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The

Cornell University
Library

original of

tinis

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the

text.

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924068095417

TO

THE REY.

DR. ISAAC M.

WISE

THE VENERABLE PRESIDENT OF THE

HEBREW UNION COLLEGE


CINCINNATI,

O.

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY THE

AUTHOR

GRAMMAR
OF THE

ARAMAIC IDIOM
CONTAINED IN THE

BABYLONIAN TALMUD
WITH CONSTANT REFERENCE TO

GAONIC LITERATURE

BY

LEVIAS

C.

CINCINNATI
tTbe JBIocb iPubUebind and ptinting
I

1900

Company

PKBFACB,
The literature on the grammar of the idiom of the Babylonian Talmud is very scanty. There are only four works which
require mention.'

8. D. Luzzatto published in 1865 a short sketch


Talmudic idiom intended as a handbook for his students.''
This excellent little work, though not quite satisfactory when
judged by our present standards, will always retain a certain

of the

value to the student of our subject, as the chief linguistic phe-

nomena were noticed

and, on the whole, correctly explained by


In 1879 Dr. Gr. Ruelph published his inaugural dissertation, Zur Lautlehre der aramaeisch talmudischen Dialekte.

the author.

Die Kehllaute,

which the author discusses the comparative


This work is a
valuable contribution to Talmudic phonetics, and it is to be
regretted that the author has not continued the subject.
In
1888 Dr. A. Rosenberg published a dissertation, Das aramaeische
Verhum im babylonischen Talmud, which is a good, though not
exhaustive, exposition of the verbal forms in the Talmud.
Lastly,
in 1895 Dr. Liebermann published his inaugural thesis: Das
Pronomen und das Adverbium des babylonisch - talmudischen
Dialektes, a work incomplete and a mere compilation. Besides
the above works, Noeldeke's excellent Mandaic grammar, although
not bearing directly upon our subject, contains many valuable
references to the Babylonian Talmud, and has been of great help
I.

in

treatments of the gutturals in both Talmudim.

to the present author.

Talmud MS8.

Columbia
College, containing the treatises tibjO ]tip 13>150 Q^nni D^HCS
These MSS. have some words
and Alfasi's compendium of HlS^i
I also

made use

of the

in possession of

" Notes de grammaire Jud6o-Babylonienne," R:J., I., 212-221 and


1
Cf. also J. Levy,
M. Lewin, AramHische SprilchwOrter und Volkssprilche, pp. 24-28.
^Elementi grammat. del Caldeo-Biblico del dial. Talm. Babilonese, Padua, 1865.
Germ, translation by M. S. Krueger, Breslau, 1873; Engl, translation by J. S. Goldammer,
;

New York, 1867 Hebrew translation of the


;

second part by Ch. Z. Lerner,

St.

Petersburg,

1880.

PREFACE

VI

Whenever

vocalized.

that vocalization

is

referred

to,

this

is

expressly stated.

The author has adopted the use

of the vowel-signs in order to

secure a greater degree of clearness and exactness in exposition

than would otherwise have been possible. This, however, does


not imply any claim to having succeeded in restoring the original
vocalization.

Some

my

valuable suggestions embodied in this work I

owe

to

esteemed teacher. Dr. Paul Haupt, Professor of Semitic languages in the Johns Hopkins University.

INTKODUOTION.
The Babylonian Talmud is written partly in Hebrew and
The latter is a dialect of upper Babylonia,

partly in Aramaic.

spoken in the eleventh century/ and is closely akin to the


We find no special name for this dialect, it being
generally spoken of as ri''53'1!!<l or ''^"lij; 'Slfib an appellation used
still

Mandaic.^

Aramaic dialects.^
The Babylonian Talmud, or, more precisely, the Babylonian
Gem&r&, was committed to writing about 500 A. D., but did not

also for other

receive
is a

its final

shape before the close of the eighth century.

It

compilation of literary productions extending, in the main,

over a period of

nearly three centuries

Earlier

(200-500).

elements are found in the formulae of legal documents, in extracts

from Meghillath Ta'anith and from encyclicals of the patriarch R.


Gamliel II. All these belong to the Palestinean Aramaic, and
1

Cf. C. Levias,

AJP., XVI.,

2Noeldeke, MG,, xxvi,


3

p. 35, note 4; in reprint, p.

note

8,

4.

sq.

For other names of Judaeo-Aramaic,

ben Ali in Ms commentary on Daniel

c/.

