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Present Tense Simple

Aff. : SB + VBshort inf. IIIsg: + -S/-ES


Neg. SB + DONT/ DOESNT + Vbshort inf.
Int. : DO/ DOES + SB + Vbshort inf. ?

Expresses:
1 A. habitual, repeated actions in the present.
a.m. ALWAYS , NEVER/EVER , OFTEN, SELDOM , SOMETIMES :;

USUALLY,OCCASIONALLY, GENERALLY , FREQUENTLY


EVERY YEAR/MONTH/WEEK , ONCE/TWICE A YEAR
e.g. I always go to school by bus. I am never late. He generally likes school..
B. natural, scientific, eternal truths
e.g. Water freezes at 0 degrees celsius. Bireds fly.
C. general characteristics or permanent situations.
e.g. A postman delivers letters. She smokes too much.
2..A. description of methods or processes
a.m. THEN, NEXT, AFTER THAT , AND
e.g. Take a pond of flour and pour it into a bowl.Then, add some water.
B. descriptions of works of art
e.g. The painting portrays Milton dictating P. L.
C. radio commentators at sports events, public functions
e.g. Hagi passes to Ilie - he shoots and scores!
D. stage directions.
e.g. The phone rings. He picks it up and listens carefully.
E. headlines
e.g. Summit conference mees in Geneva.
F. introduces quotations.
e.g. Shakespeare says: Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
G. after HERE and THERE
e.g. Here comes our friend!
H. instead of the PRESENT PERFECT with such verbs as: hear, tell,

understand, forget, learn.

e.g. I hear you got engaged.


I when we ask for INSTRUCTIONS :
e.g. What do we do next? Stand or sit down?
J. NARRATIVE PRESENT
e.g. J.T. comes to London for his first job as avet.One day he goes to a farm to
see a calf.
3. A. scheduled future
come, leave, start, arrive)
e.g. The train leaves at 5.45.

actions( with verbs of motion: go,

B. in TIME CLAUSES, beginning with WHEN, BEFORE< AFTER, UNTIL,


AS SOON AS, BY THE TIME:
e.g. Ill go to London when I am free.
C. in CONDITIONAL CLAUSES beginning with IF, IN CASE, ON
CONDITION, PROVIDED SUPPOSE, UNLESS;
e.g. Ill go to London if I have enough money. I wont go unless I have enough
money.

Present Tense Continuous


Aff.: SB + AM/IS/ARE + VBing
Neg.: SB + AM not/ ISnt/AREnt + VBing.
Int.: AM/IS/ARE + SB + VBing?
Expresses :

1.an action performed at the moment of


speaking.
a.m. NOW, AT PRESENT , AT THE MOMENT
e.g. I am writing a letter now.

2. temporary habit
a.m. TODAY, THIS WEEK/MONTH/YEAR
e.g. My mom usually buys bread but this week, Im buying it.

3. disapproval of an action; irritation; irony with


to be
a.m. ALWAYS, NEVER, CONTINUALLY, CONSTANTLLY
e.g. Youre never listening to me!

refusal

: 1st person a straightforward refusal from the speaker


2nd, 3rd person the refusal to allow an action
e.g. Im not doing it again!( I wont do it!)
Youre not using my pen!
4.

5. a future personal arrangement


e.g. I am going to London tomorrow to meet my friends.

The Future Time


1. Present Simple -

scheduled, official future actions


e.g. I go to a conference in London tomorrow.

2. Present Continuous

personal future arrangements


e.g. Im going to London tomorrow to meet
my friends.

3. To Be Going To

intention
e.g. Im going to buy a new house soon.
- predictions based on smth that is already

happening.

4.To Be AboutTo

e.g. Its going to rain. The sky is cloudy.


an immediate future action
e.g. He is about to leave for Sinaia.

5. Future Simple
Aff. SB + WILL + VBshort inf.
Neg. SB + WONT + VBshort inf.
Int. WILL + SB + VBshort inf>?
Expresses :

1. a sudden decision

e.g. I will help you, dont worry.

2. predictions based on smth that we expect/think/hope will


happen.
e.g. I expect he will come to the party tonight.
3. an uncertain, remote future action
a.m. NEXT YEAR/MONTH/WEEK, in 2040,
e.g. I will go to London next year.

