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Selected species

Coptisaspleniifolia

Coptischinensis

Coptisdeltoidea

Coptisgroenlandica

Coptis japonica - Huang lian in Chinese (Chinese: ; pinyin: Huang lian)

Coptislaciniata

Coptisoccidentalis

Coptisomeiensis

Coptisquinquefolia

Coptisquinquesecta

Coptisteeta

Coptistrifolia

Coptisoccidentalis fruit

Uses
Coptisteeta is used as a medicinal herb in China and the Eastern Himalayan regions of India
particularly in Mishmi Hills of Arunachal Pradesh where it is used as a bitter tonic for treating
malarial fever.[1][2]dyspepsia.[3] It is also believed to help insomnia in Chinese herbology.[citation
needed]
The roots contain the bitter alkaloidberberine [.[4] Studies have shown that the species has
become endangered both due to overexploitation as well as intrinsic genetic bottlenecks such as
high male sterility induced by genetic mutations.[5][6] As a result of the synpatic mutation and

ensuing male sterility the sexual reproduction in the species is significantly depressed [6] The
dried roots (goldthread) were commercially marketed in Canada until the 1950s or early 60s, to
be steeped into a "tea" and swabbed onto areas affected by thrush (candidiasis) infection.[citation
needed]

Coptis teeta digunakan sebagai ramuan obat di Cina dan daerah Timur Himalaya
India terutama di Mishmi Hills Arunachal Pradesh di mana ia digunakan sebagai
tonik pahit untuk mengobati demam malaria. [1] [2] dispepsia. [3] Hal ini juga
diyakini untuk membantu insomnia Herbologi Cina. [Rujukan?] Akar mengandung
pahit alkaloid berberin [. [4] Penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa spesies telah
menjadi langka baik karena eksploitasi berlebihan serta kemacetan genetik intrinsik
seperti kemandulan pria tinggi yang disebabkan oleh mutasi genetik. [5] [6]
Sebagai hasil dari mutasi synpatic dan berikutnya kemandulan pria reproduksi
seksual pada spesies secara signifikan tertekan [6] Akar kering (goldthread) yang
secara komersial dipasarkan di Kanada sampai 1950 atau awal 60-an, untuk
mendalami menjadi "teh" dan diusap ke daerah yang terkena sariawan (candidiasis)
infeksi. [rujukan?]

Ecology
The species inhabits warm and cold temperate forests of oak-rhododendron association.[2] It is
occasionally seen growing under bamboo thickets around Mayodia region of Dibang Valley
district in the Mishmi Hills of Arunachal Pradesh in India. It flowers during early spring March
April and sets fruit/seed in JulyAugust. The seedlings are rare and are often found germinating
on moss laden dead wood on the forest floor or even on moss laden branches of Rhododendron.
A new subspecies was recognised in C. teeta by Pandit&Babu and was named as subsp.
lohitensis, which is morphologically very different from subsp. teeta and it is geographically
distinct and inhabits broad leaf forests in Delai Valley of Lohit district in Arunachal Pradesh,
India.[1]

References
Pandit MK, Babu CR , 1993. The cytology and taxonomy of Coptisteeta Wall.
(Ranunculaceae) [J ] . Botanical Journal of LinneanSociety , 111 : 371 378
Pandit MK, Babu CR , 1998. Biology and conservation of Coptisteeta Wall.2an endemic
and endangered medicinal herb of Eastern Hi2 malaya [J ] . Environmental Conservation , 25
(3) : 262 272
Huang, J.; Long, C. (2007). "Coptisteeta-based agroforestry system and its conservation
potential: A case study from northwest Yunnan". AMBIO.36 (4): 34349. doi:10.1579/00447447(2007)36[343:CTASAI]2.0.CO;2.
Pandit, 1991. Biology & Conservation of Coptisteeta Wall.(Ranunculaceae). Ph.D. Thesis,
University of Delhi
Pandit, M. K. &Babu, C. R. (2000) Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 133 , 525533.

Pandit, M. K. and Babu, C. R. 2003. The effects of loss of sex in clonal populations of an
endangered perennial Coptisteeta (Ranunculaceae), Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society,
vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 4754.

