be Restored and the Splitting repeated.
At this point it is possible validate with Exit and Save and pass to the next stage of
matching.
Save the PVTP file as Example2_Gas_Sample.pvi
Pseudo Properties Dialog 220
Advanced Splitting 233
Split Profile Dialog 245
Step by Step Guide 472
Pseudo Component Splitting 119
3.3.2.4.3 Enter and select data to match
The first part of the matching process had as objective to achieve a better definition of the
Pseudo component (heavy end) by splitting it and changing its components' distribution and
making sure that the overall EOS reproduces basic properties like PSAT and separator GOR
and oil density at STD.
The next step is to make sure that all the other important properties included in the lab report
are matched and to achieve that the EOS parameters Tc and Pc of the pseudo components,
BI coefficients and eventually volume shift will be regressed upon.
The next steps are:

Step 1. Entering the measured data


The first step is entering the measured laboratory data. This can be done by going to Data |
Enter Lab Data from the main PVT screen:

A series of tab screens will be displayed, where the data concerning each experiment can be
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entered.
With regards to the lab data to enter, refer to the lab report in the Data Available 590 section.
Enter the known data in the relevant sections as shown:

PSAT contains the information about the saturation pressure and density of the oil at
saturation. In this case the data concerning PSAT will come from the CCE report data.
To enter the CCE click on the CCE tab that appears on the screen shown above and this
takes to the next screen, where the data is entered. The data available are: liquid dropout
(definition 2 as per report 590 , corresponding to the % of liq drop out with respect to the total
volume), Z factor and relative volume:

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Please ensure that the correct liquid dropout is entered in the match
data table.
In the Liquid Dropout input field the Liq dropout as % of total fluid (or

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pore) volume should be entered.


The other definition (Liq. Dropout as % of volume at Dew point) can
also be entered in the table in the field Liq.Drop. (PSAT Vol.).
Note that in general only one of the two is necessary.
Similarly enter the separator experiment data under SEP tab in the lab data screen as shown
(only the GORs and oil density are entered):

Step 2.Selecting the Data to match to


It is important, at least in the first phase of the matching, to regress on only the minimum
necessary set of parameters.
The minimum set of data to match against are described in the Step by Step Guide, Step 9 498 .
Once the data is entered, select the data points that will be used in calibration. This can be
achieved by using the Include/Exclude and the Weighting features in the Match Data screen.
According to the Step by Step Guide, the minimum set of data required are:
Saturation Pressure
Z factor at saturation (CCE)
GOR from separator
Density of oil at Standard Conditions
Liquid dropout (CCE)
The idea is to start form a minimum set of data to start matching the EOS to, and then, if
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necessary, add more data to the regression.


The first step to take is to disable the relative volume in CCE measurements.
Select the column of relative volume and select Exclude.

The properties are then greyed-out, sign that they have been excluded.
Regarding the Gas Z factor, only one value is available, which will be kept.
As far as the Liquid Dropout is concerned, include only a few point, so that to reproduce the
profile of this property. For example, exclude alternate points, making sure to keep the
maximum (14.87%) and some points around it. Also, it is good practice to set weightings to
the points, higher for the maximum dropout and medium for the rest. This is in the attempt to
match at best the profile of liquid dropout:

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The same is done for the GOR measured at the second stage separator. Also for the GOR
from the first stage can be set to a lower weighting by selecting the cell containing the value
of the GOR, selecting the Weighting (3) and clicking on Set Weighting:

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i)

The disabled data is shown in grey shading.

ii)

A good model with predictive capabilities should use the minimum data to
calibrate and should predict other measured data reasonably well.

Once the properties that need to be matched against are selected, click OK to get out of lab
data entry screen.
3.3.2.4.4 Regression
The next step is to run a Regression by adjusting the pseudo components' Tc and Pc and BI
coefficient and Volume Shift .
Step 1. Matching the properties
In the main Menu Click on Data | Regression and the following regression screen appears. On
this screen select:
- Data Match Model as Mode 4: Tcs Pcs AFs with Multiplier on Each Property
- In the Data to Match Area all the data for regression

Note that medium weighting can be set for each property, and that the Gas Oil ration is not
going to be added to the initial regression, as this property is in general affected by significant
measurement error. Also, one could verify that adding it to the regression would require
excessive corrections to the match parameters.
Then click on Regress. In the Matching screen select:
- the Tc and PC of the pseudo components only
- AF for the pseudo components only
- the BI coefficient All Pseudos by Same Multiplier

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- and Volume Shift for all the components (except CO2 and N2):

Then Regress. During the Regression pay attention to the Best error: this should be as small
as possible.

