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CHAPTER 1

1.1 Sensory Organs


1. Human beings have ___________ senses, namely: the sense of ___________,
___________, ___________, ___________ and ___________.
2. These senses helps us to be sensitive to the ___________ in the ___________around
us, known as ___________.
3. We use our five __________ ____________, which are ___________, ___________,
___________, ___________ and ___________ to detect these ___________ .
4. Each sensory organ has special structures that are very sensitive to stimuli and they are
called ___________.
5. The pathway of stimulus to response are : A stimulus stimulates the ___________ in the
___________ to produce electrical messages known as ___________. These
___________ are sent along the ___________ to the ___________. The brain receives
the message and ___________ it. The brain then sends out nerve impulses to the related
___________ which carry out ___________. Examples of effectors are ___________ and
___________.
1.2 Sense of Touch
1. The ___________ is the sensory organ of touch. It is the ___________ organ in the body
and it can detect changes in ___________ , ___________, ___________ and
___________.

2. The skin consists of 2 main layers called ___________ and ___________. The
___________ is waterproof and acts as a protective layer. The ___________ contains
___________, ___________ and ___________.
3. The 5 receptors are ___________, ___________, ___________, ___________ and
___________.
4. The ___________ is sensitive of slight pressure. The ___________ lie very close to the
skin surface to detect pain.

5. The ___________ lie deep within the skin and are sensitive to ___________ pressure.
Sensitivity of the skin
1. The sensitivity of the skin depends a lot on how ___________ the receptors are and how
___________ they are.
2. The parts of the skin that are very sensitive to touch are ___________, ___________,
___________ and ___________.
3. The least sensitive to touch are the ___________, ___________ and ___________.
4. ___________ people rely on the sensitivity of their ___________ to read.
5. Most doctors will give an injection at the ___________ or ___________ because they are
___________ sensitive to ___________ compared to the rest of the body.

1.3 Sense of Smell


1. The two holes in our nose are called the ___________. It opens into a hollow space
called the ___________.

2. The upper lining of the nasal cavity is called the ___________ lining.
3. The roof of the nasal cavity has many ___________ to detect smells.
4. Smells are actually ___________ present in the air.. The ___________ present in the air
___________ in the ___________ and ___________ the sensory cells. These sensory
cells send out ___________ to the ___________ through the ___________ nerve.

1.4 Sense of Taste

1. The sensory organ for taste is the ___________ and it can detect 4 basic ___________,
namely ___________, ___________, ___________ and ___________.
2. Our tongue is lined with ______________________ which contain many
______________________.
3. The chemicals of the food ___________ in the ___________. This stimulate the
______________________ in the ___________ to produce nerve ___________.
4. Our sense of smell ___________ our sense of ___________..
5. When having a cold, the ___________ from the food cannot reach the ___________ in
the nose .
1.5 Sense of Hearing

1. The ear has three main parts ___________, ___________ and the ___________ .
2. The ___________ is made of cartilage and skin, shaped like a ___________. Its function
is to ___________ and ___________ sounds into the ear canal.
3. The ear canal is lined with ___________ and directs sound to the ___________.
4. The eardrum is a thin ___________ that ___________ when sound waves hit it.
5. The three ______________________ are situated at ___________ angles to one
another and it detect position and movement of head to help us keep out ___________.
6. The ___________ are 3 small ___________, namely ___________, ___________ and
___________, to ___________ vibrations and transfer them to the ___________ window.
7. The ___________ is a coiled tube filled with ___________ and it contains ___________.
When ___________, it converts them into ___________.
8. The ______________________ is a small, thin ___________ that transfers
___________ of the ossicles to the ___________.
9. The Eustachian tube ___________ air pressures on both sides of the ___________.
10. The ___________ carries nerve impulses to the ___________.
1.6 Sense of Sight
1. Each eye is a slightly ___________ ball. The eyes are held in the eye ___________ of
the skull by ___________.

