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Instruction Manual and

Experiment Guide for


the PASCO scientific
Model ME-9430

D
y
n
a
m
i
c
s
C

01204840D
4/94

1992PASCOscientific

$10.00

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Table of Contents

Section Page
Copyright,Warranty,EquipmentReturn,andCredits..................ii
Introduction

..................................................1

Equipment....................................................1
Experiment1:Kinematics(Averagevs.InstantaneousVelocities)........3
Experiment2:CoefficientofFriction..............................5
Experiment3:Newton'sSecondLaw(PredictingAccelerations).........7
Experiment4:CartCalibration(MeasuringtheSpringConstant)........11
Experiment5:Rackets,Batsand"SweetSpots".....................15
Experiment6:SlidingFrictionandConservationofEnergy............19
Appendix

...................................................23

i
DynamicsCart

01204840D

Copyright, Warranty and Equipment Return


PleaseFeelfreetoduplicatethismanual
subjecttothecopyrightrestrictionsbelow.

Copyright Notice
ThePASCOscientificModelME9430DynamicsCart
withMassmanualiscopyrightedandallrightsreserved.
However,permissionisgrantedtononprofiteducational
institutionsforreproductionofanypartofthismanual
providingthereproductionsareusedonlyfortheir
laboratoriesandarenotsoldforprofit.Reproductionunder
anyothercircumstances,withoutthewrittenconsentof
PASCOscientific,isprohibited.

Limited Warranty
PASCOscientificwarrantsthisproducttobefreefrom
defectsinmaterialsandworkmanshipforaperiodofone
yearfromthedateofshipmenttothecustomer.PASCO
willrepairorreplace,atitsoption,anypartoftheproduct
whichisdeemedtobedefectiveinmaterialorworkman
ship.Thiswarrantydoesnotcoverdamagetotheproduct
causedbyabuseorimproperuse.Determinationofwhether
aproductfailureistheresultofamanufacturingdefector
improperusebythecustomershallbemadesolelyby
PASCOscientific.Responsibilityforthereturnof
equipmentforwarrantyrepairbelongstothecustomer.
Equipmentmustbeproperlypackedtopreventdamageand
shippedpostageorfreightprepaid.(Damagecausedby
improperpackingoftheequipmentforreturnshipmentwill
notbecoveredbythewarranty.)Shippingcostsfor
returningtheequipment,afterrepair,willbepaidby
PASCOscientific.

Credits
Thismanualauthoredby:ScottK.Perry

Thismanualeditedby:
DaveGriffith

Equipment Return
Should the product
havetobereturnedto
PASCO scientific for
any reason, notify
PASCO scientific by
letter, phone, or fax
BEFORE returning
theproduct.
Upon
notification,the
return
authorizationand
shipping
instructionswill
bepromptly
issued.
NOTE: NO

EQUIPMENT
WILLBE
ACCEPTED
FORRETURN
WITHOUTAN
AUTHORIZA
TIONFROM
PASCO.
Whenreturning
equipmentforrepair,
theunitsmustbe
packedproperly.
Carrierswillnot
acceptresponsibility
fordamagecausedby
improperpacking.To

becertaintheunitwillnotbedamagedinshipment,
observethefollowingrules:

Thepackingcartonmustbestrongenoughfor
theitemshipped.

Makecertainthereareatleasttwoinches
ofpackingmaterialbetweenanypointonthe
apparatusandtheinsidewallsofthecarton.

Makecertainthatthepackingmaterialcannot
shiftintheboxorbecomecompressed,allowingthe
instrumentcomeincontactwiththepackingcarton.

Address:
scientific

PASCO
10101
Foothills
Blvd.
Roseville
,CA
95747
7100

Phone:
7863800

(916)

FAX:
7863292
email:

(916)

techsupp@pasco.com
web:
www.pasco.com

ii

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Introduction
NOTE:
ThePASCOModelME9430DynamicsCartwith
Massperformshighqualitymotionexperiments
throughitslowfrictiondesign.

Whileperforming
experimentsyoumayfind
thatyougetbetterresults
bymakingthesurface
ThePASCODynamicsCarthasseveralexcellent
overwhichthecartrolls
features:
moreuniformandclean.
Onewaythatthiscanbe
1 Extremely low friction ballbearing design achievedisbytapinga
providessmoothmotion.
longpieceofbutcher
2 Builtinspringplunger,activatedbyaconvenientpapertothesurfaceon
trigger(button)locatedonthefrontendcap,with whichthecartrolls.
threepositionsof launchingamplitudeenables the
Thespringplungerofthe
carttobelaunchedwithoutusingadditionalappa
DynamicsCarthasthree
ratus.
cockingpositions.
3 Uniquesuspensionsystemallowsthewheelsto Determinetheonethat
collapseinsidethebodyofthecarttoprevent
givesyouarangethatfits
damagetotheinternalcomponentsofthecart
yoursituationbest,taking
causedbybeingdroppedorothermisuse(suchas intoaccountthe
thecartbeingusedasarollerskate).
limitationsofspace.Most
4 Ruggedconstructiononthecartbodyandend experimentsrequirea
capspreventsdamagetothecartandtheenviron rangeofatleast2meters
ormore.Tocockthe
mentduringhighimpactsituations.
springplunger,pushthe
5 Convenientholeslocatedatthetopoftheend plungerin,andthenpush
caponeachendoftheDynamicsCartfacilitatethe
theplungerupward
useofstring,springs,etc..
slightlytoallowoneof
6 HookandloopfastenersonthefrontofeachDy thenotchesontheplunger
namicsCartenabletheusertoperforminelastic
bartocatchontheedge
collisionexperimentswithoutusingadditionalap ofthesmallmetalbarat
paratus.
thetopofthehole.

7 ThemassoftheDynamicsCartis
approximately500g.Theadditionalmassalsohas
anapproximatemassof500g.

performing
experiments
withtheDy
namicsCartand
Massthey
shouldbecali
bratedtoinsure
accurateresults
fromyour
experiments.It
issuggestedto
performEx
periment#2
before
Experiment#5
and#4before
#6.

1 Toinsurethat
youdonotgive
thecartanini
tialvelocity,
otherthanthat
suppliedbythe
springplunger,
releasethe
triggerby
tappingitwitha
rodorstick
usingaflat
edge.

1 Rolling

NOTE:Forbestresults,measurethemassofthe
cartandmassbarwithanaccuratebalanceorscale.

8 Otherfeaturesinclude:roundedcornerson
moldedplasticendcapsfordurability,atrayon
topofthecartforapplicationofadditionalmass
andtheabilityofthecartstobestacked.

1 Before

Practicelaunchingthe
DynamicsCartby
placingthecartonthe
floorwithitscocked
plungeragainstawallor
asecuredbrick.

distancecanbe
shortened by
adding more
mass to the
cart.

1 For even less


friction use 1/4
inchplateglass
as surface for
the dynamics
cart.
1

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Equipment
4 Metric Ruler
AdditionalEquipment
TheME9430DynamicsCartwithMassincludesthe Required
following:
1 A spool of
1 (1)DynamicsCart
thread
2 (1)500gMass
2 Masses such as
Slotted Mass Set
3 InstructionManual/ExperimentsGuide.
(SE8704)

3 Apulleyand
clampsuchas
SuperPulleywith
Clamp(ME9448)
orSuperPulley
(ME9450)used
withModelME
9376AUniversal
TableClampand
ModelSA9242
PulleyMounting
Rod

Dynamics Cart
(500 g 20 g)
Plunger Bar
Release
Access
ory
Tray

Plunger Bar
Knob

such as
Measuring
(SE8712)
30cm/12in.
(SE8731)

Metric
Tape
and
Ruler

5 Stopwatch such
as

Digital
Stopwatch (SE
8702)

6 Mass balance
suchasTripleBeam
Balance
(SE8723)

AFrictionBlock
thatcanfitinthe
cart'saccessory
tray(suchas
PASCOpart
number003
04708)

Plunger Bar

Additional Mass
(500 g 20 g)

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Experiment 1: Kinematics
(Average vs. Instantaneous Velocities)
EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCart(ME9430)
Metrictape(SE8712)
Stopwatch(SE8702)

Figure1.1

Purpose
Inthislab,theDynamicsCartwillbeusedtoinvestigateonedimensionalaccelerated
motion.Thecartwillbelaunchedoverthefloorusingthebuiltinspringplunger.Thecart
willdecelerateoverthefloorunderthecombinedactionofrollingfrictionandfloor
slope.Youwillbeabletoestablishwhetherornottheaccelerationofthecartisconstant.
Thiswillbedonebyinitiallyassumingaconstantaccelerationandthenbyexaminingthe
resultstoseeiftheyareconsistentwiththisassumption.

Theory
Thecartwillbeallowedtorolltoastop.ThedistancecoveredDandthetotalelapsedtime
Tfromlaunchtostopwillbemeasuredandrecorded.Theaveragevelocityoverthis
intervalisgivenby:
D
vav=
EQN1
T
Iftheaccelerationofthecartisconstantasitrollstoastopoverthefloor,thentheinitial
instantaneousvelocityofthecartatthefinalmomentoflaunchisgivenby:
2D
v0=2vav=
EQN2
Andthevalueoftheaccelerationwouldbegivenby:
a=

v
t

0v

2D

EQN3

T2

Iftheaccelerationandvoareknown,thenthetimet1requiredtocoverthedistancedto
someintermediatepoint(i.e.shortofthefinalstoppingpoint!)canbecalculatedbyapply
ingthequadraticformulato:
d=v0t1+1/2at12EQN4
Calculatedvaluesoft1willbecomparedwithdirectlymeasuredvalues.Theextentto
whichthecalculatedvaluesagreewiththedirectlymeasuredvaluesisanindicationofthe
constancyoftheaccelerationofthecart.
NoteyourtheoreticalvaluesinTable1.1.

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Procedure
1

Onceyouhaveroughlydeterminedtherangeofthecart,clearlymarkadistancedthat
isabouthalfwayoutfromthestart.MeasurethisdistanceandrecorditatthetopofTable1.1.

Usingastopwatchwithalaptimerandmetrictape,itispossibletodeterminet1,T
andDforeachlaunch.Practicethisstepafewtimesbeforeyoustartrecordingdata.
NOTE:Inordertoeliminatereactiontimeerrors,itisveryimportanttohavetheperson
wholaunchesthecartalsobethetimer!

Launchthecartandrecordthedatadescribedinthepreviousstepforsixtrials.To
cockthespringplunger,pushtheplungerin,andthenpushtheplungerupwardslightlyto
allowoneofthenotchesontheplungerbartocatchontheedgeofthesmallmetalbaratthe
topofthehole.(Dontcountthetrialsinwhichthetimerfeelsthatadistractioninterferedwith
themeasurement.)RecordyourbesttrialsinTable1.1.

Usingtheequationsdescribedinthetheorysectionandthedatarecordedinthetable,
thendothecalculationsneededtocompletethetable.

Data Analysis
d=_______cm

Trial

Experiment
t1 (sec)

T (sec)

D (cm)

vo (cm/s) a (cm/s )

Theory
t1 (sec)

% Diff.

1
2
3
4
5
6
Table 1.1

Questions
1

Isthereasystematicdifferencebetweentheexperimentalandcalculatedvaluesof

t1?Ifso,suggestpossiblefactorsthatwouldaccountforthisdifference.

Canyouthinkofasimplefollowupexperimentthatwouldallowyoutodetermine
howmuchthecartsdecelerationwasaffectedbyfloorslope?

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Experiment 2: Coefficient of Friction


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCart(ME9430)
Metrictape(SE8712)
Stopwatch(SE8702)

Purpose
Inthislab,theDynamicsCartwillbelaunchedoverthefloorusingtheonboardspring
launcher.Thecartwilldecelerateoverthefloorunderthecombinedactionofrolling
frictionandtheaveragefloorslope.Inordertodetermineboththecoefficientofrolling
frictionrandthesmallangleatwhichthefloorisinclined,twoseparate
experimentsmustbedone.(Recallthattodeterminethevalueoftwounknownsyou
musthavetwoequations.)

UPSLOPE

N
S
L
O
P
E

Figur
e 2.1

Theory
Thecartwillbelaunchedseveral
timesinonedirectionandthenitwill
belaunchedseveraltimesalongthe
samecoursebutintheopposite
direction.Forexample,ifthefirstfew
runsaretowardtheeastthenthenext
fewrunswillbetowardthewest.See
Figure2.1.Inthedirectionwhichis
slightlydownslopetheacceleration
ofthecartisgivenby:
a1=+
gsinr
gEQN1
(sincecos
1)
Andtheaccelerationinthedirection
thatisslightlyupslopewillbe:
a2=
gsin
rg
EQN
2

Numericalvaluesforthese
accelerationscanbedeterminedby
measuringboththedistancedthatthe
cartrollsbeforestoppingandthe
correspondingtimet.Giventhese
valuestheaccelerationcanbe
determinedfrom:

a=
2d

H
ta

EQN3

EQN1and solved
EQN2canbe simulta

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Procedure
1

Placethecartinitsstartingpositionandthenlaunchit.Tocockthespringplunger,
pushtheplungerin,andthenpushtheplungerupwardslightlytoallowoneofthenotches
onthe
plungerbartocatchontheedgeofthesmallmetalbaratthetopofthehole.Usinga
stopwatchandmetrictape,determinetherangedandthetotaltimespentrollingt.Record
theseinTable2.1.

RepeatstepsixtimesforeachdirectionandenteryourresultsinTable2.1.
1

UsingEQN3,computetheaccelerationscorrespondingtoyourdataandan
averageaccelerationforeachofthetwodirections.
Usingtheresultsofstep determiner,andbysolvingforthetwounknowns
algebraically.

First Direction

Trial

d (cm)

1
2
3
4
5
6

t (sec)

a(

cm
2

Seco
nd
Direc
tion

Trial cm d (cm) t
(sec)
a(

s2 )

fri
oorAngle=________________
cti
AverageAcceleration=__________
on Questions
=
1
Can you
__
think of another
__
waytodetermine
Data
__
the acceleration
__
Analysis
of the cart? If
__
youhavetimetry
Coeffi
__
it!
cient
__
of
Howlargeistheeffectof
__
rollin
floorslopecomparedtothatof
Fl
g
rollingfriction?

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Experiment 3: Newton's Second Law


(Predicting Accelerations)
EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

T
ri
g
g
e
r

DynamicsCart(ME9430)
Pulleyandpulleyclamp(ME9448)
Massset(SE8704)
Stopwatch(SE8702)

Figure 3.1
Paper clips

String
Paperclips

Bumper
block

Block(toactasbumper)
Balance(SE8723orequiv.)

Purpose
Inthislab,asmallmassmwillbe
connectedtotheDynamicsCartby
astringasshowninFigure3.1.The
stringwillpassoverapulleyatthe
tablesedgesothatasthemass
fallsthecartwillbeaccelerated
overthetablessurface.Aslongas
thestringisnottooelasticand
thereisnoslackinit,boththe
fallingmassandthedynamicscart
willhavethesameacceleration.
Theresultingaccelerationofthis
systemwillbedetermined
experimentallyandthisvaluewill
becomparedtotheacceleration
predictedbyNewtonsSecond
Law.

Theory
Thecartwillbereleasedfrom
restandallowedtoaccelerate
overadistanced.Usingastop
watch,youwilldeterminehow
longittakes,onaverage,forthe
carttomovethroughthe
distanced.Anexperimental
valueforthecartsacceleration

m
horizontal(i.e.level),
i
NewtonsSecondLaw(F
n
=ma)predictsthatthe
g
accelerationofthissystem

willbe:
t
F
net
h
M
a=
or
a
TOTAL
t
Procedure

1
Setupthepulley,cart,
t
andabumperofsomesortto
h
preventthecartfromhittingthe
e
pulleyattheendofitsrun.Add

thefollowingmassestothebed
t
ofthecart:10g,50g,500g
a
andtwo20grammasses.
b
l
1
Carefully level the
e
table until the cart has no
t
particulartendencytodriftor
o
accelerate in either direction
p
alongitsrun.

i
1
Put a loop in one
s
endofthestringandplace

this loop over the spring


t
release trigger on the
r
DynamicsCart.Drapethe
u
string over the pulley.
l
Adjust the pulley so the
y
stringislevel.

c
a
n

b
e
d
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
e
d

f
r
o
m
:

A
s
s
u
7

a=

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Adjustthelengthofthestringsothatthelongestarrangementofmassesthatyou
intendtousewillnothitthefloorbeforethecarthasreachedtheendofitsrun.Putaloopin
thisendofthestring.
NOTE:Thecartsaccelerationfallstozerowhenthefallingmasshitsthefloor.

Hangenoughpaperclipsontothedanglingloopinthestringuntilthecartwilljust
continuetomovewithoutapparentaccelerationwhenbarelynudged.Thissmalladdedmass
willcompensateforfrictioninthesystemandwillbeignoredinthefollowingcalculations.
Thepaperclipswillremainattachedtotheloopthroughouttheexperiment!

Movea10grammassfromthebedofthecarttothehangingloopandpullthecart
backtoaclearlymarkedstartingpoint.Determinethedistancedthatthecartwillmove
fromthestartingpointtothebumperblockandrecordthisdistanceatthetopofTable3.1.
NOTE:Thetotalmassofthesystemwillremainconstantthroughouttheexperiment.

Practicereleasingthecartbeingcarefulnottogiveitanypushorpullasyoudoso.
Thebestwaytodothisistopressyourfingerintothetableinfrontofthecartthereby
blockingitsmovement.Quicklypullyourfingerawayinthedirectionthatthecartwantsto
move.Attheinstantyoupullyourfingeraway,startyourstopwatch.Stopyourstopwatchat
theinstantthecartarrivesatthebumper.Toeliminatereactiontimeerrorsitisbestthatthe
personwhoreleasesthecartalsodoesthetiming!

Determinetheaveragetimeforthecarttomovethroughthedistancedhaving
beenreleasedfromrest.Recordtheaverageofthefourtimetrialsinwhichyouhave
themostconfidenceinTable3.1..Repeatforallofthemassesgiveninthedatatable.

Excludingthepulley,determinethetotalmassofyoursystem,MTotal(cart,
addedmasses,string)andrecordatthetopofTable3.1.(Itwillbecloseto1100grams,but
youmightwanttocheckitonabalance.)

FillinthetableusingyourdataandtheequationsgivenintheTheorysection.

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Data Analysis
d=__________cmMTOTAL=__________grams

Average time

Trial

m (grams)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

(sec.)

cm

exp s2

cm

Th s2

% Diff.

Table 3.1

Questions
1

Canyouthinkofanysystematicerrorsthatwouldeffectyourresults?Explainhow
eachwouldskewyourresults.
9

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Notes:

10

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Experiment 4: Cart Calibration


(Measuring the Spring Constant)
EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCart(ME9430)
Massset(SE8704)

500gmass

Stopwatch(SE8702)

Panforholdingmasses

15cm/6inruler(SE8730)

Balance(SE8723orequiv.)

Purpose
TheDynamicsCarthasaspringplungerwhichcanbeusedtoproducerelativelyelastic
collisionsbutcanalsobeusedtoprovideareproduciblelaunchvelocity.

Theory
Forthisandfollowingexperiments,itwillbenecessarytofindthespringconstantkofthecarts
springplunger.AscompressionalforcesFareappliedtothespringthespringwillcompressa
distancexwhichismeasuredwithrespecttoitsuncompressedequilibriumposition.IfFisplotted
versusxongraphpaper,thespringconstantisgivenbytheslopeofthegraphas:

k=F/x

EQN1

Oncekisknownitispossibletopredictthelaunchvelocityvobyusingconservationof
energysincetheelasticpotentialenergystoredinthespringisconvertedintokineticenergy
atthetimeoflaunch.Thelaunchvelocitycanbefoundfrom:
1
2

whichleadsto:

mv 2 = 1 kx 2
0

vo=xo

EQN2

k
m

EQN3
Thispredictedlaunchvelocitycanbecheckedexperimentallybymeasuringthetotalrollingdis
tancedonahorizontalsurfaceandthecorrespondingtimetforgivenlaunchconditions.Thisleads
to:
dt
vo=2
EQN4
Whereitisassumedthattheaccelerationofthecartisconstantsothattheinitialvelocityof
thecartatthemomentoflaunchistwicetheaveragevelocityofthecartoveritswholerun.
1/2 Total added
mass

Total added mass

Note the initial position of the plunger

15 cm Ruler attached to cart

Spring plunger

Pan for holding


masses

Note the final


position of the end
of the plunger

11

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Procedure
1

StandtheDynamicscartonitsendsothatthespringplungerisaimedupasshownin
Figure4.1.Usingmaskingtapeorrubberbandsfixarulertothecartandadjustitsothatthe
0cmmarkontherulerlinesupwiththeuppersurfaceoftheplunger.Takecaretoavoid
parallaxerrors!

Carefullyaddenoughmasstothetopoftheplungersothatitisnearlyfully
depressed.Recordthismassandthecorrespondingcompression x (initialposition)of
thespringinTable4.1.

Removeapproximatelyonequarterofthemassusedinstep2andrecordthenew
massandxvaluesinTable4.1.

Repeatstepuntilnomassremainsontheplunger.
1

PlotagraphofFversusxusingyourdataanddeterminetheslopeofthebestlinethrough
yourdatapoints.Thisslopeisthespringconstantforyourcart.Showyourslopecalcula
tionsonthegraphandrecordkbelow.

Determinethemassofthecartusingamassbalanceandrecordthisvaluebelow.
1

Using EQN3 and your values for m, xo (i.e. the compression of the cocked
spring)andk,predictthelaunchvelocityofyourcartandrecordthisbelow.

Cockthespringplungertothevalueofxothatyouhavechosenthenplacethecart
initsstartingpositionandlaunchit.Usingastopwatchandameterstick,determinethe
averagerangedandtheaveragetotaltimespentrollingt.Recordthesebelow.

NOTE:Toavoidreactiontimeerrors,thepersonwholaunchesthecartshouldalso
timethecartsmotion.

UsingEQN4,determinetheobservedvalueofvoandcompareitwiththepredictedvalue.
Data and Analysis
Massofcart=_________kg
N

k=________

xo=________m

Predictedvalueoflaunchvelocityvo=__________

Averaged=_________m

Averaget=__________sec
m

Observedvalueofthelaunchvelocityvo=__________

%Differencebetweenobservedandexpectedvaluesofv o=__________

12

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Trial

m (kg)

F (= mg)
(newtons)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Table 4.1

13

x (meters)

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Notes:

14

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Experiment 5: Rackets, Bats and "Sweet Spots"


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCart(ME9430)

Massset(SE8704)

Metrictape(SE8712)

Meterstickoralongrod

Longhorizontaltableorboard(3/4x1x8)

Purpose
Whenabatterortennisplayerstrikesaballaportionoftherotationalkineticenergyofthebat
orracketistransferredtotheball.Inasomewhatoversimplifiedpicture,themotionofthebat
orracketcanbethoughtofasasimplerotationaboutapivotwhichislocatednearitsendand
closetothebatterswrists.Theportionofthebatsoriginalkineticenergythatistransferredto
theballdependsonthedistanceybetweenthepointofimpactandthepivotpoint.Theposi
tiononthebatcorrespondingtothemaximumenergytransferiscalledasweetspot.We
willcallthismaximumenergysweetspotSS1.
NOTE:Forsimplicityitisassumed
thatthecollisionsareperfectlyelastic

Pivot point

Theory

Asanybattercantellyou;ifyouhit
theballatacertainpointonthebat,
therewillbenoshock,orimpulse,
transferredtoyourhands!This
sweetspotisgenerallylocatedata
differentpositionthanSS1andis
calledthepercussionpoint.We
willcallthiszeroimpulsesweetspot

SS2.Foragivenbatandpivotthe
positionofSS2canbefoundfrom:
SS2

my

cm

NOTE: Release
the stick from the
same position each
trial.

Figure 5.1

EQN1

whereIistherotationalinertialof
thebatforthecorrespondingpivot,misthetotalmassofthebat,andycmisthedistancefrom
thepivottothecenterofmassofthebat.(e.g.IfauniformrodoflengthLispivotedaboutan
endpoint,SS2islocatedat0.67Lfromthepivot.)
ThepositionsofbothSS1andSS2canbefoundtheoretically,orbyusingtheSweetSpot
computerprogram(seepage18fordetails).ThepositionofSS2canbefoundexperimentally
usingthePASCOForceTransduceror,roughly,byactuallyhittingaballatavarietyof
positionsonthebatandnotingwheretheleastshocktoyourwristsoccurs.Inthisexperiment,
amethodfordeterminingthelocationofSS1isdescribed.
Usingameterstickorrodasabat(seeFigure5.1),theDynamicsCartcanplaytheroleofa
ball.Byobservinghowfarthecartrollsafterimpact,therelative,orevenabsoluteenergy

transfercanbedeterminedforvariousvaluesofy.InthismannerSS1canbefound.

15

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Ifyouhavealreadydonetheexperimenttodeterminethecoefficientofrollingfrictionforyour
cartforthesamesurfacethatyouwillbeusinginthisexperiment,youcandeterminethe
kineticenergyofthecartatthemomentafterimpactsince:
1 2
mv
2

=mgx

EQN2

Procedure
1

SetupthesystemasshowninFigure5.1.Positionthecartsothatitsplungerhangs
overtheedgeofthetableseveralcentimeters.

NOTE:Youwillneedalong,horizontaltable,orboardforthisexperiment.A3/4inch
by1footby8footplywoodboardisrecommended.

Arrangetohaveastopofsomesorttoinsurethatyoualwaysusethesamepullback
angleforthehangingmeterstick.

Pullthemeterstickorrodbacktothepullbackanglethatyouhavechosenand
releaseit,allowingittostrikethecartplunger.Recordthecorrespondingvaluesofyandxin
Table5.1.
Repeatstepfourtimesforeachvalueofy,changingitfromroughly10to90cm
in10cmincrements.

Computetheaveragevalueofxforeachvalueofy.
Byinterpolation,determinethelocationofSS1fromyourdataandrecorditbelowTable5.1.
UsingEQN1computethelocationofSS2andrecorditbelowTable5.1.
1

If time permits, repeat the above after either repositioning the pivot (i.e.
chokingup)oradding100gramsorsoatsomepointonthestick

NOTE:thiswouldaddalittlerealismtotheexperimentsinceneitherabatnoratennis
racketisuniform!

16

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Data and Analysis

Trial

y (cm)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

x (cm)

Average
x (cm)

Optional
mgx (joules)

Table 5.1

ypositionofSS1=_________cm&ypositionofSS2=_________cm

Questions
1

IsitpossibletoconstructaSuperbatforwhichbothSS1andSS2coincide?Ifso,
whatchangeswouldhavetooccurtotheuniformrodtobringSS1andSS2closertogether?
(YoumightusetheSweetSpotcomputerprogramtohelpyouanswerthis!)

Whatassumptionshavewemadeinanalyzingthissystem?Howdotheyeffectourresults?

17

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Sweet Spot Computer Program

ThefollowingisalistingoftheSweetSpotcomputerprogramwrittenby
ScottK.PerryofAmericanRiverCollege,Sacramento,CA.,usingQuickbasic4.5.
DeltaP=INT(100
DeltaP+.5)/100
REMProgram:SWEETSPOTSandPERCUSSION
POINTS(FixedPivot)
REM(Version:15DEC91)
CLS
LOCATE1,1
INPUTWhatpullbackanglewillyoubeusingfor
thisexperiment(deg.);theta
INPUTWhatisthemassofyourmeterstickbat
(kg);Ms
g=9.8:Mc=.5:L=1:theta=theta/57.3
COLOR15
Begin:

PRINT:PRINT
COLOR14
PRINTYImpact
(m);TAB(16);Cart
Speed(m/s);
TAB(35);Omega
(rad/sec);TAB(54);
ImpulseatPivot
(Nsec)
COLOR15
PRINT

LOCATE1,1

b=McWor

INPUTHowfarfromthecenterofmassisthepivot
located(m);S

c=PE+(1/2)IWo
^2

INPUTHowlargeistheloadmass(kg);m
IFm=0GOTOSkip

v=(b+SQR(b^24
ac))/(2a)

INPUTHowfaristheloadmassfromthepivot
(m);y

w=(IWoMcr
v)/I

PE=(MsS+my)(1COS(theta))g
Wo=SQR(2PE/I)

PRINT:PRINT
INPUTWouldyouliketo
inputdifferentvalues;a$

IFa$<>Nanda$<>
nGOTOBegin
END

r=k/10
a=Mc/2+(Mcr)^
2/(2I)

I=(1/12)MsL^2+MsS^2+my^2

NEXT

FORk=1TO9

CLS

Skip:

PRINTTAB(5);r;
TAB(20);v;
TAB(39);w;
TAB(60);DeltaP

DeltaP=Mcv+Ms
wL/2MsWoL/
2
v=INT(1000v+.5)/
1000

w=INT(1000w+.5)/
h=(1+2(y/L)(m/Ms))(1COS(theta))L/2 1000
1
8

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Experiment 6: Sliding Friction and


Conservation of Energy
EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCart(ME9430)
8702)

Stopwatch(SE

Metrictape(SE8731)Brickorblockofwood
Longboardthatcanbeusedasaramp Friction
block(00304708)
Protractor

Purpose
Inthislab,theDynamicsCartwill
belauncheddownaramp,asshown

inFigure6.1,while
ridingonafriction
block.Theinitial
elasticpotential
energyand
gravitational
potentialenergyof
thecartare
convertedtothermal
energyasthecart
slidestoastop.The
thermalenergygeneratedonthe
surfacesisthesameasthe
workdoneagainstslidingfriction.

Theory

youwillmakeandthevalue
ofkdeterminedin
Experiment4.Firstyouwill
needtodeterminethe
coefficientofkineticor
slidingfrictionforthe
2
1/2kx +mgDsin= frictionblock.

Usingtheprincipleofconservationof
energy,wecan
equatetheinitialenergyofthe
systemwiththefinalFigure 6.1
(i.e.thermal)energyofthesystem.
Thisleadsto:
kmgDcos

Determiningk:Ifthe
angleoftherampishigh
EQN1
enough,thefrictionblock
(elasticP.E.)+
(GravitationalP.E.)= willslidedowntheramp
withuniformacceleration
(workdoneagainst
duetoanetforceonthe
friction)
block.Thenetforceonthe
wherekisthespringconstantofthe
blockisthedifference
plunger(fromExperiment4),xisthe betweenthecomponentof
distancethattheplungerispushedin,m thegravitationalforce
isthemassofthecartplusthefriction (mgsin)thatisparallelto
block,Disthedistancethattheblock thesurfaceoftherampand
slidesafterthecartsplungerisreleased, thefrictionforce(
istheangleoftheramptothe
kmgcos)thatretardsthe
horizontal,andkisthecoefficientof motion.Theangleisthe
kineticorslidingfriction.
angleoftherampwhenthe
blockslidesdowntheramp
Inthisexperimentyouwillusethe
withuniformacceleration.
principleoftheconservationofenergyto
Theaccelerationdownthe
predictDgivencertainmeasurements

Fric
tion
blo
ck

rerageaccelerationdowntheramp
aisgivenby:
m
a=
p
2d/

t2
i
s

EQ
g
N3
i
vwheredisthetotaldistancethe
eblockslidesandtisthetime
nrequiredtoslidethroughthat
distance.Iftheaccelerationis
buniform,EQN2equalsEQN3.
y
:Youcanusethemeasuredvalues
oftheangle(theangleof
a=mgsin
uniformacceleration),the
kdistanced,andthetimetto
calculatethekineticcoefficient
Toffrictionk.
h
e

a
v
19

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Procedure
1 NOTE:Togetconsistentresultsinthisexperiment,youmustinsurethattherampyouwillbe
usingisbothstraightandclean.Wipethesurfaceoftherampandthefrictionblockwitharag.

Determiningcoefficientofkineticorslidingfriction:

Placethecartwiththefrictionblockontheramp.Setuptherampatarelativelylow
angle(onethatdoesnotcausethefrictionblocktobeginslidingdowntherampbyitself).