If the error does not decrease after 20-30 iteration just Cancel the Regression and retry
following a different route starting from the definition of the Pseudo component.
When to stop depends on the case. In general the Best error should be as close to
zero as possible. In most cases it is possible to stop and then pass to the final
verification and check how the various properties have been matched.
In this example one can stop the regression after a few iterations and then verify the results.
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Once the regression is done, there automatically appears the following screen showing the
tuned properties of all the components.

Clicking on Plot it is possible to view the Tc and Pc of the components.

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This plot can be used to visualise how Tc and Pc of the pseudos have been changed (use the
Variables menu to enable the viewing of both Tc and Pc properties).
On this screen, click on Exit and Save. It takes back to the regression screen. On this screen
click on "Exit" and save and it takes back to the regression data selection screen.
Click "Main" to validate the results of the matching procedure.
3.3.2.4.5 Validation of the matched EOS
The last and most important step of the EOS calibration is making sure that the EOS
reproduces the lab report data.
To perform the validation, the Calculation menu will be used to simulate with the matched
EOS the same tests as in the lab.
The lab report data included in the Data Available 590 section will be used for the comparison.

Step 1. PSAT
Access the menu Calculation / Saturation Pressure, enter the temperature for which to
calculate the saturation pressure):

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Then Calc and Calc:

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It is possible to verify that the PSAT is matched very well.


Step 2. Phase Envelope
It is useful to verify the Phase Envelope to make sure this has a regular shape. Access the
menu Calculation/Phase Envelope, then select at the bottom-left the Auto option and Calc to
view the quality lines:

This is only for QC as the phase envelope as a whole has not been matched.

Step 3. CCE
Access the menu Calculation/Constant Composition Expansion, then enter the ranges of
temperature and pressure according to the lab report:

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If oil FVF and GOR etc, need to be compared, the separator scheme
needs to be entered. If one leaves it blank all the GOR and FVF values
reported in the simulated experiment assume single stage atmospheric
flash. In the former case the option is selected from the Separator
calculator method drop down box
Click on Calc and Calc and then Plot from the results screen. Choose the variables from the
Variables menu and observe the various results computed using the matched Equation of
State .

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The Z factor (vapour) is matching very well, as well as the Liquid Dropout:

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The relative volume, not used in the matching will also be reproduced quite well.
Step 4. Separator
Running the separator experiment in the same conditions as the test data, it is possible to
observe a very good agreement with the lab data:

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(Note: to view the oil density and GOR results at the same time, the Layout button has been
used to change the layout of the table)
All the properties have been matched properly.
This concludes the EOS calibration stage.
Note that if the EOS is not reproducing adequately any of the properties, one should review
on one side the whole matching process (by restarting from the Pseudo component definition
541 ) and on the other side verify the reliability of the data.
Save the PVTP file as Example2_Gas_Sample.pvi
3.3.2.5

Hydrate formation calculations

PVTP allows on one side to determine the conditions of pressure of temperature of hydrate
formation, and on the other to determine the effect of chemical inhibitors on the hydrate
formation itself.
3.3.2.5.1 Determining Hydrate occurrence
PVTP allows to determine the conditions at which there is most likely formation of hydrates (I
and II types).
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To achieve that, access the Calc Solids / Hydrate Formation Pressure menu and enter a
range of temperatures for which to determine the hydrate formation pressure:

At the bottom of this section one can also enter an inhibitor to assess the effect of inhibitor
injection in the wellbore. In this case no inhibitor is entered.
Select Calc and Calc and the program will calculate the hydrate formation envelope points:

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Plotting will allow to visualise the envelope:

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Hydrates are likely to form on the left hand side of the red curve.
For example, at pressure of 3000 psig, in order to prevent hydrates, the temperature should
be kept above 65 deg F (see figure above).