Dalman, GJPA.,\sq. and

Aramaic XAamvLsj) iju

calls

Jepheth

p. 340.

which

is

probably a

mistake for JCUuJyftJI SJU the language of the Pharisees. His compiler in the

TtCyH

'D

Vide D. S. Margoliouth's note on p. 7 of his edition of said


by D''!31 11105
commentary (Anecdota Oxoniensia, Semitic Series, I.). R. ^emah GaOn in his answer
with reference to Eldad, quoted by Epstein in his edition of Eldad ha-D&ni, p. 7, says
renders

it

Diiffib bt^-iiB'^

D13l"in TlIBb
74)

yMH iDn nia-ix

ef.

piriba

Epstein's note, ibid, p.

quotes the Talmudic proverb

20.

imx

TiD-na

Maimonides

TllS 5017

baa ^mica -ntibna b

in his

"^I'ly as used

Dal&lat al-h&'irtn

(I.,

ch.

^LiyjMj] LX-i, which

is

miM

P. 64) by QlJinn 1^71 bSX. DunaS, in his


Aramaic of the Targumim 1111)3 plSb while
Parchon calls also Bibl. Aramaic D15i"in The author of QniBn *1SD calls Bibl. Aramaic
nowm^nn dad. sba, nbia, nno), now I'ais iTcb (rad,iyD),now i:5imD ;iib
(rad. *7*in HBD) or IJIIIID 'b (rad. 1T3i)' An anonymous writer in Arabic calls our

rendered by Falaquera

maTOn

(niTan

ed. Schroeter, calls also the

>

dialect 111323
his

llQSnfTa

Nabatean
classes

(.cf.

Geiger's JUd. Zeitschr., VI., 69).

the Aramaic of the Bible, of the

bM

E. Levita in

Ms

Targum Onkelos,

preface to

of

pseudo-

]11Bb as opposed to the l^blBlll yVCOb of the


Jonathan and of the Talmud Babli as
Targum Jerushalmi and the Talmud Jerushalmi.
1

INTRODUCTION

It

are cited in this

work under the designation legal

style.

To an

older stage of language belong also magical formulse, exorcisms

and some proverbs. To a later period belong minor additions of


the Saboraim and Geonim.^
As might have been expected from the compilatory nature of
the Talmud, its language is not uniform, but shows traces of
various stages of development.
Originally, the dialectical and
But in
chronological variations must have been quite marked.
course of time these differences were smoothed down by later
scholars, familiar forms and expressions being substituted for
rare ones, and dialectical characteristics have thus largely been
obliterated.

Traces of a more original character have been preserved in a

few treatises containing laws of no practical application after the


destruction of the Temple.

Such

treatises

were not frequently

studied in the schools and therefore were not subjected to the pro-

much as other parts of the Talmud. Here


Tamid, Me'ila, Temura, Nedarlm and Nazir,
especially the two last mentioned treatises.
They are marked by
older forms of the possessive suffixes "ji5~, "pj''~; "|in~, "jin^ for
cess of obliteration as

belong,

among

others,

^T-, Ti-,

^i-,

S|!T'-;

by the demonstratives '^n

the personal pronouns FlDK and


"^T^
of

for the usual

Ti''

it P

^TTS'^K

)n*lS^''

Vilii^

J^HFlX

and such expressions

undecided,

of

"''^''53

"bi^"^

Vbtl and

by the forms D^TO

or linS ''I^^K ^irrK for

well,

KIH

or

"'biJ^I

xnpDX

by the more frequent use

as ^ySTl for *lpTl the question


Pl'^a-JJ ^'^'^ -jj^tt

proper.

impression that the nota dativi


treatises, is

''T'"'!

Kbtl"'!

remains

who spoke

am also under the


so common in other

I
,

wanting in Ned. and Nazlr.

In some places dialectical expressions are specially mentioned


Talmud. A collection of such expressions has been

as such in the

made by Adolph Bruell

in his Fremdsprachliche

ausdrilcklich als fremdsprachlich bezeichnete

muden und Midraschim.

Redensarten und
WOrter in den Tal-

Leipzig, 1869.

1 For editions of tiie Talmud c/.


Rabbinovioz,
b? 1MS1Q in Vol.
VIII. of his Variae Lectiones. Literary and methodological introductions have been written
by H. L. Strack, Einleitung in den Talmud, 2d ed., 1894, and M. Mielziner, Introduction to
the Talmud, Cincinnati, 1894. The last mentioned work is indispensable to a proper under-

TTabnn HDSHn

standing of Talmudical discussions.