Increasetheangleoftherampuntiltheblockwillbegintoslidedowntheramponitsown,
butonlyafteryoureleaseitbyslappingthetable(ortappingtherampverylightly).Nowincrease
theangleoftherampbyafewmoredegreessothattheblockwillslidedowntherampwitha
uniformaccelerationwhenyoureleaseitwithaslaportap.Theangleoftherampmustbelow
enoughsothattheblockdoesnotbegintoslideonitsownonlywhenyoureleaseit.Measurethe
angleoftherampwiththeprotractorandrecorditastheangleofuniformacceleration()inthe
datatable.
Block or brick

Releasetheblockfromthegraspofstaticfrictionas
describedinthepreviousstepandmeasurethetimeof
thecartsdescentdowntheramp.Recordthistimeastin
datatable6.1.Measurethedistancedthattheblockslides
downtherampandrecordthisindata
table6.1.Repeatthemeasurementsfourtimes.Use
EQN3tocomputetheaccelerationsoftheblockand
enterthevaluesindatatable6.1.Determinetheaverage
valueofaccelerationandenteritbelowdatatable6.1.

UseEQN2tocalculatethecoefficientofkineticor
slidingfriction.Enteritbelowthedatatable.

(about 1/2 the slip angle)

Figure 6.2

PredictionofDandMeasurementofD:
maximu
Nowreducetheangleoftheramp mspring
slightlyuntiltheblockwilljustbarely compres
slide down the ramp with a uniform sion.
speedwhenyoureleaseitwithaslapor Record
tap.Measurethisslipangle.Reduce your
theangleof
predictio
the ramp to about one half of the
n at the
slip angle. Measure this new
top of
angle and record its value in data
Table
table 6.2 as . Secure a brick or
6.2.
blockattheupperendoftheramp
1
Af
asshowninfigure6.2.
ter
1
Itistimetomakeaprediction
double
UsingEQN1 and the information
checkin
that you have recorded, predict D,
gyour
the distance that the cart will slide
workin
downtherampafterbeinglaunched.
the
Assumethattheplunger onthecart
previou
is fully cocked at the position of
sstep,

l
herampbyplacingitonthe
a
rampwithitscockedplunger
u
againstthesecuredbrick.
n
Thentapthespringrelease
c
triggerwitharodorstick
h
usingaflatedge.

1 NOTE: This will help


t
toinsurethatyoudonotgive
h
the cart an initial velocity
e

other than that supplied by


c
thespringplunger.
a
For six trials, measure the
r 2
distance
D that the cart slides
t
andrecordtheseinTable6.2.
d
o
1 NOTE: Sometimes the
w
cart will twist a bit as it
n
descendssousethemidpoint

ofthebackedgeofyourcart
t

asareferencepointformeasuring
D.

Compare your results with

your
pred
ictio
n.

C
o
m
p
20

ute the percent difference


between these two values
and enter it below Table
6.2.

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Data and Analysis


=_________

Springconstant,k=_________

Trial

t (sec)

d (cm)

(fromExperiment4)
a(

cm

s2 )

1
2
3
4
Table 6.1

averageacceleration=_________

cm

coefficientofslidingfriction=_________

=_________

PredictedvalueofD=_________cm

Trial

D (cm)

1
2
3
4
5
6
Table 6.2

AverageofmeasuredvalueofD=_________cm

Percentofdifference=_________%

Questions
Inanalyzingthissystem,hastheenergybeenfullyaccountedfor?Discuss.
Howdoyourresultsagreewithyourprediction?Discuss.
Whatifyoulaunchedthecartupthesameramp?Howfarupwoulditgo?

21

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Notes:

22

01204840D

DynamicsCart

Appendix
WARNING!

PASCO scientific
for

technical
support.
Wheel-axle
Pl

assembly

Ifthebaseplateisremoved,theaxleassemblies
mayflyout,becausetheyareheldinplaceby
compressedsprings.

Compressio
n
spring
Baseplate

Removaloftheplateisatwopersonoperation:
Onepersonneedstopushdownonthewheels
whiletheotherslidesoutthebaseplate.

u
n
g
e
r
b
a
r

Replacing the Wheel-Axles Assemblies

Detach the end cap at the rear of the cart by


removingthetwoscrewsfromtherearendcapas
shown.

g
g
e

Slidebaseplateback

NOTE:Thescrewsthatsecuretheendcapsto
eitherendoftheDynamicsCartarethreadforming
screwsandmayrequiresubstantialforcetoremove
andreinstall.A#1Phillipspointscrewdriveris
required.

intoposition.

Replacetherearend

Velcro tab

capwiththetwoscrews.

Replacing the Front


End-Cap
Attachments

Thread forming
Screws

Plunger bar

1 Screw the

plungerbarknob
fingertight onto
theplungerbar.

2 Peeloffvelcrotab
andreplacewithnew
tab.

Rear Endcap

3 Theplasticcover
may get pulled off
the plunger bar
catch. Replace with
newcover.

Pushthewheelsintotherecessedareaandslide
thebaseplateoverthewheels.

Replace wheelaxle assembly and springs in


reverseorder.
23

4 Iftheplungerbar
becomes defective
please contact

Plunger bar knob

Plunger bar
catch
P
l
a
s
t
i
c
c
o
v
e
r

DynamicsCart

01204840D

Replacement Parts
Description

PartNo.

Wheelaxleassembly

Qty
2

Wheel

64804638

2ea

WheelBearing

642024

2ea

Shaft

616079

1ea

Endcap,modified

64804699

64804694

64804653

Screw(1032x1/4socketcap)

610179

Knob

620033

Plungerbarcatchcover

69904658

Compressionspring(plungerbar)

632035

Suspensionspring

632034

Baseplate

64804651

Velcrotab,1/2inch,Loop

616074

Velcrotab,1/2inch,Hook

616075

500gMass

64804636

Forrearendcapassemblyadd:
Endcapplug
Plungerbar
Plungerbarknobassembly

24

Technical Support
Reach
PASCO
Feed- For
Back Technical

Support
Ifyou callusat1
haveany 800772
comment 8700(toll
sabout freewithin
this
theU.S.)or
product (916)786
orthis 3800.
manual
pleaselet
usknow.
Ifyou
haveany
sugges
tionson
alternate
experime
ntsor
finda
problem
inthe
manual
please
tellus.
PASCO
appreciat
esany
cus
tomer
feed
back.
Your
input
helpsus
evaluate
and
improve
our
product.

To

Contacti
ng
Technica
l
Support
Beforeyou
callthe
PASCO
Technical
Support
staffit
wouldbe
helpfulto
preparethe
following
information
:

If

your
problem
is
compute
r/softwar
e
related,
note:
Titleand
Revision
Date of
software
.
T
y
p

your

problem

is with

the

PASCO

apparatus

, note:

Title and

If

Model
number
(usually
listed on
thelabel).
Approxi
mate age
of
apparatus
.
A
detaile
d
descrip
tion of
the
proble
m/sequ
enceof
events.
(In
case
you

can't
call
PAS
CO
right
awa
y,
you
won'
t
lose
valu
able
data.
)
If
possi
ble,
have
the

apparat
us
within
reach
when
calling.
This
makes
descript
ionsof
individu
alparts
much
easier.
If
your
proble
m
relates
tothe
instru

ction
manu
al,
note:
Part
number
and
Revision
(listed
by
month
andyear
onthe
front
cover).
Havethe
manualat
handto
discuss
your
questions.

01

0
1
Thr
e

E
n
V
e

a
r
1
e

b
r
o
u
g
h
t
c
l
o
s
e

t
o

e
a
c
h

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
e
y

w
i
l
l

Description

PartNo

WheelAxleAssembly
Wheel
64804864
WheelBearing
642024
Axle
64804962
EndCapmodified
64804969
EndCapPlug
64804694
SuspensionSpring
632034
BasePlate
64804651
1/2"VelcroLoop
616074
1/2"VelcroHook
616075
MagnetBumperAssembly
Magnet
634022
FoamRetainer
64804702
500gMass
6480636
CautionMagnetLabel 64604445

Qty
4
4
2
2
2
4
1
2
2
4
4
1
2

1992PASCOscientific

$10.00

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Introduction
ThePASCOModelME9458DynamicsCartAccessory
TrackSetenablestheusertoperformawidevarietyof
experimentswhenusedwiththeDynamicsCart(ME
9430)andtheCollisionCart(ME9454).TheTrack
ensureseasysetupandaccuratealignmentwiththe
lowestpossiblefriction,anditaccomodatesmostlinear
motionexperiments.

3 Mounted to a

Featuresinclude:

standard lab rod, the


track adjusts to any
angle for inclined
planeexperiments.

1 Adjustable
levelingfeet.

2 Low friction

4 Durable

wheel slots keep


the carts aligned
even after a
collision.

construction with
Adjustable End
Stops protects the
cart.

Equipment

TheME9458DynamicsCart
AccessoryTrackSetincludes
thefollowing:

1 DynamicsCartTrack:
2.2m(7.5')extruded
aluminumtrackwithalign
mentgroovesintopsurface,
twolevelingfeetandtwo
adjustableEndStops.

NOTE:TheEndStophas

aroundheadscrewonthetop
toalloweasyattachmentof
springs,string,etc.

1 Force Table Clamp with


SuperPulley.

2 (3) Springs for simple


harmonicmotionwithstorage
tubes.

NOTE:Asmallpieceof

doublesidedtapeisattached
totheendsofeachstorage
tubesothetubesmaybe
permanentlyattachedtothe

under
sideof
the
Dynami
csCart
Track.

1 Frictio
nBlock

2 Ma
gnet
Bumpe
r Kit
(includ
es 2
magnet
s) with
storage
tube.

3 Pivo
t Clamp
[for use
with the
Base
and
Support
Rod
(ME
9355)].

(2)Labels:
"CAUTION
!
MAGNET".
TheME
9452
Introducto
ry
Dynamics
System
(2.2m
version)
includes
allthe
componen
tsofthe
ME9458
plusthe
following:

The
ME
9459
Intro
duct
ory
Dyn
amic
s
Dem
onstr
ation
Syst
1 Dynam
em
ics Cart
withMassinclu
des
(ME
all
9340)
the
2 Collisi com
on Cartpone

( ntsofthe
MME9458
E plusthe
following:
9
1 Dynam
4
ics Cart
5
withMass
4
(ME
)
9340)

9470)

3 (2)

Adjustabl
e End
Stops
(ME
9469)

2 (2)

Collision
Carts
(ME
9454)

3 Additio
nalSpring

TheME9453
Dynamics
TrackSet
(2.2m)includes
thefollowing:

1 2.2m
Track

2 (2)

Leveling
Feet(ME
1

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Wooden or
metalblock

AdditionalEquipmentRequiredforME9458
DynamicsCartwithMass(ME9430)

Graphpaper

Specificexperimentrequirements:
Thread
MassSet
SuperPulleywithClamp

Software
AccessoryKit,
(Apple)(ME
9438)or(IBM
PC)(ME9439).

MetricRuler
Stopwatch
Massbalance
N
E
T
"

Super Pulley
with Clamp

l
a
b
e
l
s
CAUTIONMAGNET

ACT

WITHCOMPUTERS

CONT

AVOID

M
a
g
n
e
t

Friction Block

K
i
t
with storage tube

"CAUTI
O
N
!
M
A
G

AVOID

Dynamics Cart Track

B
u
m
p
e
r

Photogate
AccessoryKitwith
Software,(Apple)
(ME9436)or
(IBMPC)(ME
9437)
or

BaseandSupportRod

Adjustable
End Stops

01205024E
AdditionalEquipment
Recommended

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Assembly
Thre

Dynamics Cart

(not included)

Magn
et
Bump
er
Ass
em
blie
s

a
d
f
o
r
m
i
n
g
s
c
r
e
w
s

o
k
Plunger Bar
Front End Cap

b
u
Installing the Magnet
m
Bumpers
p
e
r
NOTE:TheME

9454CollisionCart
a
comeswith2setsof
s
magneticbumpers
s
alreadyinstalled.The
e
ME9430Dynamics
m
Cartcomeswithoutany
b
magneticbumpers.
l
i
1
Detach the end cap at e
the rear of the cart bys
removing the two screws,
from the rear end cap as
shown.
m
a
1 NOTE:Thescrews g
thatsecuretheendcapsto n
e
eitherendofthe
DynamicsCartarethread t
formingscrewsandmay
requiresubstantialforceto e
removeandreinstall.A#1 n
Phillipspointscrewdriver d

isrequired.
f
2
Insertthetwomagnet i

H
o

p
a

d
s

P
a

l
Long
Thu
mb
Screw

1
E

Alig
nthe
square
nut
within
the
groove
onthede
siredside
ofthe
Dynamic
sCart
Track.
Locate
and
adjust
Pivot
Clampto
desired
position
and
tighten
thumb
screwto
secure.

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Installing the Leveling Feet


Thelevelingfeetserve3purposes:tolevelthetrack,to
reduceanytwistinthetrack,andtoreduceanybowin
thetrack.Assemblyisasfollows:

Threadalocking
nutontoeachofthe
fourlongscrewsas
showninFigure1.

Thread two of
the long screws in
top
thetwoholesinthe
bottomofeachalu
minumlevelingfoot.
Theheadsofthese
screwsformthefeet
whichwillrestonthe
tablewhenthetrack
isinuse.

Placethewasheron

01205024E

Tolevelthe
track,placeacarton
thetracktoseewhich
wayitrolls.Then
loosenthelocknuts
andscrewtheleveling
screwsupordownto
changetheheightof
oneendofthetrack
untilthecartwhen
placedatrestwillstay
atrest.Whenthetrack
islevel,tightenthe
locknutsagainstthe
aluminumfoot.

Itisalsopossible
totakesometwistout
ofthetrackby
adjustingtheleveling
screwsononesideof
thetrack.

Fig. 1 - Attaching Feet

theshortscrew
andinserttheshort
screwthroughthe
holeinthesideofthealuminumlevelingfootas
showninFigure2.Screwthesquarenutontothe
endoftheshortscrewjustfarenoughtokeepthe
shortscrewfromfallingout.

Alignthesquarenutwithinthegrooveonthede
siredsideoftheDynamicsCartTrack.Slidethe
levelingfootdownthetracktothedesiredposition.
Tominimizethebowinthetrack,itisbesttoplacea
levelingfootabout1/4ofthetracklengthfromeach
endofthetrack(seeFigure3).
Fig. 2 - Attaching
Leveling Bracket to
Track

1/4 L

Fi
g.
3
O
pt
i
m
u

m
Position
of
Leveling
Feet

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Stop to Track

Installing the Adjustable End Stop


TheAdjustableEndStopcanbeusedatanypointonthe
trackasabumper.Eithertheplungerbaronthecartor
thecart'smagneticbumpercanbeusedtoreboundoffthe
EndStopbecausetheEndStopcontainsmagnets.The
cartcanalsobestoppedagainsttheEndStopwhenthe
velcroendofthecarthitsthevelcrosideoftheEndStop.
Thisisusefulwhenitisdesiredtokeepthecartfrom
rebounding.ThereisalsoapostontopoftheEndStopto
allowastringorspringtobeattached.Assemblyisas
follows:

Whenstoringthe
EndStopwhenitisnot
onthetrack,remember
thatithastwostrong
magnetsinit.Keepthe
EndStopawayfrom
computers.

The Adjustable End Stop Assembly consists of


the end stop with two magnets installed, a black
plasticthumbscrew,andasquarenut.

ItisbesttoinstalltheEndStopsinthegrooveop
positetothesidebeingusedforthelevelingfeetso
theEndStopscanslidepastthelevelingfeetwithout
interference.

Alignthesquarenutwithinthegrooveonthede
siredsideoftheDynamicsCartTrackasshown.
LocateandadjusttheEndStoptothedesiredposi
tionandtightenthethumbscrewtosecure.

Attaching
Adjustable End

Using the
The Friction
Block is a
wood rect
anglethatfits
neatly on top
of

the
Dynamics
Cart (ME
9430).

Inexperimentsthatusethe
FrictionBlockyouwill
investigatesomeoftheproperties

ofsliding
frictionthe
forcethat
resiststhe
sliding
motionoftwo
objectswhen
theyare
alreadyin
motion.

T
h
e
to
p
a
n
d
b
ot
to
m
s
u
rf
a
c
e
s
o
f
th

e
Fri
cti
on
Bl
oc
k
ha
ve
a
slo
t
wh
ich
all
ow
sa
pi
ck
et
fe
nc
e
to
be

Friction

Block

in
s
er
te
d.
(
S
e
e
th
e
PASCO
catalog.)An
eye
s
c
r
e
w

i
s

r
o
v
i
d
e
d

s
o

t
h
a
t

y
o
u

m
a
y

a
s
i
l
y
a
t
t
a
c

s
t
r
i
n
g

t
o

t
h
e

b
l

o
c
k
.

topandone
sideofthe
block
produce
minimal
friction.Felt
padsattached
tothebottom
Theexposed surfaceand
woodonthe

theotherside
providemore
friction.Mass
canbeplaced
onthetop
surfaceofthe
Friction
Blockas
shown.

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Replacement Parts (ME-9458)


Description

PartNo.

MagnetBumperKitAssembly(4per)

00305027

SuperPulleywithClamp(1ea)

ME9448A

FrictionBlock(1ea)

00304708

Label,MagnetCaution(1ea)

64604445

Spring(3ea)

63204978

PivotClampAssembly:

00305019

Pivotclamp(1ea)

64804654

Longthumbscrew(1ea)

610183&620047

Shortthumbscrew(1ea)

610181&620067

Washer

615184

Squarenut(1ea)

614054

AdjustableEndStop(2ea)

ME9469

LevelingFeet(2ea)

ME9470

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experiment 1: Conservation of Momentum in Explosions


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicCartwithMass(ME9430)
CollisionCart(ME9454)
DynamicsCartTrack
Meterstick
Massbalance

Purpose
Thepurposeofthisexperimentistodemonstrateconservationofmomentumfortwocarts
pushingawayfromeachother.

Theory
Whentwocartspushawayfromeachotherandnonetforceexists,thetotalmomentumof
bothcartsisconserved.Becausethesystemisinitiallyatrest,thefinalmomentumofthe
twocartsmustbeequalinmagnitudeandoppositeindirectionsotheresultingtotalmo
mentumofthesystemisstillzero.
p=m1v1m2v2=0
Therefore,theratioofthefinalspeedsofthecartsisequaltotheratioofthemassesofthe
carts.

1=

v2m2

Tosimplifythisexperiment,thestartingpointforthecartsatrestischosensothatthetwo
cartswillreachtheendofthetracksimultaneously.Thespeed,whichisthedistance
dividedbythetime,canbedeterminedbymeasuringthedistancetraveledsincethetime
traveledbyeachcartisthesame.
x1
v

x v

1=t= 1 2x2
x2

t
Thustheratioofthedistancesisequaltotheratioofthemasses:

x1m2

x2 m1

Procedure
1

Levelthetrackbysettingacartonthetracktoseewhichwayitrolls.Adjustthe
levelingfeettoraiseorlowertheendsuntilacartplacedatrestonthetrackwillnot
move.

Leveling foot

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

For each of the following cases, place the two carts against each other with the
plungeroftheDynamicsCartpushedcompletelyinandlatchedinitsmaximumposition(see
Figure1.1).

Pushtheplungerreleasebuttonwithashortstickandwatchthetwocartsmovetothe
endsofthetrack.Experimentwithdifferentstartingpositionsuntilthetwocartsreachtheir
respectiveendsofthetrackatthesametime.Thenweighthetwocartsandrecordthemasses
andthestartingpositioninTable1.1.
CASE1:CARTSOFEQUALMASS(Usetwocartswithoutanyadditionalmassbars)
CASE2:CARTSOFUNEQUALMASS(Putonemassbarinonecart,noneintheother)
CASE3:CARTSOFUNEQUALMASS(Puttwomassbarsinonecart,noneintheother)
CASE4:CARTSOFUNEQUALMASS(Puttwomassbarsinonecart,onemassbarin
theother)
Table 1.1

Mass 1

Mass 2

Position

x 1/ x 2

m2/m1

Data Analysis
1

Foreachofthecases,calculatethedistancestraveledfromthestartingpositionto
theendofthetrack.RecordtheresultinTable1.1.

Calculatetheratioofthedistancestraveledandrecordinthetable.
Calculatetheratioofthemassesandrecordinthetable.
Questions
1

Doestheratioofthedistancesequaltheratioofthemassesineachofthecases?
Inotherwords,ismomentumconserved?

Whencartsofunequalmassespushawayfromeachother,whichcarthasmoremomentum?
1

Whenthecartsofunequalmassespushawayfromeachother,whichcarthas
morekineticenergy?

Isthestartingpositiondependentonwhichcarthasitsplungercocked?Why?

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experiment 2: Conservation of Momentum in Collisions


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCartwithMass(ME9430)
CollisionCart(ME9454)
(2)Bumpermagnetset(installed)
DynamicsCartTrack
Paper

Purpose
Thepurposeofthisexperimentistoqualitativelyexploreconservationofmomentumfor
elasticandinelasticcollisions.

Theory
Whentwocartscollidewitheachother,thetotalmomentump=mvofbothcartsisconserved
regardlessofthetypeofcollision.Anelasticcollisionisoneinwhichthetwocartsbounceoffeach
otherwithnolossofkineticenergy.Inthisexperiment,magneticbumpersareusedtominimizethe
energylossesduetofrictionduringthecollision.Inreality,thiselasticcollisionisslightly
inelastic.Acompletelyinelasticcollisionisoneinwhichthetwocartshitandsticktoeachother.In
thisexperiment,thisisaccomplishedwiththehookandpiletabsontheendcapsofthecarts.

Procedure
1

Levelthetrackbysettingacartonthetracktoseewhichwayitrolls.Adjusttheleveling
feetattheendofthetracktoraiseorlowerthatenduntilacartplacedatrestonthetrackwillnot
move.

Drawtwodiagrams(oneforbeforethecollisionandoneforafterthecollision)for
eachofthefollowingcases.Ineachdiagram,showavelocityvectorforeachcartwitha
lengththatapproximatelyrepresentstherelativespeedofthecart.

Part I: Elastic Collisions


A. Carts with Equal Mass
Orientthetwocartssotheirmagneticbumpersaretowardeachother.
Case1:Placeonecartatrestinthemiddleofthetrack.Givetheothercartaninitialvelocity
towardthecartatrest.
Case2:Startthecartswithoneateachendofthetrack.Giveeachcartapproximatelythesame
velocitytowardeachother.
Case3:Startbothcartsatoneendofthetrack.Givethefirstcartaslowvelocityandthesecond
cartafastervelocitysothatthesecondcartcatchesthefirstcart.

Leveling foot

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

B. Carts with Unequal Mass


Puttwomassbarsinoneofthecartssothatthemassofonecartisapproximatelythreetimes
themass(3M)oftheothercart(1M).
Case1:Placethe3Mcartatrestinthemiddleofthetrack.Givetheothercartaninitial
velocitytowardthecartatrest.
Case2:Placethe1Mcartatrestinthemiddleofthetrack.Givethe3Mcartaninitialvelocity
towardthecartatrest.
Case3:Startthecartswithoneateachendofthetrack.Giveeachcartapproximatelythe
samevelocitytowardeachother.
Case4:Startbothcartsatoneendofthetrack.Givethefirstcartaslowvelocityandthe
secondcartafastervelocitysothatthesecondcartcatchesthefirstcart.Dothisfor
bothcases:withthe1Mcartfirstandthenforthe3Mcartfirst.

Part II: Completely Inelastic Collisions:


1

Orientthetwocartssotheirhookandpileendsaretowardeachother.Make
suretheplungerbarispushedincompletelysoitwon'tinterferewiththecollision.

RepeatthesameprocedureslistedinPartIforcartswithequalmassandcarts
withunequalmass.

Questions
1

When two carts having the same mass and the same speed collide and stick
together,theystop.Whathappenedtoeachcartsmomentum?Ismomentumconserved?

Whentwocartshavingthesamemassandthesamespeedcollideandbounceoff
ofeachotherelastically,whatisthefinaltotalmomentumofthecarts?

01205024E

10

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experiment 3: Simple Harmonic Oscillator


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCartwithMass(ME9430) DynamicsCartTrack
(2)Springs SuperPulleywithclamp
Masshangerandmassset(ME9348) Stopwatch
StringMassbalance(SE8723)
Graphpaper

Purpose
Thepurposeistomeasuretheperiodofoscillationofaspringandmasssystemandcompareit
tothetheoreticalvalue.

Theory
Foramassattachedtoaspring,thetheoreticalperiodofoscillationisgivenby

T=2
whereTisthetimeforonecompletebackandforthmotion,misthemassthatisoscillating,
andkisthespringconstant.
AccordingtoHookesLaw,theforceexertedbythespringisproportionaltothedistancethe
springiscompressedorstretched,F=kx,wherekistheproportionalityconstant.Thusthe
springconstantcanbeexperimentallydeterminedbyapplyingdifferentforcestostretchthe
springdifferentdistances.Thentheforceisplottedversusdistanceandtheslopeoftheresult
ingstraightlineisequaltok.

Procedure

Measurements to Find the Theoretical Period


Usethebalancetofindthemassofthecart.RecordthisvalueatthetopofTable3.1.
1

Levelthetrackbysettingthecartonthetracktoseewhichwayitrolls.Adjustthe
levelingfeetattheendsofthetracktoraiseorlowertheendsuntilthecartplacedatreston
thetrackwillnotmove.Putthepulleywiththetableclampatoneendofthetrack.

Setthecartonthetrackandattachaspringtoeachendofthecartbyinsertingtheend
ofthespringintheholeprovidedinthecart.Thenattachtheotherendsofthespringstothe
endstops(SeeFigure3.1).

Attachastringtotheendofthecartandhangamasshangeroverthepulleyasshown.
RecordtheequilibriumpositioninTable3.1.
1

Addmasstothemasshangerandrecordthenewposition.Repeatthisforatotalof5

m
k

differentmasses,beingcarefulnottooverstretchthesprings.Becausebothspringsareacting
onthemass,thismethodwillgivetheeffectivespringconstantforbothsprings.

11

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Adjustable End Stop

Data and Analysis


Mass of cart =____________
Added Mass

Position

Measur
ing the
Experi
mental
Period
Displace
the cart from
equilibrium a
specific distance
andletitgo.Time
5 oscillations and
recordthetimein
Table3.2.

L
e

Super Pulley
with Clamp

01205024E

t
i
m
e
s

a
n
d

r
e
c
o
r
d

t
h
i
s

d
a
t
a

i
n

T
a
b
l
e

3
.
2
.

Ca
lc
ul
ati
on
s
T
h
e
o
r
e
ti
c
a
l
P
e
r
i
o
d

g the data in Table 3.1,


plot force versus
displacement. Draw the
bestfitstraightline
through the
datapointsand
determine the
slope of the
line. The slope
is equal to the
effective
springconstant,
k.

k=______

Using
the mass of the
cart and the
spring constant,
calculate the
period using the
theoretical
formula. Also
calculate the
theoretical
period for the
cartwiththe500
gmassinit.

(cartalone
_________

(cartwithm
_________

Usin

12

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experimental Period
1

UsingthedatainTable3.2,calculatetheaveragetimefor5oscillationswithand
withoutthe500gmassinthecart.

Calculatetheperiodbydividingthesetimesby5andrecordtheperiodsinTable3.2.
Table 3.2

Trial

Time for 5 Oscillations

Period
Without
additional
mass= ______

2
3
4
5
Average
1

With
additional
mass= ______

2
3
4
5
Average

Comparison
Calculatethepercentdifferencebetweenthemeasuredandtheoreticalvalues:
(cartalone)%diff=________________
(cartwithmass)%diff=________________

Questions
1

Doestheperiodofoscillationincreaseordecreaseasthemassisincreased?
Doesamoremassivecartoscillatefasterorslower?

Iftheinitialdisplacementfromequilibrium(amplitude)ischanged,doestheperiodof
oscillationchange?Tryit.

13

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Notes:

14

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experiment 4: Oscillations on an Incline


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Dynamics
Cart Track
with End
stop and
Pivotclamp

DynamicsCartwithMass(ME9430)
Spring
BaseandSupportrod(ME9355)
Massbalance

Purpose
Thepurposeistomeasurethe
periodofoscillationofaspring
andmasssystemonanincline
atdifferentanglesandcompare
ittothetheoreticalvalue.

Theory
Foramassattachedtoaspring,
thetheoreticalperiodof
oscillationisgivenby

whereTisthetimeforone
completebackandforthmotion,
misthemassthatisoscillating,
andkisthespringconstant.
AccordingtoHookesLaw,
r
a
i
s
Usethebalancetofindthe i
massofthecart.Recordthis n
valueatthetopofTable4.1. g

1
Set the cart on the
t
trackandattachaspringto h
one end of the cart by e
inserting the end of the
springintheholeprovided e
inthecart.Thenattachthe n
other end of the spring to d
the end of the track (See
o
Figure4.1).
f
Inclinethetrackby

Masshangerand
mass set (ME934
8)
Stopwatch

t
h
e

f
o
r
c
e

e
x
e
r
t
e
d

b
y

t
h

t
h
e

t
r
a
c
k

t
h
a
t

h
a

e
ltothedistancethespring

iscompressedorstretched,
s
F=kx,wherekisthe
p
proportionalityconstant.
r
Thespringconstantcanbe
i
experimentallydetermined
n
byapplyingdifferent
g
forcestostretchthespring

differentdistances.When
i
theforceisplottedversus
s
distance,theslopeofthe

resultingstraightlineis
p
equaltok.
r
o Procedure
p
o
r
Measurement
t
s to Find the
i
Theoretical
o
n
Period
a
sthespring
attached.Asthe
endofthetrackis
raisedthespring
willstretch.Keep
theangleof
inclination
ofthe
track
small
enoug
hso
the
spring
isnot
stretch
ed
more

t
h
a
n

h
a
l
f

t
h
e

l
e
n
g

th
o
f
th
e
tr
a
c
k.
M
e
a
s
u
re
th
is
a

ngleand
recordit
atthe
topofTable4.1.

Adjusta
ble
End
Stop

Recordthe
equilibriumpositionin
Table4.1.

Add mass to the

c
a
r
t

a
n
d

ecord the new


position.Repeatthis
for a total of 5
different masses,
beingcarefulnotto

overstretch
thespring.

Figur
e 4.1
Equip
ment

S
e
t
u
p

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Table 4.1

Equilibriumposition=______________
Added Mass

Position

MassofCart=______________
AngleofIncline=______________

Displacement from
Equilibrium

Force (mg sin)

Measuring the Experimental Period


1

Displacethe cart from equilibrium a specific distance and let it go. Time 3
oscillationsandrecordthetimeinTable4.2.

Repeatthismeasurementatleast5times,usingthesameinitialdisplacement(amplitude).
ChangetheangleoftheinclineandrepeatSteps6and7.
Calculations
Theoretical Period
1

UsingthedatainTable4.1,calculatetheforcecausedbytheadditionalmassinthecart:
F=mgsin,whereistheangleofincline.Plotforceversusdisplacement.Drawthebest
fitstraightlinethroughthedatapointsanddeterminetheslopeoftheline.Theslopeis
equaltotheeffectivespringconstant,k.
k=______________

Usingthemassofthecartandthespringconstant,calculatetheperiodusingthe
theoreticalformula.
T=______________

16

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Table 4.2

Timefor3oscillations
Angle

Trial 1

Avg

Period

Experimental Period
UsingthedatainTable4.2,calculatetheaveragetimefor3oscillations.
Calculatetheperiodbydividingthesetimesby3andrecordtheperiodsinTable4.2.
Questions
Doestheperiodvaryastheangleischanged?
Howdotheexperimentalvaluescomparewiththetheoreticalvalues?
Doestheequilibriumpositionchangeastheangleischanged?
Whatwouldbetheperiodiftheanglewas90degrees?

17

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Notes:

18

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experiment 5: Springs in Series and Parallel


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

BaseandSupport
rod(ME9355)
Massbalance
Stopwatch

DynamicsCartwithMass(ME9430)
DynamicsCartTrackwithEndstop
(2)Springs

Purpose
Thepurposeistomeasurethe
periodofoscillationof
springsinseriesandparallel
andcompareittotheperiod
ofoscillationofonespring.

