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Anda di halaman 1dari 79

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT I

ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

10

sound, adiabatic steady state flow equations, Flow through convergentdivergent passage, Performance under various back pressures.

1. Define compressibility.

(May/June 2013)

density that will be produced in the fluid by a specified change in pressure.

Also, Compressibility is the fractional change in volume of the fluid element

per unit change in pressure.

By definition, compressibility can be written as:

Where

volume;

(Nov/Dec 2009)

Answer: If no heat is added to the fluid element or taken away from the

fluid element and if friction is ignored, compression of the fluid element takes

place isentropically and the isentropic compressibility can be written as:

=

3. What do you mean by over expanded nozzle and what is their effect?

(May/June 2013)

Answer: When a flow takes place inside the convergent-divergent nozzle

the flow attains the pressure at the exit of the nozzle. The nozzle is said to be

overexpanded , when the pressure at the nozzle exit (Pe) is less than the

backpressure (atmospheric pressure) i.e

<

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

oblique shock and hence the amount of pressure rise.

4. What are the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for

compressible gas flows?

Answer:

Momentum equation:

Energy equation:

Answer: When the back pressure at the exit of the convergent divergent

nozzle is at a value of Pe = 0.528 P0, The Mach number reaches the maximum

value of 1 at the throat.

increase the value of Mach number beyond 1 at the throat. Consequently, the

mass flow rate remains constant at the throat. This situation when the flow

2

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

goes sonic at the throat and the mass flow remains constant no matter how the

back pressure is reduced is called choked flow. This process is called

choking.

to the electronic structure of the particles, a force field pervades the space

around them. The force field due to one molecule reaches out and interacts

with the force field due to another molecule. These forces take the form of

weak attractive force at large distances. At temperatures and pressures

characteristic of many compressible flows, the molecules are spaced widely

apart. Hence, in most engineering applications, these intermolecular forces

can be neglected. They are called as perfect gases.

=

or

However, at very cold temperatures and high pressures, the molecules are

more closely packed. Here, the effect of intermolecular forces become

important and the above equation is no longer valid. The gases in which these

intermolecular forces are important and therefore cannot be neglected are

called as real gases.

7. Why do you need a converging diverging nozzle to accelerate the flow from

subsonic to supersonic speed?

=(

1)

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

decrease in velocity is obtained with an increase in area.

For sonic flow, M = 1, the area-velocity shows that the area required

for attaining sonic flow should be a minimum.

For Supersonic flow, M > 1, the area velocity relation shows that for

an increase in velocity an increase in area is required and vice versa.

Hence, from the above results, in order to expand a flow from a stagnation

condition to supersonic speeds, we first need to accelerate the subsonic flow

by passing through a convergent duct, achieving a sonic flow at the minimum

area of the convergent duct, called as the throat. Further, to accelerate the

sonic flow to supersonic speeds, we need a divergent duct since for a

supersonic flow; an increase in area gives an increase in velocity.

8. Distinguish between thermally perfect gas and calorically perfect gas.

(Nov/Dec 2009)

Answer: A gas is said to be thermally perfect when its internal energy (u)

= ( ), = ( ).

( )

( )

( ). Also

constants and are independent of temperature, i.e

=

( );

( );

( )

Answer:

i.

ii.

and caloric equations of state,

iii.

perfect gas need not be calorically perfect.

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

10. Write internal energy equation for one dimensional high speed flow in

general partial differential form.

(April/May 2008)

Answer: The internal energy equation for 1dimensional high speed flow can

be written as:

11. What are the properties of flow medium that determine the velocity of sound

wave in the medium?

(April/May 2008)

Hence, the speed of sound in a calorically perfect gas is a function of

temperature only. For a calorically perfect gas the ratio of and specific gas

R does not change with temperature.

12. State the importance of Rayleigh supersonic pitot formula. (Nov/Dec 2009,

2013) (or)

Why Rayleigh correction formula is required for pitot-static tube in

supersonic flows?

(May/June 2009)

Answer:

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

When the pitot tube is inserted into a supersonic flow, a shock wave

is formed ahead of the Pitot tube as shown in fig. The mouth of the Pitot tube

is a stagnation region. Hence, a streamline moving along line cde is brought

to rest at point e. However, due to the presence of the shock wave, the

streamline cde passes the normal portion of the shock wave. As a result, the

pressure at point e is not the total pressure of the freestream, but the total

pressure behind a normal shock wave, P02. Hence, Rayleigh Pitot tube

formula is necessary for measurement of velocity in a supersonic flow.

13. Write down the compressible Bernoullis equation for isentropic flows? (Nov/

Dec 2008)

Answer: The energy equation for an adiabatic process is given by

+

= =

--------------------- (1)

+

---------------- (2)

+

------------------------- (3)

The equation (3) is the form of the energy equation commonly used in gas

dynamics. And this is popularly known as compressible Bernoullis equation

for isentropic flows.

14. What is under-expanding nozzle flow?

Answer: When the back pressure is reduced further below the pressure at

which supersonic isentropic flow takes place throughout the nozzle, the flow

inside the nozzle is said to be an under-expanded nozzle flow since the exit

pressure is higher than the back pressure and hence, the flow is capable of

additional expansion after leaving the nozzle. This expansion takes place

across expansion shock waves attached to the exit as shown in figure.

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Answer: Flow can be classified in terms of Mach number as:

Subsonic flow M < 1 at every point in the flow, streamlines are smooth,

disturbances can propagate upstream.

Transonic flow 0.8 < M < 1.2 Flow has pockets of supersonic flow in

certain regions of flow terminated by a shock wave. Both subsonic &

supersonic flow regimes exist in transonic flow.

presence of shock waves across which flow properties change

discontinuously

to the body leading to higher temperatures in between the shock and the

body. When M is sufficiently large, such that viscous effects and

chemically reacting effects begin to dominate the flow Hypersonic flow.

Answer: Consider a fluid element moving along a streamline. The kinetic

and internal energies per unit mass are V2/2 and e respectively. Their ratio is:

internal energy of a gas flow. Mach number is a measure of the directed

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

motion of the gas compared with the random thermal motion of the

molecules.

PART-B

1. An ideal gas flows through a duct under isentropic conditions. Show that the

area has to increase for increase in velocity when the local mach number is

greater than one (M>1)

(May/June 2013)

(or)

Derive the area-mach number relation and explain why convergent-divergent

nozzle is needed for supersonic flow.

(May/June 2013)

+

, we get

= 0 (1)

To obtain the relation between velocity and area we need to replace the

term

equation as,

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Using

the

above

Many

conclusions

equation,

can

be

Eq.

(1)

drawn

can

from

be

this

written

as,

equation.

1. For positive dA, du will be positive for M>1. Hence for supersonic flows,

velocity of the flow increases with increase in area or divergent portion acts

as the nozzle.

Similarly, for convergent portion acts as the diffuser for supersonic flows.

2. For negative dA, du will be positive for M<1. Hence for subsonic flows,

velocity of the flow increases with decrease in area or convergent portion acts

as the nozzle.

Similarly, for divergent portion acts as the diffuser for supersonic flows.