INTEODUCTION

The lexicography of the Talmud has been treated of late by


Levy in his Neuhebrdisches und chalddisches WOrterhuch,
Leipzig, 1876-1889; by A. Kohut in his Aruch Completum, Vols.
I.-VIII., Vienna, 1878-1892, Supplement to Aruch Completum,
New York, 1892; and by M. Jastrow in his Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic
Literature, London and New York, 1886, sq. (still unfinished)
The text of the Talmud is in a very unsatisfactory condition
and a critical edition of it is much to be desired. An invaluable

J.

contribution to textual criticism

is

R. Rabbinovicz's great, though

Mischnam

unfinished work, Variae Lectiones in

et in

Talmud

Babylonicum, Vols. I.-XV., Munich, 1867-1886.


A critical edition of the Talmud is not to be expected in the
near future. The preliminary work required for such an underthe completion of the work begun by the late Rabtaking
binovicz, and critical editions of the early commentators and

epitomizers

will require

some time. For the present, the edihandy form and esthetic garb, with

tion of single treatises in a

such

critical exactness as is at present attainable, is

very

much

to

Specimens of such editions have been given by Mr.

be desired.
M. Friedman' and Professor H. L. Strack.''
It is also to be hoped that the various languages and dialects
contained in post-biblical Jewish literature be also separately
treated lexicographically.

was in the main the


spoken language of the time. This is evident from the numerous
proverbs and other haggadic elements recorded in the Talmud.
But the scholastic terminology is essentially an artificial product
The vocabulary contains a number of words
of the scholars.
borrowed from the Persian, but very few words of Greek and
Latin.
The few words of classical origin occurring in Aramaic

The language,

as

has come

it

down

to us,

phraseology are probably borrowed from Palestinean literature,


and did not belong to the language of the people.' Its orthog1

" Babylonischer

Talmud, Tractat Makkoth," in Verhandlungen des

VII., intern. Ori-

entalisten Congresses, Wien, 1886 Cprinted 1888).


2

The treatises

of the

Migna

YOma, 'AbOda, Z&ra,

'AbOth,

and Sabbath (Schriften des

Inst. Jud. in Berlin).


3 Upon examination of Buxtorf's Lexicon, C. K. Conder gives a
Greek loan-words to be found exclusively in the Babylonian Talmud
1890, 324), but his data are not trustworthy.

list of thirty-seven
(c/.

Proc. of PMF.,

INTEODUOTION

raphy

is

main phonetic, but there

in the

is

ground

for the belief

that the gutturals were less distinguished in actual speech than

might be inferred from the orthography.


Further literature in the dialect of the Babylonian Talmud is
to be found in portions of the liturgy, in the later Midrasim' and
in the works of the Geonim.
The latter extend over a period of
about 400 years

(c.

750-1138)

To

this class

belong the

rTinbiinZJ

Simon
this work

of 'Ahai of Sabha, ed. princ. Venice, 1546; flibilS iTliDbn of

Qiyyara, ed. pr. Venice, 1548.

was published by
"jiX^ XI'^lTIJ

I.

Another version

of

Hildesheimer, Berlin, 1888-1892;' rilSK

"1 latest edition

by A. Neubauer in MedicevalJewish

Chronicles {Anecdota Oxoniensia, Semitic Series,

I., 4,

Oxford,

1887) and the Aramaic t]''iisan riia^^SPl for the literature of


which cf. Z. Frankel, Entwurf einer Geschichte der Litteratur
,

der nachtalmiidischen Responsen, Breslau, 1865, and J. Mueller,


D^iiitari nin^TiJnb

nns^j

The language
the Targum; and

of the

Berlin, i89i.

Gaonic literature shows the influence of


this is especially the case in the forms of the
possessive and enclitic personal suffixes, and in the retention of
the final

nun

Dalman,

in the plural of nouns, verbs,


op.

cit., p. 20.

Cf.

This work contains older elements.

and

participles.

;
;
,

SCRIPT AND ORTHOGRAPHY

I.

SCEIPT.

Vowels.

Letters.^

The alphabet used

Talmud, the number


same as in Hebrew.
2. No vowel-signs are used in the Talmud.
Traditional pronunciation employs the whole variety of vowel-sounds
found in the Masoretic text of the Bible. biliD is rare, the preferof letters,

and

1.

ence being given to

Numerals.
numerals,

^"l!