Theory
Foramassattachedtoaspring,the
k=

T2

the
ore
tic
al
per
iod
of
osc
illa
tio
n

e
Whentwospringsare Proc

combinedinseriesorin edur
b
parallel,thespring
e
constantsaddin
a
differentways.One
l
possiblewaytoaddtwo
springconstantsis
Measuring ka
n
keffective=k+k=2k.
For
a
Single
c
Anotherwayis
e
Spring

o
whichmeansthat

1
U
f
k se
i
th
n

is
g
i
v
e
n
b
y

whereTisthetimeforone
completebackandforth
motion,misthemassthatis
oscillating,andkisthe
springconstant.Iftheperiod
ofoscillationismeasured,
thespringconstantcanbe
determined:
2

4 m
ack that has the
spring attached.
Astheendofthe
track is raised
the spring will
stretch.Keepthe
angle

of
inclinationofthe
track small
enough so the
spring is not
stretched more
than half the
length of the
track.

dthemassofthecart.
Recordthisvalueat
thetopofTable5.1.

Setthecart
onthetrackand
attachaspringto
oneendofthecart
byinsertingtheend
ofthespringinthe
holeprovidedin
thecart.Then
attachtheotherend
ofthespringtothe
endofthetrack
(SeeFigure5.1).
19

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Displacethecartfromequilibriumaspecificdistanceandletitgo.Time2
oscillationsandrecordthetimeinTable5.1.Repeatthismeasurementatleast5
times,usingthesameinitialdisplacement(amplitude).

Figure 5.1 Equipment Setup

Measuring the Effective k For Pairs of Springs

AddasecondspringinseriesasshowninFigure5.2andrepeatStep .
PutthetwospringsinparallelasshowninFigure5.3andrepeatStep.
ArrangethespringsasshowninFigure5.4andrepeatStep.

Figure 5.2 Springs in Series

Figure 5.3 Springs in Parallel

Figure 5.4 Final Spring Arrangement

20

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Calculations
UsingthedatainTable5.1,calculatetheaveragetimefor2oscillations.
Calculatetheperiodbydividingthesetimesby2andrecordtheperiodsinTable5.1.
Usingtheperiodsandthemassofthecart,calculatetheeffectivespringconstants.

Table 5.1

Timefor2oscillations
Springs

Trial 1

MassofCart=______________
5

Avg

Period

One
Series
Parallel
At Ends

Questions
Iskeffective=2kforspringsinseriesorparallel?
Iskeffective=kforspringsinseriesorparallel?

Isthelastspringarrangementseriesorparallel?
2

21

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Experiment 6: Newtons Second Law


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCartwithMass(ME9430)
DynamicsCartTrack
Stopwatch

Purpose
Thepurposeistoshowhowtheaccelerationofanobjectisdependentonforceandmass.

Procedure
1

Levelthetrackbysettingthecartonthetracktoseewhichwayitrolls.Adjustthe
levelingfeettoraiseorlowertheendsuntilthecartplacedatrestonthetrackwillnot
move.

Toperformeachofthefollowingtrials,cockthespringplungeronthecartandplace
thecartatrestattheendofthetrackwiththeplungeragainsttheendstop.Thenreleasethe
plungerbypressingthebuttononthecartwitharuler.Observetheresultingacceleration.This
willbeaqualitativemeasurement.
VARYTHEFORCE:Performthefirsttrialwiththespringplungercockedtothefirst
possibleposition(theleastcompression)andthendotwomoretrialsincreasingtheforce
appliedtothecartbyincreasingthecompressionofthespringplunger.
VARYTHEMASS:Forthesetrials,alwayscockthespringplungertothemaximum.
Observetherelativeaccelerationsofthecartaloneandthecartwithonemassbarinit.If
additionalmassesareavailable,usethemtoincreasethemassforadditionaltrials.

Data Analysis
Doestheaccelerationincreaseordecreaseastheforceisincreased?
Doestheaccelerationincreaseordecreaseasthemassisincreased?
Question
Fromtheresultsofthisexperiment,canyoudeducetheequationthatrelatesaccelerationto
massandforce?

22

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experiment 7: Newtons Second Law II


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCart(ME9430)
DynamicsCartTrack
SuperPulleywithClamp
BaseandSupportrod(ME9355)
StringMasshangerandmassset
Stopwatch
Woodenormetalstoppingblock
Massbalance (SeeProcedureStep)

Purpose
ThepurposeistoverifyNewtonsSecondLaw,F=ma.

Theory
AccordingtoNewtonsSecondLaw,F=ma.Fisthenetforceactingontheobjectofmass
mandaistheresultingaccelerationoftheobject.
Foracartofmassm1onahorizontaltrackwithastringattachedoverapulleytoamassm2
(seeFigure7.1),thenetforceFontheentiresystem(cartandhangingmass)istheweight
ofhangingmass,F=m2g,assumingthatfrictionisnegligible.
AccordingtoNewtonsSecondLaw,thisnetforceshouldbeequaltoma,wheremisthe
totalmassthatisbeingaccelerated,whichinthiscaseism1+m2.Thisexperimentwill
checktoseeifm1gisequalto(m1+m2)awhenfrictionisignored.
Toobtaintheacceleration,thecartwillbestartedfromrestandthetime(t)ittakesforitto
travelacertaindistance(d)willbemeasured.Thensinced=(12)at2,theaccelerationcan
becalculatedusing
a=

2d
t

(assuminga=constant)

Procedure
1

Levelthetrackbysettingthecartonthetracktoseewhichwayitrolls.Adjustthe
levelingfeettoraiseorlowertheendsuntilthecartplacedatrestonthetrackwillnot
move.

UsethebalancetofindthemassofthecartandrecordinTable7.1.
AttachthepulleytotheendofthetrackasshowninFigure7.1.Placethedynamicscarton
thetrackandattachastringtotheholeintheendofthecartandtieamasshangeronthe
otherendofthestring.Thestringmust
bejustlongenoughsothecarthitsthe
stoppingblockbeforethemasshanger
reachesthefloor.

Pullthecartbackuntilthemasshanger
reachesthepulley.Recordthisposition
atthetopofTable7.1.Thiswillbethe
releasepositionforallthetrials.Make

adjustable
end stop

atestruntodeterminehowmuchmass
isrequiredonthemasshangersothat

23

Figure 7.1 Equipment Setup

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

thecarttakesabout2secondstocompletetherun.Becauseofreactiontime,tooshortofa
totaltimewillcausetoomucherror.However,ifthecartmovestooslowly,frictioncauses
toomucherror.RecordthehangingmassinTable7.1.

Placethecartagainsttheadjustableendstoponthepulleyendofthetrackand
recordthefinalpositionofthecartinTable7.1.

Measurethetimeatleast5timesandrecordthesevaluesinTable7.1.
Table 7.1

Time
Cart
Mass

Hanging
Mass

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Average
Time

InitialreleasePosition=_________________

Increasethemassofthecartandrepeattheprocedure.

FinalPosition=_________________

Data Analysis

Totaldistance(d)=_______________

CalculatetheaveragetimesandrecordinTable7.1.
1

Calculatethetotaldistancetraveledbytakingthedifferencebetweentheinitial
andfinalpositionsofthecartasgiveninTable7.1.

CalculatetheaccelerationsandrecordinTable7.2.
Foreachcase,calculatethetotalmassmultipliedbytheaccelerationandrecordinTable7.2.
Foreachcase,calculatethenetforceactingonthesystemandrecordinTable7.2.
CalculatethepercentdifferencebetweenFNETand(m1+m2)aandrecordinTable7.2.
Table 7.2
Cart Mass

Acceleration

(m1+m2)a

FNET=m2g

% Dif

Questions
DidtheresultsofthisexperimentverifythatF=ma?
1

Consideringfrictionalforces,whichforcewouldyouexpecttobegreater:the
hangingweightortheresultingtotalmasstimesacceleration?Didtheresultsofthis
experimentconsistentlyshowthatonewaslargerthantheother?

WhyisthemassinF=manotjustequaltothemassofthecart?
1

Whencalculatingtheforceonthecartusingmasstimesgravity,whyisntthe
massofcartincluded?

24

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experiment 8: Acceleration Down an Incline


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCartwithMass(ME9430) DynamicsCartTrack
BaseandSupportrod(ME9355)
Meterstick
Stopwatch
Graphpaper

Purpose
Thepurposeistostudyhowtheaccelerationofan
objectdownaninclinedependsontheangleofthe
inclineandtoobtaintheaccelerationduetogravity.

Theory
Acartonaninclinewillrolldowntheincline
asitispulledbygravity.Theaccelerationdue
togravityisstraightdownasshowninFigure
8.1.Thecomponentofgravitywhichis
paralleltotheinclinedsurfaceisgsin,so
thisisthenetaccelerationofthecart,
neglectingfriction.
a=

t2

r
Thenaplotofaccelerationversussin
t
aslopeequaltotheaccelerationduetogravity,

o
Procedure
n

1
Set
t
up the track
h
as shown in
e
Figure 8.2,

raising the
t
end of the
r
track
a
without an
c
end stop
k
about 10

cm.
a
1
g
Set
a
t
i
h
n
e
s

t
c

a
t

Tomeasurethe
acceleration,thecartwill
bestartedfromrestandthe
time(t)ittakesforitto
travelacertaindistance(d)
willbemeasured.Then
sinced=(12)at2,the
accelerationcanbe
calculatedusing

angle
of incline

2
d

het
en
1d
st
op
an
d
re
co
rd
thi
s
fin
al
po
sit
io
n1
Pull
of
th
e
ca
rt
at
th

w
a
t
c
h

t
o

t
i
m
e

h
o
w

l
o
n
g

i
t

gsin


t
a
k
e
s

t
h
e

c
a
r
t

t
o

h
i
t

t
h
e

e
n
d

s
t
o
p
.

T
h
e

p
e
r
s
o
n

w
h
o

releasesthecartshouldalsooperatethestopwatch.
Repeatthismeasurement10times(with
differentpeopledoingthetiming).
Recordallthevaluesin
Table8.1.

HYPOTENUSE

HEIGH
TRA

Lowertheendofthetrack
by1cmandmeasurethe
time10times.

Figure 8.2 Equipment Setup


25

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Repeattheexperimentforatotalof7angles,loweringthetrackinincrementsof1
cmforeachnewangle.
Table 8.1

Data Analysis
HeightofTrack
Trial 4

Time

Tri Trial 5
al
Trial 6
1

1
Cal
InitialPositionofCart= c
_______________ u
l
FinalPositionofCart=a
_______________
t
Totaldistance(d)=_______________ e

Calculatetheaveragetimeforeach
t
angle.
h

total
distance
traveled by
taking the
difference
between the
initial and
final positions
of the cart as
given at the
top of Table
8.1.

Trial 7
Tri
al Trial 8
2
Trial 9
Tri
al Trial 10
3
Average

Calculatetheaccelerationsusing
thedistanceandtimesandrecordin
Table8.2.

Measure the
hypotenuse of the
triangle formed by
the track and use
this to calculate
sinforeachofthe
heights.
2
6

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Table 8.2
Height

Acceleration

sin

Hypotenuse=_________________

Plot acceleration versus sin. Draw the bestfit straight line and calculate its
slope.(Thisslopeshouldequalg.)Calculatethepercentdifferencebetweentheslopeand
g.
slope=______________________
%difference=_______________

Questions
Doesyourreactiontimecauseagreaterpercentageerrorforhigherorlowerangles?
Ifthemassofthecartisdoubled,howaretheresultsaffected?Tryit.
27

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Notes:

28

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experiment 9: Conservation of Energy


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

DynamicsCartwithMass(ME9430) DynamicsCartTrack
SuperPulleywithClamp
Meterstick
BaseandSupportrod(ME9355)
Masshangerandmassset
String(severalkilograms)
Massbalance Graphpaper

Purpose
Thepurposeistoexaminespringpotentialenergyandgravitationalpotentialenergyandto
showhowenergyisconserved.

Theory
Thepotentialenergyofaspringcompressedadistancexfromequilibriumisgivenby
PE=(12)kx2,wherekisthespringconstant.AccordingtoHookesLaw,theforceexerted
bythespringisproportionaltothedistancethespringiscompressedorstretched,F=kx,
wherekistheproportionalityconstant.Thusthespringconstantcanbeexperimentally
determinedbyapplyingdifferentforcestostretchorcompressthespringdifferentdis
tances.Whentheforceisplottedversusdistance,theslopeoftheresultingstraightlineis
equaltok.
Thegravitationalpotentialenergygainedbyacartasitclimbsaninclineisgivenby
potentialenergy=mgh,wheremisthemassofthecart,gistheaccelerationdueto
gravity,andhistheverticalheightthecartisraised.Intermsofthedistance,d,alongthe
incline,theheightisgivenbyh=dsin.
Ifenergyisconserved,thepotentialenergyinthecompressedspringwillbecompletely
convertedintogravitationalpotentialenergy.

Procedure
1

Levelthetrackbysettingthecartonthetracktoseewhichwayitrolls.Adjustthe
levelingfeettoraiseorlowertheendsuntilthecartplacedatrestonthetrackwillnot
move.

Usethebalancetofindthemassofthecart.RecordthisvalueinTable9.2.

Determining the Spring Constant


1

Setthecartonthetrackwiththespringplungeragainstthestoppingblockasshown
inFigure9.1.Attachastringtothecartandattachtheotherendtoamasshanger,passing
thestringoverthepulley.

RecordthecartspositioninTable9.1.

Addmasstothemasshangerandrecordthenewposition.Repeatthisfora
totalof5differentmasses.

29

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

adjustable end stop

Figure 9.1 Experiment Setup


Table 9.1
Added Mass

Displacement from
Equilibrium

Position

Force (mg)

Potential Energy
Removethelevelingfeet.
1

Removethestringfromthecartandcockthespringplunger
toitsmaximumcompressionposition.Placethecartagainsttheend
stop.Measurethedistancethespringplungeriscompressedand
recordthisvalueinTable9.2.

Inclinethetrackandmeasureitsheightandhypotenuse(see
Figure9.2)todeterminetheangleofthetrack.
height
angle=arcsin(
hypotenuse )
RecordtheangleinTable9.2.

HYPOTENUSE
HEIGHT OF
TRACK

(d)
Distance

Figure 9.2
30

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

RecordtheinitialpositionofthecartinTable9.2.
1

Releasetheplungerbytappingitwithastickandrecordthedistancethecartgoesup
thetrack.Repeatthisfivetimes.RecordthemaximumdistancethecartwentinTable9.2.

11 Changetheangleofinclinationandrepeatthemeasurements.
12 Addmasstothecartandrepeatthemeasurements.
Table9.2
Distancetraveledbythecart(d)
Angle

Mass

Trial1

Max

h = d sin

Distancespringiscompressed(x)=______________
Initialpositionofcart=___________________

Data Analysis
1

UsingthedatainTable9.1,plotforceversusdisplacement.Drawthebestfitstraight
linethroughthedatapointsanddeterminetheslopeoftheline.Theslopeisequaltothe
effectivespringconstant,k.
k=______________

CalculatethespringpotentialenergyandrecordinTable9.3.
CalculatethegravitationalpotentialenergyforeachcaseandrecordinTable9.3.
1

Calculate the percent difference between the spring potential energy and the
gravitationalpotentialenergy.
Table 9.3
Angle/Mass

1
SpringPE(2

kx)

GravitationalPE(mgh)

%Difference

Questions
Whichofthepotentialenergieswaslarger?Wheredidthislostenergygo?
1

When the mass of the cart was doubled, why did the gravitational potential
energyremainaboutthesame?
31

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Notes:

32

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Additional Experiment Suggestions


Experiment 11: Conservation of Center of Mass
SetupthetrackintheconfigurationshowninFigure1.1inExperiment#1butinsteadofputtingthetrack
directlyonthetable,placeitontheadditionalmassbarsothatthebaractsasafulcrum.Positionthebar
sothecartsandtrackarebalanced.Firstusetwocartsofequalmass.Pressthecockedplungerandwatch
thecartsmovetotheendsofthetrack.Sincethecenterofmassofthesystemdoesnotmove,thetrack
willremainbalanced.
Thenrepeatthisprocedureusingcartsofunequalmass.

Experiment 12: Oscillation Modes of Two Carts and Three Springs


Placetwocartsofequalmassonthetrack.Attachaspringbetweenthetwocartsandconnecteachcartto
theirrespectiveendsofthetrackwithsprings.Pullthecartsawayfromeachotherandreleaseandobserve
themodeofoscillation.Thendisplacebothcartsinthesamedirectioninitiallyandobserve.
Addamassbartoonecartandrepeat.

Experiment 13: Newtons Second Law III


RepeatExperiment7withthetrackinclinedsothepulleyisonthehighendandthecartacceleratesup
theincline.

Experiment 14: Damped Motion


Inclinethetrackwiththeendstopatthebottom.Releasethecartfromameasureddistanceupthe
inclinedtrack.Thespringplungershouldbeunlockedanddirectedtowardthebottomoftheinclineso
thecartwillrebound.Oneachrebound,whenthecartreachesitspeak,recordthetimeandposition.A
plotofamplitudeversustimecanbemade.

Experiment 15: Rocket Cart with Balloon


Attachanuntiedinflatedballoontothecartwiththeneckoftheballoondirectedoutthebackofthecart.
Lettheairpropelthecart.

Experiment 16: Oscillation Modes of Three Carts and Four Springs


(FortheME9459system)
Placethreecartsofequalmassonthetrack.Attachaspringbetweenthecartsandconnecttheendcarts
totheirrespectiveendsofthetrackwithsprings.
Displacethetwoendcartsawayfromthemiddlecartandreleaseandobservethemodeofoscillation.

33

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Displacethetwocartsontheleftawayfromthecartontherightandreleaseandobservethemodeof
oscillation.
Displacethemiddlecartandreleaseandobservethemodeofoscillation.

Experiment 17: Multiple Elastic Collisions


(FortheME9459system)
UsetwoCollisionCartsandoneDynamicsCart.Trythisexperimentwithcartsofthesamemassand
thenwithcartsofdifferentmasses.SetthethreecartsonthetrackwiththeDynamicsCartontheright
endwithitsmagneticbumperorientedtowardtheCollisionCarts.PushtheleftCollisionCartintothe
middlecart,whichinturnwillcollidewiththerightcart.Notetheresultingfinalvelocitiesofeachcart.

Experiment 18: Multiple Inelastic Collisions


(FortheME9459system)
UsetwoCollisionCartsandoneDynamicsCartwithitsmagnetsremoved.Alternatively,twoDynamics
CartsandoneCollisionCartmaybeused.Trythisexperimentwithcartsofthesame
massandthenwithcartsofdifferentmasses.Setthethreecartsonthetrackwiththecartsarrangedso
thattheVelcrobumperswillcollidewithoutmagnetstopushthemapart.Pushtheleftcartintothe
middlecart,whichinturnwillcollidewiththerightcart.Thecartswillallsticktogether.Notethe
resultingfinalvelocityofthecarts.

Experiment 19: Rocket Staging


UsethreeormoreDynamicsCarts(withplungers)tosimulatearocketexpellingfuel.Pushtheplungers
inoneachcartandattachthecartstogetherinalineonthe7.5'track.Tapecanbeusedtolightlyattach
thecartstoeachotherorVelcrocanbeaddedtothebumpers.Positionthecartsatoneendofthetrack.
Theleadcartrepresentstherocketandtherestofthecartsarefuel.Useametersticktoreleasethe
plungersinsuccessionbystrikingtheplungerreleaseofeachcart,beginningwiththelastfuelcart
(furthestfromtherocketcart).Aseachplungerisreleased,eachcartwillseparatefromtherest,oneata
time.Notethefinalspeedoftherocketcartcomparedtoitsspeedwhenallthefuelisdumpedatonce.

Experiment 20: Longitudinal Wave


UsesixormoreCollisionCartsonthe7.5foottrackwiththeadjustableendstopsinstalledattheendsof
thetrackwiththemagneticsideoftheendstopstowardthecenterofthetrack.Startalongitudinalpulse
bydisplacingoneofthecarts.Thecartswillreboundoffeachotherandtheendstops.Oscillatetheend
carttokeepalongitudinalwavegoingdownthetrack.

34

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Teachers Guide
Experiment 1: Conservation of Energy in Explosions
cartsareseparated.

Notes on Data Analysis


M1
M2
Position
497.5 500.7
181.0
497.5 996.4
195.0
497.5 1494.9 201.5
995.7 1494.9 189.0

X1
42.0
56.0
62.5
50.0

X2
41.5
27.5
21.0
33.5

X1/X2 M2/M1
1.01
1.01
2.04
2.00
2.98
3.00
1.49
1.50

Answers to Questions
Momentumisconservedineachcase.
1

As shown in this lab, themomentum of each


cartisthesame.

KE =

m1

KE

m2

Thelightercartwillhaveahigherkineticenergy.

Experiment
2:

same
mass,
they
will
ex
change
velocit
y in
each
case.

NOTE: Without
some method of
actually measuring
the velocities of the
carts,thislabshould
be used for
qualitative analysis
only.

2. The

Part I
1. Sincethecartshavethe

35

mom
entu
m

Thestarting
positiondoesnot
dependonwhichcart
hastheplungercocked.
Duringthe
explosion,the
momentumofthecarts
willbeaffectedbythe
factthattheplungeris
movingatadifferent
velocitythaneither
cart.However,since
eachplungereven
tuallyendsupmoving
atthesamespeedas
thecartitison,thereis
nodifferenceoncethe

Conservatio Momentum in
n of
Collisions

transf
er
will Questions
be
Each cart
prop 1
ortio
loses

its
nalto
momentum. The
the
total momentum
ratio
is unchanged,
of
because the total
the
momentumiszero
cart
both before and
mass
afterthecollision.
es.
1
The total

momentu
minthis
case is
still zero
both
before
and after
the
collision.

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Experiment 3: Simple Harmonic Oscillator


Notes on
Calculations

Notes on Procedure
1

Forbestresults,makesurethatthespringsare
1
Thespring
neitheroverstretchednorhangingloose.Forthese
constantk=3.089
tests,weused1050gmassesonly.
N/mforthesprings
usedhere.Thisvalue
willvaryfromspring
0.5
tospring.

0.45

Theoretical
valueswillvary,
dependingonthe
valueforkandform.
Forbestresults,
measurethecarts
ratherthanassume
theirweighttobethe
stated500g.

f(x)=3.089054E+0*x+1.994434E3

R^2=9.996646E1

0.4

Force (N)

0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

Distance (m)

0.1

0.12

Notes on
Comparison

0.14 0.16

The

percent
difference between

experimental and
theoretical values
should be less than
2%, and it is not
unusual to obtain
errors of less than
0.5%.

Notes on Questions
1

The period of
oscillation increases
withmass.Themore
massive

cart
oscillatesslower.

Theperiodisnot
changed,aslongasthe
initialdisplacement
doesnotexceedthe
linearregionofthe
spring.Youwillnotice
aslightdifferenceif
thedisplacementis
enoughtopermanently
deformthespring.

3
6

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experiment 4: Oscillations on an Incline


Notes on Procedure

Notes on
Calculations

Theangleofinclinationofthetrackshouldbe
between5and15forbestresults.Youmaywantto 1
Thespring
measurethespringconstantbyhangingmasses
constantk=1.5595
directlyfromthespring(vertically)withoutthecart.
forthespringtested
Thisisabettermethodthantheonedescribedinthe
here.Actualspring
experimentguide.
constantwillvary,
althoughitshouldbe
closeto1.5forthe
0.3
springssuppliedwith
f(x)=1.559548E+0*x+6.913319E3
thisapparatus.
0.25
R^2=9.935830E1

Force (N)

0.2

Theoretical
valueswillvary,
dependingonthe
valueforkandform.
Forbestresults,
measurethecarts
ratherthanassume
theirweighttobethe
stated500g.

0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

0.02 0.04

0.06

0.08 0.1 0.12


Distance(m)

0.14 0.16

0.18

0.2

Notes on Questions
1

Theperioddoes
notvarysignificantly
astheanglechanges.
Thereissome
variationdueto
nonlinearityinthe

37

spring;asthespringis
extendedatgreater
angles,theforce
constantisnotcon
stant.The
contributiondueto
frictionchangeswith
angle,aswell.

The
experimentalresults
shouldagreewith
theorytowithin2%,
althoughitisnot
unusualtofind
agreementwithin
lessthan1%.

The
equilibrium
positionchangesas
the angle is
changed.

Theperiodwould
bethesameat90,as
longasthespringwas
notoverstretched.
NOTE:hangingthe
PASCOdynamicscart
fromthespring
suppliedwiththis
equipmentwill
overextendthespring.

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Experiment 5: Springs in Series and Parallel


Notes on Questions

Notes

The effective
spring constant is
2k for springs in
parallel.

Keeptheangleofthetracklow,especiallyifyouare
usingashort(1.2m)track.Otherwise,thecartswill
goofftheendofthetrackwhenthespringsarein
series.

The effective
spring constant is
k/2 for springs in
series.

Notes on Calculations
Thetwospringsusedforthisexperimenthadspring
constantsof1.53and1.60.

The springs are


effectively in parallel
whentheyareattached
tooppositeendsofthe
cart.

1 Inseries,thespringconstantwas0.76.(k/2)
2 Inparallel,thespringconstantwas3.12(2k)
3 Thespringconstantwas3.06(2k)whenthe
springswereattachedtotheendsofthecart.

Experiment 6:

secondlaw,see
experiment7.
Thislabisintendedtobea
Notes on
qualitativelabonly.Fora
quantitativeanalysisofNewtons Data

Analysis

Newtons

Second Law

force

Acceleration Notes on
Acceleration decreaseswith Questions

increaseswith mass.

F=ma

38

01205024E

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

Experiment 7: Newtons Second Law II


differencebetween
thetwoistheforce
offriction.

Notes on Questions

Ifthemassusedtoacceleratethecartistoolow,friction
willbeaverysignificantsourceoferror.Ifitistoohigh, 1
Theresultsofthis
thenthetimewillbeshortandaccuratemeasurementwill experiment generally
show
bedifficult.Itwouldbebestforthislabtousea
photogatetimingsystem,suchasthePASCOME9215.
thatF=ma.Errorscan
behigh,duetofriction
andtiminginaccuracy.

The hanging
mass is accelerating
atthesamerateasthe
cart,soitsmassmust
beconsideredaswell
asthatofthecart.

Theforceofthe
hangingweightis
largerthanthetotal
masstimes
acceleration.The

Data Analysis

Acceleration

Experiment
8:

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

1.4

0
f(x)=9.476749E+0*x+6.134624E2

(m/s/s)

1.2

39

1
0.8

R^2=9.983687E1

Thecartisona
leveltrack,soitisnot
accelerated

by
gravity.

Acceleration Incline
Down an

beslightly
lowerthan
9.8,dueto Notes on
friction.
Questions
(Our
value
1
Assuming
0.02
3.3%
that
reaction
Sin(angle)
low.)
time relatively

Thevalue
ofthe
slopewill

constant, the
percent error
duetoreaction

time
would
be
greater
for
shorter
times
and
higher
angles.

Ch

anging
the mass
of the
cart will
affectthe
results
slightly
due to
changing
frictional
character
istics.

DynamicsCartAccessoryTrackSet(2.2mversion)

01205024E

Experiment 9: Conservation of Energy


Analysis

Notes on Questions

Theinitialspring
potentialenergyis
larger.(Generally.
Thereareexperimental
errors,whichcanmake
thegravitationalenergy
appearlargerthanthe
initialspringpotential.)
Thelostenergygoes
intofriction.

8
f(x)=5.717757E+2*x+1.981589E1
R^2=9.920828E1

Force (N)

6
5
4
3
2

1
0
0

0.002

0.004

0.006
0.008
0.01
Displacement (m)

0.012

Why not? The


increased mass will
mean that the cart
does not travel as

high, but the final


gravitational
potential energy
willbethesame.

k=

572

Spring PE =

0.193336

Angle
14.57
11.07
11.07
3.026
3.026

Mass
0.4971
0.4971
0.9926
0.9926
0.4971

dmax (cm)
15.1
19.5
10.1
39.0
75.1

h (m)
0.0380
0.0374
0.0194
0.0206
0.0396

mgh
0.1851
0.1824
0.1886
0.2003
0.1931

%diff
-4.28%
-5.66%
-2.43%
3.58%
-0.11%

4
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01204990B

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PicketFence

01204083B

Copyright, Warranty and Equipment Return


PleaseFeelfreetoduplicatethismanual
subjecttothecopyrightrestrictionsbelow.

Equipment Return
Copyright Notice
ThePASCOscientific01204083Binstructionsheetis
copyrightedandallrightsreserved.However,permission
isgrantedtononprofiteducationalinstitutionsforrepro
ductionofanypartofthePicketFenceinstructionsheet
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PASCOscientific,isprohibited.

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yearfromthedateofshipmenttothecustomer.PASCO
willrepairorreplace,atitsoption,anypartoftheproduct
whichisdeemedtobedefectiveinmaterialorworkman
ship.Thewarrantydoesnotcoverdamagetotheproduct
causedbyabuseorimproperuse.Determinationof
whetheraproductfailureistheresultofamanufacturing
defectorimproperusebythecustomershallbemade
solelybyPASCOscientific.Responsibilityforthereturn
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Equipmentmustbeproperlypackedtopreventdamage
andshippedpostageorfreightprepaid.(Damagecaused
byimproperpackingoftheequipmentforreturnship
mentwillnotbecoveredbythewarranty.)Shippingcosts
forreturningtheequipment,afterrepair,willbepaidby
PASCOscientific.

Should the product


havetobereturnedto
PASCO scientific for
any reason, notify
PASCO scientific by
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BEFOREreturningthe
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Uponnotification,
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NOTE: NO

EQUIPMENT
WILLBE
ACCEPTED
FORRETURN
WITHOUTAN
AUTHORIZAT
IONFROM
PASCO.
Whenreturning
equipmentforrepair,
theunitsmustbe
packedproperly.
Carrierswillnot
acceptresponsibility
fordamagecausedby

improperpacking.To
becertaintheunit
willnotbedamaged
inshipment,observe
thefollowingrules:

The packing
cartonmustbestrong
enough for the item
shipped.

Make
certainthere
areatleasttwo
inchesof
packing
material
betweenany
pointonthe
apparatusand
theinside
wallsofthe
carton.

Makecertain
thatthepacking
materialcannotshift
intheboxorbecome
compressed,allowing
theinstrumentcome
incontactwiththe
packingcarton.
Address:
scientific

PASCO
10101
Foothills
Blvd.

Roseville,CA957477100
Phone:

(916)7863800

FAX:
7863292
email:

(916)

Instruction Manual and

techsupp@pasco.com
web:
www.pasco.com
01205460A
7/94

Experiment Guide for


the PASCO scientific
Model ME-9486

1994PASCOscientific

better

10101 Foothills Blvd. P.O. Box 619011 Roseville, CA 95678-9011 USA


Phone (916) 786-3800 FAX (916) 786-8905 TWX 910-383-2040

BallisticCartAccessory

E
S

01205460A

9
1
6
)
7
8
6

8
9
0
5

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Introduction
ThePASCOME9486BallisticCartAccessoryisused
withthePASCODynamicsCartandtrack(ME9429A
orME9452)toshootaplasticballstraightupfromthe
movingcart.Ifthecartismovingataconstantvelocity,
theballwillfallbackintothecatcheronthecart.The
ballisreleasedusingaphotogatesothereisnoimpulse
giventothecartuponreleaseasthereisinothermodels
whichusedastringtoreleasetheball.Thebarrelcanbe
aimedtoensurethattheballisshotvertically.Special
nobouncefoampreventstheballfrombouncingback
outofthecatchercup.

ThePASCOME9487
DropRodAccessorycan
bemountedtothe
BallisticCartAccessory
soaspecialplasticball
canbedroppedfromrest
(relativetothecart)above
themovingcart.Alsothe
droprodcanberotated
awayfromthecartsothe
ballwilldropontothe
floortoperformbombing
1

runs.