3.3.2.5.2 Minimum Inhibitor concentration


As seen above for a pressure of 3000 psig, there is likely formation of hydrates for
temperatures below 65 deg C.
The next objective is to determine the quantity of inhibitor (for example, methanol) in order to
be able to produce a well against a wellhead pressure of 3000 psig, but for a wellhead
temperature of 60 deg C, as expected in the field.
To achieve the objective access the menu Calc Solids / Hydrate Min. Inhibitor Concentration,
enter the pressure and temperature conditions and Calc:

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The results at the bottom of the screen show that around 5% in mass of methanol has to be
injected to reduce the hydrate formation temperature at the given pressure of 3000 psig.

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3.3.3

PVTP

Example 3 - Lumping/Delumping

The following example shows how PVTP allows to determine a pair of compositions, one with
a large number of components (named "Full"), the other with a small number of components
("Lumped), generated from and equivalent to the first.
Note that the example uses a gas retrograde condensate fluid as subject, however,
exactly the same process can be applied to oil fluids.
Refer to the Lumping/Delumping 302 chapter for further details.
3.3.3.1

Objectives

An EOS has been calibrated against a full lab report for a gas retrograde condensate fluid.
This EOS has been defined with 17 components, 10 pure components up to C6 and 7 pseudo
components.
It is requested to utilize this EOS in a reservoir numerical simulator, which is then connected
to a surface network model (GAP). Due to the high number of components, it is required to
generate an equivalent lumped composition with no more than 6 components. This Lumped
composition will be then used in the simulator, whilst the original Full composition will be used
in the network model.
Learning topics
To familiarise the user with the option of Lumping/Delumping in PVTP
To generate a pair Full/Lumped compositions
To export the two composition to GAP aa .PRP file
Executive Summary
This example will take the user through the following steps:
Generate the Lumped composition from the Full using the Lumping/Delumping feature
Use the Manual Lumping to create the Lumped composition
QC the Lumped and make eventual adjustments
Validate the pair Full/Lumped compositions by running different sensitivities and calculations
Export the two compositions together in a .PRP file
The completed example is in the samples directory under:
...\samples\pvtp/samples/PVTP/Lumping-Delumping\Lumping-Delumping_final.pvi
See also

Lumping/Delumping 302
3.3.3.2

Data Available

An EOS has been matched to lab report data and the final EOS is available.

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The starting file can be found in the folder:


...\samples\pvtp/samples/PVTP/Lumping-Delumping\Lumping-Delumping_start.pvi
By running CCE calculation in the provided .pvi file, it is possible to verify that the EOS has
already been matched. For example, this is the CCE - liquid dropout:

In the same way the separator experiment is consistent to the data present in the Data/ Enter
Lab Data section.
3.3.3.3

Create and QC the Lumped composition

The steps to create a pair Full/Lumped compositions are the following:


1. Creating the Lumped from the Full composition
The starting point is an EOS that has been matched to a PVT lab report. This initial
EOS represents the "Full" composition as it has been matched using as large as
necessary a number of components. For example, if the EOS is to be used in a
process simulator, a large number of components can be chosen (for example 20 or
more).
The process of creation of a "Lumped" composition consists of defining the various
groups of components manually or recalling an existing grouping of an existing
Lumping Rule. In the first case (manual Lumping) a Lumping Rule is created, which
contains the logic followed to create the lumping. In the other two cases, the Lumping
rule comes from an already existing grouped composition or from an already existing
Lumping Rule.

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When creating the Lumping Rule the program makes sure that the most
important PVT properties (saturation pressure, GOR and density at surface) in
the Full and Lumped compositions are consistent with each other.
2. Quality checking the pair Full/Lumped are consistent to each other
This can be achieved by running all the most common calculations and comparing
important parameters like CCE Oil FVF and density, CVD liquid dropout, etc.
obtained with both the Full and the Lumped compositions

3.3.3.3.1 Create the Lumped composition


To start the process, access the menu Data / Lumping/Delumping for IPM. This opens the
Lumping/Delumping screen:

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Access the More Setup to define the options that will be followed in creating the Lumped
composition:

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The default options will be used.