3. We can always achieve supersonic flow using a convergent-divergent duct

having subsonic flow at the entry. In such a case, for M=1, we get dA=0,

means Mach one will be achieved at the minimum cross section of the duct.

Therefore the minimum cross-section where sonic conditions are achieved in

the convergent divergent duct, is called as throat.

9

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(or)

Answer: Refer Page No: 626 to 629 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics,

John D Anderson, Fourth edition.

2. Derive the relation relating area ratio and Mach number for an isentropic flow

through a varying duct.

Answer: Let us consider the varying area duct as shown in Fig.1. Areas at

different stations are mentioned in the same figure. The minimum crosssectional area of this duct is called as throat if local Mach number of the same

cross-section is 1. We can find out the area of throat under this constraint for

known inlet or outlet area of the duct. We know that mass flow rate at the

throat is,

Where,

For the steady flow, mass flow rate at any cross-section having

geometric and flow properties as , A, u will be equal to the mass flow rate of

the throat.

10

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Hence,

Hence

the

area

relation

can

be

written

as,

---------------------(1)

corresponding area A then we can calculate the area of the throat for the duct.

From this expression it is also clear that the Mach number at any crosssection upstream or downstream of the throat is not dependant on the nature

of variation of cross-sectional area of the duct in the stream wise direction.

3. Derive a relation for compressibility correction to dynamic pressure.

(May/June 2013)

Answer: Refer page no: 82 to 83 - E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third

edition

11

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Answer: Refer page no:47 to 49 - E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third

edition

maximum possible velocity. What will be the error in the maximum velocity

calculated by assuming this flow as incompressible? (May/June 2013)

Answer: Refer class notes

M=3 and a test section size of 0.2m x 0.2 m in cross section. If the stagnation

pressure is 20 bar and the stagnation temperature is 310K, calculate the mass

flow rate and the area of the first throat. (May/June 2013)

Answer: Refer class notes

7. Air Flows through a convergent nozzle under a stagnation pressure of 3 bar

and a stagnation temperature of 400 K. The nozzle has an exit area of 0.1m.

Find the mass flow rate when the exit pressure is 100kPa. (May/June 2013)

Answer: Refer class notes

8. Analyse the performance characteristics of a convergent-divergent nozzle for

different inlet and outlet conditions. (Nov/Dec 2012)

Answer: Refer class notes

9. Derive the one dimensional adiabatic steady state energy equation and deduce

the isentropic relations for a perfect gas.

(Nov/Dec 2010)

(or)

Derive all the isentropic relations for a one dimensional compressible gas

flows.

12

(Nov/Dec 2012)

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Answer: Flow is said to be stagnant when its velocity is zero. Here we are

interested to predict the flow properties at the stagnation conditions. Let's

imagine that a fluid flow is decelerated from its exhisting state isentropically

to zero velocity which is termed as the stagnation condition as shown in Fig.

below. All the properties of the flow at stagnation condition are called as

stagnation properties. Similarly if we decelerate the supersonic flow or

accelerate the subsonic flow isentropically so that the fluid particles reach

sonic velocity, then flow properties are called as star properties. Both the

stagnation properties and star properties are the reference properties of the

flow and are constant in the fluid domain if the flow is isentropic. Let's apply

the 1D energy conservation principle to derive the relation initially between

stagnation and static properties.

Consider that the fluid particle is isentropically brought to zero as shown

in above figure. We know that 1D form of energy conversion equation is

Here subscript 1 stands for initial state of the fluid and subscript 2 stands for

final decelerated state of fluid. Since, V2=0, lets represent T2=T0 is above

equation. Then,

13

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

from this equation that the stagnation temperature to static temperature

ratio is dependent on Mach number & specific heat ratio. The Mach

number in this expression is the Mach number of the flow before

commencement of isentropic deceleration.

Since the process is isentropic and we already know the isentropic

relations, we can find out stagnation pressure to static pressure relation

and the same for density also.

seen that the stagnation pressure and static pressure are almost equal if Mach

number is zero. However for the incompressible flows with Mach number

less than 0.3, it can be evaluated that the difference between static pressure

14

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

and stagnation pressure is equal to the dynamic pressure. But this isn't the

case for compressible flows.

(or)

Answer: Refer Pages 527 to 529 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D

Anderson, Fourth edition. / Refer notes

10. Air flow is discharged to atmosphere at sea level through a sonic nozzle. If

the air storage at the reservoir is 40 x 105 N/m2, determine the pressure,

temperature and density at the exit of the nozzle. Assume that the reservoir air

is at sea level temperature.

(Nov/Dec 2010)

11. Explain why a converging diverging configuration is required for the

acceleration of flow from

subsonic

(2007, 2012)

Answer: From the area-velocity relation,

=(

1)

decrease in velocity is obtained with an increase in area.

For sonic flow, M = 1, the area-velocity shows that the area required

for attaining sonic flow should be a minimum.

For Supersonic flow, M > 1, the area velocity relation shows that for

an increase in velocity an increase in area is required and vice versa.

Hence, from the above results, in order to expand a flow from a stagnation

condition to supersonic speeds, we first need to accelerate the subsonic flow

by passing through a convergent duct, achieving a sonic flow at the minimum

area of the convergent duct, called as the throat. Further, to accelerate the

sonic flow to supersonic speeds, we need a divergent duct since for a

supersonic flow; an increase in area gives an increase in velocity.

15

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(or)

Answer: Refer Page No: 626 to 628 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics,

John D Anderson, Fourth edition / Refer notes

12. Explain what is choking in a C-D nozzle and show that the expression for

choked mass flow rate for an isentropic flow of duct through a duct is

=

(8)

(or)

Air flows through a duct under steady isentropic flow conditions. Derive an

expression for the mass flow rate in terms of stagnation pressure and

temperature and local Mach number.

(May/June 2013)

Answer: We have seen in Fig. below that mass flow rate of the nozzle remains

unaltered after flow gets chocked. This chocked mass flow rate can be calculated

as,

16

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Hence

However,

Hence

............................. (1)

From this expression it is clear that for a convergent divergent nozzle, for

given throat area, choked mass flow rate remains constant for the fixed

reservoir (P0 and T0) conditions. Therefore choked mass flow rate can be

increased by increasing the reservoir pressure P0 or decreasing reservoir

temperature T0.

17

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(or)

13. Sketch the pressure variation along the centreline of a converging diverging

nozzle for optimum expansion. What is the influence of back pressure on this

variation?

(2009)

For optimum expansion, the pressure at the exit of the nozzle equals the back

pressure, say Pb6. This is shown in Figure 1.

18

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

For values of back pressure, Pb = Pb3 = 0.528 P0, the Mach number

reaches a value of 1 at the throat. The flow is completely subsonic

throughout the nozzle, except at the throat where a Mach number of 1 is

obtained. For Back pressure greater than 0.528 P0, the flow is entirely

subsonic throughout the nozzle with a maximum velocity attained at the

throat. Therefore, for subsonic flow, n number of isentropic solutions

are possible throughout the nozzle.