NOTE:Itis

bettertousea2.2
mtrack(ME9452)
ratherthanthe1.2
mtrack(ME
9429A)becauseit
givesyoumore
roomtowork.

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

Equipment
Ballistic Cart
Accessory
9-volt
battery

s (2)

DO
CAUTION!NOT

DOWN
ON

LOOK
BARREL

ON

POWER

WHEN

FLASHING

OFF

BALL
JACK

LAUNCHER

R
O
D

PHOTOGATE
DROP

BALLISTIC

CART

thumb
screw

ACCESSORY

oneBallisticCartAccessory

yell
o
w
n
yl
o
n
b
al
ls
(2
)

Trip
Brac
ket

as
se
mb
ly

following:

oneDrop
ME-9486 Ballistic
Cartmodified
accessory
pink Equipment
oneTripBracketassembly
Accessory
TheME9486BallisticCartAccessoryincludesthe
ME-9487 Drop Rod Accessory Equipmemt
following:

one9voltbattery
2

twomodi
TheME9487DropRodAccessoryincludesthe
nylonballs

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Assembly
Ballistic Cart
Accessory

ME-9486 Ballistic Cart Accessory


BatteryInstallation

Turntheunitonitssideandinstallthe9volt
batteryinthebottomoftheunit.SeeFigure1.

power
switch

Drop Rod
jack

ON LED

AIM
ADJUST
DRO
P

AIM
DROP

ROD

JACK

aim adjust

battery

screws

holder

thumbscrews
(2)

Dynamics
Cart

bottom of
unit

Figure 1: Battery Installation

AttachingtheBallisticCartAccessorytoaDynamics
Cart

Figure 2:
Ballistic Cart
Installation

Removethetwomountingscrews(seeFigure2)from Slidethephotogatetrip
bracketintotheTslot
theirstorageplaceonthesideoftheunit.(Thereare
onthedynamicstrack.
twoextrascrewsincludedwiththeBallisticCartAc
SeeFigure3.
cessory.)UsethesescrewstoattachtheBallisticCart

Accessorytothemasstrayofthe
dynamicscart.

Ballistic Cart
Accessory

photogate

POWER
INST
RUC
TIO
NS

ball launcher

AIM ADJUST

bracket
nylon

OFF

1.

L bracket

thumbscrew

F
O
R
W
A

ON

MOUNT

UNIT ON CART.

assembled trip

2.

bracket

TURN

UNIT ON.

3.

INSERT

AND DEPRESS BALL.

4
.

I
N
T
E
R
R
U
P
T
P
H
O

T
O
G
A
T
E
T
O
L
A
U
N
C
H
B
A
L
L.

EN
NO
T IN
US
E
9
V
B
A
T
T
E
R

Y
LOC
ATE
D
UND
ER
MOUNTI
NG
BRACK
ET

s
Cart

DYNAMICS
CART

ME-9430

PASCO
scientific

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

SettingUptheBallisticCartAccessory

Movetheaimadjustingscrews(seeFigure2)in
andouttocheckthatthebarrelmovesfreely.Dothis
bylookingdownthebarrelwhileadjustingthe
screws.Ifthebarrelsticksitisbecausethefoam
catchesit.Toremedythis,gentlyliftupslightlyon
theedgesofthefoamtounstickitfromthebarrel.

Levelthedynamicstrack.Tocheckifthetrackis
level,placethecartonthetrackandgiveitasmall
pushinonedirection.Thenpushitintheoppositedi
rectiontoseeifthecartrollseasierinonedirection
thantheother.Alsomakethetracklevelfromsideto
sidebyplacingtheplasticballatrestonthetrackto
seeifitrollsonewayortheother.

ME-9487 Drop Rod


Accessory
DropRodInstallation

Usethe1 /2inchmetal
screwstofastenthedroprod
clamptothesideoftheBallistic
CartAccessory.SeeFigure4.
Screwthethumbscrewintothe
endofthedroprodclamp.

Withthecartat
restontheleveltrack,
adjusttheaimadjust
screwsuntiltheball
shootsstraightupand
landsbackinthe
catchercup.Usea
pennyordimetotrip
thephotogatewhenthe
cartisatrest.
Remember,thepower
switchmustbeturned
onbeforethetrip
switchwilloperate.The
LEDwillblinkwhile

thepowerison.Also
remembertoturnthe
powerswitchoffbefore
storingtheaccessory.

NOTE: The trip


switch must be
mountedonthesame
sideasthephotogate
ontheBallisticCart.
SeeFigure3.

Thread
thecordfrom
thedroprod
throughthe
droprod
clampand
clampthe
endofthe
droprodby
tightening
thethumb
screw.

drop rod

pin

modified pink
ball
Figure 5: Ball and Drop Rod

1 C

Ballistic Cart
Accessory
drop rod

drop rod
jack

1 /2 inch metal
AIM

ADJUST

AIM

ADJUST
CLAMP
ROD

DROP

DROP

ROD
JACK

mounting

AUT
ION:
Do
not
over
tighte
n the
scre
w or
the
tube
may
be
crush
ed.

screws (2)

so
when
you
want
to
use
the
launc
her
you
must
unplu
gthe
drop
rod
acces
sory.

Pl
No
ug the 1
te

that
drop
the
rod
Drop
cord
Rod
intothe
Access
drop
ory
rod
requires
jackon
a
the
special
side of
ballthat
the
has an
Ballisti
iron
c Cart
i
Access
n
ory.

1 N
OTE:
Plugg
ing
this
cord
in
disabl
esthe
launc
hing
mech
anism
ofthe
Ballis
tic
Cart
Acces
sory

s
e
r
t
.

T
h
e

b
a
l
l
s

f
o
r

h
e

D
r
o
p

R
o
d

A
c

c
e
s
s
o
r
y

a
n
d

t
h
e

B
a
l

l
i
s
t
i
c

C
a
r
t

A
c
c
e
s

or
y
ar
e
dif
fer
en
t
co
lor
s
so
th
ey
ca
n
be
ea
sil
y
di
sti
n
gu
is
he
d.
To
ha
ng
th
e
ba
ll
fr
o
m
th
e
dr
op
ro
d,
th
e
pi
n
on

drop rod cord

Figure 4: Drop Rod


Installation.

thedrop
rodmust
ylon
beinserted
thu
intothe
mbs
smallhole
crew
intheball.
SeeFigure
5.

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Experiment 1: Shoot and Catch - Demonstration


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

BallisticCartAccessory(ME9486)
DynamicsCartandtrack(ME9452)

Purpose
Thisdemonstrationshowsthatwhentheballisshotverticallyupwardfromthecart
whilethecartismovingatanyconstantspeed,theballwilllandbackinthecart.

Procedure
Priortothebeginningofthedemonstration,performtheSetupprocedure.
1

Withthecartatrestonthetrack,loadtheballandtripthereleasemechanismwitha
pennyorotheropaqueobject.Thisprovestothestudentsthattheballisbeinglaunched
straightup.

Putthephotogatetripbracketnearoneendofthetrack,leavingenoughroomto
pushthecartuptoitsmaximumspeedbeforeitreachesthetripbracket.SeeFigure1.1.
Loadtheballandstartthecartfromthatendofthetrackbygivingthecartagentlepush.
Thecartwillmoveslowlyandtheballwillbecaught.

Returnthecarttotheendofthetrack.Loadtheballandgivethecartastrongerpush.

CAUTION!Youmustcatchthecartwithyourhandbeforethecartreachesthe
endstoponthetrackbecausethecartwillderailwhenitsmovingfast.Theballwillbe
caughtatanycartspeed.

NOTE:IfyouhavetheDropRodAccessory,tryputtingitontheBallisticCart
Accessorytoactasareferenceline.Withthisreferenceline,theballappearstogo
straightupanddown.Withoutthereference,theballmayappeartogoinaparabola.

trip bracket

end stop

Figure 1.1: Setup for Shoot and Catch

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

Notes:

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Experiment 2: Tunnel - Demonstration


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

BallisticCartAccessory(ME9486)
DynamicsCartandtrack
Cardboardbox(33cm{13"}cube)fortunnel(constructiondetailsgivenbelow)

Purpose
Thisdemonstrationshowsthattheballcanbecaughtbythecartevenifthecartpassesthrougha
tunnelwhiletheballisintheair.Thetunnelaccentuatestheparabolicpathoftheball.

Procedure
Priortothebeginningofthedemonstration,performtheSetupprocedure.
1

Constructatunnelfromacardboardbox:Cuttheflapsofftwoopposingendsof
thebox.Cuta15cmwide,27cmhighholeinthesetwoopposingendsofthebox.See
Figure2.1.

Set the box upsidedown over the middle of the dynamics track. Check the
clearancebyrunningthecartthroughthetunnel.

Position the photogate trip bracket in front of the tunnel so the ball will be
launchedjustbeforethecartentersthetunnel.

Loadtheballandpushthecarttowardthetunnel.Youmayhavetopracticeto
gettherightspeedsothecartwillmakeitthroughthetunnelbeforetheballcomes
down.

CAUTION! Youmustcatchthecartwithyourhandbeforethecartreaches
theendstoponthetrackbecausethecartwillderailwhenitsmovingfast.

B
a
A
c

tunnel

DO

CAUTION!

DOWNNOT LOOK
ON BARREL
WHEN
FLASHING

ON

BALL

POWER

OFF

PHOTOGATELAUNCHER

JACK
ROD
DROP

BALLISTIC

CART

ACCESSORY

trip bracket

Figure 2.1: Tunnel

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

Notes:

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Experiment 3: Accelerating Cart - Demonstration


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

BallisticCartAccessory(ME9486)
DynamicsCartandtrack
String
Clamponpulley
50grammassandmasshanger

Purpose
Thisdemonstrationshowsthatwhentheballisshotverticallyupwardfromthecart
whilethecartisaccelerating,theballwillnotlandinthecart.

Procedure
Priortothebeginningofthedemonstration,performtheSetupprocedure.
1

Clampthepulleytotheendofthetrack.Attachastring(about1meterlong)tothe
cartandpassitoverthepulley.Hangabout50gramsonthestring.SeeFigure3.1.

Putthephotogatetripbracketinapositionwhereitwilllaunchtheballafterthe
carthasbeguntomove.

Startthecartasfarbackaspossible,loadtheball,andletitgo.Inthiscase,the
ballwillfallbehindthecart.

CAUTION! Youmustcatchthecartwithyourhandbeforethecartreaches
theendstoponthetrackbecausethecartwillderailwhenitsmovingfast.

pulley

end stop

trip bracket
string

table
50g

Figure 3.1: Accelerating Cart.

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

Notes:

10

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Experiment 4: Inclined Plane - Demonstration


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

BallisticCartAccessory(ME9486)
DynamicsCartandtrack
Tableclampandrod
Rodclampfordynamicstrack

Purpose
Thisdemonstrationshowsthataballlaunchedfromacartthatisacceleratingdownan
inclinedplanewillbecaughtbythecartregardlessoftheangleofincline.

Procedure
Priortothebeginningofthedemonstration,performtheSetupprocedure.
1

Inclinethetrackusingthetableclampandrod.SeeFigure4.1.Becarefulnotto
choosetoohighananglebecausethecartwillreachsuchahighspeedthatitwillcrashat
thebottom.Foranyangleyouchoose,besureyoucatchthecartatthebottomtokeepit
fromderailingandcrashingtothefloor.

Putthephotogatetripbracketinapositionwhereitwilllaunchtheballafterthe
carthasbeguntomove.

Startthecartatthetopoftheincline,loadtheball,andreleasethecart.Theball
willlandinthecart.

CAUTION!Remembertocatchthecart!
Repeatthedemonstrationforadifferentangle.
1

Startthecartatthebottomofthe
incline.Givethecartapushuphillsothatit
travelspastthetripbracket.
rod clamp
trip bracket

end stop

table clamp

Figure 4.1: Inclined Plane

11

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

Notes:

12

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Experiment 5: Drop Ball - Demonstration


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

BallisticCartAccessory(ME9486)
DynamicsCartandtrack
DropRodAccessory(ME9487)

Purpose
Thepurposeofthisdemonstrationistoshowthatwhentheballisdroppedfromthe
droprodwhilethecartismovingatanyconstantspeed,theballwilllandinthecart.

Procedure
Priortothebeginningofthedemonstration,performtheSetupprocedure.
Positionthedroprodsothattheballwillbedirectlyoverthecup.SeeFigure5.1.
1

Withthecartatrestonthetrack,hangtheballonthedroprodandtriptherelease
mechanismwithapennyorotheropaqueobject.Thisshowsthestudentsthattheballis
dropsstraightdownandiscaughtbythecart.

Putthephotogatetripbracketnearoneendofthetrack,leavingenoughroomto
pushthecartuptoitsmaximumspeedbeforeitreachesthetripbracket.Hangtheballfrom
thedroprodandgivethecartagentlepush.

Returnthecarttotheendofthetrack.Hangtheballfromthedroprodandgive
thecartastrongerpush.Theballwillbecaughtatanycartspeed.

CAUTION!Youmustcatchthecartwithyourhand
modified pink ball
beforethecartreachestheendstoponthetrackbecausethe
cartwillderailwhenitsmovingfast.

D
r
A
c

e
n

Figure 5.1: Setup for


Drop Ball

trip bracket

13

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

Notes:

14

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Experiment 6: Accelerating Cart - Demonstration


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

BallisticCartAccessory(ME9486)
DynamicsCartandtrack
DropRodAccessory(ME9487)
String
Clamponpulley
50grammassandmasshanger

Purpose
Thisdemonstrationshowsthatwhentheballisdroppedfromthedroprodonacartthatis
accelerating,theballwillnotlandinthecart.

Procedure
Priortothebeginningofthedemonstration,performtheSetupprocedure.
Positionthedroprodsothattheballwillbedirectlyoverthecup.
1

Clampthepulleytotheendofthetrack.Attachastring(about1meterlong)tothe
cartandpassitoverthepulley.Hangabout50gramsonthestring.SeeFigure6.1.

Putthephotogatetripbracketinapositionwhereitwill
droptheballafterthecarthasbeguntomove.

Startthecartasfarbackaspossible,hangtheball
onthedroprod,andreleasethecart.Inthiscase,the
ballwillfallbehindthecart.

CAUTION!Youmustcatchthecartwithyour
handbeforethecartreachestheendstoponthetrack
becausethecartwillderailwhenitsmovingfast.

trip bracket
pulley
end stop

string

modified
pink ball

Drop Rod
Accessory
50g

Figure 6.1: Accelerating


Cart

table

15

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

Notes:

16

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Experiment 7: Inclined Plane - Demonstration


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

BallisticCartAccessory(ME9486)
DynamicsCartandtrack
DropRodAccessory(ME9487)
Tableclampandrod
Rodclampfordynamicstrack

Purpose
Thisdemonstrationshowsthataballdroppedfromthedroprodonacartthatisaccelerating
downaninclinedplanewillbecaughtbythecartregardlessoftheangleofincline.

Procedure
Priortothebeginningofthedemonstration,performtheSetupprocedure.
Positionthedroprodsothatwhenthetrackislevel,theballwillbedirectlyoverthecup.

modified

Drop Rod
Accessory pink ball

trip bracket

end stop
table clamp

table

Figure 7.1: Inclined Plane

17

BallisticCartAccessory

Inclinethetrack(seeFigure7.1)usingthetableclampandrod.Becarefulnotto
choosetoohighananglebecausethecartwillreachsuchahighspeedthatitwillcrashat
thebottom.Foranyangleyouchoose,besureyoucatchthecartatthebottomtokeepit
fromderailingandcrashingtothefloor.

Putthephotogatetripbracketinapositionwhereitwilldroptheballafterthecart
hasbeguntomove.

Startthecartatthetopoftheincline,hangtheballonthedroprod,andreleasethe
cart.Theballwilllandinthecart.

CAUTION!Remembertocatchthecart!
Repeatthedemonstrationforadifferentangle.

01205460A

18

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Experiment 8: Bombing Run - Demonstration


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

BallisticCartAccessory(ME9486)
DynamicsCartandtrack
DropRodAccessory(ME9487)
Papercup(forcatchingball)

Purpose
Thisdemonstrationshowsthestudentsthatabombermustreleasethebombbeforethe
planeisoverthetarget.

Procedure
Priortothebeginningofthedemonstration,performtheSetupprocedure.

Drop Rod

modified pink Accessory


ball

trip bracket
end stop

table

cup

floor

19

BallisticCartAccessory

Alignthetrackwiththeedgeofthetable.
Positionthedroprodsothatastheballdrops,itwillmissthetableandfalltothefloor.
Positionthephotogatetripbracketnearthemiddleofthetrack.
1

Placethecartonthetrackatthepositionofthetripbracketandplacethecuponthe
floorunderthedroprod.Pullthecartbacktooneendofthetrack,hangtheballonthedroprod,
andpushthecart.Theballwillbedroppedatthemomentthecartpassesoverthecup.SeeFigure
8.1.

Discusswiththestudentsthereasontheballmissesthecup.
Movethetripbracketbackandtryitagain.

01205460A

20

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Experiment 9: Bombing Run (Computerized)


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

BallisticCartAccessory(ME9486) 200grammassandmasshanger
DynamicsCartand2.2mtrack(ME9452)
Photogateandphotogatebracket
DropRodAccessory(ME9487)
Computer
Papercup(forcatchingball) Plumbbob
Physicsstring(SE8050)(NOTE:Stiffstringisrequired.)Meterstick
Clamponpulley

Purpose
Inthisexperiment,thedistancefromthetargetthatabombermustreleasethebombis
calculatedandverified.

Procedure
Priortothebeginningoftheexperiment,performtheSetupprocedure.
Alignthetrackwiththeedgeofthetable.
Positionthedroprodsothatastheballdrops,itwillmissthetableandfalltothefloor.
Positionthephotogatetripbracketnearthemiddleofthetrack.

Drop Rod
Accessory

modified
pink ball

photogate

pulley

trip bracket

photogate
bracket
end stop

table

end stop
string

Figure 9.1: Smart Pulley Setup for Bombing Run

21

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

Clampthepulleyontheendofthetrack.Positionthephotogateanditsbracketover
theclamponpulleysoitactsasaSmartPulley.SeeFigure9.1.

Tieoneendofa2.2meterlongstringtothecartandpasstheotherendoverthe
pulleyandhangabout200gonit.

NOTE:thestringmustbelongenoughsothecartcanreachtheendstopfurthest
fromthepulley.Theendstopwillmarkthepositionwherethecartwillbestartedfromrest
eachtime.

Movethecarttowardthepulleyuntilthemassjusttouchesthefloor.Thenplacethe
tripbracketatthecartsposition.Thiswillcausethecarttodroptheballafterthecarthas
reacheditsconstantspeed.Notethatthestiffstringwillcontinuetomoveforwardandnot
bunchupunderthecart.Thisisthereasonfornotusingthread.

Withouthangingtheballonthedroprod,pullthecartbackagainsttheendstopand
releaseitfromrest.Recorddatawiththecomputeranddeterminethemaximumspeed,v,of
thecart.

Drop Rod
Accessory

modified
pink ball

trip bracket
end stop

end stop

table

cup
floor

Figure 9.2: Projectile Motion For Bombing Run.

22

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

NOTE:Itisalsopossibletodeterminethespeedusingconservationofenergy
withoutacomputer.YouwouldneedtoknowthemassoftheBallisticCartAccessory
andmeasurethedistancethehangingmassfalls.

Hangtheballonthedroprodandmeasurethedistance,y,fromthebottomofthe
balldowntothefloor.SeeFigure9.2.

Theverticaldistance,y,thattheballfallsisgivenby

y= 2gt

Usingyourmeasuredvaluefory,calculatethetimeittakesfortheballtofall.

t=

11

2y
g

Calculatethehorizontaldistance, x,thattheballtravels.
x=vt

Thisisthepositionwheretheballshouldland.

12 Useaplumbbobandmetersticktomeasureoffthedistance,x.Placeapapercupatthis
positiononthefloor.

13 Hangtheballfromthedroprod,pullthecartbackagainsttheendstopandreleaseitfrom
rest.Observewhetherornottheballgoesintothecup.

Questions
Didtheballlandinthecup?Ifnot,whynot?
1

Whataresomeofthepossiblesourcesoferrorinthisexperimentthatwould
causetheballtomiss?

23

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

Notes:

24

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Experiment 10: Bombing Run

(Non-Computerized)
EQUIPMENT NEEDED

BallisticCartAccessory(ME9486) Clamponpulley
DynamicsCartandtrack(ME9452) 50200gmassandhanger
DropRodAccessory(ME9487)
Scale
Papercup(forcatchingball) Plumbbob
StringMeterstick

Purpose
Inthisexperiment,thedistancefromthetargetthatabombermustreleasethebombis
calculatedandverified.Insteadofusingaconstantvelocitycart,wewilluseaknown
accelerationforaknowndistancetoobtainarepeatablevelocityatthetimeofrelease.

Theory
Wecanmeasurethedistancethatthecartwillacceleratebeforedroppingtheball(din
Figure10.1)andtheheightythattheballwillfall.Knowingthemassofthecartandthe
hangingmass,wecanpredictwheretheballwillland.
First,thevelocityofthecartaftertravellingadistancedfromrestwillbe

vo= 2ad
whereaistheaccelerationofthesystem.Thehorizontaldistancexthattheballwilltravel
duringitsfallwillbe

x=voty
wheretyisthetimeittakesfortheballtofall:

2y
g

ty=
Combiningthesetermsgivesus:

2a
d

x=
Now,theaccelerationofthesystemisjust
m
a= gm+
M

2y
g

=2

ad
y
g

25

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

wheremisthehangingmassandMisthemassofthecartandallattachmentsincludingtheball.
Substitutingthisvalueforaccelerationintotheequationforxgivesusourdesiredequation:

mdy
x=2

m+M

Drop Rod
Accessory

modified
pink ball

initial
position of
apparatus

trip bracket

end stop

mass

table

cup
floor

Figure 9.2: Projectile Motion For Bombing Run.

Procedure
1

Weighthecartanditsattachments.RecordthismassasM.Weighthehangingmass,
andrecorditasm.

SetuptheequipmentasshowninFigure10.1.Youmaywanttotapealargesheetof
papertotheflooronwhichtomarkpositions.

26

01205460A

BallisticCartAccessory

Holdthecartinitsinitialpositionagainsttheendstop.Hangtheplumbbobfrom
theballreleasepointandmarktheinitialposition.Slowlymovethecarttowherethetrip
bracketjustcausestheballtorelease,andusetheplumbbobtomarkthisposition.Measure
thedistancebetweenthesepositionsandrecordasd.

Calculatex.Measurethisdistancefromthepointatwhichtheballdrops,andmark
thislocation.Placethepapercuponthismark.

Holdthecartagainsttheendstop.Makesurethattheballisloadedcorrectly
andtheBallisticCartAccessoryisturnedon.

Releasethecart,andseeiftheballlandsinthecup.
Questions
Didtheballlandinthecup?Ifnot,whynot?
1

Whataresomeofthepossiblesourcesoferrorinthisexperimentthatwould
causetheballtomiss?
27

BallisticCartAccessory

01205460A

Teachers Guide
Experiments 4 and 7: Inclined Plane - Demonstration

Why the Ball is Still Caught in the Inclined


Plane Experiments

Inthiscase,theballs
Therehavebeenenoughquestionsaboutthesetwo
accelerationisstill
experimentsincludingsomefrompeoplewho
onlyinthevertical
shouldknowbetterthatwethoughtitwouldbebest
plane,butthecarthas
toexplainexactlywhatwasgoingonandwhytheball
ahorizontal
isstillcaught.
acceleration.This
First,letsconsiderthehorizontalcase:
horizontalacceleration
changesthevelocityof
thecart,butnotthe
velocityoftheball.
Thecartdoesnot
remaindirectly
beneaththeballand
theballisnotcaught.
Velocity

Acceleration

Thecartandtheballhavethesamehorizontal
componentofvelocity.Theverticalcomponentof
theballsvelocitydoesnotaffectthealignmentof
theballandcart,sotheballlandsinthecart.

When the track is


tilted,thingsbecomea
bit more complicated;
but if you break the
vectors into their
componentsitbecomes
moreclear:

Thecartandtheball
havethesame
componentof
accelerationparallelto
thetrack.Sincethey
havethesameinitial
parallelcomponent
velocityandthesame
acceleration,theywill
thusalwayshavethe
sameparallel
componentvelocity.
Theballwillalwaysbe
onalinewiththecart
perpendiculartothe
track,anditwillbe
caught.

Thehorizontalcomponentoftheaccelerationof
bothcartandballisthesame:zero,whichensures
thattheballandcartremainaligned.
Nowletsconsiderthecasewherethecartis
accelerating:

Acceleration

28

Technical Support
Reach
PASCO

Feed- For
Back Technical

Support
Ifyou callusat1
haveany 800772
comment 8700(toll
sabout freewithin
this
theU.S.)or
product (916)786
orthis 3800.
manual
pleaselet
usknow.
Ifyou
haveany
sugges
tionson
alternate
experime
ntsor
finda
problem
inthe
manual
please
tellus.
PASCO
appreciat
esany
cus
tomer
feed
back.
Your
input
helpsus
evaluate
and
improve
our
product.

To

Contacti
ng
Technica
l Support
Beforeyou
callthe
PASCO
Technical
Support
staffit
wouldbe
helpfulto
preparethe
following
information
:

If

your
problem
is
compute
r/softwar
e
related,
note:
Titleand
Revision
Date of
software
.
T
y
p
e

your

problem

is with

the

PASCO

apparatus,

note:

Title and

If

Model
number
(usually
listed on
thelabel).
Approxi
mate age
of
apparatus.
A
detaile
d
descrip
tion of
the
proble
m/sequ
enceof
events.
(In
case
you
can't
call
PASC

O
right
awa
y,
you
won'
t
lose
valu
able
data.
)
If
possi
ble,
have
the
appar
atus
withi

nreach
when
calling.
This
makes
descript
ionsof
individ
ual
parts
much
easier.
If
your
proble
m
relate
sto
the
instru

ction
manu
al,
note:
Part
number
and
Revision
(listedby
month
andyear
onthe
front
cover).
Havethe
manualat
handto
discuss
your
questions.

01
2

1
n
y

DropRodAccessory

01205459A

01

e
th
e
tw
o
sc
re
w
s
fr
o
m
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r
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or
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tw
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le
s
in
th
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ba
se
th
at
li
ne
up
wi

Figure 2:
Placement of string
in pulley

e
tr
ac
k:
A
la
rg
e
fa
n
sh
ou
ld
be
fu
rt
he
r
th
an
50
c
m
fr
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tr
ac
k.
C
he
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ur
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if
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is
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.

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p
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.
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NO
TE:
Ifthe
cart
seem
s to
mov
e
bette
r in
one
direc

c
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o
r
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o
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01205307C

Turnthefanoffandplacethesailonthemagneticpad Experiment#2:Determinetheforceofthefanbycon
withtheplaneofthesailparalleltotheplaneofthefan.

nectingthecarttoamassthathangsoverapulley.
Adjustthehangingmassuntilthecartdoesntmove.
Thenturnthefanatanangleanddeterminethecom
ponentoftheforce.Thisexperimentmustbeper
formedonthedynamicstracksothecartwillgoina
straightline.(SeeFigure4and5)

Askthestudentstopredictwhichdirectionthecartwill
movewiththesailattached.Turnonthefantoshow
thedirectionthecartmoves.
NOTE:Moststudentswillexpectthecartnotto
move.However,thecartwillhaveasmallaccelera
tionoppositetotheaccelerationwithoutthesail.

Dynamics
Track

Explanation:Thereisaforceonthecartinonedirection
resultingfromthefanpushingtheairandthereisanother
forceonthecartintheoppositedirectionresultingfrom
theairhittingthesail.SeeFigure2.Butwhentheairhits
thesail,theairbouncesoffthesail,causingmoreforceon
thesailthantheforceoftheaironthefan.Therefore,there
isanetforceonthecartthatcausesthecarttoaccelerate.

Air Flow
Pulley
CAUTION
FAN

Hanging
Mass

Figure 4: Fan Cart with hanging mass

Sail

Dynamics
Track
Air Flow

Air Flow

F
cos

Greater
Force

CAUTION
FAN

Figure 2: Fan Cart with Sail

Force

F
Figure 5: Fan Cart with Fan at angle

Ifyouwanttoincreasetheeffectoftheairbouncing Experiment#3:Putthefancartonadynamicstrackand
offthesail,tapealargepaperplatetothesailasshown
inFigure3.Thecurvatureofthepaperplatewillhelp
reversethedirectionoftheair.

Sail

Paper Plate

inclinethetrackuntilthecartcannotclimbtheincline.
(SeeFigure6)

Air Flow

Dyna
mics
Track

CAUTIONFAN

Fi
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ur
Figure 3: Fan Cart Sail with
e
paper plate
6:
Suggested Experiments
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C
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01205307C

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01205307C

Technical Support
Contacting
Technical
Ifyouhaveanycomments Support
Feedback

abouttheproductormanual,
pleaseletusknow.Ifyou Beforeyoucall
thePASCO
haveanysuggestionson
alternateexperimentsorfind TechnicalSupport
aprobleminthemanual, staff,itwouldbe
helpfultoprepare
pleasetellus.PASCO
appreciatesanycustomer thefollowing
feedback.Yourinputhelps information:
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1
If your
product.
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label);
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ate age of
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apparatus;

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es
Teacher's
Notes

and

Experiment Results

descriptionof
the
problem/sequ
ence of
events (in
case you
cant call
PASCO right
away, you
wont lose

valuable
data);

4- Ifpossible,

have the
apparatus
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when calling
to facilitate
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2 If

your
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relatestothe
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note:

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cover);

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ave
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ual
at
hand
to
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uss
your
ques
tions
.

921
5A

01203326F10/94

E
PR
HS
O
T
O
G
A
T
E
TI
M

1988PASCOscientific

PhotogateTimers

01203326F

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Introduction
ThePASCOModelME9206AandME9215APhoto
gateTimersareaccurateandversatiledigitaltimersfor
thestudentlaboratory.Bothmodelsareidenticalexcept
thattheME9215AofferstwofeaturesthattheME
9206Adoesnothave:amemoryfunctionandoptional
0.1msresolution(thestandardtimingresolutionforboth
timersis1ms).

LED: Lights when


beam is blocked

TheME9215Amemoryfunctionmakesiteasytotime
eventsthathappeninrapidsuccession,suchasanair
trackgliderpassingtwicethroughthephotogate,once
beforeandthenagainafteracollision.Theoptional0.1
msresolutionisespeciallyusefulinhighvelocity
experiments,suchasfreefall.Exceptwherespecifically
stated,theinformationinthismanualreferstoboth
modelsofthephotogatetimer,theME9206Aandthe
ME9215A.

Infrared
beam

Detector

LED:
Sourc
e of
infrare
d
b
e
a
m

ThePhotogateTimerusesPASCOsnarrowbeaminfrared
photogate(seeFigure1)toprovidethetimingsignals.AnLED
inonearmofthephotogateemitsanarrowinfraredbeam.As
longasthebeamstrikesthedetectorintheoppositearmofthe
photogate,thesignaltothetimerindicatesthatthebeamis
unblocked.Whenanobjectblocksthebeamsoitdoesntstrike
thedetector,thesignaltothetimerchanges.Thetimerhas
Figure 1 The
severaloptionsfortimingthephotogatesignals.Theoptions
PASCO Photogate
includeGate,Pulse,andPendulummodes,allowingyouto
measurethevelocityofanobjectasitpassesthroughthe
photogateorbetweentwophotogates,ortomeasuretheperiod
ofapendulum.ThereisalsoaSTART/STOPbuttonthatlets NOTES:
youusethetimerasanelectronicstopwatch.
1
ThePhotogate
timercanbepowered
AnimportantadditiontoyourPhotogateTimeristheME
9204A(ortheearlierME9204)AccessoryPhotogate,
usingtheincluded12V
whichmustbeorderedseparately.Itplugsdirectlyintothe
adapter.Itwillalsorun
PhotogateTimerandtriggersthetimerinthesamemanner
on4Csize,1.5Volt
asthebuiltinphotogate.InPulseMode,theAccessory
batteries.Battery
Photogateletsyoumeasurethetimeittakesforanobjectto installationinstructions
travelbetweentwophotogates.InGatemode,itletsyou
areintheAppendix.

measurethevelocityoftheobjectasitpassesthroughthe
firstphotogate,andthenagainwhenitpassesthroughthe
secondphotogate.

