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Model Free Adaptive Control

Theory and Applications

Zhongsheng Hou

(rflC)J

CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group
Boca Raton

CRC Press is

Taylor

an

& Francis

London

New York

imprint of the
Group, an informa business

Shangtai

Jin

Contents

Preface

xiii

Authors

xvii

Symbols

xix
xxiii

Acronyms
1

Introduction
1.1

Model-Based Control
1.1.1
1.1.2

1.2

1
1

Modeling and Identification


Model-Based Controller Design

1
3

Data-Driven Control

1.2.1

Definition and Motivation of Data-Driven Control

1.2.2

Object of Data-Driven

1.2.3

Necessity of Data-Driven Control Theory


and Methods

1.2.4

Brief Survey
1.2.4.1

on

Control Methods

Data-Driven Control Methods

DDC Classification

According

to

Data

According

to

Controller

10

Usage
1.2.4.2

DDC Classification
Structure

1.2.5
1.3

14

Design

Summary of Data-Driven Control Methods

Preview of the Book

Introduction

2.2

Parameter Estimation

15
17

Recursive Parameter Estimation for Discrete-Time


2.1

10

Systems

19
19

Algorithm for Linearly

Parameterized

20

2.2.1

21

2.2.2

Systems
Projection Algorithm
Least-Squares Algorithm
2.2.2.1
Least-Squares Algorithm for Time-Invariant
Parameter Estimation

22

22

vi

Contents

2.2.2.2

Modified Least-Squares

Algorithm

for

Parameter Estimation

2.3

Time-Varyiag
Parameter Estimation Algorithm for Nonlinearly
Parameterized Systems
2.3.1
Projection Algorithm and Its Modified Form
for

2.3.2

Nonlinearly Parameterized Systems


2.3.1.1
Existing Projection Algorithm
Modified Projection Algorithm
2.3.1.2
Least-Squares Algorithm and Its Modified Form
for Nonlinearly Parameterized Systems
2.3.2.1
Existing Least-Squares Algorithm
2.3.2.2

2.4

Least-Squares Algorithm

27

27
27
28

32
32

34
44

Conclusions

Dynamic Linearization Approach of Discrete-Time


Nonlinear Systems

45

3.1

Introduction

45

3.2

SISO Discrete-Time Nonlinear

3.3

Compact

3.2.2

Partial Form Dynamic Linearization


Full Form Dynamic Linearization

47

47
53
59

MIMO Discrete-Time Nonlinear

Systems

64

3.3.1

Compact Form Dynamic

Linearization

64

3.3.2

Partial Form

Dynamic Linearization
Full Form Dynamic Linearization

3.3.3
3.4

Systems

Form Dynamic Linearization

3.2.1
3.2.3

Modified

24

Conclusions

66

69
71

Model-Free Adaptive Control of SISO Discrete-Time


Nonlinear

Systems

75

4.1

Introduction

75

4.2

CFDL Data Model Based MFAC

77

Control

77

4.2.2

System Design
Controller Algorithm
4.2.1.2
PPD Estimation Algorithm
4.2.1.3
System Control Scheme
Stability Analysis

77

4.2.1.1

4.2.3

Simulation Results

87

4.2.1

4.3

PFDL Data Model Based MFAC


4.3.1

Control

System Design
Controller Algorithm
4.3.1.1
PG Estimation Algorithm
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.3
System Control Scheme

78

79
80

93
93

94
94

95

Contents

4.4

Stability Analysis

4.3.3

Simulation Results

104

FFDL Data Model Based MFAC

108

4.4.1

108

Control

System Design

4.4.1.1

Controller

4.4.1.2

PG Estimation

System

Algorithm
Algorithm

110
Ill

Control Scheme

111

Simulation Results

4.4.2

96

4.3.2

4.4.1.3
4.5

113
118

Conclusions

Model-Free Adaptive Control of MIMO Discrete-Time


Nonlinear
5.1
5.2

119

Systems

Introduction

119

CFDL Data Model Based MFAC

120

5.2.1

Control

System Design

5.2.1.1

Controller

120
121

Algorithm

5.2.2

PJM
Algorithm
System Control Scheme
Stability Analysis

122

5.2.3

Simulation Results

132

5.2.1.2

Estimation

123

5.2.1.3

5.3

Control

System Design

5.3.1.1

Controller

136

Algorithm

137

5.3.2

PPJM
Algorithm
5.3.1.3
System Control Scheme
Stability Analysis

5.3.3

Simulation Results

Estimation

145

138
139

149

FFDL Data Model Based MFAC

5.4.1

Control

System Design

149

5.4.1.1

Controller

150

5.4.1.2
5.4.1.3
5.4.2
5.5

134
134

5.3.1.2

5.4

124

PFDL Data Model Based MFAC

5.3.1

vii

Algorithm
PPJM Estimation Algorithm
System Control Scheme

151
152

Simulation Results

153

156

Conclusions

Model-Free

Adaptive

Predictive Control

157

6.1

Introduction

157

6.2

CFDL Data Model Based MFAPC

158

6.2.1

Control
6.2.1.1
6.2.1.2
6.2.1.3

System Design
Controller Algorithm
PPD Estimation Algorithm and
Algorithm
Control Scheme