When the back pressure is decreased above 0.528 P0, say Pb4, a normal

shock wave forms inside the nozzle. This normal shock wave moves

towards the exit of the nozzle when back pressure is further reduced to

some value of back pressure, say Pb5. The location of the normal shock

wave is governed by the condition that the pressure rise across the normal

shock wave plus the pressure rise due to the expansion of subsonic flow

behind the shock wave through the divergent portion of the duct be just

19

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

right enough to equal the the exit pressure at the nozzle to the back

pressure.

When the back pressure is in between Pb5 and Pb6, oblique shock waves

are formed since the exit pressure has expanded below the back pressure

and it needs to be compressed across an oblique shock wave so as to

increase the exit pressure such that it matches with the back pressure.

When this situation exists inside the nozzle, it is known as

overexpanded.

When the back pressure is below Pb6, say Pb7, the exit pressure is higher

than the back pressure. Hence, the exit pressure is capable of additional

expansion in order to match the exit pressure to the back pressure. This

takes place through expansion waves. The higher pressure at the exit of

the nozzle is therefore expanded through the expansion waves to a lower

pressure.

14. Obtain an expression for the speed of sound and show that the speed of sound

is proportional o the square root of the absolute temperature of air. (10)

(2012, 2009)

Answer: Consider an acoustic wave moving in a stationary fluid with speed

a. Properties of fluid change due in the presence of the acoustic wave. These

property variations can be predicted using 1D conservation equations. For

simplicity we can assume the acoustic wave to be stationary and the fluid to

be passing across the wave with velocity a. Consider the control volume

shown in Fig. For understanding, central hatched portion can be exaggerated

as the acoustic wave. Let P, and a be the pressure, density and velocity

ahead the acoustic wave respectively. Acoustic wave being a small amplitude

disturbance, induces small change properties while fluid passing across it.

Hence the properties behind the acoustic wave are P+dP, in +d and a+da

pressure, density and velocity respectively. Application of mass conservation

and momentum conservation equations between inlet and exit stations of

control volume, we get,

20

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

P + a2 = (P + dP)+( + d)(a + da)2 ----- momentum conservation equation

From mass equation a = a + da + ad + dad

We will neglect dad since both are small quantities. Hence their product will be

even smaller.

Therefore da + ad = 0 and

p + a2 = (p + dp)+( + d)(a2 + 2ada + da2)

neglecting da2

p + a2 = (p + dp)+( + d)(a2 + 2ada)

p + a2 = (p + dp)+(a2 + 2ada + a2d + 2adad)

neglecting 2adads,

p + a2 = (p + dp)+(a2 + 2ada + a2d)

0 = dp + 2ada + a2d

21

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

5.5

We can express the same in terms of bulk modulus or compressibility using the

definition of the compressibility ().

changes in properties across sound wave are small and we have also not

considered any dissipative effect like viscous effects, therefore we can treat the

compressibility as the isentropic one. This proves that acoustic wave is isentropic

(adiabatic reversible) in nature. Both the formulas derived for acoustic speed are

valid for any state of matter. But if we consider gas then we can further simplify

the expression as below.

Therefore,

22

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(or)

Answer: Pages 522 to 525 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D

Anderson, Fourth edition. / Refer notes.

15. Air flows isentropically through a convergent divergent nozzle of inlet area

12 cm2 at a rate of 0.7 Kg / s. The conditions at the inlet and exit of the nozzle

are 8 Kg / m3 and 400 K and 4 Kg / m3 and 300 K respectively. Find the

cross sectional area, pressure and Mach number at the nozzle exit (10) (2008)

Answer: Refer scan copy notes

16. Air at 300K and 105 N / m2 enters a diffuser with a velocity of 4 m / s. The

diffuser is to be designed to reduce the velocity of the air to 60 m/s. The mass

flow rate through the diffuser is 13.6 Kg/s. Assuming the flow to be

isentropic, determine the (1) inlet diameter, (2) outlet diameter, (3) Rise in

static temperature (8)

(2008)

17. A storage chamber of a compressor is maintained at 1.8 atmospheres

absolute and 20 Deg Centigrade. If the surrounding pressure is 1 atmosphere,

calculate the velocity with which air flow takes place from the chamber to

outside through a unit area hole. Also, calculate the mass flow per unit area.

Assume air as a perfect gas. (8)

(2010)

18. A weak pressure wave travels through a tube into air at 1 atm and 32o C. If

the pressure rise across the wave is 0.04 kPa, determine the velocity of air

behind the wave

(2008)

23

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT II

NORMAL, OBLIQUE SHOCKS

12

shock equations, Pitot static tube, corrections for subsonic and supersonic

flows, Oblique shocks and corresponding equations,

Hodograph

and

pressure turning angle, shock polar, flow past wedges and concave

corners, strong, weak and detached shocks.

weaker shock waves correspond to a weaker wave angle,

From oblique shock solution,

When increases,

equation below, the pressure ratio across the shock wave increases.

increase in pressure ratio corresponds to a stronger shock. For lesser wave

angle, , a decrease in pressure ratio implies a weaker shock.

(May/June 2013)

Answer:

24

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(denoted by sound waves) is the Mach wave and the corresponding angle the

Mach line makes with the direction of motion of the beeper is the Mach angle.

The disturbances are felt only only within this disturbance envelope / Mach line.

This is the zone of action. Outside this Mach line is the Zone of silence since no

disturbance is felt in this region due to the supersonic motion of the beeper.

3. Why can a normal shock take place only in supersonic flow? (May/June

2013)

Answer:

the kinetic theory that the flow consists of a large number of fluid molecules

in unit volume and the transport of mass, momentum and energy takes place

through the motion of these molecules. Also the molecules carry the signals

about the presence of the cylinder around the flow field at a speed equal to the

speed of sound. When the incoming stream is subsonic,

<

and the

molecules far upstream of the cylinder get the information about the presence

of the body through the signals which travels with speed

But when the incoming stream is supersonic, the molecules travel

faster than signals and there is no possibility that they will be informed of the

presence of the body, before they reach the cylinder. Also the reflected

signals from the face of the cylinder tend to coalesce a short distance ahead of

the body. Their coalescence forms a thin compression front called shock

25

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

wave as shown in fig. This is the reason why a normal shock is formed only

in supersonic flow.

4. How are the normal shock relations and oblique shock relations connected?

(Nov/Dec 2012)

Answer:

=

;

=

sin( )

Where subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the conditions ahead of and behind the

oblique shock; is the shock angle and is the flow defelection angle.

(May/June 2013,2008)

Answer:

i.

shock.

ii.

Also we have made no assumptions about the gas while deriving the

relation, so it is the general relation that holds for a perfect gas,

chemically reacting gas, real gas, etc.

iii.

equals the mean pressure across the shock times the change in specific

volume.

6. Why Mach number behind a normal shock cannot be supersonic? Obtain the

limiting value of it.

Answer: From this relation,

(May/June 2013)

across a normal shock must be from supersonic to subsonic or vice versa. But

later it was shown that only the changes takes place only from supersonic to

subsonic. Hence the Mach number behind the normal shock is always

subsonic.

=

26

1+

1

2

1

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

From the above equation, it shows that or a perfect gas, the Mach

number behind the shock is a function of only the mach number ahead of

the shock.

=1

wave.

>1

shock is subsonic.