Tenreadytouse
experimentsare
includedinthismanual,

showingavariety
ofwaysinwhich
youcanuseyour
photogatetimer.
Theequipment
requirementsvary
fordifferent
experiments.For
manyofthe
experiments,you
willneedanair
track(dynamics
cartswillalso
work).Manyalso
requireanME
9204orME
9204AAccessory
Photogatein
additiontothe
PhotogateTimer.
Checkthe
equipment
requirements
listedatthe
beginningofeach
experiment.

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Operation
1

PresstheRESET
button again. You're
readytobegintiming.

Photogate
beam

Clamp screw: loosen to


adjust photogate angle or
height

to 120 VAC, 60 Hz
or 220/240 VAC
50 Hz

Plug in Accessory

9/12 volt

Photogate here. power adapter

Figure 2 Setting Up the Photogate Timer

To Operate the Photogate Timer:


1

Plugthe9/12voltpoweradapterintothesmall
receptacleonthesideofthetimer(seeFigure2)
andintoastandard120VAC,60Hz(or220/240
VAC,50Hz)walloutlet.

Positionthephotogatesotheobjecttobetimed
willpassthroughthearmsofthephotogate,
blockingthephotogatebeam.Loosentheclamp
screwifyouwanttochangetheangleorheightof
thephotogate,thentightenitsecurely.

IfyouareusinganME9204orME9204A
AccessoryPhotogate,plugthephonoplug
connectoroftheaccessoryphotogateintothelarge
receptacle(seeFigure2)onthesideofthetimer.

Slidethemodeswitchtothedesiredtiming
mode:Gate,Pulse,orPendulum.Eachofthese
modesisdescribedbelow.IfyouareusinganME
9215A,selectthedesiredtimeresolutionand
switchtheMEMORYswitchtoOFF.
PresstheRESETbuttontoresetthetimertozero.

As a test, block the photogate beam with your


handtobesurethatthetimerstartscountingwhenthe
beamisinterruptedandstopsattheappropriatetime.

Timing Modes
GateMode:InGate
mode,timingbegins
whenthebeamisfirst
blockedandcontinues
untilthebeamisun
blocked.Usethismode
tomeasurethevelocity
ofanobjectasitpasses
throughthephotogate.If
anobjectoflengthL
blocksthephotogatefor
atimet,theaverage
velocityoftheobjectas
itpassedthroughthe
photogatewasL/t.
PulseMode:InPulse
mode,thetimermeasures
thetimebetween
successiveinterruptions
ofthephotogate.Timing
beginswhenthebeamis
firstblockedand
continuesuntilthebeam
isunblockedandthen
blockedagain.Withan
accessoryphotogate
pluggedintothe
photogatetimer,thetimer
willmeasurethetimeit
takesforanobjectto
movebetweenthetwo
photogates.
PendulumMode:In
Pendulummode,the
timermeasuresthe
periodofonecomplete
oscillation.Timingbe
ginsasthependulumfirst
cutsthroughthebeam.
Thetimerignoresthe
nextinterruption,which
correspondstothe
pendulumswingingback
intheoppositedirection.
Timingstopsatthe

beginningofthethirdinterruption,asthependulum
completesonefulloscillation.
ManualStopwatch:UsetheSTART/STOPbuttonin
eitherGateorPulsemode.InGatemodethetimer
startswhentheSTART/STOPbuttonispressed.The
timerstopswhenthebuttonisreleased.InPulsemode,
thetimeractsasanormalstopwatch.Itstartstiming
whentheSTART/STOPbuttonisfirstpressedand
continuesuntilthebuttonispressedasecondtime.
TIMING DIAGRAMS
Thefollowingdiagramsshowtheinterval,t,thatis

measuredineach
timingmode.In
eachdiagram,a
lowsignal
correspondstothe
photogatebeing
blocked(orthe
START/STOP
buttonpressed).A
highsignal
correspondstothe
photogatebeing
unblocked(and
theSTART/STOP

buttonunpressed).
MODE

DIAGRA
t

GATE
t

PULSE
t
PENDULUM
2

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

TIMINGSUGGESTION
Sincethesourceanddetectorofthephotogatehaveafinite
width,thetruelengthoftheobjectmaynotbethesameas
theeffectivelengthseenbythephotogate.Thisparallax
errormaybeminimizedbyhavingtheobjectpassasclose
tothedetectorsideofthephotogateaspossible,withthe
lineoftravelperpendiculartothebeam.Tocompletely
eliminatetheparallaxerrorinexperimentaldata,determine
theeffectivelengthoftheobjectasfollows:

WiththeTimerinGatemode,pushtheobject
throughthephotogate,alongthepathitwillfollow
intheexperiment.
1
Whenthephotogateistriggered(theLEDontop
ofthephotogatecomesON),measurethepositionof
theobjectrelativetoanexternalreferencepoint.
1
Continuepushingtheobjectthroughthephoto
gate.WhentheLEDgoesOFF,measuretheposition
oftheobjectrelativetothesameexternalreference
point.
1
Thedifferencebetweenthefirstandsecond
measurementistheeffectivelengthoftheobject.
Whenmeasuringthespeedoftheobject,dividethis
effectivelengthbythetimeduringwhichtheobject
blockedthephotogate.

Special Features of the ME9215A


ResolutionSetthetiming
resolutionofthetimerto1msorto
0.1mswiththeslideswitchonthe
frontpanel.Inbothsettings,the
timerisaccurateto1%.With1ms
resolution,themaximumtimethat
canbemeasuredis20seconds.With
0.1msresolution,themaximum
timethatcanbemeasuredis2
seconds.
MemoryWhentwomeasurements
mustbemadeinrapidsuccession,such
asmeasuringthepreandpostcollision
velocitiesofanairtrackglider,usethe
memoryfunction.Itcanbeusedin
eithertheGateorthePulsemode.

Tousethememory:

TurntheMEMORYswitchto
ON.
PressRESET.

Runtheexperiment.

Whenthe
firsttime
(t1)is
measured,
itwillbe
immedi
ately
displayed.
Thesecond
time(t2)
willbe
automati
cally
measured
bythe
timer,butit
willnotbe
shownon
thedisplay.
1
Recor
dt1,then
pushthe
MEMORY
switchto
READ.
The
display
willnow
showthe
TOTAL
time,t1+
t2.Subtract
t1fromthe
displayed
timeto

NOTE:If
additionalphotogate
interruptionsoccur
afterthesecondtime
ismeasured,and
beforethe
MEMORYswitchis
flippedtoREAD,
theytoowillbe
measuredbythe
timerandincludedin
thecumulativetime.

determine
t2.

Figure 3
Timing an Air
Track Glider

SPECIFICATIONS
Detectorrisetime:200
nsmax.
FallTime:200nsmax.

Parallaxerror:
Foranobject
passingthrough
thephotogate,
within1cmof
thedetector,
withavelocity
oflessthan10
m/s,the
difference
betweenthetrue
andeffective
lengthofthe
objectwillbe
lessthan1
millimeter.
Infrared
source:Peak
outputat880
nm;10,000hour
life.

Figure 4
Photoga
te
Timing
a
Pendulu
m
3

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Accessories for the Photogate Timer


Thefollowingaccessoriesareavailabletohelpextend
theutilityofyourmodelME9206AorME9215A
PhotogateTimer.Alltheaccessoriesworkequally
wellwitheithermodel.SeethecurrentPASCOcatalog
formoreinformation.

ME-9207A Free Fall


Adapter

accuratemeasurements
ofthefreefalltimeofthe
steelball.

ME-9259A Laser

Foreasyandaccurate
Switch
measurementsofthe
accelerationofgravity,the
Thishighlycollimated
ME9207FreeFall
photodetectorisidentical
ME-9204A Accessory Photogate
Adapterishardtobeat.
toaphotogate,exceptthat
TheFreeFallAdapter
youusealaser(not
TheME9204AAccessoryPhotogateplugsintothephone
plugsdirectlyintothe
included)asthelight
jackonthesideofthephotogatetimer,givingyoutwo
source.Youcannowtime
identicalphotogatesoperatingfromasingletimer.Withthe phoneplugonthesideof
thePhotogateTimer.It
themotionofobjectsthat
timerinGatemode,youcanmeasurethevelocityofan
comeswitheverything
arefartoobigtofit
objectasitpassesthroughonephotogate,thenagainasit
youneed,includingtwo
throughastandard
passesthroughthesecondphotogate.WiththetimerinPulse
photogate.Measurethe
mode,youcanmeasurethetimeittakesforanobjecttopass steelballs(ofdifferent
sizeandmass),arelease
periodofabowlingball
betweenthetwophotogates.(Manyoftheexperimentsinthis
mechanism,andareceptor
pendulumorthevelocity
manualaremosteasilyperformedusingaphotogatetimer
pad.Therelease
ofacar.TheLaserSwitch
withanaccessoryphotogate.)
mechanismandthe
operatesinallthreetiming
receptorpadauto
modes(Gate,Pulse,and
maticallytriggerthetimer,
Pendulum).
soyougetremarkably
Thismanual
asexperiments6and7,
NOTE:In
each
emphasizestheuse requirefourtimestobe
experiment,the
ofanairtrack,but measuredinrapid
firstparagraph
theairtrack
successionandare
isalistof
experimentscan thereforemosteasilyper
equipment
alsobeperformed formedusingtwo
needed.Besure
withdynamics
PhotogateTimers.
toreadthis
carts.Manyalso
paragraphfirst,
requireanME
asthe
9204AAccessory
Thefollowing10experimentsarewritten equipment
Photogatein
inworksheetform.Feelfreetophotocopy needsvary
additiontoa
from
themforuseinyourlab.
PhotogateTimer.
experimentto
Collision
experiment.
experiments,such
4

10 Copy-Ready
Experiments

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Experiment 1: Instantaneous Versus Average Velocity


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

12-

PhotogateTimerwithAccessoryPhotogate
AirTrackSystemwithoneglider.

Introduction
Anaveragevelocitycanbeausefulvalue.Ifyouknowyouwillaverage50miles
perhourona200miletrip,itseasytodeterminehowlongthetripwilltake.On
theotherhand,thehighwaypatrolmanfollowingyoudoesntcareaboutyour
averagespeedover200miles.Hewantstoknowhowfastyouredrivingatthe
instanthisradarstrikesyourcar,sohecandeterminewhetherornottogiveyoua
ticket.Hewantstoknowyourinstantaneousvelocity.Inthisexperimentyoull
investigatetherelationshipbetweeninstantaneousandaveragevelocities,andsee
howaseriesofaveragevelocitiescanbeusedtodeduceaninstantaneousvelocity.

Procedure
Setuptheairtrackasshownin

D
x0

D/2

Figure1.1,elevatingoneendof

D/2
x1

thetrackwitha12cmsupport.

Chooseapointx1nearthecenter

ofthetrack.Measuretheposition
ofx1ontheairtrackmetricscale,
andrecordthisvalueinTable1.1.
Ifyouareusinganairtrackwith

1-2 cm support

Figure 1.1 Setting Up the Equipment

outascale,useametersticktomeasurethedistanceofx1fromtheedgeofthe
upperendofthetrack.

Chooseastartingpointx0fortheglider,neartheupperendofthetrack.
Withapencil,carefullymarkthisspotontheairtracksoyoucanalwaysstartthe
gliderfromthesamepoint.

PlacethePhotogateTimerandAccessoryPhotogateatpointsequidistantfrom
x1,asshowninthefigure.RecordthedistancebetweenthephotogatesasDinTable1.1.

SettheslideswitchonthePhotogateTimertoPULSE.
PresstheRESETbutton.
Holdtheglidersteadyatx0,thenreleaseit.Recordtimet1,thetime
displayedafterthegliderhaspassedthroughbothphotogates.

Repeatsteps6and7atleastfourmoretimes,recordingthetimesast2
throught5.

Now repeat steps 4 through 9, decreasing D by


approximately10centimeters.

ContinuedecreasingDin10centimeterincrements.Ateachvalue

Cardboard

ofD,repeatsteps4through8.
Figure 1.2 Measuring Velocity
in Gate Mode
5

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Optional
YoucancontinueusingsmallerandsmallerdistancesforDbychangingyourtimingtech
nique.Tapeapieceofcardboardontopoftheglider,asshowninFigure1.2.Raisethephoto
gatesoitisthecardboard,notthebodyoftheglider,thatinterruptsthephotogate.Usejust
onephotogateandplaceitatx1.SetthetimertoGATE.NowDisthelengthofthecardboard.
MeasureDbypassingthegliderthroughthephotogateandnotingthedifferenceinglider
positionbetweenwheretheLEDfirstcomeson,andwhereitgoesoffagain.Thenstartthe
gliderfromx0asbefore,andmakeseveralmeasurementsofthetimeittakesforthegliderto
passthroughthephotogate.Asbefore,recordyourtimesast1throught5.Continuedecreasing
thevalueofD,byusingsuccessivelysmallerpiecesofcardboard.

Data and Calculations


ForeachvalueofD,calculatetheaverageoft1throught5.Recordthisvalueastavg.
1

Calculate vavg = D/tavg. Thisistheaveragevelocityoftheglideringoing


betweenthetwophotogates.

PlotagraphofvavgversusDwithDonthexaxis.

Table 1.1 Data and Calculations

x1=

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

Questions
1

Whichof theaverage velocities that you measured doyou thinkgives the


closestapproximationtotheinstantaneousvelocityofthegliderasitpassedthrough
pointx1?

avg

avg

Canyouextrapolateyourcollecteddatatodetermineanevencloser
approximationtotheinstantaneousvelocityofthegliderthroughpointx1?Fromyour
collecteddata,estimatethemaximumerroryouexpectinyourestimatedvalue.

Intryingtodetermineaninstantaneousvelocity,whatfactors(timeraccuracy,
objectbeingtimed,typeofmotion)influencetheaccuracyofthemeasurement?
Discusshoweachfactorinfluencestheresult.

Canyouthinkofoneormorewaystomeasureinstantaneousvelocitydirectly,orisan
instantaneousvelocityalwaysavaluethatmustbeinferredfromaveragevelocitymeasurements?
6

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Experiment 2: Kinematics on an Inclined Plane


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

PhotogateTimer
Meterstick
Ballandramp,[Aballbearing(approximately1.8cmdiameter)andaUchannel
ramp(approximately50cmlongwithaninsidewidthofapproximately1cm)
willworkwell,buttheexactdimensionsarenotimportant].

Introduction
Inthislabyouwillinvestigatehowthevelocityofanobjectvariesas
itundergoesaconstantacceleration.Theobjectisaballrollingdown
aninclinedramp.Insteadoftheusualinvestigationofvelocityasa
functionoftime,youwillmeasureitsvelocityasafunctionofthe
distanceithastravelledfromitsstartingpoint.(Note:This
experimentisjustaseasilyperformedwithaglideronaninclined
airtrack.)

Procedure
Setuptheapparatusasshownin
Figure2.1.

Movetheballslowly
throughthephotogate,usingthe
meterstickasshowninFigure2.2.
Determinethepointatwhichtheball
firsttriggersthephotogatetimer
thisisthepointatwhichtheLEDon
topofthephotogatefirstturnsON
andmarkitwithapencilontheside
ofthechannel.Thendeterminethe
pointatwhichtheballlasttriggers
thetimer,andmarkthispointalso.
Measure

the distance between these


marks and record this distance
as d.Determinethemidpoint
of this interval, and mark it in
pencilonthesideofthechannel.
dis
1
Movetheball
ta
toapoint5cmalong
nc
thetrackaboveyour
e
midpoint.Holditat
tra
thispositionusinga
ve
rulerorblockofwood.
lle
Releasetheballsothat
d
itmovesalongthe
(fr
rampandthroughthe
o
photogate.Recordthe

Ti
me
r

Ball
Ramp

Photogate

dFigure 2.1
pr
Equipment Setup
es
s
th
Mark with
e
a pencil
R
on side of
E
channel.
S
Meter Stick
E
T
bu
tt
on
.

1
Set
th
e
Ph
ot
og
at
e
Ti
m
er
to
G
A
T
E
m
od
e
an

LED comes ON

LED

goes OFF

Figure 2.2
Measuring
d

ing
point
to
the
midp
oint)
and
the
time
(t1)

in
Ta
ble
2.1
.

1
Repea
t
th
e

trial 3 times so
youhaveatotal
of

four
measured times,
then take the
averageofyour
measured times.
Record your
results in the
table.

Movetheballto
positions10,15,2040cm
fromthemidpoint,and
repeatsteps35.

Data and Calculations


1

For

each
distance from the
midpoint of the
photogate,calculatethe
finalvelocityoftheball
bydividing dbyyour
averagetime.

Constructavelocity
versusdistancegraph,with
distanceonthehorizontal
axis.

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Ifthegraphdoesn'tturnouttobeastraightline(asitshouldn't),manipulatethe
datamathematicallyandreplotituntilyouobtainastraightlinegraph.Forexample,try
plottingdis

tanceasafunctionof v,v2,1/v,etc.Fromyourgraph,whatisthemathematical
relationshipbetweenthevelocityofanobjectonaninclinedplaneandthedistance
fromitsstartingpointthatithastravelledalongtheplane?
Table 2.1 Data and Calculations
Distanceinsidephotogate=d:
Distance
Travelled

t2

t3

t4

Average
Time

Final
Velocity

Questions
1
Thestandardequationsformotionwithaconstantacceleration(startingfromrest)include:
10
=1/2at2andv=at.Eliminatetfromtheseequationstodeterminetherelationshipbetween
1. andv.Usingyourresultandyourgraph,canyoudeterminetheaccelerationofthe
ballasitrolleddowntheplane?

Fromyouranswertoquestion1,writetheequationofmotionfortheaccelerating
ball,givingitspositionasafunctiontime.Whydoyouthinkequationsofmotionaremost
oftenexpressedasafunctionoftimeinsteadofsimplyrelatingpositiontovelocityand

acceleration?

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Experiment 3: Speed of a Projectile


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

PhotogateTimer,withAccessoryPhotogate
Ballandramp Meterstick
Plumbbob
Carbonpaper

Introduction
Projectilemotionaddsanewdimension,literally,toexperimentsinlinear
acceleration.Onceaprojectileisinmotion,itsaccelerationisconstantandin
onedirectiononlydown.Butunlesstheprojectileisfiredstraightupordown,
itwillhaveaninitialvelocitywithacomponentperpendiculartothedirection
ofacceleration.Thiscomponentofitsvelocity,sinceitisperpendiculartothe
appliedforceofgravity,remainsunchanged.Projectilemotionisthereforea
superpositionoftworelativelysimpletypesofmotion:constantaccelerationin
onedirection,andconstantvelocityinanorthogonaldirection.
Inthisexperimentyouwilldeterminetheinitialvelocityofaprojectile
directly,usingthePhotogateTimer,andcomparethatwithavaluecalculated
byexaminingthemotionoftheprojectile.

Procedure
Setuptheapparatusasinfigure3.1,sothe
ballrollsdowntherampontothetable,then
passesthroughthephotogate,interrupting
thebeam.

Accessory
Photogate

Ball
Ramp

Tapeapieceofpapertothetable,underthe
accessoryphotogate.Usetheramptopush
theballslowlythroughtheaccessoryphoto
gate,asshowninFigure3.2.Determinethe
pointatwhichtheballfirsttriggersthepho
togatetimerthisisthefirstpointatwhich
theLEDturnsONandmarkitonthepa
per.Thendeterminethepointatwhichthe
balllasttriggersthetimer,andmarkthis
pointalso.Measurethedistancebetween
thesemarksandrecordthisdistanceasd.
ReplacetherampasinFigure3.1.

Figure 3.1 Equipment Setup

Mark with a pencil.


Ramp

Photogate

Useaplumbbobtodeterminethepoint
directlybelowwheretheballwillleavethe
edgeofthetableafterrollingdowntheramp.
Measurethedistancefromthefloortothe
topofthetableatthepointwheretheball
leavesthetableandrecordthisvalueasdy.

Tomeasurethepositionwheretheballwill

LED

LED goes OFF

Figure 3.2 Measuring d

strikethefloorafterrollingdowntheramp,
tapeapieceofplainpaperontothefloorwithapieceofcarbonpaperontop.The

impactoftheballwillleaveaclearmarkformeasuringpurposes.
9
Photogate Timers

012-03326F

SetthePhotogateTimertoGATEmode.Nowmovetheballtoastartingpoint
somewhereontheramp.Markthisstartingpositionwithapencilsoyouwillbeableto
repeattherun,startingtheballeachtimefromthesamepoint.Holdtheballatthis
positionusingarulerorblockofwood.PresstheRESETbutton.Releasetheballso
thatitmovesalongtherampandthroughthephotogate.RecordthetimeinTable3.1.

Repeat the trial at least four more times with the same starting point, and
recordyourtimesinthetable.

Measurethedistancefromthepointdirectlybelowtheramptoeachofthe
landingspotsofyourball.Recordthesedistancesinthedatatable.

Data and Calculations


1

Take the averageof your measuredtimes and of your measured distances.


Recordtheseaveragesinthedatatable.Alsorecordtheaveragedistanceasdxinthe
spaceprovidedtotherightofthetable.
Table 3.1
Data from Photogate Timer
Trial

Time

Distance

d=

1
2

Verticalheight,dy=

Averagehorizontaldistance,dx=

4
5

Horizontalvelocity,v0=

Averages

Percentagedifference=

v0(avg)

Dividedbyyouraveragetimetodeterminev0,thevelocityoftheballjust
beforeitleftthetable.

Nowdeterminethehorizontalvelocityofthesphereusingtheequationsfor

projectilemotionandyourmeasuredvaluesfordxanddy:
2

dx=v0t;dy=1/2at ;
whereaequalstheaccelerationcausedbygravity(9.8m/s2or980cm/s2).

Compareyourtwovaluesforv0.Reportthetwovaluesandthepercentagedifference.
Optional
Ifyouhavetime,chooseavaluefordxandavaluefordy.Forwhatvalueofv0willthe
balltravelthedistancedxasitfallsthedistancedy?Adjusttheheightandangleofthe
rampandthestartingpointuntilyouproducethepredictedvalueofv0.Nowrunthe

experimenttoseeifyourcalculatedvaluesfordxanddyarecorrect.

10

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Experiment 4: Newtons Second Law


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Photogatetimerwithaccessoryphotogate(ortwophotogatetimers)
AirTrackSystemwithoneglider
Masses
Pulley PulleyMountingClamp
UniversalTableClamp

Introduction
Theresnothingobviousabouttherelationshipsgoverningthemotionsofobjects.In
fact,ittookaround4,000yearsofcivilizationandthegeniusofIsaacNewtontofigure
outthebasiclaws.Fortunatelyfortherestofus,hindsightisapowerfulresearchtool.
InthisexperimentyouwillexperimentallydetermineNewtonssecondlawby
examiningthemotionofanairtrackgliderundertheinfluenceofaconstantforce.The
constantforcewillbesuppliedbytheweightofahangingmassthatwillbeusedtopull
theglider.Byvaryingthemassofthehangingweightandoftheglider,andmeasuring
theaccelerationoftheglider,youllbeabletodetermineNewtonssecondlaw.

Procedure

Counter

SetuptheairtrackasshowninFigure

Balance

4.1.Leveltheairtrackverycarefullyby
adjustingtheairtracklevelingfeet.A
glidershouldsitonthetrackwithout
acceleratingineitherdirection.There
maybesomesmallmovementofthe
gliderduetounequalairflowbeneaththe
glider,butitshouldnotaccelerate
steadilyineitherdirection.

Glider

x0 Hook

Photogate
Timer

Accessory
Photogate

String

Pulley
Mounting
Rod
ma
Tableclamp

Figure 4.1 Equipment Setup

Measuretheeffectivelengthoftheglider,andrecordyourvalueasLinTable4.1.
1

Mountthehookintothebottomholeofthecart.Tocounterbalanceits
weight,addapieceofsimilarweightontheoppositeendasshownonFig.4.1.

Add5060gramsofmasstothegliderusing10or20grammasses.Besurethemasses
aredistributedsymmetricallysothegliderisbalanced.Determinethetotalmassof
yourgliderwiththeaddedmassesandrecordthetotalasminTable4.1.

Placeamassofapproximately510gramsontheweighthanger.Record

thetotalmass(hangerplusaddedmass)asma.
SetyourPhotogateTimertoGATEmode.

Chooseastartingpointx0fortheglider,neartheendofthetrack.Markthis
pointwithapencilsothatyoucanalwaysstartthegliderfromthissamepoint.

PresstheRESETbutton.
1

Holdtheglidersteadyatx0,thenreleaseit.Notet1,thetimeittookforthe
glidertopassthroughthefirstphotogate,andt2,thetimeittookfortheglidertopass
throughthesecondphotogate.Repeatthismeasurementfourtimes.Taketheaverageof
yourmeasuredt1'sandt2'sandrecordtheseaveragesast1andt2inTable4.1.(Ifyou
haveanME9215APhotogate,usethememoryfunctiontomeasurethetwotimes.

Ifnot,someonewillneedtowatchthetimerduringtheexperimentandquickly
recordt1,beforethegliderreachesthesecondphotogate.)
11

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

SetthePhotogateTimertoPULSEmode.
11 PresstheRESETbutton.
12 Again,startthegliderfrom x0.Thistimemeasureandrecordt3,thetimeittakesthe

glidertopassbetweenthephotogates.Repeatthismeasurementfourmoretimesand
recordtheaverageofthesemeasurementsast3inTable4.1.
13
Varyma,bymovingmassesfromtheglidertothehanger(thuskeepingthetotalmass,

m + ma,constant.)Record mand maandrepeatsteps5through11.Tryatleastfour


differentvaluesforma.
14 Nowleavemaconstantatapreviouslyusedvalue.Varymbyaddingorremovingmass
fromtheglider.Repeatsteps511.Tryatleastfourdifferentvaluesform.

Calculations
Foreachsetofexperimentalconditions:

Usethelengthofthegliderandyouraveragetimestodeterminev1andv2,the
averageglidervelocityasitpassedthrougheachphotogate.

Usetheequationa=(v2v1)/t3todeterminetheaverageaccelerationof
thegliderasitpassedbetweenthetwophotogates.

DetermineFa,theforceappliedtothegliderbythehanging
mass.(Fa=mag;g=9.8m/s2=980cm/s2)

Analysis

Drawagraphshowingaverageaccelerationasafunctionofappliedforce,Fa,.
1
Drawasecondgraphshowingaverageaccelerationasafunctionoftheglider
masswithMabeingheldconstant.

Examine your graphs carefully. Are they straight lines? Use your graphs to
determinetherelationshipbetweenappliedforce,mass,andaverageaccelerationforthe
airtrackglider.

Discussyourresults.Inthisexperiment,youmeasuredonlytheaverage
accelerationofthegliderbetweenthetwophotogates.Doyouhavereasontobelieve
thatyourresultsalsoholdtruefortheinstantaneousacceleration?Explain.Whatfurther
experimentsmighthelpextendyourresultstoincludeinstantaneousacceleration?

Table 4.1 Data and Calculations


GliderLength,L=
m

12

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Experiment 5: The Force of Gravity


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Photogatetimerwithaccessoryphotogate

AirTrackSystemwithoneglider.

Introduction
Force of air cushion pushing glider away
from air track

Inthisexperiment,youwilluseNewtonsSecond
Law(F=ma)tomeasuretheforceexertedonan
objectbytheEarthsgravitationalfield.Ideally, Glider
youwouldsimplymeasuretheaccelerationofa
freelyfallingobject,measureitsmass,and
computetheforce.However,theaccelerationofa
freelyfallingobjectisdifficulttomeasure
accurately.Accuracycanbegreatlyincreasedby
measuringthemuchsmalleraccelerationofan
F
Component of
objectasitslidesdownaninclinedplane.Figure
g
Fg perpendicu5.1showsadiagramoftheexperiment.The
lar to air track
gravitationalforceFgcanberesolvedintotwo
components,oneactingperpendicularandone Figure 5.1 Forces Acting on the Glider
actingparalleltothemotionoftheglider.Only
thecomponentactingalongthedirectionof
motioncanacceleratetheglider.Theothercom
ponentisbalancedbytheforcefromtheair
cushionofthetrackactingintheopposite
direction.Fromthediagram,F=Fgsin,where
FgisthetotalgravitationalforceandFisthe
componentthatacceleratestheglider.By
measuringtheaccelerationoftheglider,Fcanbe
determinedandFgcanbecalculated.

Procedure
thefollowingpage.
Setuptheairtrackasshownin
Placeablockof
Figure5.2.Removetheblockand 1
thicknesshunderthesup
leveltheairtrackverycarefully.

Measured,thedistance
betweentheairtracksupportlegs.
Recordthisdistanceinthespaceon

portlegofthetrack.
Measureandrecordhon

the following page.


(For best results,
eff
der.
on top of the
photogate.
ect
(Mov
When the LED
ive
ethe
lights up, the
len
glide
photogate has
gth
r
beentriggered.)
of
slowl

Measure and record


D,thedistancetheglider
moves on the air track
fromwhereittriggersthe
firstphotogate,towhereit
triggers the second
Measureand
photogate. (Move the 1
recordL,the
gliderandwatchtheLED

the
gli

y
throu

meas
ure h
with
calip
L
ers.)

d
D

h{=

Figure
5.2
Equipm
ent
Setup

gh
a

dmeasurethedistanceit
travelsfromwherethe

ph
ot

LEDfirstlightsupto
whereitjustgoesoff.)

o Measureandrecordm,
ga themassoftheglider.
te SetthePhotogate
an TimertoGATEmodeand

presstheRESETbutton.

Holdtheglider
steadynearthetopofthe
airtrack,thenreleaseitso
itglidesfreelythroughthe
photogates.Recordt1,the
timeduringwhichthe
gliderblocksthefirst
photogate,andt2,thetime
duringwhichitblocksthe
secondphotogate.(Ifyou
haveanME9215A
PhotogateTimer,the

memory function will


makeiteasiertomeasure
the two times. If not,
someone will need to
watch the timer during
theexperimentandrecord
t1 before the glider
reaches the second
photogate.)
1
Repeatthe
measurementseveral
timesandrecordyour
datainTable5.1.You
needntreleasetheglider
fromthesamepointon
theairtrackforeach
trial,butitmustbe
glidingfreelyand
smoothly(minimum
wobble)asitpasses
throughthephotogates.
13

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Changethemassofthegliderbyaddingweightsandrepeatsteps6through8.Do
thisforatleastfivedifferentmasses,recordingthemass(m)foreachsetofmeasurements.
(Ifyouhavetime,youmayalsowanttotrychangingtheheightoftheblockusedtotiltthe
track.)

Data and Calculations


d=

D=

h=

L=

Table 5.1 Data and Calculations


t1

t2

v1

v2

avg

Fg

Calculate,theangleofinclinefortheairtrack,usingtheequation=tan1(h/d).
1

Foreachsetoftimemeasurements,divideLbyt1andt2todeterminev1and
v2,thevelocitiesofthegliderasitpassedthroughthetwophotogates.

Foreachsetoftimemeasurements,calculatea,theaccelerationoftheglider,
usingtheequation
2

v2 v1 =2a(x2x1)=2aD.

Foreachvalueofmassthatyouused,taketheaverageofyourcalculated
accelerationstodetermineaavg.
Foreachofyouraverageaccelerations,calculatetheforceactingontheglideralong
itslineofmotion(F=maavg).
ForeachmeasuredvalueofF,usetheequationF=FgsintodetermineFg.

ConstructagraphofFgversusm,withmastheindependentvariable(xaxis).
Analysis
DoesyourgraphshowalinearrelationshipbetweenFgandm?Doesthegraphgo
throughtheorigin?Isthegravitationalforceactingonthemassproportionaltothe
mass?Ifso,thegravitationalforcecanbeexpressedbytheequationFg=mg,whereg
isaconstant.Ifthisisthecase,measuretheslopeofyourgraphtodeterminethevalue
ofg.
g=

Questions
1

In this experiment, it was assumed that the acceleration of the glider was
constant.Wasthisareasonableassumptiontomake?Howwouldyoutestthis?