Berberis
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Calafate" redirects here. For the Patagonian town, see El Calafate.
Berberis

Berberisdarwinii shoot with


flowers

Berberisthunbergii shoot
with fruit

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
Order:

Ranunculales

Family:

Berberidaceae

Berberis

Genus:

L.

Species

List of Berberis and Mahonia


species
Berberis (/brbrs/) is a large genus of deciduous and evergreenshrubs from 15 m (3.3
16.4 ft) tall found throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world (apart from
Australia). Species diversity is greatest in South America, Africa and Asia; Europe and North
America have native species as well. The most well-known Berberis species is the European
barberry, Berberis vulgaris, which is common in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and
central Asia. Many of the species have spines on the shoots and along the margins of the leaves.
[1][2]

Contents

1Description

2Ecology

3Cultivation

4Culinary uses

5Traditional medicine

6Other uses

7Gallery

8References

9External links

Description

The genus Berberis has dimorphic shoots: long shoots which form the structure of the plant, and
short shoots only 12 mm (0.0390.079 in) long. The leaves on long shoots are nonphotosynthetic, developed into one to three or more spines[3]:96 330 mm (0.121.18 in) long. The
bud in the axil of each thorn-leaf then develops a short shoot with several normal, photosynthetic
leaves. These leaves are 110 cm (0.393.94 in) long, simple, and either entire, or with spiny
margins. Only on young seedlings do leaves develop on the long shoots, with the adult foliage
style developing after the young plant is 12 years old.

Many deciduous species, such as Berberisthunbergii or B. vulgaris, are noted for their attractive
pink or red autumn color. In some evergreen species from China, such as B. candidula or B.
verruculosa, the leaves are brilliant white beneath, a feature valued horticulturally. Some
horticultural variants of B. thunbergii have dark red to violet foliage.
The flowers are produced singly or in racemes of up to 20 on a single flower-head. They are
yellow or orange, 36 mm (0.120.24 in) long, with six sepals and six petals in alternating
whorls of three, the sepals usually colored like the petals. The fruit is a small berry 515 mm
(0.200.59 in) long, ripening red or dark blue, often with a pink or violet waxy surface bloom; in
some species, they may be long and narrow, but are spherical in other species.
Some authors regard the compound-leaved species as a separate genus, Mahonia. There are no
consistent differences between the two groups other than the compound leaves, and studies
suggest that the simple-leaved group is very likely polyphyletic.[1][4][5][6]
Ecology

Berberis species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the
moths Barberry Carpet Moth (Pareulypeberberata), and Mottled Pug (Eupitheciaexiguata).
Berberis vulgaris (European barberry) and Berberiscanadensis (American barberry) serve as
alternate host species of the wheat rust fungus (Pucciniagraminis), a grass-infecting rust fungus
that is a serious fungaldisease of wheat and related grains. For this reason, cultivation of B.
vulgaris is prohibited in many areas, and imports to the United States are forbidden. The North
American B. canadensis, native to Appalachia and the Midwest United States, was nearly
eradicated for this reason, and is now rarely seen extant, with the most remaining occurrences in
the Virginia mountains.
Some Berberis species have become invasive when planted outside of their native ranges,
including B. glaucocarpa and B. darwinii in New Zealand (where it is now banned from sale and
propagation), and green-leaved B. thunbergii in much of the eastern United States.
Cultivation

Several species of Berberis are popular garden shrubs, grown for such features as ornamental
leaves, yellow flowers, or red or blue-black berries. Numerous cultivars and hybrids have been
selected for garden use. Low-growing Berberis plants are also commonly planted as pedestrian
barriers. Taller-growing species are valued for crime prevention; being very dense, viciously
spiny shrubs, they make very effective barriers impenetrable to burglars. For this reason they are
often planted below potentially vulnerable windows, and used as hedges.
Species in cultivation include:-

B. darwinii

B. dictyophylla

B. julianae

B. thunbergii

B. verruculosa

The following hybrid selections have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden
Merit:

B. 'Georgei'[7]

B. x lologensis 'Apricot Queen'[8]

B. x media 'Red Jewel'[9]

B. x ottawensis f. purpurea 'Superba'[10]

B. x stenophylla 'Corallina Compacta'[11]

B. x stenophyllaLindl (golden barberry)[12]

Culinary uses

Berberis vulgaris grows in the wild in much of Europe and West Asia. It produces large crops of
edible berries, rich in vitamin C, but with a sharp acid flavour. In Europe for many centuries the
berries were used for culinary purposes in ways comparable to how citrus peel might be used.
Today in Europe they are very infrequently used. The country in which they are used the most, is
Iran where they are referred to as "Zereshk" ( )in Persian. The berries are common in
Iranian (Persian) cuisine such as in rice pilafs (known as "Zereshk Polo") and as a flavouring for
poultry meat. Due to their inherent sour flavor, they are sometimes cooked with sugar before
being added to Persian rice. Iranian markets sell Zereshk dried. In Russia they are sometimes
used in jams (especially the mixed berry ones) and extract from them is a common flavouring for
soft drinks and candies/sweets.
Berberismicrophylla and B. darwinii (both known as calafate and michay) are two species found
in Patagonia in Argentina and Chile. Their edible purple fruits are used for jams and infusions.
The calafate and michay are symbols of Patagonia.[citation needed]
Traditional medicine

The dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris is used in herbal medicine.[13] The chemical constituents
include isoquinolonealkaloids, especially berberine. One study reports that it is superior to
metformin in treating polycystic ovary syndrome.[14][non-primary source needed]
Other uses

Historically, yellow dye was extracted from the stem, root, and bark.[15]

References
1.
Flora of North America, vol 3
Flora of China Vol. 19 Page 715 xiaoboshuBerberis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 330. 1753.
Stace, C.A. (2010). New flora of the British isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 9780521707725.
Loconte, H., & J. R. Estes. 1989. Phylogenetic systematics of Berberidaceae and
Ranunculales (Magnoliidae). Systematic Botany 14:565-579.
Marroqun, Jorge S., & Joseph E. Laferrire. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific
taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 30(1):53-55.
Laferrire, Joseph E. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to
Berberis. Bot. Zhurn. 82(9):96-99.
"RHS Plant Selector Berberis 'Georgei' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved
2013-04-07.
"RHS Plant Selector Berberis lologensis 'Apricot Queen' AGM / RHS Gardening".
Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
"RHS Plant Selector Berberis media 'Red Jewel' AGM / RHS Gardening".
Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
"RHS Plant Selector Berberis ottawensis f. purpurea 'Superba' / RHS Gardening".
Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
"RHS Plant Selector Berberis stenophylla 'Corallina Compacta' AGM / RHS Gardening".
Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
"RHS Plant Selector Berberis stenophyllaLindl. AGM / RHS Gardening".
Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
See e.g. "Barberry" @ Alternative Medicine @ University of Maryland Medical Center
"Berberine Compared to Metformin in Women with PCOS - Natural Medicine Journal: The
Official Journal of the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians". Natural Medicine
Journal.Retrieved 2013-04-07.
C. Tomlinson (1866). Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts. London: Virtue & Co. Vol I,
page 97.

penggunaan obat
Beberapa Plateau suku Indian digunakan Oregon-anggur untuk mengobati

dispepsia. [19]
ekstrak tertentu dari Mahonia aquifolium mungkin berguna dalam pengobatan
penyakit kulit inflamasi seperti psoriasis, [20] [21] [22] meskipun efek samping
termasuk ruam dan sensasi terbakar ketika diterapkan. [21]
Studi terbaru menunjukkan bahwa M. aquifolium mengandung resistensi multidrug
tertentu pump inhibitor (MDR inhibitor) bernama 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin (5'-MHC)
yang bekerja untuk mengurangi resistensi bakteri terhadap berberin in vitro. [23]

Hunn, Eugene S. (1990). Nch'i-Wana, "The Big River": Mid-Columbia Indians and Their
Land. University of Washington Press.p. 352.ISBN 0-295-97119-3.
"Psoriasis". Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. Penn State Hershey. Retrieved 3 February
2016.
Donsky, Howard; Don Clarke. "Relieva, a MahoniaAquifolium Extract for the Treatment of
Adult Patients With Atopic Dermatitis". Retrieved 4 November 2007.
Bernstein, Steve; et al. "Treatment of Mild to Moderate Psoriasis with Relieva, a
Mahoniaaquifolium Extract-A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study". Retrieved 4 November
2007.
Stermitz FR, Lorenz P, Tawara JN, Zenewicz LA, Lewis K (February 2000). "Synergy in a
medicinal plant: antimicrobial action of berberine potentiated by 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin, a
multidrug pump inhibitor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (4): 14337.
doi:10.1073/pnas.030540597. PMC 26451 .PMID 10677479.
"State Symbols: Flag to Motto". Oregon Blue Book. Oregon Secretary of State. 2012.
Retrieved 1 January 2013.