3.

i^-l: are

or p1"'M

The

letters of the alphabet are also

used for units;

Compound numbers

400.

in the

their phonetic values are the

^-'2,
,

for tens; p-tl

for

100-

expressed by composition, the

are

larger numeral being placed on the right:

Numbers higher than 499

used for

are expressed

1"'
:

12, lb 34,

500 by

pfl

jip 123.
600, "IH

700, irn 800, nn 900, pmm etc' When the letters are used
within the text with numerical value they always have the sign of
;

abbreviation ( 6) IT'S ,28; 'j 3; tT'bp 185.'


pagination, the sign of abbreviation is omitted.
:

When

used for

Heading of Numerals. 4. When the number consists of


one or of two letters, the names of the letters are read, Thus, 'j
is

not read

U^flbri

or nbpl

S'", n""l are read tl^S

"pTIJ

which

it

than two signs are read either as above, or are vocalized;

b"pn, 900; T'^Fi, 613;

H'la-l

so

Numbers containing more

^'*1.

SJ^H

represents, but b52^3

e. g.,

248.

For the names of the letters cf. Hamburger, Real-Eticycl. f. Bibel u. Talmud, Supplem.^
Grammatlk." Notice also the usual pronunciation of the following names of letters AUeph, Gimmel, DaUed, 5Stt, TSth, Yftd, Kflph, Lammed, Sammekh, QJaddlq (Berliner,
for yif 49 has "l^b for
Beitr&ge zur hebr. Gram., 22), Qllph. TG., ed. Harkavy, 26
1

article "

IJ

TKlb ("/. Samaritan Labad, Petermann, Gram, sam., p. 2, written ni<nb Munk, TM. 10)
The forms of the names of the letters
Col. MS. (Meg. end) yoc. bl2'^5 SG. has ST for IS"!
,

in post-Gaonic literature I shall giTO in


Hebrew and Araynaic, now in preparation.

my

Dictionary of Philological Terminology in

In later Hebrew thousands are expressed by units with dots over them. Thus S
2000 H 5000. Numbers from 500-900 are expressed in Masoretic writings by the
In writing, the final letters are always written on the left V^ = 903.
final letters "I-V
2

1000

In MSS.

we

find sometimes other signs used.

Thus

^("1^21

may be written j'^^n

or

SCKIPT AND ORTHOGRAPHY

I.

Diacritical Signs.

5.

ifij'l

and

[5
vowel signs

KSTIJ' like the

The end of a section is indicated by a


double point (I).^ The same sign marks the end of a quotation
from the Misna at the head of a section. The employment of this
sign is not always consistent. Minor subdivisions are not marked.
6. A word not written out in full is followed by a slanting
do not occur in the

text.

stroke above the line."

Thus,

'"I

'523

for ^3"l or ZTi

i<n53a

tt;
two or more consecutive words are abbreviated a double stroke
,

If

Thus,

written in the middle.


SStT ^iXn

"jb

y^Jiaa

Sp

"l"n

Tr"52,

The signs
the names

b"ap, for

are employed to

"Sa"]

mark

is

tn

letters

used as numerals (3) or


of the letters of the alphabet.
Thus n"bl, b"X:"'j, ri"^3, q"bK 'Aleph, Beth, Gimel, Daleth, to
distinguish

them from

~[bi^

thousand,

IT'S!

house, etc.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

^^2K they

7.

The vowels o, 6, 6, u and m are invariably indiI shall hill; ^tSVZ death; ""^Inlii^ another (f.);
said; S"12^3 man. The mater lectionis
is sometimes

Vowels.
cated by

bit:pN!

"1

omitted in verbs with consonantal

make even.
The vowels e,

as second stem-consonant:

to

''"'iTiJsb

8.
mater lectionis
go up;

&, e, i, i

1^350 thou

:*

they say;

I'^'l'pS;

t\'')2

and

are usually indicated

by the

wilt do; Sf\''S house; p&''K

I shall

died;

"^"Ht,

if; T'T'!^

or P^T go thou.

But the is sometimes omitted. This is generally the case with


words common to both Aramaic and Hebrew; e. g., DblE/O pays;
"^

explains; 'C^Tp? answers.^

T23"iS'p

9.

The vowel d
n The

quently by

or a,

when

final, is

marked by H

latter is usually the

less fre-

case in the feminine

ending of the verb.