Theequationv2 v1 =2a(x2x1)wasusedtocalculatetheacceleration.Under
whatconditionsisthisequationvalid?Arethoseconditionsmetinthisexperiment?

(Youshouldbeabletofindaderivationforthisequationinyourtextbook.)

CouldyouusetherelationsipFg=mgtodeterminetheforceactingbetween
theEarthandtheMoon?Explain.
14

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Experiment 6: Conservation of Momentum


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Airtracksystemwithtwogliders

TwoPhotogateTimers.

Introduction
Whenobjectscollide,whetherlocomotives,shoppingcarts,oryourfootandthesidewalk,the
resultscanbecomplicated.Yeteveninthemostchaoticofcollisions,aslongasthereareno
externalforcesactingonthecollidingobjects,oneprinciplealwaysholdsandprovidesan
excellenttoolforunderstandingthedynamicsofthecollision.Thatprincipleiscalledthe
conservationofmomentum.Foratwoobjectcollision,momentumconservationiseasily
statedmathematicallybytheequation:
pi=m1v1i+m2v2i=m1v1f+m2v2f=pf;
wherem1andm2arethemassesofthetwoobjects,v1iandv2iaretheinitialvelocitiesofthe
objects(beforethecollision),v1fandv2farethefinalvelocitiesoftheobjects,andpiandpfare
thecombinedmomentumsoftheobjects,beforeandafterthecollision.Inthisexperiment,you
willverifytheconservationofmomentuminacollisionoftwoairtrackgliders.

Procedure
Setuptheairtrackand

photogatesasshownin
Figure6.1,usingbumpers
onthegliderstoprovidean
elasticcollision.Carefully
levelthetrack.

Photogate1

Photogate2

Glider1
Glider2
m1

m2

Figure 6.1 Equipment Setup

Measurem1andm2,the
massesofthetwogliderstobeusedinthecollision.RecordyourresultsinTable6.1.

Measureandrecord L1 andL2,thelengthof the gliders.(e.g.,pushglider 1 through


photogate1andmeasurethedistanceittravelsfromwheretheLEDcomesontowhereitgoesoff
again.)

SetbothPhotogateTimerstoGATEmode,andpresstheRESETbuttons.
1

Placeglider2atrestbetweenthephotogates.Giveglider 1apushtowardit.Record
fourtimemeasurementsinTable6.1asfollows:
t1i=thetimethatglider 1blocksphotogate1beforethecollision.
t2i=thetimethatglider2blocksphotogate2beforethecollision.
(Inthiscase,thereisnot 2isinceglider2beginsatrest.)t1f
=thetimethatglider1blocksphotogate1afterthecollision.t2f=the
timethatglider2blocksphotogate2afterthecollision.

IMPORTANT: Thecollisionmust occur after glider 1 has passedcompletely


throughphotogate1and,afterthecollision,theglidersmustbefullyseparatedbefore
eithergliderinterruptsaphotogate.
NOTE:IfyouareusingME9215APhotogateTimers,usethememoryfunctiontostore
theinitialtimeswhilethefinaltimesarebeingmeasured.Immediatelyafterthefinaltimes
arerecorded,theglidersmustbestoppedtopreventthemfromtriggeringthephotogate

againduetorebounds.Ifnot,havesomeonewatchingeachphotogatetorecordtheinitial
timesbeforethegliderpassesbackthroughthephotogate.

15

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Repeattheexperimentseveraltimes,varyingthemassofoneorbothgliders

andvaryingtheinitialvelocityofglider1.

Trycollisionsinwhichtheinitialvelocityofglider 2 isnotzero.Youmayneedto
practiceabittocoordinatethegliderssothecollisiontakesplacecompletelybetweenthe
photogates.

Data and Calculations


1

Foreachtimethatyoumeasured,calculatethecorrespondingglidervelocity.

(e.g.,v1i =L1/t1i,wherethevelocityispositivewhentheglidermovestotheright
andnegativewhenitmovestotheleft.

Useyourmeasuredvaluestocalculatep iandpf,thecombinedmomentumof
theglidersbeforeandafterthecollision.Recordyourresultsinthetable.

Questions

Table 6.1 Data and Calculations


L1=

m1

m2

L2=

1i

2i

1f

2f

1i

2i

1f

2f

pi
pf
(m1v1i+m2v2i)(m1v1f+m2v2f)

Wasmomentumconservedineachofyourcollisions?Ifnot,trytoexplainanydiscrepancies.
1

Ifaglidercollideswiththeendoftheairtrackandrebounds,itwillhave
nearlythesamemomentumithadbeforeitcollided,butintheoppositedirection.Is
momentumconservedinsuchacollision?Explain.

Supposetheairtrackwastiltedduringtheexperiment.Wouldmomentumbe
conservedinthecollision?Whyorwhynot?

Optional Equipment

Designandconductanexperimenttoinvestigateconservationofmomentuminaninelastic
collisioninwhichthetwogliders,insteadofbouncingoffeachother,sticktogethersothat
theymoveoffwithidenticalfinalvelocities.IfyouareusingaPASCOairtrack,replace
thebumperswiththewaxandneedle.Otherwise,velcrofastenerscanbeusedwithmost
gliders.

16

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Experiment 7: Conservation of Kinetic Energy


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

TwoPhotogateTimers AirTrackSystemwithtwogliders.

Introduction
Momentumisalwaysconservedincollisionsthatareisolatedfromexternalforces.Energyisalso
alwaysconserved,butenergyconservationismuchhardertodemonstratesincetheenergycan
changeforms:energyofmotion(kineticenergy)maybechangedintoheatenergy,gravitational
potentialenergy,orevenchemicalpotentialenergy.Intheairtrackglidercollisionsyoullbein
vestigating,thetotalenergybeforethecollisionissimplythekineticenergyofthegliders:

Ek=(1/2)mv12+(1/2)mv22.
Inthisexperimentyoullexaminethekineticenergybeforeandafteracollisionto
determineifkineticenergyisconservedinairtrackcollisions.

Procedure

Photogate1

Setuptheairtrackand

photogatesasshownin
Figure7.1,usingbumpers
onthegliderstoprovidean
elasticcollision.Carefully
levelthetrack.

Glider1

Bumpers

Photogate2

Glider2
m1

m2

Figure 7.1 Equipment Setup

Measurem1andm2,the
massesofthetwogliderstobeusedinthecollision.RecordyourresultsinTable7.1.

Measureandrecord L1 andL2,thelengthof the gliders.(e.g.,pushglider 1 through


photogate1andmeasurethedistanceittravelsfromwheretheLEDcomesontowhereitgoesoff
again.)

SetbothPhotogateTimerstoGATEmode,andpresstheRESETbuttons.
1

Placeglider2atrestbetweenthephotogates.Giveglider 1apushtowardit.Record
fourtimemeasurementsinTable7.1asfollows:
t1i=thetimethatglider1blocksphotogate1beforethecollision.
t2i=thetimethatglider2blocksphotogate2beforethecollision.
(Inthiscase,thereisnot2isinceglider2beginsatrest.)
t1f=thetimethatglider1blocksphotogate1afterthecollision.t2f
=thetimethatglider2blocksphotogate2afterthecollision.

IMPORTANT: The collision must occur after glider 1 has passed


completelythrough photogate1 and, after the collision, the gliders must be fully
separatedbeforeeithergliderinterruptsaphotogate.

NOTE:IfyouareusingME9215APhotogateTimers,usethememoryfunctionto
storetheinitialtimeswhilethefinaltimesarebeingmeasured.Immediatelyafterthefinal
timesarerrecorded,theglidersmustbestoppedtopreventthemfromtriggeringthe
photogateagainduetorebounds.Ifnot,havesomeonewatchingeachphotogatetorecord

theinitialtimesbeforethegliderpassesbackthroughthephotogate.

17

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Repeattheexperimentseveraltimes,varyingthemassofoneorbothgliders
andvaryingtheinitialvelocityofglider1.

Trycollisionsinwhichtheinitialvelocityofglider 2isnotzero.Youmayneedto
practiceabittocoordinatethegliderssothecollisiontakesplacecompletelybetweenthe
photogates.

Data and Calculations


Foreachtimethatyoumeasured,calculatethecorrespondingglidervelocity(e.g.,v 1,=L1/t1i).
1

Use your measured values to calculate E ki and Ekf, the combined kinetic
energyoftheglidersbeforeandafterthecollision.Recordyourresultsinthetable.
Table7.1DataandCalculations
L1=

L2=

1i

2i

1f

2f

1i

2i

1f

2f

Questions
Waskineticenergyconservedineachofyourcollisions?
1

If there were one or more collisions in which kinetic energy was not
conserved,wherediditgo?

Optional Equipment

ki

kf

Designandconductanexperimenttoinvestigateconservationofkineticenergyinaninelastic
collisioninwhichthetwogliders,insteadofbouncingoffeachother,sticktogethersothatthey
moveoffwithidenticalfinalvelocities.IfyouareusingaPASCOairtrack,replacethe
bumperswiththewaxandneedle.Otherwise,velcrofastenerscanbeusedwithmostgliders.

18

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Experiment 8: Conservation of Mechanical Energy


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Photogatetimerandaccessoryphotogate
airtracksystemwithoneglider
blockofwoodofknownthickness(approximately12cm).

Introduction
Thoughconservationofenergyisoneofthemostpowerfullawsofphysics,itisnotaneasy
principletoverify.Ifaboulderisrollingdownahill,forexample,itisconstantly
convertinggravitationalpotentialenergyintokineticenergy(linearandrotational),andinto
heatenergyduetothefrictionbetweenitandthehillside.Italsolosesenergyasitstrikes
otherobjectsalongtheway,impartingtothemacertainportionofitskineticenergy.
Measuringalltheseenergychangesisnosimpletask.
Thiskindofdifficultyexiststhroughoutphysics,andphysicistsmeetthisproblembycreating
simplifiedsituationsinwhichtheycanfocusonaparticularaspectoftheproblem.Inthisexperi
mentyouwillexaminethetransformationofenergythatoccursasanairtrackgliderslidesdown
aninclinedtrack.Sincetherearenoobjectstointerferewiththemotionandthereisminimalfric
tionbetweenthetrackandglider,thelossingravitationalpotentialenergyasthegliderslides
downthetrackshouldbeverynearlyequaltothegaininkineticenergy.Statedmathematically:

Ek=(mgh)=mgh;
whereEkisthechangeinkineticenergyoftheglider[Ek=(1/2)mv22(1/2)mv12]and
(mgh)isthechangeinitsgravitationalpotentialenergy(misthemassoftheglider,gisthe
accelerationofgravity,andhisthechangeintheverticalpositionoftheglider).

Procedure

Leveltheairtrackasaccuratelyaspossible.

Measured,thedistancebetweentheair
tracksupportlegs.RecordthisdistanceinTable
8.1.

Placeablockofknownthicknessunderthe h{=
d
supportlegofthetrack.Forbestaccuracy,the
thicknessoftheblockshouldbemeasuredwith
Table 7.1 Data
calipers.Recordthethicknessoftheblockashin
and Calculations
Table8.1.

SetupthePhotogateTimerand

been
triggered.)

AccessoryPhotogateasshowninFigure
8.1.
1
Meas
ure and
1
MeasureandrecordD,the
record L,
distancetheglidermovesontheair
the
trackfromwhereitfirsttriggersthe
effective
firstphotogate,towhereitfirst
length of
triggersthesecondphotogate.(You
theglider.
cantellwhenthephotogatesare
(The best
triggeredbywatchingtheLEDon
technique
topofeachphotogate.Whenthe
istomove
LEDlightsup,thephotogatehas

the
urethedistanceittravelsfrom
glider
wheretheLEDfirstlightsup
slowl
towhereitjustgoesoff.)
y
Measureandrecordm,the
throu massoftheglider.
gh
one SetthePhotogateTimerto
of the GATEmodeandpresstheRESET
photo button.
gates 1
Holdtheglidersteadynear
and
thetopoftheairtrack,then
meas
releaseitsoitglidesfreely

throughthephotogates.Recordt1,the
timeduringwhichthegliderblocksthe
firstphotogate,andt2,thetime
19

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

duringwhichitblocksthesecondphotogate.(IfyouhaveanME9215APhotogate
Timer,thememoryfunctionwillmakeiteasiertomeasurethetwotimes.Ifnot,
someonewillneedtowatchthetimerduringtheexperimentandquicklyrecordt1
beforethegliderreachesthesecondphotogate.)

RepeatthemeasurementseveraltimesandrecordyourdatainTable8.1.You
needntreleasethegliderfromthesamepointontheairtrackforeachtrial,butitmust
beglidingfreelyandsmoothly(minimumwobble)asitpassesthroughthephotogates.

11 Changethemassofthegliderbyaddingweightsandrepeatsteps7through10.Dothis
foratleastfivedifferentmasses,recordingthemass(m)foreachsetofmeasurements.
(Ifyouhavetime,youmayalsowanttotrychangingtheheightoftheblockusedtotilt
thetrackorthedistancebetweenthephotogates.)
Table 8.1 Data and Calculations
d=

h=

D=

L=

t1

t2

m=

v1

v2

k1

k2

(mgh)

Data and Calculations


Calculate,theangleofinclinefortheairtrack,usingtheequation=arctan(h/d).
Foreachsetoftimemeasurements:

DivideLbyt1andt2todeterminev1andv2,thevelocityofthegliderasit
passedthrougheachphotogate.
UsetheequationEk =(1/2)mv2 tocalculatethekineticenergyofthe
gliderasitpassedthrougheachphotogate.

Calculatethechangeinkineticenergy,Ek=Ek2Ek1.
1
Calculate h,thedistancethroughwhichthegliderdroppedinpassing
betweenthetwophotogates(h=Dsin,where=arctanh/d).

Comparethedimeticenergygainedwihtthelossingravitationalpotential
energy.Wasmechanicalenergyconservedinthemotionoftheglider?

20

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Experiment 9: Elastic-Kinetic Energy


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Photogatetimer
AirTrackwithoneglider
Weighthangerwithweights Flag(seeProcedure1below)
Spring(withalowspringconstant)

Introduction
Ittakesworktostretchorcompressaspring.Supposeaspringhasanatural(unstretched)length
L0,andaspringconstantk.Ifthatspringisstretchedorcompressedtoanewlength,L=L 0x,
theworkrequiredisgivenbytheexpression1/2kx2.Iftheenergystoredinthespringisthenused
toaccelerateanobject,thekineticenergyoftheobject,1/2mv2,willbeequivalenttothework
thatwasoriginallystoredinthespring.Inthislabyouwillinvestigatethisequivalencybetween
theworkstoredinastretchedspringandthekineticenergyitcanimparttoanobject.

Procedure
Setuptheequipmentas
showninFigure9.1,and
levelthetrack.Asshown,
attachacardboardflagto
yourgliderwithmasking
tape.Theflagcanbefrom
1to5cmwide.Makea
platformforyourspring,
soitwillbesupported
horizontallyandwillnot
sag.Attachtheplatform

Spring
Platform

Flag

Thread (attached to plug at


bottom of flag)

Hang weights for


calibration of spring

Figure 9.1 Equipment Setup

securelytotheendoftheairtrack.Connectthespringtothegliderwithapieceofthreadsothat
thegliderisaboutinthemiddleoftheairtrackwiththespringunstretched.Runanotherpiece
ofthreadfromtheglideroverapulleyattheendofthetrackandattachittoahanger.

Hangmassesonthehangeranddeterminehowfarthespringstretches.Thisiseasily
doneusingthemetricscaleonthesideoftheairtrackandusingtheglidertomonitorthe
distancethespringhasextended.Recordthemassesaddedandthepositionofthegliderin
Table9.1.(Theairflowshouldbeonwhilegatheringthisdata.)Thenremovethehangerand
thread.

Measureandrecordm,themassofyourgliderandflag,inTable9.2.Thenpassthegliderslowly
throughthephotogateandnotethepositionofthegliderwhentheLEDonthephotogatefirst
goesonandagainwhentheLEDgoesoff.Thedifferencebetweenthesepositionsisd.
Recorddonthefollowingpage.

Positiontheglidersothespringexertsnoforceontheglider,butthethreaddoes

notsag.Recordthisgliderpositionasx 1.Positionthephotogatebetweenthegliderandthe
spring.

Pullthegliderapproximately5cmfartherawayfromthespring.Measurethedistance

betweenthisgliderpositionandx1,andrecordthisdistanceastheSpringStretchinTable9.2.

SetthePhotogateTimertoGATEmodeandpresstheRESETbutton.
1

Holdtheglidersteadyasyouturntheairflowon.Releasetheglider,butcatchit
beforeitcrashesintothespringplatform.Recordthemeasuredtimeast 1inTable9.2.

Photogate Timers

21

012-03326F

Repeatsteps58fourmoretimes.Recordyourtimesast 2throught5inTable
9.2.Determinetheaverageofthesefivetimesandrecordthisvalueast avg.

Repeatsteps59fordifferentdistancesofstretchofthespringupto20cm.Also
tryvaryingthemassofthegliderbyaddingmassestoit.NotethenewmassesinTable
9.2.

Data and Calculations


Onanothersheetofpaper:

Determinek,thespringconstantofyourspring.Constructagraphofthe
stretchofthespringversustheamountofforceappliedtoitbythehangingweights.
Theslopeofthisgraph,innewtons/meter,isequaltok.

Foreachsetoftrialsyouperformedforagivenspringstretchandglidermass,
dividedbyyouraveragetimetodeterminetheaveragevelocityofthegliderasit
passedthroughthephotogate.Calculatethefinalkinetic
Table 9.1
energyoftheglider,1/2mv2.

Calculatetheenergystoredinthespringineach
case,1/2kx2,wherekisthespringconstant,andxis
thespringstretch.

For each trial, determine the percentage difference


betweentheelasticpotentialenergystoredinthespring
andthefinaltranslationalkineticenergyoftheglider.

Determining
the Spring
Constant

Added
Mass

Glider
Position

Applied
Force

Spring
Stretch

Table 9.2 Spring Stretch and Glider Velocities


x1=
Trial

Spring
Stretch

22

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Experiment 10: Pendulum Motion


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

Photogatetimer
Meterstick.
Pendulumsofvariousmassesandlengths(thependulumbobshouldbe
nomorethan3cmindiameter)

Protractor

Introduction
Inthisexperiment,youwillinvestigatetwoaspectsofpendulummotion.
Firstyouwillinvestigatetherelationshipbetweenpendulumlength,
pendulummass,andtheperiodofoscillation.Thenyouwilldetermine
whethermechanicalenergyisconservedasthependulumswings.

Thread

Procedure

Part1:PeriodofOscillationversusMassandLength

Measurethemassofthependulumbob.RecordthisvalueasminTable
10.1.
SetupthependulumandphotogateasshowninFigure10.1.Forbest
results,thependulumshouldbesuspendedfromtwopointsasshown.
Thishelpskeeptheswingofthependulumintheplaneperpendicular
tothephotogate.
MeasureandrecordL,thelengthofthependulum.(Ifyouaresuspending

Protractor
Detail

thebobfromtwopoints,Listhedistancefromthecenterofmassofthe
bobtothepointmidwaybetweenthepointsofsuspension.)

SetthePhotogateTimertoGATEmode.Adjusttheheightofthe

Figure 10.1 Equipment Setup

photogatesothebobinterruptsthephotogatebeamasitswings.
SwitchtheTimertoPENDULUMmode.Startthebobswinging,butkeep
theswingsrelativelysmall.
PresstheRESETbuttonontheTimer.Notethefirsttimedisplayed.This
istheperiodofthependulum,thetimeforonecompleteoscillation.Repeatthismeasurementsev
eraltimesbypressingtheRESETbuttonandrecordingthefirsttimemeasured.Taketheaverageof
thesemeasuredtimestodetermineT,theperiodofthependulum.RecordTinTable10.1.

Changethemassofthependulumbobandrepeat
themeasurement.Dothisforseveraldifferentmass
values,keeping

thelengthconstant.
Usingoneofthemassesyouusedfromapreviousmeasure
ment,changethestringlengthandremeasuretheperiod.Do
thisforatleast5differentstringlengths.
Part2:ConservationofMechanicalEnergy

Use a long string (at least one meter long), to


suspendthependulumbetweenthephotogateasshownon
Fig10.1.

MakeandattatcharigidprotractorasshwononFig10.1.
Thisprotractorcanbecreatedbyphotocopingtheangular

LED comes on

LED goes of

readingsofacompassontoapieceofwhitepaperbefore
attatchingittoarigidboardbymeansofadhesive.Thiscom
passboardwillbeusedtokeeptrackof,theanglebetween
thestringandthevertical..
MeasureL,thelengthofthependulum.

Photogate Timers

Photogate

MeterStick

Figure 10.2 Measuring d

23

012-03326F

Nowadjustthepositionofthephotogateasaccuratelyasyoucansothatthe
photogatebeamstrikesthecenterofthependulumbob.

Supportameterstickjustunderthebob,soyoucanmeasurethepositionofthebob
butthemeterstickdoesnotinterferewiththephotogatebeam(seeFigure10.2).Pullthe
pendulumbobtooneside,thenmoveitslowlythroughthephotogate,alongitspathof
oscillation.Thereshouldbenoslackinthestring.Usingthemeterstick,notethepositionofthe
bobwhenthe
photogatebeamisfirstinterrupted(theLEDlightsup)andagainwhenthebobisoutofthe
beam(theLEDgoesoff).RecordthedifferencebetweenthesetwopointsasdinTable10.2.

NowsetthePhotogateTimertoGATEmode.Pullthebobtoonesidealongitspathofoscilla
tion.Again,besurethereisnoslackinthestring.Measuretheanglethestringmakes
withtheverticalandrecordthisstartingangleasinTable10.2.

Releasethebobsothependulumoscillates.Recordthefirsttimesyouseeonthetimer
display.Thisisthetimeduringwhichthebobblockedthephotogatebeamasitpassedthrough
thephotogate.Repeatthismeasurementseveraltimes,startingthebobfromthesameheight
eachtime.TaketheaverageofyourmeasuredtimesandrecordthisvalueastinTable10.2.

Changethestartingheightofthebobandrepeatsteps4through5.Dothisforat
leastfivedifferentstartingheights.

Data and Calculations


Part1

PlotagraphofTversusL,usingyourmeasuredvaluesfromTable10.1.Isthe
graphastraightline?Ifnot,trymanipulatingthedatamathematicallyuntilyoudogeta
straightline.Forexample,tryplottingT2,L2,etc.Whenyougetastraightlinegraph,
measuretheslopeofthegraph.
Slope=

Part2

Foreachvalueof,calculateh=LLcos
1

Foreachvalueofh,calculateU,the
changeingravitationalpotentialenergyofthe
pendulumasitwentfromthehighestpointin
itsswingtothelowest.
U=mgh=

For each value of h, calculate Ek, the


totalkineticenergyofthependulumasitpassed
throughthelowestpointofitsswing:
Ek=1/2mv2=1/2m(d/t)2=

Questions
1

Discussyourgraphs
of pendulum period versus
mass and length. What
relationship between mass
and length produces a
straightlinegraph?

Did the period of


yourpendulumvarywiththe
mass of the bob? Discuss
whyitdidordidnot.

Was mechanical
energyconservedduringa

singl
e
swin
g of
the
pend
u
lum?

1
Nomatter
how
high
the
initial
height

ofthebob,thependulumultimatelyslowsdown
andstops.Doesthisslowingdowndefythe
principleoftheconservationofenergy?Explain.
2
4

Table 10.1
d=

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

SCHEMATIC
Model ME-9206A Photogate Timer
(956-03043)

Photogate Timers

25

012-03326F

SCHEMATIC
Model ME-9215A Photogate
Timer
(956-03045)

26

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Teachers Guide
Exp. 1 - Instantaneous Versus Average Velocity
Notes - on Procedure, Experiment 1:
Instantaneous vs Average Velocity

InordertoaccuratelymeasureD,allowDtothe
bethedistancebetweenthepointswheretheglider
firsttriggersthephotogatetimers.

Ifthephotogatetimerdoesnothaveamemory
Table
1.1

X1=100.0cm

function,afterthe
gliderhaspassed
throughboth
photogates,preventit
fromtriggeringthe
photogatetimeragain
uponrebound.

Notes - on Analysis
Here are the results for
the measurement of
average velocities with
photogate

timers
positioned at seven
different distances
apart.

D
(cm)

(s)

(s)

80
70
60
50
40
30
20

1.85
1.61
1.37
1.13
0.90
0.68
0.45

1.85
1.61
1.38
1.14
0.90
0.68
0.45

Hereisaplotoftheaverage
velocitiesofthegliderbeing
measured by photogate
timers positioned at seven
differentdistancesapart.

0.5
0.45
0.4

Vavg (m/s)

0.35

27

0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15

Vavg
vs. D
J

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(m/s)

1.85
1.61
1.38
1.14
0.91
0.68
0.45

1.86
1.61
1.37
1.13
0.90
0.68
0.45

1.86
1.62
1.38
1.14
0.90
0.68
0.45

1.85
1.61
1.38
1.14
0.90
0.68
0.45

0.43
0.43
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.45

avg

aneousvelocitywhen
thedistancebetween
thephotogatesis
reduced.

0.1

Answers
- to
0
Questio
0
1
ns
D (cm)

0.05

Th

Yes. The
maximum error can
be evaluated using
the

standard
deviation or best fit
methods.

e
average
velocit
y
1
Timeraccuracy
becom
hasthegreatestimpact
esa
ontheaccuracyof
closer
velocity
approxi
measurements.The
mation
abilitytomeasure
tothe
smalltimeintervals
instant
accuratelywillallowa

avg

better
ap
proxima
tionof
the
instanta
neous
velocity.
The
object
being
timed
andtype
of
motion
should
not
influenc
ethe

accuracy
ofthe
measure
ments.

In
stantan
eous
velocit
y is
always
inferred
froman
av
erage
velocit
y.

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Exp. 2 - Kinematics on an Inclined Plane


Notes - on Procedure, Experiment 2:
Kinematics on an Inclined Plane
1

If the ramp tends to wobble upon ball release,


stabilizeitbyholdingontotheupperendoftheramp.
Table 2.1

d=1.6cm

Notes - on Analysis
Herearetheresultsfor
themeasurementofthe
fnalvelocitiesofthe
balldowntheincline
plane.

Distance
Travelled
(cm)

t2

t3

t4

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

0.07
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03

0.07
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03

0.07
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03

0.07
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03

Average
Time
(s)

Hereisaplotofdescribing
thelinearrelationshipbe
tweenthesquaredofthe
finalvelocityanddistance
travelledbytheballdown
theinclineplane.
Final Velocity
Squared vs.
Distance
Travelled Down
Incline Plane
0.4

V(m/s)^2

Themathematical
relationshipbeingdepicted
bytheplotis

vf2

0
0
.
1
0
.
2

0.3

0.2

0
.
4

0
.
3

Dis
tan
ce
Tra
vell
Answers - to
ed
Questions
(m)

vi2=
0.861
D

Yes.a=0.43m/s2
D=

Final
Velocity
(m/s)

0.07
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03

^2

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

t1

0.43t2

.Thisis

becausetimecanbe
accurately

measured.
Thisisnot
truefor
velocity

0.22
0.30
0.37
0.42
0.47
0.52
0.55
0.59

a
n
d

a
c
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

f
o
r

o
m
p
l
e
x

m
o
t
i
o
n
s
.

28

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Exp 3 - Speed of a Projectile


Notes - on Analysis
1

Notes - on Procedure
1

Slideahorizontalplateagainsttherampif
neededtoensurethattheballisrollingonanearly
continoussurface.Thisiscriticalforthesuccessof
theensuingexperiments.
Table 3.1

d(cm)=1.60
Trial

Time
(s)

d
(cm)

1
2
3
4
5
Averages

0.0161
0.0161
0.0161
0.0161
0.0161
0.0161

40.7
40.7
40.7
40.7
40.7
40.7

voexp
votheo
%ofError

0.99
1.05
5.56

Exp 4 - Newton's
Second Law

Iftheramp
tendstowobbleupon
ballrelease,stabilize
itbyholdingonto
theupperendofthe
rampusingaclamp.

Herearetheresultsfor
themeasurementof
thefnalvelocitiesof
theballdownthe
inclineplane.

Notes - on Procedure
1

IMPORTANT:Elevate

theAirtracksetupif
neccessarytopreventthe
weighthangerfromstriking
thegroundbeforetheglider
clearsthefinalphotogate.

NOTE:The
placementofthefinal
photogatecanbeeasily

obtai
ned
by
allo
wing
the
glide
rto
slide
forw
ard
until
the
weig

Table 4.1
Constant
System Mass
M
(g)
260.5
240.48
220.47
200.47

Ma
(g)
10.3
30.32
50.33
70.33

ht
hang
er
nearl
y
reach
esthe
groun
d.

Thetables
belowlist
1
Mount the
theresults
hook into the
fromtwo
bottom hole of
experiment
the glider. To
al
counterbalance
conditions.
its weight, add
Thevalue
an accessory
ofeach
with similarparameter
weight to thewasthe
oppositeendofaverage
the glider asderived
shown.
afterfive

trials.

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Table 4.2 Constant Accelerating Force


Ma
(g)

t1
(s)

t1+t2
(s)

t2
(s)

t3
(s)

v1
(m/s)

v2
(m/s)

a
(m/s^2)

240.48
220.48
200.48

10.3
10.3
10.3

0.30
0.29
0.28

0.46
0.44
0.42

0.16
0.15
0.14

1.15
1.11
1.06

0.42
0.43
0.46

0.79
0.83
0.88

0.32
0.36
0.39

Glider Acceleration vs. Applied Force

Glider Acceleration (m/s^2)

2.5
2

1.5

0.5
J

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.15

1 yes.Theaccelerationof
the glider is linearly
propor
tional to the applied
force. The acceleration
of the glider is
inversely proprotional
totheglidermass.

0.1
0.05
210

220

1 Therelationshipamong
appliedforce,massand
accelerationseemedto
obeyNewtonsSecond
LawofMotionF=ma.
Yes.Instantaneous
accelearationisdefined
aschangeofvelocity
perunitoftime.Asthe
incrementaltimeperiod
orthelengthofthe
objectbeingmeasured
becomessufficiently
small,theacceleration
beingmeasuredwill
becomeabetter
approximationofthe
instantaneous
accelearation.Oneway
toincludeinstantaneous
accelearationinthe
axperiementisto
reducethedistance
betweenthephotogates.

0.6 0.7

Applied Force (N)

Acceleration vs. Mass of Glider with


Constant Accelerating Force

A(m/s^2)

0.4 J

0.35
0.3
0.25

0.10
0.10
0.10

Notes - on Analysis

Gli
de
r
Ma
ss
(g)

Fa
(N)

0.2

0
200

Glider cceleration

M
(g)

J
J

30

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Exp 5 - The Force of Gravity


Notes - on Procedure
1 InordertomantainaconstantDthroughoutthe
experiement,Itisrecommendedthatthephotogatetimers
behelddowntotheirrespectivelocationsbymeansof
tape.

parameterwasthe
averagederivedafter
numeroustrials.