= 1.4;

= 0.378

7. What is the relationship between mach angle and Mach number? (Nov/Dec

2012)

Answer:

For a supersonic flow, the angle between the Mach line and the

direction of motion of the body (flow direction) is called the Mach angle ,

given by

1

= sin

8. Define characteristic Mach number and give its maximum value for air.

(Nov/Dec 2010, 2009, 2008)

Answer: If the velocity of a fluid element is speeded up / slowed down to

sonic velocity adiabatically, the temperature it would have at such condition

is T*. The corresponding value of speed of sound is a* and the corresponding

value of Mach number is the Characteristic Mach number, M*.

27

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

<1

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

<1

=1

=1

>1

>1

+1

1

9. Define shock strength and express it in terms of Mach number for a normal

shock.

(Nov/Dec 2012)

(or)

How is the strength of a shock wave determined in a supersonic flow?

(April/May 2008)

Answer: Since there is a sudden rise in static pressure across the shock

wave, this rise in static pressure can be considered as a factor that can

represent the strength of a shock. Greater this static pressure rise, stronger the

shock and vice versa.

The strength of the shock, i.e., the static pressure rise across the normal shock

can be written as:

2 + ( 1)

( + 1)

(Nov/Dec 2010, 2008)

Answer:

If

>

continue parallel to the wall. Away from the wall, this normal shock transits

28

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

into a curved shock which intersects the incident shock with a curved

reflected shock propagating downstream. This shock pattern is labelled as

Mach Reflection.

(Nov/Dec 2008)

which generate the cones are called Mach waves or Mach lines. Therefore

Mach waves may be defined as weak pressure waves across which there is

only an infinitesimal change in flow properties.

12. What are oblique shock waves? How are they formed? Illustrate an oblique

shock wave over a concave corner / Rules for reflection of shock waves.

Answer: The shock waves which are at an angle or oblique to the incoming

freestream flow are known as oblique shock waves. Oblique shock waves are

formed when the supersonic flow is turned into itself.

upwards through an angle. Consequently, the flow streamlines are deflected

29

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

upwards towards the main bulk of the flow above the surface. This change in

flow direction takes place across an oblique shock wave. All the flow

streamlines experience the same deflection angle at the shock. Hence, the

flow downstream of the shock also follows the direction of the wall

downstream of point A. Across the shock wave, the Mach number decreases,

and the pressure, temperature and density increases.

13. With a suitable sketch illustrate the propagation of waves from a sound

source moving at a speed of sound.

(2)

Answer:

14. What are expansion waves? How are they formed? Or what are the rules for

reflection of expansion waves

Answer: When a flow with supersonic mach number i.e. M>1 is turned

from itself, an expansion wave is formed. The surface is deflected downwards

through an angle .

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Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

The flow streamlines are deflected downwards away from the main

bulk of flow above the surface. This change in flow direction takes place

across an expansion wave, centred at point A. Away from the surface, the

expansion wave fans out. The flow streamlines are smoothly curved through

the expansion fan until they are all parallel to the wall behind point A. All

flow properties through an expansion wave change smoothly and

continuously. Across an expansion wave, the Mach number increases, the

pressure, temperature and density increases.

15. Define normal shocks and oblique shocks.

Answer: If the shock wave is normal / perpendicular to the upstream

incoming flow, it is known as a normal shock wave. Normal shock waves

occur inside nozzles and also in the normal part of the bow shock wave.

known as an oblique shock wave.

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Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

16. Why Prandtls relation for normal shock cannot be used for subsonic flows?

Answer: From Prandtls relation,

supersonic. Hence, Prandtls relation cannot be applied for a subsonic

flow.

17. What is a hodograph?

Answer: A hodograph is a curve forming the locus of the tips of the

velocity vectors in the plane behind a shock. In addition to an analytical

solution of the problem of determining the flow parameters behind an oblique

shock, the flow properties behind a oblique shock can be determined by using

graphical method based on the concept of a hodograph.

18. Bring out the difference between flow over a wedge and cone

Answer:

S.NO

1.

2.

3

32

CONE

WEDGE

Two dimensional flow

Stream lines are straight and

Stream lines are curved

No such relieving effect exist Addition

of

third

dimension

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

here.

space to move through, hence

relieving some of the obstruction

set up by the presence of the body.

This is called three dimensional

relieving effect.

because of relieving effect

stronger

For M=2 for semi cone angle 20

20 creates a =53 oblique shock

shock

same as that on surface of cone.

same as that on wedge surface

PART-B

1. Show that the strength of a normal shock in a perfect gas depends only on

Mach number ahead of the shock.

(Nov/Dec 2012)

Answer: We can derive the expression for the properties behind the shock

wave using 1D conservation equations and know properties ahead the shock.

(1)

freestream Mach number and the specific heat ratio. We can find out the

velocity ratio from this density ratio as,

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Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Let's derive the expression for static pressure ratio. For simplicity of

derivation, initially representation of dynamic pressure is necessary and

can be expressed as follows

p1 + 1u12 = p2 + 2u22

Replacing the dynamic pressure from either side and rearranging we get

34

=1+

2

(

+1

1)

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

This equation gives the strength of the shock or static pressure rise

which is again function of free stream Mach number and the specific heat

ratio.

(or)

Answer: Pages 64 to 68 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible

flow, Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer notes

2. Derive Prandtls relation.

Answer: It had already been discussed that the subsonic flow is pre-warned

and supersonic flow is not. The reason behind this fact is that, any small

amplitude disturbance travels with acoustic speed, however speed of fluid

particle is more than the speed of sound in case of supersonic flows.

Therefore the message of presence of the obstacle cannot propagate upstream.

Hence a messenger gets developed in front of the obstacle to warn the flow in

order to avoid its direct collision with the obstacle. This messenger is called

as shock. In the presence of normal shock, fluid velocity decreases to the

extent where flow Mach number behind the shock attains value below one.

Due to this subsonic speed attainment of the flow, it becomes aware about the

presence of the obstacle well in advance in the narrow space between shock

and obstacle. Herewith we will deal for computation of flow properties

behind the normal shock.

In the presence of a general obstacle the shock pattern is shown here in Fig. 1.

35

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

The shock for the stagnation streamline can be considered as normal to it.

Therefore we can use the earlier derived 1D flow relations along with the

assumptions of flow steady, adiabatic and inviscid flow. Consider a small control

volume around normal shock for application of these relations between two

stations of the control volume, mainly, inlet and outlet as shown in Fig. 1.

Lets us examine the reference star properties of the flow in the process to

calculate the flow properties behind the normal shock from the known inlet

conditions. We can take the advantage of using stared temperature since the flow

is adiabatic in nature. Imagine that flow is adiabatically brought to Mach number

one on either sides of the shock independently. In this case, we should get same

stared temperature on either sides of shock. We can also show that total

temperature is also same on either side. The explicit formulation using the star

temperature and concerned acoustic speed before the normal shock is,

36

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(1)

(2)

Let's obtain the expression for velocity using mass and momentum equations to

replace the acustic speed term from equations (1) and (2).