The whole plant is toxic in moderate doses as it contains a range of isoquinolinealkaloids but
there are numerous therapeutic uses when used at the correct dosage.[7] The main alkaloid present
in the herb and root is coptisine. Other alkaloids present include methyl 2'-(7,8dihydrosanguinarine-8-yl)acetate, allocryptopine,[8]stylopine, protopine, norchelidonine,
berberine, chelidonine, sanguinarine, chelerythrine,[9] and 8-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine.
[10]
Sanguinarine is particularly toxic with an LD50 of 18 mg per kg body weight (IP in rats).
[11]
Caffeic acid derivatives, such as caffeoylmalic acid, are also present.[12]
Some alkaloids have shown potential activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
aureus.[13]
The effect of the fresh herb is of a mild analgesic, cholagogic, antimicrobial, oncostatic and
central nervous systemsedative.[14] In in vitro experiments on animal cells celandine is shown to
be cytostatic.[15] An immune stimulating effect has also been noted.[citation needed] Some studies show
that the alkaloid extraction can have the same effects. The alkaloids are known to cause
immobilization in mice after being ingested orally or injected. The alkaloids cause limpness and
tone reduction of smooth muscle in rabbits. The alkaloids are also noted to stimulate the heart
and lungs of frogs, cats and dogs, raising the blood pressure and widening the arteries.[citation needed]

The latex could be employed for cauterizing small open wounds.[citation needed] Early studies of
celandine showed that it causes contact dermatitis and eye irritation, particularly from contact
with the poisonous red to yellow latex of the stem. This effect has not been observed in animal
studies; no inflammation was observed in rabbit eye tests. The latex can leave a non-permanent
stain. Stains on skin of the fingers are sometimes reported to cause eye irritation after rubbing the
eyes or handling contact lenses. The latex is also known to stain clothes.
The characteristic latex also contains proteolytic enzymes and the phytocystatinchelidostatin, a
cysteine protease inhibitor.[16] These co-constituents could explain the topical use of greater
celandine against warts and moles.
"Ukrain" (Ukrainian: ) is an alternative medicine promoted to treat cancer based on
chelidonium. The drug was created in 1978 by the Ukrainian chemist VasylNovytskyi. The drug
is named in honor of the nation of Ukraine and is produced by an Austrian company Nowicky
Pharma.[17] Although the drug was never approved by any regulators, Novytskyi claimed it to be
a complete cure for all cancers, radiation-induced diseases and AIDS and was arrested in Vienna
for aggravated fraud on September 4, 2012.[18]
C. majus has shown analgesic activity at 200 mg/kg dose in mice.[19]

Herbalism
The aerial parts and roots of greater celandine are used in herbalism. The above-ground parts are
gathered during the flowering season and dried at high temperatures. The root is harvested in
autumn between August and October and dried. The fresh rhizome is also used. Celandine has a
hot and bitter taste. Preparations are made from alcoholic and hot aqueous extractions (tea). The
related plant bloodroot has similar chemical composition and uses as greater celandine.
As far back as Pliny the Elder and Dioscorides (1st century CE) this herb has been recognized as
a useful detoxifying agent. The root has been chewed to relieve toothache.[20]John Gerard's
Herball (1597) states that "the juice of the herbe is good to sharpen the sight, for it cleanseth and
consumeth away slimie things that cleave about the ball of the eye and hinder the sight and
especially being boiled with honey in a brasenvessell."[21]
It was formerly used by gypsies as a foot refresher; modern herbalists use its purgative
properties.[22] The modern herbalistJuliette de Baracli Levy recommended greater celandine
diluted with milk for the eyes and the latex for getting rid of warts.[23]Chelidonium was a
favourite herb of the French herbalist Maurice Messgu. Chelidoniummajus has traditionally
been used for treatment of various inflammatory diseases including atopic dermatitis.[24] It is also
traditionally used in the treatment of gallstones and dyspepsia.[25]
The Iroquois give an infusion of whole plant, another plant and milk to pigs that drool and have
sudden movements.[26]