When the options Match with GOR, PSAT and Hold Amount of Single Components are
enabled, the program will try and honour all of them at the same time.
However, it is important to note that in many cases it is not possible to physically
respect all of them at the same time.
For example, if a single component is to be held and at the same time the GOR of the
Lumped is to be matched to the Full composition GOR, the program will have to iterate
by setting the single component composition the same as the Full composition,
recombine the fluid to Target GOR to match the GOR, then re-set the single
component composition again same as the Full, recombe with Target GOR until the
GOR is honoured and the single component composition is kept the same. In many
cases it is not possible to achieve the matching of the GOR keeping the same mole
fraction.
That is why a hierarchy has been established in respecting the properties:
the Hold Amount is honoured first,
then the GOR second
then the PSAT third
This is because matching of the PSAT is relatively easy by manipulating opportunely
the EOS. Hold Amount is first in the
In any case, it is important to note that the user has full control about which options can
be selected, as well as any manual adjustments can be performed to achieve the most
suitable matching
Select Exit and Save.
A few options are available to create a Lumped composition, which can be found under
Lumping Method 302 .
The options that will be followed here is the Manual Lumping 307 , which is indeed the
recommended, as it allows the user to decide the best strategy to lump the components.
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Select Lump Stream. A screen similar to the Manual Grouping 257 is displayed:

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Just like in the Grouping, select the components that will be part of each lump on the bottomright hand of the table, then Add Lump. Repeat that for all the lumps:

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As a rule of thumb, components with similar Molecular weight can be lumped together. In any
case, finding the best way of lumping is a trial and error process, based on having a final
Lumped EOS as close to the Full as possible.
Click on Lump. The program will ask to keep the Hold the amount of Pseudo Component.
Select Ok:

And the question of if to save the Lumping Rule is displayed. Validate with Yes.

The program will generate the Lumped composition and at the same time the Lumping Rule,
which describes how the Lump has been created:

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The Lumping Rule Created can now be found in the Lumping Rules 312 section.
In the table on top of the screen it is possible to see that a Lumped composition has been
defined along with the Full.
On the left hand side it is possible to compare PSAT and GOR for the two Full and Lumped
compositions. The GOR is matched very well, as well as the PSAT of the Lumped
composition which is consistent with the PSAT of the Full composition.
3.3.3.3.2 Validate the Lumped composition
Accessing the Quick Calc section it is possible to compare the results of the lumping:

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Saturation Pressure:

Phase Envelope (here only for qualitative purpose, as only one saturation point is to be
matched and not all the envelope):

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Separator experiment:

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It is possible to see that the agreement is quite good.


3.3.3.3.3 Adjust the Lumping
According to the validation above, it is possible to see that all the major properties are
reproduced.
Should a difference in, for instance, saturation pressure be observed between the full and the
lumped composition, the following adjustment procedure can be used as general guide to be
followed in cases where an adjustment is required to achieve a better matching.
This adjustment IS NOT needed for this example.
The idea at the basis of the adjustment is to modify the existing Rule in order to better match
the PSAT.
Step1.
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Therefore the Lumping Method will be set to Lump from Rule:

It is possible to modify the rule by accessing the Lumping Rules button highlighted above:

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This section (refer to the user Guide related topic 312 ) allows to create new rules, edit existing
ones, deleting them.

Step2.
Access the Select button. This will lead to the details of the Lumping Rule:

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The PSAT is matched by means of a BI coefficient multiplier (ref. user Guide 312 ). It is now
possible to adjust this parameter to match the PSAT.
The Lumped composition was giving a PSAT 40 psig lower than the the Full composition.
Increasing the BI coefficient multiplier should increase the Lumped composition PSAT. For
example, set the BI multiplier to 1.3, the Ok and Ok back to the Lumping/Delumping section.

Step 3.
There select Clear Lumping:

and then Lump Stream again. The program is set to Lump from Stream, therefore the just
modified Lumping Rule will be used to Lump the Full composition:
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It is possible to verify that the PSAT is getting closer.


Go back to Step 2 modifying the BI coefficient multiplier and repeat Step 3 clearing and
lumping the stream again.
This is the final result with a BI coefficient multiplier of 1.37:

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Validating again with Quick Calc, as seen above, it is possible to verify that the PSAT,
GOR and Oil density at STD from separator all match very well.

3.3.3.3.4 Validate the Lumped against the Full composition


The final step of the creation of the Lumped/Full composition pair is to verify that the Lumped
composition gives equivalent results to the Full composition.
To achieve that, Calculations can be run for various conditions of temperature and pressure:
separator, CCE, CVD, etc.
For example, access the CCE calculation and enter a range of temperatures and pressures
for example:

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When a stream (the "Full" composition) has a correspondent Lumped composition, in any
calculation screen it is possible to select if to run the calculation for the Full, the Lumped or for
both compositions (refer related topic 394 ).
Run the calculation for both compositions.
In the Plot select variables like Liquid Dropout, Gas Z factor, Oil FVF, etc:

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It is possible to verify that there is a pretty good agreement between the two compositions.
This concludes the QC of the pair Full/Lumped compositions.