From 1D mass and momentum conservation equations we have

1u1 =2u2

p1 + 1u12 = p2 + 2u22

Therefore,

37

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(3)

This expression shows that, M1*2 and M2*2 are reciprocal of each

other for a normal shock. This equation is called as Prandtls relation for

normal shock which can be used to prove that Mach number becomes

subsonic behind the normal shock

total pressure required in supersonic flows? (8)

Answer: The flow Mach number is one of the important parameter for subsonic

and supersonic flows. All the flow parameters and their variations are the functions

of local Mach number (M). The pressure measurements are one of the common

practices to determine the Mach number. In subsonic flow, the simultaneous

measurement of static

Static tube are made in a similar way as shown in Fig.1. Subsequently, the isentropic

relation is used to determine the flow Mach number.

............................................................(1)

38

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

The characteristic feature of a supersonic flow is the formation of a

shock wave. So, the introduction of a Pitot probe into the flow stream, leads

to a detached bow shock (Fig. 7.6.5). Due to this shock wave at certain

distance from the measurement location, the stagnation pressure located

indicated by the probe will be much higher than the stagnation pressure of

the free stream. For the stagnation stream lines, the curved shock is normal

to the free stream and the measured value represents the stagnation pressure

downstream of the normal shock

static pressure

flow.

39

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

of the shock so that its influence on the measurement will be minimized. The

Mach number relation connecting the static and stagnation pressure

measurements is expressed by Rayleigh-Pitot formula for supersonic flows.

..................................................... (7.6.7)

The dynamic pressure

............................................................................... (7.6.8)

Thus, the Mach number calculation through static and stagnation

measurements gives complete information of a supersonic flow field.

(or)

Answer: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth

edition. (Or) Refer class notes.

4. A Pitot tube is inserted into an airflow of Mach where the static pressure is 1

atm. Calculate the total pressure measured by the tube and the loss of total

pressure experienced (10) (2010)

Answer: Refer class notes

5. Derive a relation between flow turning angle, shock angle and freestream

Mach number for oblique shock waves.

(2010)

Answer: Consider the flow taking place along a wedge as shown in Fig.

1. Let be the wedge angle and be the shock angle with the wall which is

parallel to the approaching free stream.

40

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

As we have already proved that shock exists only for supersonic flows,

consider a supersonic flow of Mach number M1 approaching the wedge. In

the presence of the shock, flow deflects by an angle which is the wedge

angle. Let us solve the mass, momentum and energy equations for this flow.

Consider the control volume as shown in Fig. 1. In this special control

volume, inlet and outlet are parallel to the shock. Other two faces of the

control volume are parallel to the streamline hence these faces will not

contribute to the mass, momentum and energy fluxes. Let u be the velocity

normal to the shock and w be the velocity parallel to the shock. Graphical

demonstration of these velocities is given in Fig. 1. Station 1 corresponds to

inlet or pre shock conditions while station 2 corresponds to outlet or post

shock conditions.

Mass conservation in integral form

41

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Hence,

(u)2 = (u)1 or 1u1 = 2u2

This is the mass conservation equation for oblique shock conditions

expressed

in

terms

of

velocities

normal

to

the

shock.

Now consider the momentum conservation equation for the same flow. Since

momentum is the vector equation, we have to consider, two equations, viz,

normal and parallel to the shock. Lets initially consider the momentum

equation in integral form for inviscid flow.

Now consider the momentum equation in the direction parallel to the shock

wave. Since there is no pressure difference in this direction, the right hand

side will be zero. Hence,

(w)pre = (w)post or w1 = w2

This expression clearly suggests that velocity parallel to the shock remains

conserved.

Now consider the momentum equation normal to the shock.

42

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

We can clearly see that the momentum equation looks exactly same as

that for the normal shock relations. Here u is the velocity normal to the shock.

Therefore only velocity component normal to the shock wave is responsible

for the change in momentum since momentum and velocity tangential to

shock are conserved.

We have already derived the mass and momentum conservation

equations for the oblique shock conditions. Consider the integral form of

energy equation for inviscid compressible flow.

43

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

But,

Hence,

44

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

shock. Here 'u' is the velocity normal to the shock. From mass,

momentum and energy equations, it is clear that, only velocity normal to

the shock, is responsibile for change in all the properties. Hence we can

still use all the equation of static and total property ratios derived for

normal shock relations by changing the freestream Mach number to Mach

number

normal

to

the

shock.

known, then we can calculate the Mach number normal to the shock as,

This relation suggests that, for oblique shock, normal Mach number

before or upstream to the shock is supersonic and hence normal Mach

number

after

or

downstream

to

the

shock

is

subsonic.

1

9

.

2

1

9

Total property ratios can be re-written in the same way. We can

3

1

9

.

45

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

It has been already observed that the Mach number normal to the shock is

responsible for all the property variations for given shock angle. However this

shock angle can be easily calculated from the upstream or freestream Mach

number for given wedge or deflection angle. Consider the same control volume

shown in Fig.1. Relation between velocities and angles before and after the

shocks are,

Before the shock

But we know that,

w1 = w2

Hence,

But

1u1 = 2u2 hence,

Therefore,

From

46

the

expression

of

upstream

Mach

number,

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

This is the expression between upstream Mach number, shock angle and wedge

angle. In most general case, we need to know the shock angle for given Mach

number and wedge angle. Following figure provides the information about the

same (Fig. 2). In this figure, each curve corresponds to various possible shock

angles for a given Mach number and flow deflection angle.

(or)

Answer: Page 107 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow,

Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes

deflection angle of 14o. Calculate the increase in shock strength if the

deflection angle is doubled to 28o and give your comments on the shock wave

characteristics. (8)

(2010)

47

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

shown in Fig. Determine the value of upto which the second shock will

remain attached. (16)

(2008)

represent it in Hodograph plane (8) (2010)

Answer: Pages 130 to 35 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible

flow, Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company (or) Refer class

notes.

If the pressure downstream of the corner is 0.1306 atm, calculate the

deflection angle of the corner. (8)

(2010)

10. An oblique shock is making 30o angle with flow direction at the exit plane of

a Mach 2.4 Laval nozzle. Determine the percentage increase in stagnation

pressure necessary to eliminate the shocks and maintain supersonic flow at

the nozzle exit. (8)

(2012)

48

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

11. A supersonic stream of air at Mach 3 and 1 atm passes through a sudden

convex and

Determine the Mach number and the pressure of the flow downstream of the

concave corner. (8)

(2012)

supersonic flow. Explain with the help of diagrams.

Answer: Refer Page 562 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D

Anderson, Fourth edition.

13. Describe the physical method of visualizing the propagation of disturbances

in a subsonic flow and supersonic flow. What is a Mach wave and Mach

angle?

Answer: Refer Pages 563 to 564 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D

Anderson, Fourth edition.

14. Derive Prandtl relation for a normal shock in a perfect gas. (May/June 2013)

Answer: Refer class notes

15. Air at P1=0.3 bar, T1=350K and M1=1.5to be expanded isentropically to 0.13

bar. Determine (1) the flow deflection angle, (2) find Mach number and (3)

the temperature of air after expansion. (May/June 2013)

Answer: Refer scan copy notes

16. For an oblique shock wave bring out proper relationships between the flows

parameters in front of the shock and behind the shock.