2. The wall of the eyeball is made up of ___________ layers : the ___________, the
___________ and the ___________..
3. The watery fluid between the cornea and the iris is the ___________. It helps in
___________ light and ___________ the shape of the eyeball.
4. The yellow spot is the most ___________ spot of the ___________. It consists of only
___________.
5. The blind spot does not have any ___________.. It is the spot where the ___________
leaves the eyeball.
6. The ___________ controls the size of the pupil and it is coloured.
7. The ciliary body ___________ and ___________ to change the ___________ of the eye
lens.
8. The curved transparent layer of the sclera is the ___________ and it helps to
___________ light onto the retina.
9. The innermost layer of the eyeball is the ___________. It has many photoreceptors called
___________ and ___________.
10. The choroids is the ___________ layer of the eyeball and has black ___________.. It
___________ light and prevents ______________________. It also supply ___________
to the eyeball.
11. The image formed on the retina is ___________.
12. When looking at distant object, the lens becomes ___________ while the lens become
___________ when looking at near objects. The ability of the eye to focus by changing
the thickness of the lens is called ___________.

1.7 Light and Sight


1. ___________ of light occurs when light ___________ off the surface of an object.
2. The bending of light ray when it enters a medium of different ___________ is known as
the ___________ of light.
3. Vehicles with rear-view mirror used the principle of ___________ of light. Diamonds
sparkle because they ___________ light falling on them.
4. ___________ of light can cause a stick appear to ___________ in water and a swimming
pool appear ___________.
5. The common defects of vision are ______________________ ,
______________________, ___________, ______________________ and
___________.
6. A short-sighted person can see ___________ objects clearly but cannot ___________ on
distant objects. Light from the distant object is focused ___________ of the retina. This is
because the ___________ is too thick or the ___________ is too long. It can be corrected
using a ___________ lens.
7. ___________ is caused by the ___________ surface of the cornea. It can be corrected
using ___________ lens or through ___________ .
8. When the brain distorts the image seen by the eyes, it gives rise to _________________.
9. For animals with stereoscopic vision, the visual fields of both eyes ___________ . Each
eye sees a slightly different image but the brain ___________ both images into one and it
is seen as ___________. This enables the animal to judge ______________________.
10. Animals with monocular vision have a ___________ field of vision.
1.8 Sound and Hearing
1. Sounds are produced by ___________.
2. Sound needs a ___________ to travel.
3. When sound hits a surface , it is ___________ or ___________. Hard surface and
___________ surface are good ___________ of sound. ___________ and ___________
surfaces like curtains are good ___________ of sound.
4. Reflected sound is called an ___________
5. There are two major hearing loss. The first type involves the ___________ and
___________ear. It is caused by ___________ blocking the ear canal, a punctured
___________ or birth defects
6. The second type involves the damage to the ___________ ear, like aging, extended
exposure to loud sounds or disease. It can be corrected by using ___________.
7. A person can detect sound between ___________ and ___________ hertz.
8. Examples of devices that help human to overcome limitations of hearing are
___________, ___________, ___________ and ___________.

9. Hearing sounds from our surroundings with two ears is known as


______________________.. It enables us to determine the ___________ of sound. The
ear closer to the sound detects sound slightly ___________ and ___________ than the
other ear. The brain interpret these differences and enables us to determine the
___________ of the sound.
1.9 Stimuli and Responses in Plants
1. The respond by growing in certain ___________ are known as ___________..
2. Plants are sensitive to three main stimuli : ___________, ___________ and
___________.
3. Hydrotropism is the ___________ of a plant in response to ___________. ___________
shows positive hydrotropism. This ensures that the plant get enough ___________ and
___________ for growth.
4. The roots always grow downwards in the direction of the ___________, thus showing
positive ___________. This enables the root to find ___________ and to anchor the plant
for ___________. Shoots show negative ___________ to ensure that it receives
___________ for ___________.
5. ___________ is a response by plants to contact with a solid structure. Cucumber and
bitter gourd plants use ___________ to wrap around the supporting structure.
6. Morning glory plants use their ___________ to ___________ around other plants or
structures.
7. ___________ movement is the response to stimuli which can come from ___________
direction. Examples are : ______________________ and ______________________.