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If the check was not satisfactory, then a different lumping strategy (different arrangement of
the components in the lumps, number of lumps, etc.) should be followed.

Note of Thermal Properties:


If thermal properties obtained with the Full and Lumped compositions are compared, it is
possible to verify quite a big difference, for example:
CCE liquid specific enthalpy:

Thermal properties (like enthalpies, specific heat capacities, etc.) are accurately calculated
only when a detailed composition is provided.
The difference illustrated above shows that a big error would be made if a Lumped
composition is used for the thermal properties calculations.
This the main reason why models where the thermal properties are important - process
models in general and surface network models whenever the temperature estimation is
critical - require extended compositions.
This is why in GAP in the EOS options there is an option to estimate the thermal properties
using the Full composition.

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3.3.3.4

PVTP

Export the Full/Lumped composition to IPM

To export the pair Full/Lumped composition, a .PRP file is going to be used, just as any other
composition.
To do so, access the File/Export manu and export the IPM EoS Composition:

Then OK and Save the .PRP file:

The program will ask if to export the Lumping Rule along with the compositions. Select Yes:

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The .PRP file can then be imported in IPM.

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3.3.4

Example 4 - Estimating Decontaminated sample properties of a


contaminated Oil Sample using PVTP

3.3.4.1

Objectives

A downhole fluid sample is taken in a well and a full lab report has been carried out on the
fluid.
On comparison with the fingerprint of the drilling mud, it has been verified that the sample is
contaminated.
The objective is to build a reliable EOS model of the un-contaminated fluid.
Learning topics
To familiarise the user with the decontamination procedure that can be used in PVTP

Executive Summary
This example will take the user through the following steps:
How to make the C7+ distribution in PVTP follow the carbon number versus mole % profile
measured in laboratory
Step by step approach to estimate the uncontaminated sample properties from a
calibrated EOS model of a contaminated oil sample.
See also Decontamination Procedure 525 within help.
This example is in the samples directory under:
...\samples\pvtp/samples/PVTP/Example4_decontamination.pvi
The auxiliary file to start from is
...\samples\pvtp/samples/PVTP/Example4_decontamination_start.pvi

3.3.4.2

Data Available

Lab report data on the sample (contaminated fluid).


Composition:
Componen
t
N2

Mole
Percent
0.05

CO2

0.15

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C1
C2

37.6

C3
C4

9.8

C5
C6

4.3

C7+

28.3

657

9.7

6.6

3.5

C7+ Properties
Mw: 275 g/mol
S.G.: 0.871
Reservoir Data:
Producing Interval Depth

10000-10050 feet

Reservoir Pressure

4000 psig

Reservoir Temperature

199.4 degF

Saturation Pressure Data of the Contaminated sample


Saturation pressure at 199.4
degF:

2800.0 psig

Separator Test Data of the contaminated sample


A multi stage separator experiment performed on the reservoir fluid resulted in the following
results:
Stage

Pressure
(Psig)

Temp.
degF

GOR (scf/
stb)

#1

500

90

500

#2

60

300

Oil
Density
(API)
34.2*

*34.2 API = 853.953 kg/m3


Constant Mass Expansion Experiment results on the contaminated sample:
The results of the constant mass study at done of the sample at 199.4 degF are:
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Pressure in
psig

Oil Density
(Kg/m3)

Psat

2800

693.60

Pres

3100
3400
3700
4000

697.55
701.20
704.66
707.96

Extended Composition analysis of the C7+ fraction contaminated Reservoir Fluid sample

C7
C8

0.5413

C9
C
10
C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
C
15
C
16
C
17
C
18
C
19
C
20
C

0.476

0.5076

C25
C26

0.17
0.1594

C43
C44

0.0534

0.0469

0.05

0.1494

0.4463

C27
C28

0.1401

C45
C46

0.4185

C29

0.1314

C47

0.0413

0.3924

C30

0.1232

C48

0.0387

0.3679

C31

0.1155

C49

0.0363

13.165

C32

0.1083

C50

0.034

1.0926

C33

0.1016

C51

0.0319

3.0245

C34

0.0952

C52

0.0299

0.9606

C35

0.0893

C53

0.028

2.9007

C36

0.0837

C54

0.0263

0.2501

C37

0.0785

C55

0.0247

0.2345

C38

0.0736

C56

0.0231

0.2199

C39

0.069

C57

0.0217

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21
C
22
C
23
C
24

0.2062

C40

0.0647

0.1933

C41

0.0607

0.1813

C42

0.0569

659

C58+ 0.0203

All the input data including the sampling is on a


contaminated oil sample. The experiments like CCE,
bubble point determination, etc were performed on
the contaminated sample.
3.3.4.3