Answer: Refer class notes

17. Derive Prandtl- Meyers Expansion waves for a flow over a convex corner.

Answer: We have already seen that compression of supersonic flow takes

while passing through the shock. In other words, when the supersonic flow

turns into itself then it undergoes the compression through a shock. Exactly

opposite situation can be encountered when the supersonic flow turns out of

49

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

itself where, expansion of the supersonic flow takes place. This expansion

unlike compression takes place smoothly through infinite expansion waves

hence called as expansion fan. This expansion fan is comprised of infinite

number of expansion waves or Mach waves where every wave is responsible

for infinitesimal amount of deflection d. A typical expansion fan in the

supersonic flow is shown in Fig. 1.where supersonic flow turns outward by an

angle .

For better understanding of expansion of supersonic flow, consider that

p1, T1 and M1 be the properties of flow before expansion or upstream of the

expansion fan and p2, T2 and M2 be the properties of the flow after expansion or

downstream of the expansion fan due to outward deflection by an angle . For the

know upstream flow properties and deflection angle it should be possible for us

to calculate the downstream flow properties. Since the expansion is the

continuous and smooth process carried out via infinite Mach waves, lets consider

one such wave across upstream of which velocity is V and Mach number is M.

Angle made by this Mach wave with the upstream velocity vector is . Lets

consider dV be the change in velocity brought by the Mach wave by turning

through an angle d. Hence V+dV is downstream velocity and M+dM is the

downstream Mach number. If we construct the velocity triangle as shown in Fig.

.2 then we can use the sin law for triangle as,

50

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Fig.2 Velocity triangle across a typical Mach wave during supersonic expansion

.1

and

.2

We can approximate as

sin d d and cos d 1, Therefore Eq. (2) can be simplified as,

.3

51

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

and hence

Hence above equation becomes,

We can see that since for positive value of d, we get positive dV which

leads to expansion. This formula is also valid for small angles for compression

where we get negetive dV. If we integrate this formula for the toal expansion

angle then we can get the downstream Mach number.

4

V=Ma

ln V = ln M + ln a

5

We can express here the second term on right hand side in terms of Mach

number using the isentropic relations as,

52

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Using Eq. (5) and (6) we can re-write Eq. (4) as,

= v(M2) - v(M1)

Prandtl-Meyer function. Hence for known flow deflection angle and upstream

Mach number we can get the downstream Prandtl-Meyer function and hence the

downstream Mach number. Process of expansion of supersonic flow is an

isentropic process. However, while passing through the expansion fan, pressure,

temperature and density of the flow decreases while Mach number and velocity

increases for the supersonic flow. Moreover, all the total properties remain

constant. We can calculate the total pressure, temperature and density upstream

of the expansion using isentropic relations for the known flow Mach number.

From the calculated downstream Mach number, we can calculate all the static

flow properties from known stagnation or total properties.

53

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT III

EXPANSION WAVES, RAYLEIGH AND FANNO FLOW

10

shocks and expansion, waves. Method of Characteristics Two dimensional

supersonic nozzle contours. Rayleigh and Fanno Flow.

1. What is meant by shock polar?

Answer:

an attached oblique shock wave is formed at the concave corner. If the deflection

angle, is being carried through all possible values for which there is an oblique

shock solution; < max, then, the locus of all possible velocities behind the shock

is defined as the Shock polar.

Answer:

On the other hand, an incident shock gets reflected as an expansion fan

and the expansion fan gets reflected as compression waves from a free boundary.

This kind of refection is called unlike refection.

3. What is slip stream flow?

Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2012)

the wall is known as a slipstream. Across this line there is a jump in the

54

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

component being zero).

4. State the limiting values of shock wave angle in a supersonic flow for zero flow

deflection.

(Nov/Dec 2010)

(or)

what are the limiting values of shock angle for the oblique shock?

Answer:

For the oblique shock wave (i.e., for the shock to remain attached

to the body), the limiting values of shock angle are < < 90 o. When tends to ,

the shock wave becomes a weak wave known as a Mach wave. When tends to

90 o, the shock wave becomes a normal shock wave.

5. With a neat sketch illustrate prandtl-mayer expansion around a convex corner.

(May/June 2009)

Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2009)

Answer:

MACH LINES

COMPRESSION WAVES

waves

Mach lines.

2. Flow is deflected towards the

55

wave

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

properties.

properties

4. Flow is non-isentropic.

isentropic.

7. Bring out any two important differences between shock waves and expansion

waves in a supersonic flow?

(April/May 2008)

Answer:

SHOCK WAVES

EXPANSION WAVES

1. Expansion waves (or fans) occurs

supersonic flow is turned into itself

from itself.

subsonic

supersonic or subsonic

wave()

to =130.5

Answer:

process is given by the Rayleigh curve. If the upstream conditions are given by

point 1 on the curve, then, the particular Rayleigh curve through point 1 is the

locus of all possible states in region 2.

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Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Answer:

T,

v,

etc,

are

continuous,

but

along

which

the

derivatives,

may in fact be discontinuous are called as characteristic lines.

10. What are Non simple and simple regions?

Answer:

The expansion region in the nozzle covered with both left running

and right running characteristics is a non simple region. In this region, the

characteristic lines are curved.

The region which is covered by waves of only one family because the other

family is cancelled at the wall is called as simple region.

Answer:

Along the x-y coordinate, the velocity components ahead of and behind the

expansion wave can be defined as Vx1, Vy1, Vx2, Vy2. If e plot now these velocities

on a graph with VX and VY as the axis, this graph of velocity components across

the expansion wave is call the Expansion hodograph.

57

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

PART-B

1. Explain the procedure to obtain supersonic nozzle contour for a given Mach

number

(2010, 2012)

Answer: Pages 325 to 329 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow,

Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes

2. An incident shock wave of wave angle 35o impinges on a straight wall. If the

Upstream flow properties are M = 3, P = 1 atm, and T = 300 K, calculate the

Reflected shock wave angle with respect to the wall and the flow properties M,P,

T downstream of the reflected shock wave

Answer: Refer scan copy notes

3. Show that the local Mach number is unity at the point of maximum entropy on

the Rayleigh line. (8) (2012)

Answer: Pages 83 to 84 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow,

Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes.

4. Derive the Rankine-Hugoniot relation for a shock. Can this relation be applied for

a chemically reacting gas? If yes how? If not why? (8) (2012, 2009)

Answer: Refer class notes

58

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

5. What do you understand by weak oblique shock? Plot the waves over a

symmetrical diamond wedge of angle kept at zero angle of attack in a

supersonic flow.

Answer: Pages 146 to 148 - E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition.

6. For the double wedge shown in the figure below, calculate the flow Mach

numbers and the slipstream. (16)

(2008, 2012)

7. A two dimensional wedge shown in figure moves through the atmosphere at sea

level at zero angle of attack with a freestream Mach number of 3. Calculate C L

and CD using shock expansion theory (16) (2008)

is maximum. Further find the value of

59

for =1.4

at which temperature

(2013)

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

Answer:

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

with heat addition. The fluid flow of this kind is called as Rayleigh flow. Here

station 1 is representative station before heat addition while station 2 is

representative station after heat addition. This control volume is necessarily a

constant cross-section pipe hence variation is the inviscid flow properties is

expected in the direction of the flow due to addition of heat.

