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Intended Learning Outcomes


At the end of this topic, you should be able to:
L1.1 Define Fluid Mechanics, differentiate among its
sub branches, and give its connection with related
Introduction to sciences;
Fluid Mechanics L1.2 Recognize the contribution of prominent
scientists to Fluid Mechanics;
Topic 1a L1.3 Define fluid, viscosity, recall Newton’s Law and
differentiate between Newtonian and Non-Newtonian
fluids ;
L1.4 Explain the basic principles and equations related
to Fluid Statics;
L2.1 Apply the equations of Fluid Statics to cases
related to Chemical Engineering.

© UST ChE Department

About Fluid Mechanics About Fluid Mechanics


(From Wikipedia Sources) (From Wikipedia Sources)
Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids and the
forces on them. (Fluids include liquids, gases,
and plasmas.) Fluid mechanics can be divided
into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest;
fluid kinematics, the study of fluids in motion;
and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of
forces on fluid motion. It is a branch of
continuum mechanics, a subject which models
matter from a macroscopic viewpoint rather
than from a microscopic viewpoint.
© UST ChE Department

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Key Scientists to Fluid Mechanics Key Scientists to Fluid Mechanics

Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille


Leonardo Da Vinci Claude-Louis Navier George Gabriel Stokes
Archimedes Blaise Pascal

Ludwig Prandtl Osborne Reynolds Theodore von Karman


Isaac Newton Evangelista Torricelli Daniel Bernoulli

Fluids Clarified PT Diagram for Pure Substance


In Fluid Mechanics, a fluid is a substance that
continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear
stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter
and include liquids, gases, plasmas and, to some
extent, plastic solids.

In Chemical Engineering, a fluid is a substance that


could not be vaporized by isothermal expansion or
condensed by isobaric cooling. (See page 65, SVN,
7th Ed)

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General Transport Equation


Newton’s Law Revisited
Application to Momentum
d ma ma
   General Transport Equation  Fy  ma  Fy g c
A gc
dx
  Molecular Flux in the x direction Fy
y   Shear Stress
  proportionality constant A
NEWTON’s LAW :
   v  concentration of momentum/volume
v  velocity in the y direction
Fy g c d (  v)
   y g c     kinematic viscosity
d (mv) A dx
Rate of Momentum Change with Time =
d dv dv
d (mv) d (mv) dv  y g c        absolute viscosity
m dx dx
  d   d  d  ma
A A A A

Newtonian vs Non-Newtonian fluid Types of Non-Newtonian Fluids

 A Newtonian fluid (named after Isaac Newton) is a  Thixotropic fluid displays a decrease in viscosity
fluid whose stress versus strain rate curve is linear and over time at a constant shear rate. Many gels and
passes through the origin. The constant of
proportionality is known as the viscosity. lotions are thixotropic materials.
Non-Newtonian fluid is a type of fluid whose flow  Shear thinning fluid or Pseudoplastic displays
properties differ in any way from those of Newtonian decreasing viscosity with increasing shear rate. lava,
fluids. Most commonly the viscosity (resistance to ketchup, and whipped cream
deformation or other forces) of non-Newtonian fluids
is dependent on shear rate or shear rate history.  Rheopectic fluid displays an increase in viscosity
However, there are some non-Newtonian fluids with with increasing shear rate. Quicksand, gravy
shear-independent viscosity, that nonetheless exhibit
normal stress-differences or other non-Newtonian
behaviour.

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Newtonian vs Non-Newtonian fluid Newtonian vs Non-Newtonian fluid


 You have to pull the trigger on a water pistol to get the water
to squirt out. To make the water to come out faster, you have to But ketchup, blood, yogurt, gravy, pie fillings, mud, and
pull the trigger harder. Fluids resist flow. This phenomenon is cornstarch paste DON'T follow the model. They're non-
known as viscosity. Newtonian fluids because doubling the speed that the
Newton devised a simple model for fluid flow that could be layers slide past each other does not double the
used to relate how hard you have to pull the trigger to how fast resisting force. It may less than double (like ketchup), or
the liquid will squirt out of the pistol. Picture a flowing liquid as it may more than double (as in the case of quicksand
a series of layers of liquid sliding past each other. The resistance and gravy). That's why stirring gravy thickens it, and why
to flow arises because of the friction between these layers. If
you want one layer to slide over another twice as fast as before, struggling in quicksand will make it even harder to
you'll have to overcome a resisting force that's twice as great, escape.
Newton said. The slower one layer slides over another, the less For some fluids (like mud, or snow) you can push and
resistance there is, so that if there was no difference between get no flow at all- until you push hard enough, and the
the speeds the layers were moving, there would be no substance begins to flow like a normal liquid. This is
resistance. Fluids like water and gasoline behave according to what causes mudslides and avalanches.
Newton's model, and are called Newtonian fluids.

Pseudoplastics About Viscosity


 What is meant by pseudoplastic?  Absolute Viscosity (µ) in Pa-s or kg/m-s
Shear thinning is an effect where viscosity
decreases with increasing rate of shear stress. Evaluated using empirical equations from
Materials that exhibit shear thinning are called the Handbook : See Table 2-312 (Gases)
pseudoplastic. This property is found in certain and Table 2-313 (Liquids)
complex solutions, such as lava, ketchup,
whipped cream... When shaken or squeezed out  Kinematic Viscosity (𝜈) in m2/s
of a bottle, ketchup will thin and flow readily but
will retain its shape on a burger or plate. When Evaluated as µ/𝜌
modern paints are applied the shear created by
the brush or roller will allow them to thin and wet For Gases
out the surface evenly. Once applied the paints
regain their higher viscosity which avoids drips
and runs. For Liquids