Step-by-step approach to decontamination in PVTP

Step 1. Defining the Contaminated System


Start defining the EOS composition and the pseudo component (up to Step 6 486 of the Step by
Step Guide).
The initial set up is present in the file called "Example4_decontamination_start.pvi"
Step 2. Setting up the C7+ profile as per measured data
To do so from the main PVTP screen go to the pseudo input data screen. To do so Click on
Data | Enter Composition | Pseudo Props. And it takes to the following screen.

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On this screen, click on the Advanced option where it is possible to define a mole % profile
for C7+ using the default method.
Select Follow Profile and Automatically Follow Split Profile:

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To enter the profile measured in the laboratory, click on Set up Split Profile button and the
following dialog comes up. Fill the measured mole% data against carbon number in the
screen.

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Once the profile has been set-up, click on Exit and Save to go back to the Advanced Pseudo
Split screen. On this screen press Recalculate Split as shown below.

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Once this is done click on Exit and save button on all the screens that appears until the main
PVTP screen.
Step 3. Match the PVT lab data
To match the lab data, follow the same steps as per Step by Step Guide from step 7 490
onward or Example 1 535 .
The result of the matching can be found in the file Example4_decontamination_step3.pvi.
This file can be used for the remaining part of the example.

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Step 4. Decontaminating the sample


Once the heavy end profile has been defined, from the main menu go to Data |
Decontaminate. This takes to the decontamination input dialog as shown below

This screen lists all the components along with their mole %, molecular weights etc. The C7+
components are listed in red.
The next step is to remove / re-estimate the excess mole % of heavy end hydrocarbon that
comes from the contaminant.
For this example the contaminant mole % will estimated from the heavy end profile. Click on
Plot, this shows the plot of the C7+ distribution as per entered contaminated profile.

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The initial peak that is seen in the profile is because of C1, which is as expected. To see the
profile after C7 one can access the Display / Scales menu in the Plot area and set the scales
to best accommodate the plot:

Now after C7 the profile naturally is expected to be smooth as seen in example 1. The peaks
that cab be observed in the profile from C14 to C18 are due the contamination from the oil
based mud. From this plot assuming a uniformly decreasing smooth curve the mole % of the
C14-C18 can be estimated. The estimated mole percent are

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Component
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18

Old Mole
Percent
13.165
1.0926
3.0245
0.9606
2.9007

Estimated
Mole Percent
0.323
0.298
0.286
0.280
0.269

In case the exact composition of the contaminating


fluid or contamination weight % are known, this can
easily be converted into excess mole % of that
component. The excess mole % can be subtracted
out of the system and new mole percent estimated
in the second column
Once the new mole percent are estimated, these are entered in the decontamination screen
as shown below

Once new compositions are entered, press on Quick Look. This takes to the next screen
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where the program creates a temporary decontaminated stream and its properties can be
quickly evaluated:

On this screen press again Quick Calc. It takes us to the next screen as shown:

At this stage PVTP has created a temporary decontaminated stream called Decon_Temp and
one can perform the listed calculations with it. Begin by selecting Phase envelope and
pressing Calc. This takes to the following screen. On this screen, on the left hand side all the
fluid streams are listed. Select both the contaminated and decontaminated one and hit Calc.

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This picture shows how the phase envelopes compare. Because of decontamination the
saturation pressure goes up in this case. Click on Exit | cancel | Exit and it takes to the screen
in the figure below. On this screen click on Decontaminate, which take us to the following
screen.

On this screen two options are available. Select to Create a new stream.
After this press Decontaminate and the program calculates the decontaminated fluid model
and displays the EOS parameters of the same as shown below:

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Enter Exit and Save on this and subsequent screens to go to the main PVTP screen.
The newly created stream corresponds to the decontaminated fluid and can be used for
calculations.
Save the PVTP file as Example4_decontamination.pvi

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