References

1.
"The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved June 7, 2014.
Hanzlik, P.J. (1920). "The pharmacology of chelidonin, a neglected alkaloid of
chelidonium, or tetterwort".Journal of the American Medical Association.75 (20): 13241325.
doi:10.1001/jama.1920.02620460022007.
"USDA GRIN Taxonomy".
Linnaeus C (1753). "Tomus I".Species Plantarum (in Latin). Stockholm: LaurentiiSalvii.
p. 505.
"Swallow". Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
1989.
"Invasive Plant Atlas of New England". Retrieved 2015-06-03.
Gruenwald, Joerg (2000). PDR for Herbal Medicines. Thomson PDR. ISBN 1-56363-3612.
Cahlikova L., Opletal L., Kurfurst M., Macakova K., Kulhankova A.,
Host'alkovaA.,"Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory compounds from
Chelidoniummajus (Papaveraceae)." Natural Product Communications.5 (11) (pp 1751-1754),
2010. Date of Publication: 2010.
Li X.-L., Yao J.-Y., Zhou Z.-M., Shen J.-Y., Ru H.-S., Liu X.-L.,"Activity of the
chelerythrine, a quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid from Chelidoniummajus L. on
Dactylogyrus intermedius." Parasitology Research. 109 (1) (pp 247-252),July 2011
Park J.E., Cuong T.D., Hung T.M., Lee I., Na M., Kim J.C., Ryoo S., Lee J.H., Choi J.S.,
Woo M.H., Min B.S.,"Alkaloids from Chelidoniummajus and their inhibitory effects on LPSinduced NO production in RAW264.7 cells". Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters.21
(23) (pp 6960-6963), 2011. Date of Publication: 01 Dec 2011.
Golob, Peter; Caroline Moss; Melanie Dales; Alex Fidgen; Jenny Evans; Irene Gudrups
(1999). The use of spices and medicinals as bioactive protectants for grains.FAO Agricultural
Services Bulletin.137. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. ISBN 92-5-1042942.Retrieved 2008-07-17.
Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives, Caffeoylmalic and New Caffeoylaldonic Acid Esters,
from Chelidoniummajus. Hahn R and Nahrstedt A, Planta Med., February 1993, volume 59,
issue 1, pages 71-75, PMID17230338
Zuo G.Y., Meng F.Y., Hao X.Y., Zhang Y.L., Wang G.C., Xu G.L."Antibacterial alkaloids
from chelidoniummajuslinn (papaveraceae) against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus."Journal of pharmacy & pharmaceutical sciences : a publication of the
Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Societecanadienne des sciences
pharmaceutiques. 11 (4) (pp 90-94), 2008.
European Medicines Agency. Assessment report on Chelidoniummajus L., herba. Date of
Publication: 20/01/2012. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Herbal__HMPC_assessment_report/2012/01/WC500120711.pdf
Robert Nawrot; Maria Wou-Cholewa; Anna Godzicka-Jzefiak (2008). "Nucleases
isolated from Chelidoniummajus L. milky sap can induce apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma
HeLa cells but not in Chinese Hamster ovary CHO cells". Folia HistochemicaetCytobiologica.
46 (1): 7983. doi:10.2478/v10042-008-0011-x. PMID 18296268.