6. Future Continuous
Aff. SB + WILL +BE + VBing
Neg. SB + WONT + BE + VBing
Int. WILL + SB + BE + VBing?
Expresses:

1. an action which is being performed at some moment in the


future
a.m. BY THIS TIME.
e.g. What will you be doing by this time next week?

2. used to ask for information in a polite manner


e.g. How long will you be staying there?

FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE

Aff

SB + WILL + HAVE + VBED/III

Int.

WILL + SB + HAVE + VBED/III

Neg.

SB + WILL + not +HAVE + VBED/III

expresses :
1. a future action completed before a future moment
e.g. : By the end of the evening Tom will have solved all the problem.
2. a future action completed before another future action occurs.
e.g.: By the time the election begins in Britain , candidates will have organized
election campaigns.
3. a strong probability / certainty in the present ; with reference to a former action at a
previous moment
e.g. : Theyll have left by now.
3. used with BY THE TIME/BY [ with F.T.S -> BEFORE / UNTIL]

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINOUS


Aff .

SB + WILL + HAVE + been + VBING

Int.

WILL + SB + HAVE + been + VBING?

Neg.

SB + WILL + not + HAVE + VBING

it expresses :

1. a future action in progress up to ( and including ) a certain future time .


a. m. BY THE TIME.
eg. : When the bell rings , Mrs B. will have been teaching for 50 min.

F.P.S : HOW MANY ?


eg. : How many postal orders will have cashed by 20 clock?

F.P.C. HOW LONG ?


eg. : How long will the postmaster have been cashing postal orders?

Present Perfect Simple


Aff. SB + HAVE/HAS + VBIII/ed
Neg. SB+ HAVEnt/HASnt + VBIII/ed
Int. HAVE/HAS + SB + VBIII/ed?
Expresses :

an action which happened during a period of


time still connected to the present .
1..

a.m. JUST, ALREADY, YET ;


OFTEN, SELDOM , NEVER , EVER, ALWAYS , SOMETIMES ;
LATELY, RECENTLY
e.g. I have just spoken to Mary. Have you ever been to China?>

an action which began in the past and


continued up to a present moment
2.

a.m. FOR , SINCE , EVER SINCE , SO FAR


e.g. He has worked here for 10 years. He is retired now.
# SINCE is usually followed by a PAST TENSE which shows the
beginning of the period of time. It can also be followed by another PRESENT
PERFECT when the actions are seen as happening at the same time.
e..g. I have never been disappointed in her since I have known her.
3.

a future action anterior to another future action

a.m. WHEN, AFTER, AS SOON AS ;


e.g. Ill go to London when I have saved enough money.

Present Perfect Continuous


Aff. : SB + HAVE/HAS + BEEN +VBing
Neg. SB + HAVEnt/HASnt + BEEN + VBing
Int. HAVE/HAS + SB + BEEN + VBing?
Expresses :

1. an action which begins in the past and


continues into the present and even after.
a.m. SINCE , FOR, HOW LONG
e.g. I have been working in this factory for ten years/ since I graduated.

. used to emphasize the idea of duration of a


recently past action
2

a.m. ALL DAY/ ALL NIGHT LONG


e.g. I have a terrible headache. I have been reading all night.
# we use the PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE to emphasize the idea of
completion of a recently past action.
e.g. I have read 50 pages.

PAST TENSE SIMPLE


Aff.

SB + VB II/ed

Int.

DID + SB + VB INF. SC?

Neg.

SB + DID + NOT + VB INF. SC

expresses:

1. an action wholly completed at some point in the past


a.m.: YESTERDAY, LAST., . AGO,. JUST NOW, THEN,
AT THAT TIME, WHEN.., ON MONDAY
e.g.: When did they arrive?
2. repeated actions in the past
a.m.: NOW AND AGAIN, EVERY SO OFTEN, ALWAYS,
WHENEVER, DURING THE SUMMER/WINTER
e.g.: Now and again I heard shots in the town.
3. a past habit, repeated in the past and no longer possible in the present
a.m.: USED TO - with verbs that show a CERTAIN STATE: be, feel,love
WOULD - with verbs of MOVEMENT: go, run

e.g.: We used to be such good friends.