158
160
Prediction
161
162

viii

Contents

6.3

6.2.2

Stability Analysis

164

6.2.3

Simulation Results

167

PFDL Data Model Based MFAPC

171

6.3.1

171

6.3.1.1

Controller Algorithm

6.3.1.2

PG Estimation

Algorithm and
Prediction Algorithm

174

6.3.1.3

Control Scheme

176
177
182

6.4.1

182

Control
6.4.1.2
6.4.1.3

6.4.2

System Design
Controller Algorithm
PG Estimation Algorithm
Control Scheme

184
185
186

Simulation Results

188

Conclusions

190

Model-Free Adaptive Iterative

Learning

Control

193

7.1

Introduction

193

7.2

CFDL Data Model Based MFAILC

195

7.2.1

CFDL Data Model in the Iteration Domain

195

7.2.2

Control

System Design

198

7.2.2.1

Controller

7.2.2.2

PPD Iterative

7.2.2.3

CFDL-MFAILC Scheme

7.3

174

FFDL Data Model Based MFAPC


6.4.1.1

6.5

System Design

Simulation Results

6.3.2
6.4

Control

Algorithm
Updating Algorithm

198
199
199

7.2.3

Convergence Analysis

200

7.2.4

Simulation Results

204

Conclusions

205

Model-Free Adaptive Control for Complex Connected Systems


and Modularized Controller
8.1

Introduction

8.2

MFAC for

207

Complex

Connected

Systems

208

8.2.1

Series Connection

209

8.2.2

Parallel Connection

212

8.2.3

Feedback Connection

214

8.2.4

Complex Interconnection

217

8.2.5

Simulation Results

219

8.2.5.1

Series, Parallel, and Feedback Connection

Complex Interconnection
Modularized Controller Design
8.3.1
Estimation-Type Control System Design
8.3.2
Embedded-Type Control System Design
8.2.5.2

8.3

207

Design

219
220

223
223
229

Contents

8.3.2.1

Embedded-Type Control System Design


for Nonrepetitive Systems

8.3.2.2

Modularized Controller
for

8.3.3
8.4
9

229

Scheme

Repetitive Systems

232

Simulations

235

Conclusions

238

Robustness of Model-Free Adaptive Control

241

9.1

Introduction

241

9.2

MFAC in the Presence of Output Measurement Noise

242

9.2.1

Robust

242

9.2.2

Simulations

9.3

9.4

10

Design

ix

Stability Analysis

247

MFAC in the Presence of Data


9.3.1

Robust

9.3-2

MFAC Scheme with

9.3.3

Simulations

247

Dropouts

249

Stability Analysis

Data-Dropped Compensation

252

258

Conclusions

259

Symmetric Similarity for Control System Design

261

10.1

261

10.2

Introduction

for

Symmetric Similarity
Adaptive
Design
10.2.1 Concepts and Design Principle of Symmetric
Similarity
10.2.2 Adaptive Control with Symmetric Similarity
Control

263
264

Structure

10.2.2.1

266
Control with

Adaptive

10.2.3

Symmetric Similarity
Systems
10.2.2.2 Adaptive Control with Symmetric Similarity
Structure for Nonlinear Systems
MFAC with Symmetric Similarity Structure

10.2.4

Simulations

Structure for Linear

10.2.4.1

266
270
272
273

Control with

Adaptive

Symmetric Similarity

Structure

276

MFAC with

10.3

10.4

10.2.4.2
Symmetric Similarity Structure ....278
280
Similarity between MFAC and MFAILC
between
and
Control
Iterative
Similarity
Adaptive
Learning
Control
10.4.1

283

Adaptive

Control for Discrete-Time Nonlinear

Systems

287

10.4.1.1

Problem Formulation

287

10.4.1.2

Adaptive

287

Control

Design
Stability
Convergence Analysis
10.4.2 Adaptive ILC for Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems
10.4.1.3

and

10.4.2.1

Problem Formulation

288
293
293

Contents

10.4.3
10.5

11

Adaptive Iterative Learning Control Design


Stability and Convergence Analysis
Comparison between Adaptive Control
and Adaptive ILC
10.4.2.2

293

10.4.2.3

294
301

304

Conclusions

305

Applications
11.1

Introduction

305

11.2

Three-Tank Water

306

11.2.1

System
Experimental Setup

306

Three Data-Driven Control Schemes

308

MFAC Scheme

308

11.2.2.2 VRFT Method

308

11.2.2.3 IFT Method

309

11.2.2

11.2.2.1

11.2.3

11.2.3.1
11.2.3.2
11.3

309

Experimental Investigation

Permanent
11.3.1

11.3.2

309

Experiment
Experiment II

314
314

Magnet Linear Motor

Permanent

Magnet Linear Motor System


Experimental Setup

316

11.3.1.1

316

11.3.1.2

MFAC Scheme

317

11.3.1.3

Experiments

319

Dual-Axis Linear Motor Gantry System

325

Experimental Setup

325

11.3.2.1

11.3.2.2 MFAC Scheme for the Dual-Axis Linear


Motor

11.4

11.5

11.6

11.7

326

Gantry System

11.3.2.3

326

Freeway

Traffic

329

11.4.1

Macroscopic Traffic Model

Experiments
System

331

11.4.2 Control Scheme

333

11.4.3

Simulations

334

Welding
11.5.1 Experimental Setup

339

Process

339

11.5.2

Control Scheme

340

11.5.3

Simulations

341

11.5.4

Experimental Investigation

341
343

MW Grade Wind Turbine


11.6.1

Wind Turbine Blade Static

11.6.2

Control Scheme

11.6.3

Static

Conclusions

Loading Experiment

Loading

Control

System

345
346
347
348

Contents

12

Conclusions and

Perspectives

xi

351

12.1

Conclusions

351

12.2

Perspectives

353

References

355

Index

371