Rogelj, B.; et al. (1998). "Chelidocystatin, a novel phytocystatin from


Chelidoniummajus".Phytochemistry.49 (6): 16459. doi:10.1016/s0031-9422(98)00281-7.
PMID 9862139.
The official site about the drug Ukrain
Allheilmittelgegen Aids und Krebs: ZweiVerhaftungenwegenBetrugs in Wien, Der
Standard, 4 Sept. 2012
Sever Yilmaz B., Ozbek H., SaltanCitoglu G., Ugras S., Bayram I., Erdogan E."Analgesic
and hepatoprotective effects of Chelidoniummajus" L..Ankara
UniversitesiEczacilikFakultesiDergisi.36 (1) (pp 9-20), 2007.
Chevallier, Andrew (1996). The encyclopedia of medicinal plants. New York: DK
Publishing. p. 185.ISBN 0-7894-1067-2.
Grieve, Maud (1971). A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic
Properties, Cultivation and Folk-lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs, & Trees with All Their
Modern Scientific Uses, Volume 1.
Howard, Michael (1987-05-21). Traditional Folk Remedies. Century Paperbacks.Ebury
Press. pp. 146147. ISBN 978-0-7126-1731-4.
Bailes M., "The Healing Garden" , ISBN 978-0-7318-0753-6
Gabsik Yang; Kyungjin Lee; Mi-Hwa Lee; So-Hyung Kim; In-Hye Ham; Ho-Young Choi
(2011). "Inhibitory effects of Chelidoniummajus extract on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in
NC/Nga mice". Journal of Ethnopharmacology.138 (2): 398403.
doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.09.028. PMID 21963561.
Gabriela Mazzanti; Antonella di Sotto; Antonio Franchitto; Caterina LoredanaMammola;
Paola Mariani; Sabina Mastrangelo; Francesca Menniti-Ippolito; Annabella Vitalone (2009).
"Chelidoniummajus is not hepatotoxic in Wistar rats, in a 4 weeks feeding experiment". Journal
of Ethnopharmacology.126 (3): 518524. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.004. PMID 19761826.
Rousseau, Jacques 1945 Le Folklore Botanique De Caughnawaga. Contributions de
l'Institutbotaniquel'Universite de Montreal 55:7-72 (p. 45)

ilmu farmasi
Sebuah memotong batang menetes dengan lateks kuning
Seluruh tanaman beracun dalam dosis moderat karena mengandung berbagai
alkaloid isoquinoline tetapi ada banyak kegunaan terapeutik bila digunakan pada
dosis yang tepat. [7] Sekarang alkaloid utama dalam ramuan dan akar coptisine.
alkaloid lain yang hadir termasuk metil 2 '-. (7,8-dihydrosanguinarine-8-yl) asetat,
allocryptopine, [8] stylopine, protopine, norchelidonine, berberin, chelidonine,
sanguinarine, Chelerythrine, [9] dan 8-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine [10 ]
Sanguinarine sangat beracun dengan LD50 dari 18 mg per kg berat badan (IP pada
tikus). [11] turunan asam caffeic, seperti asam caffeoylmalic, juga hadir. [12]
Beberapa alkaloid telah menunjukkan aktivitas potensial terhadap methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus. [13]

Efek dari ramuan segar dari analgesik, cholagogic, antimikroba, oncostatic dan
pusat sistem obat penenang saraf ringan. [14] Di dalam percobaan in vitro pada selsel hewan celandine terbukti menjadi sitostatik. [15] Efek merangsang kekebalan
tubuh juga telah mencatat. [Rujukan?] Beberapa studi menunjukkan bahwa
ekstraksi alkaloid bisa memiliki efek yang sama. Alkaloid diketahui menyebabkan
imobilisasi pada tikus setelah tertelan secara lisan atau disuntikkan. Alkaloid
menyebabkan limpness dan nada pengurangan otot polos pada kelinci. Alkaloid
juga mencatat untuk merangsang jantung dan paru-paru katak, kucing dan anjing,
meningkatkan tekanan darah dan pelebaran arteri. [Rujukan?]
lateks yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan prosedur luka terbuka kecil.
[rujukan?] Studi awal dari celandine menunjukkan bahwa hal itu menyebabkan
dermatitis kontak dan iritasi mata, terutama dari kontak dengan merah beracun
untuk lateks kuning batang. Efek ini belum diamati pada hewan; ada peradangan
diamati dalam tes mata kelinci. lateks yang dapat meninggalkan noda nonpermanen. Noda di kulit jari tangan kadang-kadang dilaporkan menyebabkan iritasi
mata setelah menggosok mata atau penanganan lensa kontak. lateks ini juga
dikenal untuk noda pakaian.
Karakteristik lateks juga mengandung enzim proteolitik dan chelidostatin
phytocystatin, sebuah sistein protease inhibitor. [16] co-konstituen ini bisa
menjelaskan penggunaan topikal celandine lebih besar terhadap kutil dan tahi lalat.
"Ukrain" (Ukraina: ) adalah pengobatan alternatif dipromosikan untuk
mengobati kanker berdasarkan Chelidonium. Obat itu dibuat pada tahun 1978 oleh
ahli kimia Ukraina Vasyl Novytskyi. Obat ini dinamai untuk menghormati nasional
Ukraina dan diproduksi oleh perusahaan Austria Nowicky Pharma. [17] Meskipun
obat itu tidak pernah disetujui oleh regulator, Novytskyi mengklaim untuk menjadi
obat yang lengkap untuk semua kanker, penyakit akibat radiasi dan AIDS dan
ditangkap di Wina untuk penipuan diperburuk pada 4 September 2012. [18]
C. Majus telah menunjukkan aktivitas analgesik pada 200 mg / kg dosis pada tikus.
[19]
jamu
Bagian udara dan akar celandine lebih besar digunakan dalam jamu. Bagian atas
tanah yang dikumpulkan selama musim berbunga dan dikeringkan pada suhu
tinggi. Akar dipanen pada musim gugur antara Agustus dan Oktober dan
dikeringkan. Rimpang segar juga digunakan. Celandine memiliki rasa panas dan
pahit. Persiapan dilakukan dari ekstraksi air beralkohol dan panas (teh). bloodroot
tanaman terkait memiliki komposisi kimia yang mirip dan menggunakan sebagai
celandine lebih besar.