Thetablesbelow
listtheresults
fromtwo
experiemtnal
conditions.The Table 5.1
valueofeach

d(cm)=100

D(cm)=80

h(cm)=1.3

m
(g)

t1
(s)

t1+t2
(s)

t2
(s)

180.2
200.2
220.2
240.3

0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35

0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57

0.22
0.22
0.22
0.22

v1
(m/s)

v2
(m/s)

0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36

=0.013rad

L(cm)=12.6
Fg
(N)

avg

(m/s^2)

0.57
0.57
0.57
0.57

0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12

1.66
1.84
2.03
2.23

Table 5.2
1

t +t

(g)

(s)

(s)

0.25
0.25
0.25

Gravitational
Fo
rc
e
vs.
Gli
de
r
Ma
ss
wit
h
h
=
1.3
cm

12

0.16
0.16
0.16
3

1
0.5
0
0

9.80
m/s2.These
results
Mass of
however
Gliderseemedto
(g) reaffirm

avg

0.51
0.51
0.51

0.80
0.80
0.80

0.24
0.24
0.24

Gravitational
Forc
e vs.
Glid
er
Mas
s
with
h=
2.6
cm

9.33m/s2
in both
cases.This
value is
approximat
ely 5%
below the
established
valueof

1.5

(m/s^2)

Yes.
Yes.Yes.g

(m/s)

=0.026rad

L(cm)=12.6

(m/s)

Notes - on
Analysis

2.5

31

(s)

0.40
0.41
0.41

Gravitational Force (N)

180.2
220.2
261.6

h(cm)=2.6

2.5
2
1.5

(N)
1.67
2.00
2.43

all
practicali
1
ty
constant
0.5
for
different
masses
0
and
0
altitudes
nearthe
Mass
earths
of
surface.
Glider
Try
(g)
repeat
the
that
experiem
gravitatio
entsfor
nal
higher
accelerati
valuesof
onisfor
h.

Gravitational

D(cm)=80

Force (N)

d(cm)=100

Gm m

1 2,

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

1
Notes - on Questions
1

Yes.Thisassumptioncanbetestedbysettingthe
photogatesatafixeddistanceapartbutmovingthem
alongtheairtracktomeasureandcomparetheaverage
accelerationsalongthelineofmotion.

No. The
gravitional force
by the earth on R2
the moon and
viceversaisdescribed
by
F=

This equation is valid if and only if the


accelerationistrulyconstant.Yes.

where:
G=
universa
l
gravitati
onal
constant
m1=
Massof

Exp 6 Conservation
Thetables
belowlistthe
Notes - on Procedure
resultsfrom
1 In order to ensure that thetwo
glidersareascloseto
experimental
travellingatconstantvelocities conditions.
aspossiblepriortocollision,the Table6.1
distancebetweenthephotogates presentsthe
shouldbereduced.Also,the resultsof
glidersshouldbepushedto
elasticcolli
collidewiththeendsofairtrack
sionwithone
sothatthereboundedgliders
gliderbeing
willhavenearconstant
velocitiespriortotriggeringthe initially
stationary.
photogates.
Table6.2
presentsthe
resultsof
elastic
collisionwith
bothgliders
moving
intially.

of
Momentum

Earth
m2=Massof
Moon
R=
Dis
tan
ce
bet
we
en
the
cen
ters
of
gra
vit
y
of
the
two
bod
ies

Table 6.1 Glider 2 is initially Stationary

L1=12.6cm
m1
(g)

L2=12.8cm

DistanceBetweenPhotogates=79.8cm

m2
(g)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2

201.3
201.3
201.3
201.3
201.3

0.275
0.33
0.242
0.295
0.239

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

3.81
4.267
3.369
3.43
3.635

0.318
0.381
0.278
0.341
0.274

0.46
0.38
0.52
0.43
0.53

0
0
0
0
0

-0.03
-0.03
-0.04
-0.04
-0.03

0.40
0.34
0.46
0.38
0.47

0.08
0.07
0.09
0.08
0.10

0.08
0.06
0.09
0.07
0.09

9.08
9.44
8.40
10.43
7.59

180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2

261.5
261.5
261.5
261.5
261.5

0.492
0.38
0.243
0.202
0.274

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

3.956
2.597
1.513
1.164
1.625

0.637
0.481
0.309
0.256
0.35

0.26
0.33
0.52
0.62
0.46

0
0
0
0
0

-0.03
-0.05
-0.08
-0.11
-0.08

0.20
0.27
0.41
0.50
0.37

0.05
0.06
0.09
0.11
0.08

0.05
0.06
0.09
0.11
0.08

-1.43
-1.83
0.13
1.03
1.45

180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2

302.2
302.2
302.2
302.2

0.4
0.31
0.262
0.246

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

1.747
1.317
1.119
1.053

0.562
0.436
0.366
0.342

0.31
0.41
0.48
0.51

0
0
0
0

-0.07
-0.10
-0.11
-0.12

0.23
0.29
0.35
0.37

0.06
0.07
0.09
0.09

0.06
0.07
0.09
0.09

1.64
2.41
1.46
0.82

180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2

402.5
402.5
402.5
402.5
402.5

0.3
0.15
0.219
0.214
0.171

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

0.834
0.421
0.602
0.596
0.473

0.51
0.259
0.368
0.363
0.287

0.42
0.84
0.58
0.59
0.74

0
0
0
0
0

-0.15
-0.30
-0.21
-0.21
-0.27

0.25
0.49
0.35
0.35
0.45

0.08
0.15
0.10
0.11
0.13

0.07
0.14
0.10
0.10
0.13

2.50
4.22
1.34
2.14
0.96

1i

2i

1f

2f

1i

(m/s)

32

2i

1f

(m/s) (m/s)

Pi
Pf % Error
(m/s) (kg*m/s) (kg*m/s) (%)
2f

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Table 6.2 Both Gliders have Initial Velociies

L1=12.6cm
m1
(g)

m2
(g)

180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2

261.3
261.3
261.3
261.3
261.3

L2=12.8cm

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

0.362
0.353
0.49
0.461
0.486

0.422
0.427
0.468
0.574
0.593

0.312
0.313
0.356
0.42
0.435

0.589
0.568
0.848
0.726
0.778

1i

L1=12.8cm
m1
(g)
261.3
261.3
261.3
261.3
261.3

m2
(g)
180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2

DistanceBetweenPhotogates=60cm

2i

1f

L2=12.6cm

2f

1i

0.35
0.36
0.26
0.27
0.26

(m/s)

(m/s)

(m/s)

-0.303
-0.300
-0.274
-0.223
-0.216

-0.40
-0.40
-0.35
-0.30
-0.29

1f

2f

Pi
Pf
% Error
(kg*m/s) (kg*m/s) (%)

0.22
0.23
0.15
0.18
0.16

-0.02
-0.01
-0.03
-0.01
-0.01

-0.02
-0.01
-0.02
-0.01
-0.01

3.31
2.51
3.15
11.38
4.93

DistanceBetweenPhotogates=60cm

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(m/s)

0.349
0.442
0.491
0.4
0.346

0.285
0.354
0.451
0.327
0.298

2i

2i

(m/s)

1i

1f

0.475
0.583
0.769
0.542
0.503

2f

0.265
0.332
0.372
0.302
0.264

1i

2i

0.37
0.29
0.26
0.32
0.37

Notes - on Questions

1f

2f

(m/s)

(m/s) (m/s)

-0.442
-0.356
-0.279
-0.385
-0.423

-0.27
-0.22
-0.17
-0.24
-0.25

0.48
0.38
0.34
0.42
0.48

General Notes

1 No.Inmostcases,thereisslightlossofmomentumdue

Generallytheamountof
toexistenceofslightlyinelasticcollisions.Secondly,as momentumlossinthe
thegliderscollide,thelinearmotionoftheglidersmaybe collisionsforthis
changedtoincludevibvrationsthatintroducedadditional experiementrangedfrom
lossofmomentumduetofrictionordrag.
1%to11%.Momentum
1 Yes.Thisthedefinitionfortheconservationofmomenlossiscontributedby
tum.
equipmentsetupandthe
1 No.Inthiscasemomentumisaddedorlostduetothe inabilitytomaintaina
constantvelocity
influencedofgravitationalacceleration.
throughoutthe
33

Pi
Pf
% Error
(kg*m/s) (kg*m/s) (%)
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02

0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02

5.57
4.44
1.31
4.99
4.70

experiement.Ithowever
alsopointsoutthefactthat
mommentumisalwaysloss
notgained.Theincreased
inmomentuminoneor
twocasesisdueto
additionalinfluencessuch
asgravitationalintroduced
byunlevelledairtrack.

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Exp 7 - Conservation of Kinetic Energy


Thetablesbelowlistthe
Notes - on Procedure
resultsfromtwo
experiemtnalconditions.
1 Inordertoensurethattheglidersareascloseto
Table7.1presentsthe
travellingatconstantvelocitiesaspossiblepriorto
resultsofelasticcollision
collision,thedistancebetweenthephotogatesshouldbe
withonegliderbeing
reduced.Also,theglidersshouldbepushedtocollidewith
theendsofairtracksothatthereboundedgliderswillhave initiallystationary.Table
nearconstantvelocitiespriortotriggeringthephotogates. 7.2presentstheresultsof
180.2

201.3

180.2
t 180.2
180.2
(s)
180.2
180.2
3.81
4.267
180.2
3.369
180.2

261.5
261.5
261.5
261.5
261.5

180.2

302.2

180.2

302.2

180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2

402.5
402.5
402.5
402.5
402.5

elasticcollisionwithboth
glidersmovingintially.

Table7.1Glider2isInitiallyStationary
180.2
302.2
180.2
201.3

L1=12.6cm
m1
(g)
180.2
180.2
180.2

L2=12.8cm

m2
(g)

(s)

(s)

201.3
201.3
201.3

0.275
0.33
0.242

N/A
N/A
N/A

1i

2i

302.2
302.2

34

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Table7.2BothGlidershaveInitialVelociies

L1=12.6cm

L2=12.8cm
t
t

DistanceBetweenPhotogates=60cm
v
v
v
v

m1
(g)

m2
(g)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(m/s)

(m/s)

(m/s)

(m/s)

180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2

261.3
261.3
261.3
261.3
261.3

0.362
0.353
0.49
0.461
0.486

0.422
0.427
0.468
0.574
0.593

0.312
0.313
0.356
0.42
0.435

0.589
0.568
0.848
0.726
0.778

0.35
0.36
0.26
0.27
0.26

-0.30332
-0.29977
-0.27350
-0.22300
-0.21585

-0.40
-0.40
-0.35
-0.30
-0.29

0.22
0.23
0.15
0.18
0.16

L1=12.8cm
m1
(g)
261.3
261.3
261.3
261.3
261.3

m2
(g)
180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2
180.2

1i

1i

2i

L2=12.6cm
t
t
t
2i

(s)
0.349
0.442
0.491
0.4
0.346

1f

(s)
0.285
0.354
0.451
0.327
0.298

1f

(s)
0.475
0.583
0.769
0.542
0.503

2f

1i

2i

1f

2f

2f

1i

2i

1f

2f

(m/s)

(m/s)

(m/s)

(m/s)

0.265
0.332
0.372
0.302
0.264

0.37
0.29
0.26
0.32
0.37

-0.44211
-0.35593
-0.27938
-0.38532
-0.42282

-0.27
-0.22
-0.17
-0.24
-0.25

0.48
0.38
0.34
0.42
0.48

Secondly,asthegliders
collided,thelinearmotion
Notes - on Questions
oftheglidersmightbe
changedtoinclude
Yes.
vibvrationsthus
1 Inmostcases,therewasaslightlossofkineticenergydueto convertingsimplekinetic
energytoinclude
existenceofslightlyinelasticcollisions.
vibrationalenergynot

D=80cm
m
(g)
180.2
200.2
220.2
240.3
301.8

Notes - on Analysis
Thetablesbelowlistthetypical
resultsfortheexperimentperformed
attwodifferentinclineangles.
Table8.1

d=100cm

h=1.3cm

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01

0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01

9.03
8.54
9.33
7.99
8.63

DistanceBetweenPhotogates=60cm
v
v
v
v

(s)

Exp 8 Conserv
ation of
Mechani
cal
Energy

Pi
Pf
% Error
(kg*m/s) (kg*m/s) (%)

0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35

Pi
Pf
% Error
(kg*m/s) (kg*m/s) (%)
0.04
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03

0.03
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.03

15.14
13.84
12.29
14.15
14.72

accountedfor.Someof
thekineticenergywas
convertedintoheatdueto
friction.

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Table8.2

d=100cm
D=80cm

h=2.6cm
L=12.6cm

m
(g)

t1
(s)

t2
(s)

v1
(m/s)

v2
(m/s)

180.2
220.2
261.6

0.25
0.25
0.25

0.16
0.16
0.16

0.51
0.51
0.51

0.80
0.80
0.80

=0.026rad
E
E
k1

k2

(J)

(J)

0.02
0.03
0.03

0.06
0.07
0.08

E -E
k2

(J)

k1

0.03
0.04
0.05

is attributed to
experiemental error as
energywasconsitentlytransformedintokineticenery.There well measurement as loss
of energy due to friction
washoweveralossof5%to7%inenergy.This
between gliders and air

% Error
(%)

(mgh)
(J)
0.04
0.04
0.05

5.67
7.32
5.16

track.

1 Yes.Theexperiementaldataindicatedthatpotential

Notes - on Analysis
Theresultsoftheeach
portionofthe
experiementispre
sentedtotheright.

Applied Force (N)

Exp 9 - Elastic-Kinetic Energy


0.4

1.2
1

Figure 9.1
Spring
Constant

0.2
0B
0

0.8

9.2
Potential

Energy vs.
Energy of
Kinetic Spring

0.08
B

0.12

0.16

B
B
B
B

Mass
m
Syste

0.04

0.6

Table

Spring
Constant

Spri
ng
Stret
ch
(m)

X1=104.2cm
m
(g)

K=7.52N/m
Spring Stretch
(cm)

FlagWidth=3.8cm
avg

(s)

avg

(m/s)

K.E.
(J)

P.E.
(J)

% Error
(%)

211.5
211.5
211.5
211.5

5
10
15
20

0.13
0.06
0.04
0.03

0.29
0.60
0.88
1.18

0.01
0.04
0.08
0.15

0.01
0.04
0.08
0.15

4.6
0.0
3.3
1.9

231.5
231.5
231.5
231.5

5
10
15
20

0.13
0.07
0.04
0.03

0.29
0.57
0.86
1.13

0.01
0.04
0.09
0.15

0.01
0.04
0.08
0.15

-3.7
0.0
0.0
1.9
36

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Exp 10- Pendulum Motion


0
0

Part1:PeriodofOscillationversusMassandLength

Thegraphsbelowpresenttherelationshipbetweenperiod
andlengthofoscillationforfourdifferentmasses.

Period vs. Length of Oscillation


Mass = 20g

Period (s)

1.6

Period vs. Length of Oscilla


Mass = 100.3g

L^0.5
(cm)^0
.5

2
1.6
Period (s)

Notes - on Analysis

Slope

0.8

Slope = 0.2 s/cm^0.5

0.8

1.2

0.4

1.2

4
6
L^0.5 (cm)^0.5

0.4

Period vs. Length of Oscill


Mass = 150.5g

0
2

10

L^0.5 (cm)^0.5

1.6

Period vs. Length of Oscillation


Mass = 50g

1.6
Period (s)

B
1.2
0.8
0.4

37

1.2

Period (s)

Slope

0.8
0.4
0

Slope = 0.2 s/cm^0.5


L^0.5
(cm)^0.
5

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Part2:ConservationofMechanicalEnergy

Thetablebelowpresenttheresultsfortheconservation
ofenergywiththependulumdroppedatvarying
heights.

L=100cm

(deg)
15
20
25
30
35

d=2cm

Mass=175.2g

h
(cm)

t
(s)

u
(J)

Ek
(J)

3.41
6.03
9.37
13.40
18.08

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.06
0.10
0.16
0.23
0.31

0.07
0.11
0.16
0.21
0.30

Notes - Questions

Afterrepeatedtrials,thesearethebestresultsthatcanbe
obtainedbymeansofaphotogatetimer.Theaccuracyof 1 From the graphs, there
exist a linear
theexperimentincreaseswithanincreaseinthe
relationship
precisionofmeasurementsofanglesandlengths.Toget
betweenperiodand
evenbetteraccuracy,youmayconsiderusingthe
thesquaredrootof
ComputerPhotogateTimingSystem.
thelengthof
oscillation.This
relationship
remainedunchanged
despitechangesin
massofpendulum.

1 No. For small


oscillation,

% of dif.
(%)
-11.97
-3.50
0.00
6.96
2.55
period

of
oscillation is
independent of
mass.

Yes.
1 No.Duringtherepeated

cyles of conversion of
energy
frompurelypotentialto
kineticenergy,
frictionaland
gravitationalforces
continuedtoactonthe
pendulumtoconvert
someoftheenergyto
otherforms.

3
8

012-03326F

Photogate Timers

Maintenance
Battery Replacement

Calibration

Thebatteriesprobablyneedreplacingwhen:

Althoughthetimershould
remainaccuratetowithin1%
overalongperiodoftime,
itsagoodideatocheckthe
accuracyonceayear,and
calibratethetimerif
necessary.

Thetimercountswhenthereisnoobject
interruptingthebeam,

TheLCDdisplaylosescontrast,or
1

The LCD display appears sluggish when


switchingfromonenumbertoanother,

ToCalibratetheTimer:

ToReplacetheBatteries:

Removethetwoscrewsonthebottomofthe
timerandliftoutthebottompanel.

Remove the
two screws on the
bottomofthetimer
and lift out the
bottompanel.

Remove the thumb screw which holds the


battery retainer plate, then lift out the retainer
plateandthebatteries.
1
Powerthetimer
withthepoweradapter
1
Replace with four new C size, 1.5 VDC
oranewsetof
batteries.Besurethepolarityisasshownoninsideof
batteries,orcheckthat
thecase.
thetotalbattery
1
Replacethebatteryretainerplateandthebottom voltage(forallfour
panel.
batteries)isatleast5
volts.
CAUTION:Donotstorethetimerwiththe
1
Switch the timer
batteriesinstalled.Thebatteriesmayleakand
to

one
of the timing
damagethetimerelectronics.
modesandtriggerthe
photogate. The timer
must be counting
duringcalibration.
Inside the Timer with the bottom panel removed.

batteryindicatedin
Figure6.Theoutputat
thetest
pointisTTL
compatible,however,
itissuggestedthata
0.47fcapacitorbe
placedinseries
betweenTestPoint1
andthefrequency
meter.

The signal

frequency at the
testpointshould
be: ME9206A
1.000kHz
ME9215A 10.000
kHz

Adjust the
Calibration Adjust
potentiometer until
the frequency is
correct.
Inside the Timer with
the bottom panel
removed.

Connecta
frequencymeterwitha
knownaccuracyof0.5%
orbetterbetweenTest
Points1and2asshown
inFigure6.TestPoint1
isontheprintedcircuit
boardpadlabeledTP,
neartheCalibration
Adjustpotentiometer.
TestPoint2isthe
negativeterminalofthe

+ +
+
Insert 4 "C" size batteries with the polarity as shown.

Figure 5 Battery Replacement


39

Test Point 2

Figure 6
Calibrati
on

Photogate Timers

012-03326F

Notes

40

Technical Support
Reach
PASCO

Feed- For
Back Technic

al
Ifyou Support
haveanycallusat
comment 1800
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l Support
Before
youcall
the
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Technical
Support
staffit
wouldbe
helpfulto
prepare
the
following
informati
on:

1
If your
proble
m is
comp
uter/s
oftwar
e
relate
d,
note:
Title
and
Revisi
on
Date

of

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war

e.

f your

proble

m is

with

the

PASC

apparat

us,

note:

Title

and

Model

number

(usuall

ylisted

on the

label).

Appr
oxim
ate
age
of
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ratus
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A
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descrip
tionof
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m/sequ
enceof
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(In
case
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If
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note:

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cover).
Havethe
manualat
handto
discuss
your
questions.

01
2

Super
Pulley

AccessoryPhotogate

01206375A

01206375A

AccessoryPhotogate

NOTES:

1 Theactuallengthofanobjectpassingthrough
thephotogatemaybeslightlydifferentthanthe
effectivelengthseenbythephotogate.Todeter
minetheeffectivelength,pushtheobject
throughthephotogate,andmeasurethedistance
movedbytheobjectfromwheretheLEDfirst
comesONtowhereitgoesoff.Usethiseffec
tivelength,ratherthantheactuallength,incal
culations.Forexample,ifyouweremeasuring
thespeedoftheobject,youwoulddividethe
effectivelengthbythetimeduringwhichthe
objectblockedthephotogatebeam.

2 Astereophoneplugextensioncord,suchas
PASCOModelPI8117,willincreasethesepa
rationbetweenthephotogateandthetimer.

Experiments
Refertotheexperimentguidethatcomeswithyour
PASCOequipment(e.g.,IntroductoryDynamics
System).

Photogate Specifications
Detectorrisetime:<500ns
Detectorfalltime:<50ns
Parallaxerror:Foranobjectpassingwithin1cmofthe
detector,withavelocitylessthan10m/s,thedifference
betweenthetrueandeffectivelengthislessthan1mm.

Powerrequirements:5VDC5%at45mA.
Infraredsource:Peakat880nm.
Signal
GND

+5VDC

Photogate with Pendulum

Stereo Phone Plug

AccessoryPhotogate

Limited Warranty

Feedback

Ifyouhaveanycomments
about the product or
PASCOscientificwarrantstheproducttobefreefrom
defectsinmaterialsandworkmanshipforaperiodofone manual, please let us
know. If you have any
yearfromthedateofshipmenttothecustomer.PASCO
willrepairorreplace,atitsoption,anypartoftheproduct suggestions on alternate
whichisdeemedtobedefectiveinmaterialorworkman experiments or find a
ship.Thewarrantydoesnotcoverdamagetotheproduct problem in the manual,
causedbyabuseorimproperuse.Determinationofwhether please tell us. PASCO
aproductfailureistheresultofamanufacturingdefector appreciates any customer
feedback.Yourinputhelps
improperusebythecustomershallbemadesolelyby
us evaluate and improve
PASCOscientific.Responsibilityforthereturnof
ourproduct.
equipmentforwarrantyrepairbelongstothecustomer.

01206375A
(916)7863292

fax:

email:
techsupp@pasco.com
web:

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Equipmentmustbeproperlypackedtopreventdamageand
To Reach PASCO
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Fortechnicalsupport,call
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usat18007728700
returningtheequipment,afterrepair,willbepaidby
(tollfreewithintheU.S.)
PASCOscientific.
or(916)7863800.

Includes

Teacher's Notes

and
Typical

Experiment Results

Instruction Manual and


Experiment Guide for the
PASCO scientific Model
ME-6830/ME-6831

01205375B
2/99

B
al
li
st
ic
P
e
n
d
ul
u
m
/

rojec
tile
Laun
cher

B
A

L
I8

3
T1
I

8
7

WEAR
SAFETY

6
5

IN

2
4

GLASSESWHEN

USE.

MEDIUM
RANGE
SHORT
DO

RANGE

CAUTION!NOT

Yellow
IndicatesBand in

DOWN LOOK
THE

Range.
Window

Use

SHORT

PROJECTILE

25

all
s

mm

ON

Launch

LY!

RANGE

Positionof

Ball

LAUNCHER

1993PASCOscientific $10.00

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

01205375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Introduction
ThePASCOME6830/ME6831BallisticPendulum/
ProjectileLauncher(BPPL)hasbeendesignedfor
projectileexperimentsanddemonstrationsaswellasthe
classicBallisticPendulumexperiments.Theonly
additionalequipmentrequiredisaCclampforclamping
thelaunchertoatable.ThefeaturesoftheBallistic
Pendulum/ProjectileLauncherinclude:

1 LAUNCHATANYANGLE:Ballscanbelaunched
atanyanglefromzeroto90degreesmeasuredfrom
thehorizontal.Theangleiseasilyadjustedusing
thumbscrews.Thebuiltinprotractorandplumbbob
onthesideofthelaunchergiveaconvenientand
accuratewayofdeterminingtheangleofinclination.

2 THREERANGESETTINGS:Therearethree
rangesfromwhichtochoose.FortheShortRange
ProjectileLauncherthesethreerangesareapproxi
mately1.2meters,3meters,and5meters,whenthe 1
angleis45degrees.FortheLongRangeDemonstra
tionProjectileLauncher,thethreerangesareapproxi
mately2.5meters,5meters,and8meters.Thediffer
encebetweenthesetwoversionsoftheProjectile
Launcheristhestrengthofthespring.Thelongrange
versionisintendedforlargeclassroomdemonstra
tionsandshouldnotbeusedwiththeBallisticPendu
lumbase.

3 FIXEDELEVATIONINDEPENDENTOFANGLE:
TheProjectileLauncherpivotsatthemuzzleendsothe
elevationoftheballasitleavesthebarreldoesnot
changeastheangleisvaried.Thebasehasthreesetsof
slots.Thetopcurvedslotisusedwhenitisdesiredto
changetheangleandthecentertwoslotsareusedwhen
itisdesiredtoshoothorizontallyonly.Thebottom
mountingholesareforusewiththeBallisticPendulum
experiment.

4 REPEATABLERESULTS:Thereisnospinonthe
ballsincethepistonkeepstheballfromrubbingonthe
wallsasittravelsupthebarrel.Thesturdybasecanbe
securedtoatablewithaCclamp(notincluded)so
thereisverylittlerecoil.Thetriggerispulledwitha
stringtominimizeanymisalignmentcausedbyother
methodsoftriggerrelease.

IMPORTANT:
Experimentalresults
canbefurther
improvedbymaking
surethattheballdoes
notsticktotheblue
vibrationdampingring
priortobeing
launched.Thisis
particularlycriticalfor
thelongrangesetting
andforlaunching
anglesabove30.To
assuretheballdoesnot
sticktothering,push
itgentlywithapencil
fromthebackofthe
barrel.

BARRELSIGHTS
ANDSAFETY
PRECAUTIONS:The
sightsforaimingthe
ProjectileLaunchercan
beviewedfromthe
backofthelauncherby
lookingthroughthe
backendofthebarrel.
WARNING:Never
lookdownthefrontof
thebarrelbecauseit
maybeloaded.Tosee
iftheballisinthe
barrelandtocheck
whethertheProjectile
Launcheriscocked,
lookattheslotsinthe
sideofthebarrel.The
yellowindicatorseen
throughthesideslot
indicatestheposition
ofthepiston.Theball
canalsobeseen
throughtheseslots
whenitisinthe
piston.

2 COMPUTER

COMPATIBLE:
Photogatescanbeat
tachedwiththeME6821
PhotogateMounting
Brackettoconnectthe
ProjectileLaunchertoa
computerformeasuring
themuzzlespeed.Also,a
photogateatthemuzzle
andanME6810Time
ofFlightAccessorycan
beusedtotimetheflight
oftheball.

3 COMPACT
STORAGE:The
ProjectileLauncher
storesawayinasmall
space.Theramrod
attachestothe
ProjectileLauncher
withVelcroandthe
launchercanbeturned
verticallysoittakesup
theminimumamount
ofspaceontheshelf.

4 RELIABLE BALL
CATCHER
MECHANISM:
Thesensitivespring
loadedbarbtype
catchonthe
pendulumwillcatch
ballswithalarge
rangeofmomenta.
Inaddition,theball
isheldinlinewith
thependulumrod
forbestaccuracy.

5 REMOVABLE
PENDULUM:All
movingpartsofthe
pendulummaybe
removedsothatthe
massandthecenterof
masscanbeeasily
determined.Inaddi
tion,thependulumcan

bereversedtocomparetheeffectsofinelasticand
elasticcollisions.

6 VARIABLEMASSPENDULUM:Massescanbe

addedtothebottomof
thependulumsothat
meaningful
measurementscanbe

takenwitheitherheavy
orlightweightballs,
overawiderangeof
velocities.

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

Equipment
5 (2) pendulum
Inaddition,theME6830
Thefollowingisadescriptionoftheequipmentthatis Ballistic
includedwithvariousmodelsoftheBallisticPendulum/ Pendulum/Projectile
ProjectileLauncher.
Launcherincludes:
TheME6831BallisticPendulumincludesthefollowing:

1 BallisticPendulumbase(assembled)

1 Short

Range

Launcher

2 ramrod (Attached

with Velcro to
stand)

2 (2)steelballs

3 collision
attachment

B
A

launcher

ramrod

trigger

4 (3)plasticballs

brassmasses

6 (2)

goggles

safety

WEAR
SAFETY
WHENGLASSES

6
5

INUSE.

protractor and
plumb bob

LONG
RANGE

ME6800

B
a

8
7

safety
goggles (2)
accessory groove

brass masses

p
l

e
e
l

s
t

b
a

collision
r
a

l
l
s

01205375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

General Operation of the Projectile Launcher


1

Ready

1- Alwayswearsafetygoggleswhenyouareina

1- Remove the
ramrodandplaceit
back in its storage
placeonthebase.

roomwheretheProjectileLauncherisbeingused.

2- ForProjectileLauncherexperiments,thebaseof
theBallisticPendulum/ProjectileLaunchermustbe
clampedtoasturdytableusingtheclampofyour
choice.Whenclampingtothetable,itisoftende
sirabletohavethelabelsideoftheLaunchereven
withoneedgeofthetablesoaplumbbobcanbe
usedtolocatethepositionofthemuzzlewithre
specttothefloor.

2- Whenthe
ProjectileLauncheris
loaded,theyellow
indicatorisvisiblein
oneoftherangeslots
inthesideofthe
barrelandtheballis
visibleinanotherone
oftheslotsintheside
ofthebarrel.To
checktoseeifthe
Launcherisloaded,
alwayschecktheside
ofthebarrel.Never
lookdownthebarrel!

3- TheProjectileLaunchercanbemountedtothe
bracketusingthecurvedslotwhenitisdesiredto
changethelaunchangle.Itcanalsobemountedto
thecentertwoslotsinthebaseifyouareonly
goingtolaunchhorizontally,suchasintoa
DynamicsCart.

Aim

1- Theangleofinclinationabovethehorizontalis 2
adjustedbylooseningboththumbscrewsand
rotatingtheLaunchertothedesiredangleas
indicatedbytheplumbbobandprotractoronthe
sideoftheLauncher.Whentheanglehasbeen
selected,boththumbscrewsaretightened.

2- Youcanboresightatatarget(suchasinthe
MonkeyHunterdemonstration)bylookingthrough
theLauncherfromthebackendwhentheLauncher
isnotloaded.Therearetwosightsinsidethebarrel.
Alignthecentersofbothsightswiththetargetby
adjustingtheangleandpositionoftheLauncher.

Load

1- Alwayscockthepistonwiththeballinthe
piston.Damagetothepistonmayoccurifthe
ramrodisusedwithouttheball.

2- Placetheballinthepiston.Removetheramrod

maintenance of the
ProjectileLauncheris
required.

2- Do not oil the


launcher!!

3- Tostorethe
launcherintheleast
amountofspace,
adjustitsangleto90
degrees.Ifthe
PhotogateMounting
Bracketand
Photogatesare
attachedtothe
launcher,thebracket
canbeslidback
alongthebarrelwith
thephotogatesstill
attached.

Shoot

1- Beforelaunching
the ball, make
certain that no per
sonisintheway.

2- Toshoottheball,
pullstraightupon
thelanyard(string)
thatisattachedto
thetrigger.Itisonly
necessarytopullit
aboutacentimeter.

3- Thespringonthe
triggerwill
automaticallyreturn
thetriggertoits
initialpositionwhen
youreleaseit.

fromitsVelcrostorageplaceonthebase.While
viewingtherangesettingslotsinthesideofthe
1
Maintenance
launcher,pushtheballdownthebarrelwiththe
and Storage
ramroduntilthetriggercatchesthepistonatthe
desiredrangesetting.
1- No special

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

Ballistic Pendulum - Theory


Overview
Theballisticpendulumisaclassicmethodofdetermining
thevelocityofaprojectile.Itisalsoagooddemonstration
ofsomeofthebasicprinciplesofphysics.

Theballisfiredintothependulum,whichthenswings
upameasuredamount.Fromtheheightreachedbythe
pendulum,wecancalculateitspotentialenergy.This
potentialenergyisequaltothekineticenergyofthe
pendulumatthebottomoftheswing,justafterthe
collisionwiththeball.
Wecannotequatethekineticenergyofthependulumafter
thecollisionwiththekineticenergyoftheballbeforethe
swing,sincethecollisionbetweenballandpendulumis
inelasticandkineticenergyisnotconservedininelastic
collisions.Momentumisconservedinallformsof
collision,though;soweknowthatthemomentumofthe
ballbeforethecollisionisequaltothemomentumofthe
pendulumafterthecollision.Onceweknowthe
momentumoftheballanditsmass,wecandeterminethe
initialvelocity.
Therearetwowaysofcalculatingthevelocityoftheball.
The first method (approximate method) assumes that the
pendulumandballtogetheractasapointmasslocatedat
theircombinedcenterofmass.Thismethoddoesnottake
rotationalinertiaintoaccount.Itissomewhatquickerand
easierthanthesecondmethod,butnotasaccurate.