Assume the flow to be in viscid and steady between these two stations.

Therefore the mass and momentum conservation equations remain unaltered from

the normal shock case but energy equation will have a term corresponding to

external heat addition. Hence the 1D conservation equations for flow with heat

addition are as follows.

60

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

This equation suggests that change in total temperature takes place due to

heat addition between two stations.

Lets represent the ratios of static and total properties in terms of upstream

(station 1) and downstream (station 2) Mach number and specific heat ratio. Lets

consider the momentum equation,

61

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Therefore,

Therefore,

62

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Similarly

as

We have represented all the ratios in terms of upstream and downstream Mach

numbers. If we consider a particular case where heat addition leads to

downstream Mach number equal to one or post heat addition Mach number is

unity, then equations can be written as,

addition are the stared quantities due to unity of the local Mach number. Hence

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Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

these quantities are of very much of importance since can be used as reference

quantities.

Similarly

If we substitute

We get

shown below.

64

and

=

1+

1+

in the equation

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(2013)

2) Strong and weak shock waves

Answer: Refer class notes

65

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT IV

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR STEADY

COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

waves and Mach angles, Prandtl-Glauert affine transformation relations for

subsonic flows, Linearised two dimensional supersonic flow theory, Lift, drag

pitching moment and center of pressure of supersonic profiles.

1. Write down the Prandtl- Glauert similarity rule for pressure coefficient and

explain it.

(or)

Write down Prandtl-Glauert rule for subsonic flow for small disturbances (small

perturbations) and explain its meaning.

Answer:

which relates incompressible flow over a given two-dimensional profile to

subsonic compressible flow over the same profile. In the above equation where

Cp = coefficient of pressure in subsonic compressible flow

Cpo = coefficient of pressure in incompressible flow

M = Free stream Mach number

In similar way the lift & moment coefficient can be written as

Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2008)

Consider the 2D, irrotational, isentropic flow over the airfoil. The

an arbitrary point P in the flow field, the velocity is V with x & y components

66

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

stream & increment of velocity in x-direction similarly the y-component of

velocity will be sum of free stream & increment of velocity in y-direction.

Answer:

(April/May 2008)

we can also slightly change existing equations for incompressible flows, such that

they

approximate

compressible

flows.

Such

adjustments

are

called

compressibility corrections. The first compressibility correction is the PrandtlGlauert correction. It stated that the pressure coefficient (Cp) in a compressible

flow can be derived from the pressure coefficient Cp0 in an incompressible flow,

according to

The lift coefficient (Cl) and moment coefficient (Cm) for compressible

flow can be derived similarly, using

=

Cmo = coefficient of moment in incompressible flow

M = Free stream Mach number

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Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Answer:

( Nov/Dec 2010)

system of quasi-linear first order partial differential equations to make them more

easily solvable. Riemann invariants are constant along the characteristic curves of

the partial differential equations where they obtain the name invariant. These are

variables that propagate along 'characteristic' lines.

PART-B

1. A two-dimensional wing profile shown in figure is placed in stream of Mach

number 2.5 at an incidence of 2o. Using linearized theory, calculate CL and CD.

(16)

(2008, 2012)

equation for compressible flows (10)

(2008, 2012)

Anderson, Fourth edition,

(or)

Pages 198 to 200 - E.Rathakrishnan Gas dynamics, Third edition, Or Refer

notes.

theory and show that The linearized pressure coefficient is a function of the

perturbation velocity in the Main flow direction only.

68

(2010, 2009)

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

CP = -

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Anderson, Fourth edition, Page 208, E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third

edition , or Refer class notes.

4. Describe the Prandtl-Glauert affine transformation for subsonic flow over airfoils

and highlight its significance (2010, 2009, 2012)

Answer: Pages 213 to 217 - E .Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition, or

refer class notes

angle of attack of 5o. Calculate the lift using supersonic linear theory. Assume

that

the static pressure and temperature of the freestream air are 2 x 10 5 N/m2

Answer: Refer class notes

6. Derive expressions for lift and drag coefficients of a diamond airfoil using linear

theory (2009)

Answer: Refer E. Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition.

equation for compressible flows past over an airfoil and find out the pressure

coefficient. What are the boundary conditions imposed to solved the problem

numerically?

Answer: Refer class notes

8. What are the salient features of the linearized supersonic flow theory? Explain

the theory with necessary sketches. How is lift coefficient of a flat plate making

an angle of attack to a supersonic flow calculated using the theory.

Answer: Refer class notes

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Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

i.

ii.

Area rule

iii.

Supercritical aerofoils

iv.

10. Consider an infinitely thin flat plate at a 5 angle of attack in a Mach .6

freestream. Calculate the lift and drag coefficients using shock expansion

theory.(2013)

Answer: Refer scan copy notes

11. Consider a subsonic flow with an upstearm Mach number of M. This flow

moves over a wavy wall with a contour given by

ordinate of the wall, h is the amplitude and l is the wavelength. Assume that h is

small. Using small perturbation theory, derive an equation for the velocity

potential and the surface pressure coefficient.

Answer: Refer Page no 329 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D

Anderson, Fourth edition.

12. Write short notes on Prandtl-Glauert affine transformation

(2012, 2010)

13. Derive suitable expressions for lift and drag coefficients of a flat plate airfoil at

small angles of attack using linearized supersonic flow theory.

(2012)

70

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT V

TRANSONIC FLOW OVER WING

Lower and upper critical Mach numbers, Lift and drag divergence, shock

induced separation, Characteristics of swept wings, Effects of thickness,

camber and aspect ratio of wings, Transonic area rule.

1. Define critical Mach number for an aerofoil and explain its significance?

(May/June 2013, 2010)

Answer:

number at which the airflow over some point of the aircraft reaches the speed of

sound. For all aircraft in flight, the airflow around the aircraft is not exactly the same as

the airspeed of the aircraft due to the airflow speeding up and slowing down to travel

around the aircraft structure. At the Critical Mach number, local airflow in some areas

near the airframe reaches the speed of sound, even though the aircraft itself has

airspeed lower than Mach 1.0. This creates a weak shock wave.

2. Why sweep back applied to wings at high speeds? Or what is the need for sweep

back in supersonic vehicles?

(or)

what is the need for swept wing for a high speed air plane.

(May/June 2009)

(or)

what is the effect of sweep back on compressibility?

71

(Nov/Dec 2010)

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

Answer:

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

of shock waves, as opposed to the patterns of airflow over and under the wing.

These shock waves, as in the transonic case, generate large amounts of drag. One

of these shock waves is created by the leading edge of the wing, but contributes

little to the lift. In order to minimize the strength of this shock it needs to remain

"attached" to the front of the wing, which demands a very sharp leading edge.

Airflow behind the shock waves of a moving body are reduced to subsonic

speeds.Aircrafts with swept back wings has the following advantages.