Sejauh Pliny the Elder dan Dioscorides (abad ke-1 Masehi) ramuan ini telah diakui
sebagai agen detoksifikasi yang berguna. akar telah dikunyah untuk meredakan
sakit gigi. [20] John Gerard Herball (1597) menyatakan bahwa "jus herbe baik untuk
mempertajam penglihatan, untuk itu, menyucikan dan consumeth pergi slimie hal
yang membelah tentang bola mata dan menghalangi penglihatan dan terutama
direbus dengan madu di brasen sebuah vessell. "[21]
Hal itu sebelumnya digunakan oleh gipsi sebagai penyegaran foot; dukun modern
menggunakan sifat pencahar. [22] The jamu modern yang Juliette de Baracli Levy
direkomendasikan celandine lebih besar diencerkan dengan susu untuk mata dan
lateks untuk menyingkirkan kutil. [23] Chelidonium adalah ramuan favorit dari
dukun Perancis Maurice Messegue. Majus Chelidonium secara tradisional telah
digunakan untuk pengobatan berbagai penyakit inflamasi termasuk dermatitis
atopik. [24] Hal ini juga secara tradisional digunakan dalam pengobatan batu
empedu dan dispepsia. [25]
The Iroquois memberi infus seluruh tanaman, tanaman lain dan susu untuk babi
yang ngiler dan memiliki gerakan tiba-tiba. [26]

mahonia
The small purplish-black fruits, which are quite tart and contain large seeds, are included in
smaller quantities in the traditional diets of Pacific Northwest aboriginal peoples, mixed with
Salal or another sweeter fruit. Today they are sometimes used to make jelly, alone or mixed with
salal.[16] Oregon grape juice can be fermented to make wine, similar to European barberry wine
folk traditions, although it requires an unusually high amount of sugar.[17] The inner bark of the
larger stems and roots of Oregon-grape yield a yellow dye; the berries give purple dye.[18] As the
leaves of Oregon-grape are holly-like and resist wilting, the foliage is sometimes used by florists
for greenery and a small gathering industry has been established in the Pacific Northwest.
Medicinal use

Some Plateau Indian tribes used Oregon-grape to treat dyspepsia.[19]


Certain extracts from Mahoniaaquifolium may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory skin
diseases such as psoriasis,[20][21][22] although side effects include rash and a burning sensation
when applied.[21]
Recent studies indicate that M. aquifolium contains a specific multidrug resistance pump
inhibitor (MDR inhibitor) named 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin (5'-MHC) which works to decrease
bacterial resistance to berberinein vitro.[23]
Culture

Oregon grape is the state flower of Oregon.[24]