Thesecondmethod(exactmethod)usestheactual
rotationalinertiaofthependuluminthecalculations.
Theequationsareslightlymorecomplicated,anditis
necessarytotakemoredatainordertofindthemoment
ofinertiaofthependulum;buttheresultsobtainedare
generallybetter.
Pleasenotethatthesubscript"cm"usedinthe
followingequationsstandsfor"centerofmass."

Approximate Method
Beginwiththepotentialenergyofthependulumatthe
topofitsswing:

PE=Mghcm
WhereMisthecombinedmassofpendulumandball,gis
theaccelerationofgravity,andhisthechangein
height.Substitutefortheheight:

h=R(1cos)

PE=
MgRcm(1
cos)
HereRcmisthedistance
fromthepivotpointtothe
centerofmassofthe
pendulum/ballsystem.This
potentialenergyisequalto
thekineticenergyofthe
pendulum

immediatelyafterthe
collision:

KE=

2M

2P
Themomentumofthe
pendulumafterthecollision
isjust

Pp
=M
P,
whichwesubstituteinto
thepreviousequationto
give:

KE
=
P2
P

Solvingthisequationfor
thependulummomentum
gives:

Pp=
2M
(KE)
Thismomentumis
equaltothe
momentumoftheball
beforethecollision:

Pb
=
m

2
M

b.

Settingthesetwoequationsequaltoeachotherand
replacingKEwithourknownpotentialenergygivesus:

cm
m

mb= 2M2gRcm(1cos)
Solvethisfortheballvelocityandsimplifytoget:

Fig
ure
1

b= m 2gRcm(1cos)
4

01205375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Exact Method
Thepotentialenergyisfoundinawayidenticaltothe
wayshownpreviously:

PE=MgRcm(1cos)
Forthekineticenergy,weusetheequationforangularkinetic
energyinsteadoflinear,andsubstituteintoitthe

equationforangularmomentum.

equationforlinearsimple
harmonicmotion:

Thesetwoangular
momentaareequalto
eachother,so:

mRb=
2IMgRcm(1
cos)
=

KE= 2I2
Lp=I

L2
KE= P
2I

HereIisthemomentofinertiaofthependulum/ball

NowweneedtofindI,
themomentofinertiaof
thependulumandball.To
dothis,westartwiththe
rotationalequivalentof
Newtonssecondlaw,

combination,andistheangularvelocityimmediately

=
I

afterthecollision.
Aswedidpreviously,solvethislastequationforangular

whereistorque,Iis
momentofinertia,and
Lp= 2I(KE)
isangularacceleration.
Thisangularmomentumisequaltotheangularmomentum Theforceonthecenter
oftheballbeforethecollision,asmeasuredfromthe
ofmassofthependulum
pendulumpivotpoint.
isjustMg,andthe
componentofthatforce
Lb=mRb2=mRb
directedtowardsthe
Rbisthedistancefromthependulumpivottotheball. centerofthependulum
(ThisradiusisnotingeneralequaltoRcm,whichisthe swingis(seefigure2):
distancefromthepivotpointtothecenterofmassforthe
F=
pendulum/ballsystem.)
momentum:

Mg
sin

Thetorqueonthe
pendulumisthus:

I=
RcmMg
sin

k
m x=
2x
Soifwecomparethese
twoequations,linearand
angular,wecanseethat
thependulumexhibits
simpleharmonicmotion,
mR andthatthesquareofthe
angularfrequency(2)
forthismotionisjust:
2=

MgR

cmI

SolvingthisforIgivesus
thedesiredresult:

Mg

I=

WhereTistheperiodof
thependulum.
NOTE:Wehave
madeasmallangle
approximationto
findthisequationfor
I;butIdoesnot
dependon.This
meansthatwemust
measuretheperiodT
usingsmall
oscillations;butonce
wehavecalculatedI
withthatperiod,we
mayusethatvalue
ofIregardlessofthe
amplitudereached
duringotherpartsof
theexperiment.

Forsmallangles,sin

,soifwemakethis

-Mg sin

substitutionandsolve
forweget:

-Mg

Figure 2

Thisangularequationis
inthesameformasthe

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

Installing the Photogate Mounting Bracket


possible.

ThePASCOModelME6821PhotogateMounting
BracketisanoptionalaccessorytothePASCOProjectile
Launchers.Itattachestothefrontofthelauncherand
holdsoneortwophotogatesinparallelformeasuringthe
muzzlevelocityoftheball.

Slide

the
Photogate Mounting
Brackettothedesired
position and tighten
the thumbscrew to
secure.

Setup procedure

Unscrew the
small rod clamp
fromthePhotogate
Head. (Save the
clampassemblyfor
lateruse.)

Loosen the thumbscrew of the Photogate


MountingBracket.

Alignthebracketassemblywiththefrontof
theProjectileLauncherandslidethesquarenut
downthegrooveofthebarreluntilthedowelpin
entersthegroove.

nd Photogate

Head
square
(optional)

nut

Attacheach
photogatetothe
MountingBracket
withoneofthe6
32x3/8"nylon
thumbscrews
includedwiththe
bracketassembly.

(Thedowelpinactsasanalignmentguideandmust
enterthegrooveforproperalignmentofthebracket.)
NOTE:Theflatsideofthesquarenutmustfacethe
insideoftheprojectilelaunchergrooveasshown.

Slidethe
MountingBracketback
untilthephotogate
nearesttothebarrelis
asclosetothebarrelas
possiblewithout
blockingthebeam.

Projectile
Launcher

Photogate
Head
washer
thumb
screw

Whenstoringthe
launcher,the
PhotogateMounting
Bracketneednotbe
removed.Itcanbe
slidbackalongthe
barrelwithorwithout
thephotogatesin
place,makingas
compactapackageas
Photogate Mounting
Bracket

nylon
thumb
screw

01205375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Installing the 2-Dimensional Collision Attachment

Tomountthecollision
attachmenttothe
Launcherthesquarenut
Introduction
slidesintotheTshaped
channelonthebottomof
The two dimensional collision attachment consists of 2
thebarrel.(See
screws,2nuts,andaflatplasticbar.Itisusedwiththe
ExperimentFigure6.2)
ProjectileLaunchertoholdasecondballinfrontofthe
muzzlesothelaunchedballwillcollidewiththesecond
ball,creatinga2dimensionalcollision.

s
q
u
a
r
e
n
u
t

Assembly
Toassemblethecollisionattachment,insertthescrewsthroughthe
holesandsecurewiththenutsasshownbelow.

Expecta
tions
Thefollowingarehelpful
hintsandapproximatevalues
youmayfinduseful:

Themuzzlespeedwill
varyslightlywithangle.
Thedifferencebetween
muzzlespeedwhenshot
horizontallyversus
verticallycanbeanywhere
fromzeroto8%,
dependingontherange
settingandtheparticular
launcher.

Thescatterpatternmay

notbe
smaller
onthe
short
range
thanon
the
long
range
as
might
be
expect
edbe
cause
theball
doesnt
seatas

Ex
pec
1

for Projectile
the Launcher

w
ell
in 1
Althoughthe
th
muzzleendofthe
e
ProjectileLauncher
pi
doesntchange
st
heightwithangle,it
on isabout30cm(12
at inches)abovetable
lo
level,soifitis
w desiredtousethe
ac simplerange
ce formula,itis
ler necessarytolaunch
ati toatablethatisat
on thesameheightas
s. themuzzle.

The scatter

t tions for Balli


a the
stic

de
gre
e.

l
er
ro
r
in
m
e

Angles
reached should 1
berepeatableto Over
al
within half a

asurement
ofball
velocity
shouldnot
exceed
2.5%(exact
method)or

10%
(app
roxi
mate
meth
od).
7

pattern
is
minimiz
edwhen
the
Projectil
e
Launch
er base
is
securely
clamped
to a
sturdy
table.
Any
wobble
in the

Pen m
dulu

levelingfeetare signific
notnecessary ant
forgoodresults. error.

Small
NOTE:
deviationsfrom
Adjusta
thehorizontal
ble
willnotcause

thumb nut

table
will
showup
in the
data.

Th
e angle
of
inclinati
on can
be
determi
ned to
within
one
halfofa
degree.

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

0125375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Experiment 1: Projectile Motion


EQUIPMENT NEEDED:

12345-

ProjectileLauncherandplasticball
Plumbbob
meterstick
carbonpaper
whitepaper

Purpose
Thepurposeofthisexperimentistopredictandverifytherangeofaballlaunchedatan
angle.Theinitialvelocityoftheballisdeterminedbylaunchingithorizontallyand
measuringtherangeandtheheightofthelauncher.

Theory
Topredictwhereaballwilllandonthefloorwhenitislaunchedoffatableatsomeangleabove
thehorizontal,itisnecessarytofirstdeterminetheinitialspeed(muzzlevelocity)oftheball.This
canbedeterminedbylaunchingtheballhorizontallyoffthetableandmeasuringtheverticaland
horizontaldistancesthroughwhichtheballtravels.Thentheinitialvelocitycanbeusedto
calculatewheretheballwilllandwhentheballislaunchedatanangle.

NOTE:Forbestresults,seethenoteson"RepeatableResults"intheIntroduction.

HORIZONTAL INITIAL VELOCITY:

Foraballlaunchedhorizontallyoffatablewithaninitialspeed,v o,thehorizontaldistance
travelledbytheballisgivenbyx=v0t,wheretisthetimetheballisintheair.Air
frictionisassumedtobenegligible.
Theverticaldistancetheballdropsintimetisgiven y=

2gt

Theinitialvelocityoftheballcanbedeterminedbymeasuringxandy.Thetimeofflightof
theballcanbefoundusing:

t=
andthentheinitialvelocitycanbefoundusing 0

2y
g
=x .
t

INITIAL VELOCITY AT AN ANGLE:

Topredicttherange,x,ofaballlaunchedwithaninitialvelocityatanangle,,abovethe
horizontal,firstpredictthetimeofflightusingtheequationfortheverticalmotion:

y=y0+ v0sin t 2gt2


whereyoistheinitialheightoftheballandyisthepositionoftheballwhenithitsthefloor.
Thenusex= v0cos ttofindtherange.

Setup
ClamptheProjectileLaunchertoasturdytablenearoneendofthetable.
Adjusttheangleofthelaunchertozerodegreessotheballwillbelaunchedhorizontally.

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Procedure

Part A: Determining the Initial Velocity of the Ball


1

PuttheplasticballintotheProjectileLauncherandcockittothelongrangeposition.
Launchoneballtolocatewheretheballhitsthefloor.Atthisposition,tapeapieceofwhite
papertothefloor.Placeapieceofcarbonpaper(carbonsidedown)ontopofthispaperand
tapeitdown.Whentheballhitsthefloor,itwillleaveamarkonthewhitepaper.

Fireabouttenshots.
1

Measuretheverticaldistancefromthebottomoftheballasitleavesthebarrel
(thispositionismarkedonthesideofthebarrel)tothefloor.RecordthisdistanceinTable
1.1.

Useaplumbbobtofindthepointonthefloorthatisdirectlybeneaththerelease
pointonthebarrel.Measurethehorizontaldistancealongthefloorfromtherelease
pointtotheleadingedgeofthepaper.RecordinTable1.1.

Measurefromtheleadingedgeofthepapertoeachofthetendotsandrecord
thesedistancesinTable1.1.

FindtheaverageofthetendistancesandrecordinTable1.1.
1

Usingtheverticaldistanceandtheaveragehorizontaldistance,calculatethetime
offlightandtheinitialvelocityoftheball.RecordinTable1.1.

Part B: Predicting the Range of the Ball Launched at an Angle


1

Adjust the angle of the Projectile Launcher to an angle between 30 and 60


degreesandrecordthisangleinTable1.2.

Usingtheinitialvelocityandverticaldistancefoundinthefirstpartofthis
experiment,assumetheballislaunchedatthenewangleyouhavejustselectedand
calculatethenewtimeofflightandthenewhorizontaldistance.RecordinTable1.2.

Drawalineacrossthemiddleofawhitepieceofpaperandtapethepaperonthe
floorsothelineisatthepredictedhorizontaldistancefromtheProjectileLauncher.
Coverthepaperwithcarbonpaper.

Launchtheballtentimes.
Measurethetendistancesandtaketheaverage.RecordinTable1.2.
Analysis
1

Calculate the percent difference between the predicted value and the resulting
averagedistancewhenlaunchedatanangle.

Estimatetheprecisionofthepredictedrange.Howmanyofthefinal10shots
landedwithinthisrange?

01205375B

10

0125375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Table 1.1 Determining the Initial Velocity

Verticaldistance=_____________

Horizontaldistancetopaperedge=____________

Calculatedtimeofflight=_________

Initialvelocity=_______________

TrialNumber

Distance

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Average
TotalDistance

Table 1.2 Confirming the Predicted Range

Angleabovehorizontal=______________

Horizontaldistancetopaperedge=____________

Calculatedtimeofflight=_____________

PredictedRange=____________

TrialNumber

Distance

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Average
TotalDistance

11

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

12

0125375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Experiment 2: Projectile Motion Using Photogates


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

ProjectileLauncherandplasticball
(2)PhotogateHeads computer
plumbbob
meterstick
carbonpaper whitepaper

PhotogateMountingBracket

Purpose
Thepurposeofthisexperimentistopredictandverifytherangeofaballlaunchedatan
angle.Photogatesareusedtodeterminetheinitialvelocityoftheball.

Theory
Topredictwhereaballwilllandonthefloorwhenitislaunchedoffatableatsomeangleabove
thehorizontal,itisnecessarytofirstdeterminetheinitialspeed(muzzlevelocity)oftheball.This
canbedeterminedbylaunchingtheballandmeasuringthespeedusingphotogates.Topredictthe
range,x,oftheballwhenitislaunchedwithaninitialvelocityatanangleq,abovethehorizontal,
firstpredictthetimeofflightusingtheequationfortheverticalmotion:

y=y0+ v0sin t 2gt2


whereyoistheinitialheightoftheballandyisthepositionoftheballwhenithitsthefloor.
Thenusex= v0cos ttofindtherange.

NOTE:Forbestresults,seethenoteson"RepeatableResults"intheIntroduction.

Setup
ClamptheProjectileLaunchertoasturdytablenearoneendofthetable.
AdjusttheangleoftheProjectileLaunchertoananglebetween30and60degrees.
1

Attach the photogate bracket to the launcher and attach two photogates to the
bracket.Plugthephotogatesintoacomputerorothertimer.

Procedure

PART A: Determining the Initial Velocity of the Ball


PuttheplasticballintotheProjectileLauncherandcockittothelongrangeposition.
1

Runthetimingprogramandsetittomeasurethetimebetweentheball
blockingthetwophotogates.

Launchtheballthreetimesandtaketheaverageofthesetimes.RecordinTable2.1.

Usingthatthedistancebetweenthephotogatesis10cm,calculatetheinitialspeed
andrecorditinTable2.1.

13

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

Table 2.1 Initial Speed


TrialNumber

Time

1
2
3
AverageTime
InitialSpeed

PART B: Predicting the Range of the Ball Launched at an Angle


KeeptheangleoftheProjectileLauncheratthechosenangle.
1

Measuretheverticaldistancefromthebottomoftheballasitleavesthebarrel(this
positionismarkedonthesideofthebarrel)tothefloor.RecordthisdistanceinTable2.2.

Usingtheinitialvelocityandverticaldistancefound,assumetheballislaunched
attheangleyouhaveselectedandcalculatethetimeofflightandthehorizontaldistance.
RecordinTable2.2.

Drawalineacrossthemiddleofawhitepieceofpaperandtapethepaperonthe
floorsothelineisatthepredictedhorizontaldistancefromtheProjectileLauncher.
Coverthepaperwithcarbonpaper.

Launchtheballtentimes.
Measurethetendistancesandtaketheaverage.RecordinTable2.2.
Analysis
1

Calculate the percent difference between the predicted value and the
resultingaveragedistancewhenlaunchedatanangle.

Estimatetheprecisionofthepredictedrange.Howmanyofthefinal10shots
landedwithinthisrange?

14

0125375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Table 2.2 Confirming the Predicted Range

Angleabovehorizontal=______________
Horizontaldistancetopaperedge=____________
Calculatedtimeofflight=____________
PredictedRange=____________
TrialNumber

Distance

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Average
TotalDistance

15

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

16

0125375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Experiment 3: Projectile Range Versus Angle


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

ProjectileLauncherandplasticball
plumbbob
measuringtapeormeterstick carbonpaper
boxtomakeelevationsameasmuzzle whitepaper
graphpaper

Purpose
Thepurposeofthisexperimentistofindhowtherangeoftheballdependsontheangle
atwhichitislaunched.Theanglethatgivesthegreatestrangeisdeterminedfortwo
cases:forlaunchingonlevelgroundandforlaunchingoffatable.

Theory
Therangeisthehorizontaldistance,x,betweenthemuzzleofthelauncherandtheplacewherethe
ballhits,givenbyx= v0cos t,wherev0istheinitialspeedoftheballasitleavesthemuzzle,

istheangleofinclinationabovehorizontal,andtisthetimeofflight.SeeFigure3.1.

x
Figure 3.1 Launching on a level surface

Forthecaseinwhichtheballhitsonaplacethatisatthesamelevelasthelevelofthe
muzzleofthelauncher,thetimeofflightoftheballwillbetwicethetimeittakestheball
thereachthepeakofitstrajectory.Atthepeak,theverticalvelocityiszeroso

vy=0=v0singtpeak
Therefore,solvingforthetimegivesthatthetotaltimeofflightis

t =2t

=2

v0sin

.
g
Forthecaseinwhichtheballislaunchedatanangleoffatableontothefloor(SeeFigure3.2)
thetimeofflightisfoundusingthe
0
equationfortheverticalmotion:
Results"in
the
1
NOTE:
1 2
Introduction.
y=y0+ v0sin t 2gt
Forbest
results,seethe
where yo is the initial height of the ball and y is the
noteson
positionoftheballwhenithitsthefloor.
"Repeatable

peak

y0

x
Figure 3.2
Launching off
the table

17

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

Setup
1

ClamptheProjectileLaunchertoasturdytablenearoneendofthetablewith
thelauncheraimedsotheballwilllandonthetable.

AdjusttheangleoftheProjectileLaunchertotendegrees.
SHORT RANGELAUNCHER

PuttheplasticballintotheProjectileLauncherandcockittothe
mediumorlongrangeposition.

NOTE:Ingeneral,thisexperimentwillnotworkaswell
ontheshortrangesettingbecausethemuzzlevelocityismore
variablewithchangeinangle.

PROJECTILE

ME

-6800

Launchaballtolocatewherethe
ballhits.Placea
boxatthatlocationsotheballwillhitat
thesameFigure 3.3 Setup to

launch on level surfacelevelasthe


muzzleofthelauncher.SeeFigure3.3.

Procedure
LAUNCHING ON A LEVEL
SURFACE

Fire one shot to


locatewheretheballhits
thebox.Atthisposition,
tape a piece of white
papertothebox.Placea
piece of carbon paper
(carbonside down) on
topofthispaperandtape
it down. When the ball
hitsthebox,itwillleave
a mark on the white
paper.

Fireaboutfiveshots.
1

Horizontal. Distance

Useameasuring
tapetomeasurethe
horizontaldistancefrom
themuzzletotheleading
edgeofthepaper.Ifa
measuringtapeisnot

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
,
u
s
e
a
p
l
u
m
b

b
o
b

t
o

f
i
n

isdirectlybeneaththe
releasepointonthe
barrel.Measurethe
horizontaldistance
alongthetablefromthe
releasepointtothe
leadingedgeofthe
paper.RecordinTable
3.1.

Measure from
theleadingedgeofthe
paper to each of the
five dots and record
thesedistancesinTable
3.1.

Increasetheangleby10degrees
andrepeatallthesteps.

Repeatforanglesuptoand
including80degrees.
Table
3.1
Launc
hing
on a
Level
Surfa
ce

Angle
1
2
3
4
5

10

20

A
30
v
e
r
a
g
e
P
a
p
er

Dist.
Total
Dist.

0125375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

LAUNCHING OFF THE TABLE

AimtheProjectileLaunchersotheballwillhitthefloor.Repeattheprocedureand
recordthedatainTable3.2.

Table 3.2 Launching off the Table onto the Floor


ge
Angle
1

Horizontal. Distance

2
3

Paper
Dist.
Total
Dist.

4
5
A
v
e
r
a

Record in Tables
3.1and3.2.

Analysis
Findtheaverageofthefive
distancesineachcaseandrecordin
Tables3.1and3.2.

Foreachdatatable,

givesthemaximumrangefor
eachcase?

plottherangevs.angle
anddrawasmoothcurve
throughthepoints.

maximumrangegreaterorless
forlaunchingofftheTable?

19

Istheangleforthe

Isthemaximumrangefurther

Add the average


distancetothedistancetothe
leading edge of the paper to
find the total distance (range)

Fromthegraph,whatangle

Questions

whentheballislaunchedoffthe
tableoronthelevelsurface?

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

20

0125375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Experiment 4: Projectile Path


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

ProjectileLauncherandplasticball
measuringtapeormeterstick
carbonpaper whitepaper
1movableverticaltargetboard(Mustreachfromfloortomuzzle)
2graphpaper

Purpose
Thepurposeofthisexperimentistofindhowtheverticaldistancetheballdropsisrelatedtothe
horizontaldistancetheballtravelswhentheballislaunchedhorizontallyfromatable.

Theory
Therangeisthehorizontaldistance,x,betweenthemuzzleofthelauncherandtheplace
wheretheballhits,givenbyx=v 0t,wherevoistheinitialspeedoftheballasitleavesthe
muzzleandtisthetimeofflight.
Iftheballislaunchedhorizontally,thetimeofflightoftheballwillbe
xv
t= 0

Theverticaldistance,y,thattheballfallsintimetisgivenby

y= 2gt2

wheregistheaccelerationduetogravity.
Substitutingfortintotheequationforygives

g
y=

x2
2
0

2v

Aplotofyversusx2willgiveastraightlinewithaslopeequalto2v02.

NOTE:Forbestresults,seethenoteson"RepeatableResults"intheIntroduction.

Setup
ClamptheProjectile
Launchertoasturdy
tablenearoneendofthe
tablewiththelauncher
aimedawayfromthe
table.

PROJECTILE LAUNCHER

Adjust the
angleoftheProjectile
Launcherto
zerodegreessotheball
willbelaunchedhori

zontally.

Fireatestshoton

x
Figure 4.1 Setup

mediumrangeto
determinetheinitialpositionoftheverticaltarget.Placethetargetsotheballhitsitnear
thebottom.SeeFigure4.1.

Coverthetargetboardwithwhitepaper.Tapecarbonpaperoverthewhitepaper.

21

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

Procedure
1

MeasuretheverticalheightfromthefloortothemuzzleandrecordinTable
4.1.Markthisheightonthetarget.

MeasurethehorizontaldistancefromthemuzzleoftheProjectileLauncherto
thetargetandrecordinTable4.1.

Launchtheball.
Movethetargetabout10to20cmclosertothelauncher.
1

RepeatSteps2through4untiltheheightoftheballwhenitstrikesthetarget
isabout10to20cmbelowtheheightofthemuzzle.
Table 4.1 Data

HeightofMuzzle=_____________
Horizontal(x)

x2

Height(y)

Analysis
1

Onthetarget, measurethevertical distances fromthe muzzlelevelmark


downtotheballmarksandrecordinTable4.1.

Calculatex2forallthedatapointsandrecordinTable4.1.
Plotyvs.x2anddrawthebestfitstraightline.
CalculatetheslopeofthegraphandrecordinTable4.2.
1

Fromtheslopeofthegraph,calculatetheinitialspeedoftheballasitleavesthe
muzzleandrecordinTable4.2.

Usinganydatapointforxandy,calculatethetimeusingyandthencalculatethe
initialspeedusingthistimeandx.RecordtheresultsinTable4.2.

Calculatethepercentdifferencebetweentheinitialspeedsfoundusingthese
twomethods.RecordinTable4.2.
22

0125375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Table 4.2 Initial Speed

Slopeofgraph
Initialspeedfromslope
Timeofflight
Initialspeedfromx,y
PercentDifference

Questions
Wasthelinestraight?Whatdoesthistellyouabouttherelationshipbetweenyandx?
Ifyouplottedyvs.x,howwouldthegraphdifferfromtheyvs.x 2graph?
Whatshapeisthepathofaprojectile?
23

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

24

0125375B

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Experiment 5: Conservation of Energy


EQUIPMENT NEEDED

ProjectileLauncherandplasticball
plumbbob
measuringtapeormeterstick whitepaper
1carbonpaper
2(optional)2PhotogateHeadsandPhotogateMountingBracket

Purpose
Thepurposeofthisexperimentistoshowthatthekineticenergyofaballlaunchedstraight
upistransformedintopotentialenergy.

Theory
finalposition

Thetotalmechanicalenergyofaballisthesumofitspotentialenergy
(PE)anditskineticenergy(KE).Intheabsenceoffriction,totalenergy
isconserved.Whenaballislaunchedstraightup,theinitialPEis
1 2

definedtobezeroandtheKE= mv ,wheremisthemassofthe
0

SHORT RANGEPROJECTILELAUNCHER
ME-6800
WEAR

Tocalculatethekineticenergy,theinitialvelocitymustbedetermined.
Tocalculatetheinitialvelocity,vo,foraballlaunchedhorizontallyoff
atable,thehorizontaldistancetravelledbytheballisgivenby x=vt,

initialposition

SAFE TYG LASSE SWHENINUSE.

ballandvoisthemuzzlespeedoftheball.SeeFigure5.1.Whenthe
ballreachesitsmaximumheight,h,thefinalKEiszeroandthe
PE=mgh,wheregistheaccelerationduetogravity.Conservation
ofenergygivesthattheinitialKEisequaltothefinalPE.

wheretisthetimetheballisintheair.Airfrictionisassumedtobe
negligible.SeeFigure5.2.

Theverticaldistancetheballdropsintimetisgivenbyy= gt2.
2

Theinitialvelocityoftheballcanbedeterminedbymeasuringxandy.
Thetimeofflightoftheballcanbefoundusing

t=

2y
g

andthentheinitialvelocitycanbefoundusing v = x
0

NOTE: Forbestresults,seethe
notes on "Repeatable Results" in the
Introduction.

Setup
1

ClamptheProjectileLaunchertoasturdy

Figure 5.1 Conservation


of Energy

tablenearoneendof
thetablewiththe
launcheraimedaway
fromthetable.See
Figure5.1.

Pointthelauncherstraightup
andfireatestshotonmediumrange
tomakesuretheballdoesnthitthe

Figure 5.2 Finding the


Initial Velocity

ceiling.Ifit
does,usethe
shortrange

t
h
r
25

oughoutthisexperimentorput
thelauncherclosertothefloor.

BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

AdjusttheangleoftheProjectileLaunchertozerodegreessotheballwillbe
launchedhorizontally.

Procedure

PART I: Determining the Initial Velocity of the Ball


(without photogates)
1

PuttheplasticballintotheProjectileLauncherandcockittothemediumrange
position.Fireoneshottolocatewheretheballhitsthefloor.Atthisposition,tapeapiece
ofwhitepapertothefloor.Placeapieceofcarbonpaper(carbonsidedown)ontopof
thispaperandtapeitdown.Whentheballhitsthefloor,itwillleaveamarkonthewhite
paper.

Fireabouttenshots.
1

Measuretheverticaldistancefromthebottomoftheballasitleavesthebarrel
(thispositionismarkedonthesideofthebarrel)tothefloor.RecordthisdistanceinTable
5.1.

Useaplumbbobtofindthepointonthefloorthatisdirectlybeneaththerelease
pointonthebarrel.Measurethehorizontaldistancealongthefloorfromthereleasepointto
theleadingedgeofthepaper.RecordinTable5.1.

Measurefromtheleadingedgeofthepapertoeachofthetendotsandrecordthese
distancesinTable5.1.

FindtheaverageofthetendistancesandrecordinTable5.1.
1

Usingtheverticaldistanceandtheaveragehorizontaldistance,calculatethetime
offlightandtheinitialvelocityoftheball.RecordinTable5.1.

Alternate Method for Determining the Initial Velocity of the Ball


(using photogates)
1

Attach the photogate bracket to the launcher and attach two photogates to the
bracket.Plugthephotogatesintoacomputerorothertimer.

AdjusttheangleoftheProjectileLauncherto90degrees(straightup).
PuttheplasticballintotheProjectileLauncherandcockittothelongrangeposition.
1

Runthetimingprogramandsetittomeasurethetimebetweentheball
blockingthetwophotogates.

Launchtheballthreetimesandtaketheaverageofthesetimes.RecordinTable5.2.
1

Assumingthatthedistancebetweenthephotogatesis10cm,calculatethe
initialspeedandrecorditinTable5.2.

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BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Table 5.1 Determining the Initial Velocity without Photogates

Verticaldistance=______________

Calculatedtimeofflight=____________

Horizontaldistancetopaperedge=____________Initialvelocity=______________

TrialNumber

Distance

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Average
TotalDistance

Table 5.2 Initial Speed Using Photogates


TRIALNUMBER

TIME

1
2
3
AVERAGETIME
INITIALSPEED

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BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

01205375B

Measuring the Height


Adjusttheangleofthelauncherto90degrees(straightup).
1

Launch the ball on the medium range settingseveral times andmeasure the
maximumheightattainedbytheball.RecordinTable5.3.

DeterminethemassoftheballandrecordinTable5.3.
Analysis
CalculatetheinitialkineticenergyandrecordinTable5.3.
CalculatethefinalpotentialenergyandrecordinTable5.3.
CalculatethepercentdifferencebetweentheinitialandfinalenergiesandrecordinTable5.3.

Table 5.3 Results


MaximuimHeightofBall
MassofBall
InitialKineticEnergy
FinalPotentialEnergy
PercentDifference

Questions
Howdoesfrictionaffecttheresultforthekineticenergy?
Howdoesfrictionaffecttheresultforthepotentialenergy?

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BallisticPendulum/ProjectileLauncher

Experiment 6: Conservation of Momentum In Two Dimensions

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

ProjectileLauncherand2plasticballs plumbbob
meterstick protractor
butcherpaper tapetomakecollisioninelastic
standtoholdball
carbonpaper

Purpose
Thepurposeofthisexperimentistoshowthatthemomentumisconservedintwo
dimensionsforelasticandinelasticcollisions.

Theory
Aballislaunchedtowardanotherballwhichis
initiallyatrest,resultinginacollisionafter
whichthetwoballsgooffindifferentdirec
tions.Bothballsarefallingundertheinfluence
oftheforceofgravitysomomentumisnot
conservedintheverticaldirection.However,
thereisnonetforceontheballsinthehorizon
talplanesomomentumisconservedinhorizon
talplane.

m1
m1

0
m2(=0)

Beforethecollision,sinceallthemomentumis
inthedirectionofthevelocityofBall#1itis
convenienttodefinethexaxisalongthis
direction.Thenthemomentumbeforethe

(b)
Figure 6.1: (a) Before Collision
(b) After Collision

collisionis

before

=m v x

1 0

andthemomentumafterthecollisionis

= m v + m v x+ m v

after

m2

(a)

1 1x

2 2x

m v y

1 1 y

2 2 y

wherev1x=v1cos1,v1y=v1sin1,v2x=v2cos2,andv2y=v2sin2.
Sincethereisnonetmomentumintheydirectionbeforethecollision,
conservationofmomentumrequiresthatthereisnomomentumintheydirection
afterthecollision.Therefore,

m v =m v
1 1y

2 2y

Equatingthemomentuminthexdirectionbeforethecollisiontothemomentumin
thexdirectionafterthecollisiongives

m1v0=m1v1x+m2v2x
Inanelasticcollision,energyisconservedaswellasmomentum.

1
1
2
2
2
2m1v0 = 2m1v1 + 2m2v2

29