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Coventry University College.

Health & Life Sciences Dr CM Pitt 2016

Statistics Overview
1. Data reduction.

x, S, SD, CV%, SEM.


Data distribution.


Data quality: outliers and the Q-test.


Uses: Levy Jennings (Shewart) control plots.

2. Statistics of difference.
2.1 Gaussian or non-Gaussian? ie parametric or non-parametric ie normal or not.
2.2 Unpaired or paired data?
2.3 Students T-test, ANOVA (needs a post-test e.g. Tuckey, Dunnets Bonferoni).
2.4 Outcome: P-value (e.g. <0.05) or Confidence Interval (CI is c2SD at 2.776SD).
3. Calibration algorithms.
3.1 Transform data?
3.2 Linear data & r2 (parametric).
3.3 Cubic polynomial.
3.4 LogIT
3.5 4PLC
3.6 Least squares analysis (parametric).
3.7 Principle Component Analysis transforms non-linear data via x, SD, CV% to
eigenvalues in linear combination.
4. Method comparison.
4.1 Linear regression assumes no y error. Rarely so.
4.2 Deming regression assumes the same error at all concentrations. Rarely so.
4.3 Passing Bablock assumes no scatter of data (worth checking residuals). Rarely no
4.4 Altman Bland is a robust test for comparisons.

Coventry University College. Health & Life Sciences Dr CM Pitt 2016

Statistical tests explained and compared.

Anderson Darling test : if p<0.05 the data does not follow a normal distribution and a parametric

test should not be used. AD assesses the mean, median and spread of data.


T-test: if p<0.05 the two groups have different means. Reject the null hypothesis that the data all

have the same mean. T-test compares the means and variation of two data sets. A paired T-test compares
the means of the differences between paired data.


ANOVA: If the p<0.05 the groups do not have the same mean. Reject the null hypothesis that they

do. You need to select a post test (Tuckeys, Dunnet) to identify which groups share means (if any). The
output comes as a group letter. Groups that have the same letter, share means. ANOVA compares within
group, between group and total variation. It uses degrees of freedom to establish a variance ratio, F.
From that Minitab generates the P value. You can also use statistical tables of the F value and the degrees
of freedom to identify the P value.


Tukey post test: This compares the means of all groups against each other. The test assumes the

data is independent, parametric and has equal variation at all levels (rarely the case). Tuckeys is very
similar to the T-test.


Dunnetts post-test: This compares the group data to a single control group. It assumes the data

is independent, parametric and equal variation (similar to Tuckeys). The calculation is similar to the T-test.

Mann Whitney: if p<0.05, reject the null hypothesis that the groups have the same mean. Ie, the

groups are significantly different. This is less powerful than T-test or ANOVA. The initial data reduction step
ranks the data and a lot of detail is lost at that stage. MW is useful for comparing two groups.

Kruskal-Wallis: compares three or more groups with non-parametric distribution. This is a ranked

test meaning there is a preliminary data reduction step that ranks the data. This compromises some detail
within the data sets. KS is less powerful than ANOVA but could be used instead of a Mann Whitney test for
comparison of two groups although the Mann Whitney is more powerful.

Coventry University College. Health & Life Sciences Dr CM Pitt 2016