4. used in TEMPORAL CLAUSES in the past:
a.m.: WHEN
e.g.: He saw the dog when he opened the door.

PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS


Aff.

SB + WAS/WERE + VB ING

Int.

WAS/WERE + SB + VB ING?

Neg.

SB + WAS/WERE + NOT + VB ING

expresses:
1. an action going on at a given past moment

a.m.: WHEN, AT 9 P.M., WHILE, BETWEEN 8 AND 9,


e.g.: What were you doing at 9 p.m.? I was sleeping.
N.B.: with the TEMP. CLAUSES, the P.C. indicates that an action was going on at a time
when something else happened.
e.g.: She was sitting at her desk when I come in.
2. an action filling up a whole period of time in the past
a) when the action is considered in progress
a.m.: ALL DAY YESTERDAY, ALL THE TIME. DURING.
e.g.: I was being followed all the time.
b) parallel actions : they are going on at the same time .
a.m.: WHILE, AS

e.g.: While we were diving, the band was playing.


N.B. the REPETITION of the same form in both clauses is usually avoided
e.g. While we dined, the band was playing .
or While we were dining, the band played.
3. IRRITATION, IMPATIENCE
a.m.: ALWAYS, NEVER, FOR EVER
e.g.: I thought they were never going! I thought you were never coming!
4. unfulfilled past intention
e.g.: She was flying but now she is coming by train.
I was hoping to have news from him.
5. cause or reason
e.g.: He had an accident because he was driving too fast.
COMPARE: Did you hear about the accident? Yes, my friend was telling me about it this
morning. ( But I would like to hear more.)
Yes, my friend told me about it this morning.( I know all about it)
N.B.: in P.S. about how a period was spent, the P.C. often sounds MORE POLITE than
P.S.
e.g.: What were you doing before you came?
6. used in DESCRIPTIONS
e.g.: It was a cold day. We were walking in the park.

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE


AFF. : SB. + HAD + VBIII/ED
INT. HAD + SB+ VBII/ED?
NEG. SB + HADnt + VBIII/ED

expresses
1. a single action or repeated action which took place before a given past
moment ; the past moment from which the accomplished action is viewed
may be
a. clear from the context.
e.g. I was angry because he had forgotten to post the letter.
b. fixed by an ADVERBIAL.
e.g. Everything had been prepared by 5 oclock.
c. fixed by another action in the past.
a.m. AFTER, BEFORE, UNTIL, NO SOONER ..than,
HARDLY.when,
e.g. I went to the cinema after I had done my homework.

N.B. PAST TENSE is commonly used instead of PAST PERFECT in subordinate clauses
introduced by AFTER or BEFORE owing to the lexical meaning of these conjunctions
(the actions closely follow each other).
e.g. She closed the windows before she got to bed.

N.B. We can describe 2 or more actions within the same sentence. In this case we use the
PAST TENSE for all of them.
e.g. I got back home and then I made a cup of coffee.
2. an action begun before a given past moment.
a.m. FOR, SINCE
e.g. She had been ill for two weeks when I learnt about it.
3. with verbs such as HOPE, INTENT,EXPECT, MEAN, THINK,
SUPPOSE, WANT
e.g. She had hoped that they would be at home.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Aff. : SB + HAD + BEEN + VBing
Int. : HAD + SB + BEEN + VBing ?
Neg. : SB + HAD + NOT + BEEN + VBing
expresses:
1. an action begun before a given past moment and continued into that past
moment.
a.m. FOR, SINCE, HOW LONG...?
e.g. He had been teaching for three years when the tragedy happened.
2. a previous action whose result is still continuing at a given past moment although
the action itself has ceased.
e.g. Why did you feel exhausted? Because I'd been working all day.
3. a repeated action can sometimes be expressed by a continuous action by this tense
(instead of a P.P.S.)
e.g. I had tried three times to get you on the phone.
I had been trying to get you on the phone.
4. P.P.C. is also used when from a certain point in the past the narrator looks back
an earlier states or actions:

e.g. Jesse was ready to weep. He had been sitting in the office, waiting for Tom to appear,
for too long.