References
1.
Tropicos
The Plant List
Flora of North America vol 3
"BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.Archived from the
original(xls) on 2015-02-25.Retrieved 2014-10-17.
RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley.
2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1-4053-3296-4.
Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell
Beazley. p. 224.ISBN 978-1-84533-731-5.
Michael P. Williams (2012). "Berberisaquifolium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.)
Jepson eFlora".Retrieved 2013-08-08.
Flora of North America, vol 3
Loconte, H., & J. R. Estes. 1989. Phylogenetic systematics of Berberidaceae and
Ranunculales (Magnoliidae). Systematic Botany 14:565-579.
Marroqun, Jorge S., & Joseph E. Laferrire. 1997. Transfer of specific and
infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy
of Science 30(1):53-55.
Laferrire, Joseph E. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from
Mahonia to Berberis. Bot. Zhurn. 82(9):96-99.
North Carolina Botanical Garden / Conservation / Plants to Avoid in the
Southeastern United States
Plants to Avoid in the Southeastern United States Tennessee Invasive Exotic
Plant List
"RHS Plant Selector - Mahonia wagneri 'Pinnacle'". Retrieved 13 April 2015.
"RHS Plant Selector - Mahoniaaquifolium 'Apollo'". Retrieved 13 April 2015.
Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy, eds. (1994). Plants of Coastal British Columbia:
including Washington, Oregon & Alaska, rev. ed. Vancouver: Lone Pine Publishing.
p. 95.ISBN 978-1-55105-532-9.

Henderson, Robert K. (2000). The Neighbourhood Forager. Toronto, Ontario: Key


Porter Books. p. 111.ISBN 1-55263-306-3.
Bliss, Anne (1993). North American Dye Plants, rev. and enl. ed. Loveland,
Colorado: Interweave Press. p. 130.ISBN 0-934026-89-0.
Hunn, Eugene S. (1990). Nch'i-Wana, "The Big River": Mid-Columbia Indians and
Their Land. University of Washington Press.p. 352.ISBN 0-295-97119-3.
"Psoriasis". Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. Penn State Hershey. Retrieved 3
February 2016.
Donsky, Howard; Don Clarke. "Relieva, a MahoniaAquifolium Extract for the
Treatment of Adult Patients With Atopic Dermatitis". Retrieved 4 November 2007.
Bernstein, Steve; et al. "Treatment of Mild to Moderate Psoriasis with Relieva, a
Mahoniaaquifolium Extract-A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study". Retrieved 4
November 2007.
Stermitz FR, Lorenz P, Tawara JN, Zenewicz LA, Lewis K (February 2000).
"Synergy in a medicinal plant: antimicrobial action of berberine potentiated by 5'methoxyhydnocarpin, a multidrug pump inhibitor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97
(4): 14337. doi:10.1073/pnas.030540597. PMC 26451 .PMID 10677479.
"State Symbols: Flag to Motto". Oregon Blue Book. Oregon Secretary of State.
2012. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
kegunaan lain
The keunguan-hitam buah kecil, yang cukup tart dan mengandung biji besar,
termasuk dalam jumlah yang lebih kecil dalam diet tradisional Pacific Northwest
penduduk asli, dicampur dengan Salal atau buah manis yang lain. Hari ini mereka
kadang-kadang digunakan untuk membuat jelly, sendiri atau dicampur dengan
Salal. [16] Oregon jus anggur dapat difermentasi untuk membuat anggur, mirip
dengan tradisi barberry anggur rakyat Eropa, meskipun memerlukan jumlah yang
sangat tinggi dari gula. [17] Kulit bagian dalam yang lebih besar batang dan akar
Oregon-anggur menghasilkan pewarna kuning; berries memberikan pewarna ungu.
[18] Sebagai daun Oregon-anggur yang suci-seperti dan menolak layu, daun ini
kadang-kadang digunakan oleh toko bunga untuk tanaman hijau dan industri
pertemuan kecil telah didirikan di Pacific Northwest.
penggunaan obat
Beberapa Plateau suku Indian digunakan Oregon-anggur untuk mengobati
dispepsia. [19]
ekstrak tertentu dari Mahonia aquifolium mungkin berguna dalam pengobatan

penyakit kulit inflamasi seperti psoriasis, [20] [21] [22] meskipun efek samping
termasuk ruam dan sensasi terbakar ketika diterapkan. [21]
Studi terbaru menunjukkan bahwa M. aquifolium mengandung resistensi multidrug
tertentu pump inhibitor (MDR inhibitor) bernama 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin (5'-MHC)
yang bekerja untuk mengurangi resistensi bakteri terhadap berberin in vitro. [23]