1. More lateral stability.

2. Less turbulence when speed abruptly changes.

3. Less air friction, as wings are designed thin and fine.

4. Air velocity is split into two individual components. Velocity component

that is along the wings has no effect on airliner. The 2nd velocity

component that is perpendicular to wing has the effect, but it is less than

actual speed of airliner i.e. V. So airliner can fly at much higher speed

3. Define wave drag.

Answer:

at transonic and supersonic speeds, due to the presence of shock waves. Wave

drag is independent of viscous effects. The sudden peak or jump in the static

pressure behind the shock wave gives rise to a drag which is known as the wave

drag. Wave drag is caused by the formation of shock waves around the body.

Shock waves radiate a considerable amount of energy, resulting in drag on the

body.

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Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Answer:

(May/June 2012)

The free stream Mach number at which the entire flow around the

body is subsonic is called lower critical Mach number. The freestream Mach

number for which the entire flow around the body is supersonic is called the

upper critical Mach number.

Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2010)

fences are fixed aerodynamic devices attached to aircraft wings. Compared with

the wing tip fences, wing fences are flat plates fixed to the upper surfaces parallel

to the airflow. They are often seen on swept-wing aircraft. They obstruct spanwise airflow along the wing, and prevent the entire wing from stalling at once

A boundary layer fence on a swept wing will improve the Dutch roll

characteristics, high speed characteristics, low speed characteristics and lift

coefficient of the trailing edge flap.

Answer:

(April/May 2008)

the aerodynamic drag on an airfoil or airframe begins to increase rapidly as the Mach

number continues to increase. The drag divergence Mach number is usually close to,

and

always

greater

than,

the critical

Mach number.

Generally,

the drag

coefficient peaks at Mach 1.0 and begins to decrease again after the transition into

the supersonic regime above approximately Mach 1.2.

the upper surface of the airfoil, which can induce flow separation and adverse

pressure gradients on the aft portion of the wing.

73

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

(Nov/Dec 2008)

(or)

Sketch the different types of supersonic profiles.

(Nov/Dec 2009)

(1) concave-convex,

(2) plane-convex,

(5) reflexed,

(6) lenticular,

(7) double-wedge,

(8) wedge.

Answer:

A shock

stall is

a stall caused

by

an aircraft's wings being disturbed by shock waves when flying at or near to the

aircraft's critical Mach number. Shock stall is the separation of the boundary layer

behind the shock wave

74

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Answer:

onset of wave drag in the transonic speed range. Supercritical airfoils are

characterized by their flattened upper surface, highly cambered (curved) aft

section, and greater leading edge radius compared with traditional airfoil shapes.

Supersonic airfoils are much more angular in shape and can have a very sharp

leading edge, which is very sensitive to angle of attack. A supercritical airfoil has

its maximum thickness close to the leading edge to have a lot of length to slowly

shock the supersonic flow back to subsonic speeds.

Supersonic airfoils generally have a thin section formed of either angled planes or

opposed arcs called "double wedge airfoils" and "biconvex airfoils" respectively,

with very sharp leading and trailing edges. The sharp edges prevent the formation

of a detached bow shock in front of the airfoil as it moves through the air.

10. Why conventional subsonic airfoils are not used in supersonic flows?

Answer:

angled planes or opposed arcs called "double wedge airfoils" and "biconvex

airfoils" respectively, with very sharp leading and trailing edges. The sharp edges

prevent the formation of a detached bow shock in front of the airfoil as it moves

through the air. This shape is in contrast to subsonic airfoils, which often have

rounded leading edges to reduce flow separation over a wide range of angle of

75

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

attack. A rounded edge would behave as a blunt body in supersonic flight and

thus would form a bow shock, which greatly increases wave drag. The airfoils'

thickness, camber, and angle of attack are varied to achieve a design that will

cause a slight deviation in the direction of the surrounding airflow.

11. What is transonic area rule?

Answer:

design

(Nov/Dec 2012)

The Whitcomb area rule, also called the transonic area rule, is a

technique

used

to

reduce

an

aircraft's drag at transonic and supersonic speeds, particularly between Mach 0.75

and 1.2. To reduce the number and power of shock waves in transonic speeds,

an aerodynamic shape should change in cross sectional area as smoothly as

possible. This leads to a "perfect" aerodynamic shape known as the Sears-Haack

body. The area rule says that an airplane designed with the same cross-sectional

area distribution in the longitudinal direction as the Sears-Haack body generates

the same wave drag as this body, largely independent of the actual shape.

12. What is transonic buffeting?

Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2012)

wave will hammer on the wing skin and may be felt in the aircraft as a buffeting,

called high-speed buffeting or Mach buffeting or Transonic buffeting. That

thick and separated boundary layer will cause the lift coefficient to fall and the

drag to rise rapidly.

13. Why is there a sudden drag rise in transonic flow?

(May/June 2009)

Answer:

76

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

The above graph shows how rapidly the total drag increases at trnsonic

speeds and higher. The compressibility effect creates a wave drag, causing the

total drag to rapidly increase when the aircraft reaches transonic speed.The

compressibility effect consumes energy when the flow velocity changes from

Supersonic to subsonic over a very short distance and heating is created by the

Compression. The increase in drag starts as soon as supersonic flow is reached

over some part of the body at transonic speeds. This additional zero lift drag at

transonic speed is called wave drag. With increased volume of the body the

wave drag will increase. As a result there is a sharp increase in drag in the

transonic region until the shock waves have reached the trailing edge of the body.

The wave drag may be combined with the increase in drag due to shock induced

boundary layer separation.

14. Distinguish between sonic barrier and sonic boom?

Answer:

(Nov/Dec 2012)

moves from transonic to supersonic speed. During this process, the increased

drag, reduced controllability, and other effects which occur when an aircraft

approaches the speed of sound. Sound barrier is formerly regarded as an obstacle

to supersonic flight.

A sonic boom is the sound associated with the shock waves created by an

object traveling through the air faster than the speed of sound. Sonic booms

generate enormous amounts ofsound energy, sounding much like an explosion.

PART-B

1. Write brief notes on critical Mach number and drag divergence Mach number (6)

(2008, 2009)

Answer: Refer class notes or the answers for two marks given above.

2.

Briefly discuss transonic area rule and supercritical airfoil (8) (2008, 2009, 2012)

Answer: Refer class notes or the answers for two marks given above.

77

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

3.

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

Describe the transonic flow regime with suitable sketches of flow pattern over a

Two-dimensional airfoil.

(2010)

4.

Explain how large drag increase takes place at transonic flow. What are the

control measures adopted at the design stage?

(2010)

2009)

Answer: Refer class notes

6. Explain in detail about the effect of thickness, camber and aspect ratio on the

characteristics of wings

(2012)

(2012)

8. Make use of the sketches and plots to explain about shock wave-boundary layer

interaction increases drag.

(2013)

Answer: Refer class notes

10. Write short notes on reflection of shock wave and expansion waves from solid

boundary

Answer: Refer class notes

78

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

AE2303-Aerodynamics II

11. Write short notes on reflection of shock wave and expansion waves from freesurface boundary.

Answer: Refer class notes

12. What kind of nozzles is adopted for rockets passing through different altitudes in

a short span of time?

Answer: Refer class notes

13. Write short notes on swept forward and backward wings

Answer: Refer class notes

14. Write short notes on subcritical, critical and supercritical Mach numbers.

Answer: Refer class notes

79

Ms.S.Ilakkiya

Assistant Professor

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