Inter-consonantal a or (3 is seldom indicated


by i< never by H
This is the case in MSS. and later literature
more frequently than in the printed text: i<tl3b52 queen; NSTS
,

Sabbath, week; STIJ^S


T

evil,

bad;

b5D''5TD
T

is

about

to die;

nb"''ffiSl

..

For the etymology of the term cf. C. Levias, AJP,, xvi, 28-37, and Am. Joubn. of Sem,
Lang, and Lit., XIII., pp. 79-80.
2 In MSS. one point is sometimes used instead.
3 In MSS. we find frequently instead of the stroke a dot on the last letter.
* S to mark 1"1JJ is found only in Nn^ he will be,
SHP she will be, which belong to
MiSnic Hebrew.
5 Cf. also Levy, Neuh. Wb., s. v. TT'T.
1

ORTHOGRAPHY

13]

X^SS she

she cooked;

is

able;

tT^/JN;

full.

The

rows; "^"^"O are

TXyiX'^'l'')^

always spelled SlK

she says; ^TJ^m

is fit;

adjective ending d'a is

Exceptions are "|t553 = "113


"2
it from
from; and verbs with a
guttural as third stem-consonant, and consonantal 1 as second
stem-consonant, in order to mark the a- vowel: "iNITJJ^b let him

10. nriS

generally not indicated.

is

who, in order to distinguish

jump;

goes about.

"IX-lTO

11.

The diphthongs

indicated by ^X

by ^K

rarely
!a':XJ5

''^^^2j^i

di and di,

seldom by
''Si'iri

'''

when

when

rejoice

my

final,

soul;

'''

last (f.);

\Xrr'''^T\3.

stands.

Jipll'JI

13.

exactness;

Vocal sevd

man,

"'tT'Tfl

is

thorn (80).
frequently denoted by

contraction

a
11

tDT'A

by

inter-consonantal,

12. Final au occurs only in IN? not,


K^n+i^b inter-consonantal au is indicated by
ing;

are generally

of

tread-

XiIJII'^l

i<51lT2i

tarrying,

"'tl^S

running about.

e. g.,

T'3.'''$

This

is

do,

espe-

and
and other verbs, and was probably pronounced
According to Dalman,'' the Sabbioneta edition
as a full vowel.
of Onkelos and the Masora of that Targum frequently vocalize
the prefixes of the imperfect and infinitive of ''"U verbs with i
followed by ddghes of the first stem-consonant, or, in case of
To this he remarks
resolution, by e, by analogy with yy verbs.
in a note: " The tendency of the forms q^tal, q^tul to pass into
qittal, qittul, is also elsewhere to be observed (c/. Barth, Nomcially the case in the imperfect, at times also in the infinitive

participle of ^"iy
^

inalbildung, 196).

may

Mere lengthening

of sevd to a full vowel

(c/. Safir, 'Eben


would add, that in the recently disvocalization we find i, e, or a for vocal

besides be attributable to careless speaking

Sapplr,

I.

55 a)."

To

this I

covered oldest system of

sevd, the latter having no special sign at


fore,

that

Aramaic
1

is

the development

of

all.^

It seems, there-

sevd in Hebrew and

Judeo-

of a later date than in Syriac.

Cf. C. Levias,

AJP. XVI.

30 (reprint p.

3).

Of. also Sal. Geiger, Zion, II. 6;

Nachgel. Schriften, V., Hebr. part, p. 7sg.


2 Orammatik des jild.-pal. Aramiiisch, % 70, 3.
3C/. Friedlander, PS4., XVIII., March, 1896, p. 90.

II. 153; A. Geiger,

HehalUe,

PHONOLOGY.

11.

CONSONANTS.'

A.

General Bemarks.

As in the cognate Aramaic dialects


and o; e. g., c' XT2J2^'n honey, 5531^"
and
beard.
m represents both
14.

T represents both original

judge: 5
e.g., -^

dnn

"'1
:

!><^^ti

ii'ab:?

T23

reason,

mountain.^

nJ>''S

has been retained in

in

to

3>^!!^

(but

"'30

represents ^^ and

drink; ^^

^in

^,

yy

e. g.,

e.

befall,

bb?

^^2 disease.

a certain meal
(but

"iD

Satan

HtP^fS mustache, "pifl

lip,

a certain bird;

''bp'^13

appears as C.

it

open,

TsTCi

ox, l^Fl to return, bpfl to weigh.

cases in which these rules are violated,

Jo

to en^er,

fo 6e satiated, J^jpiu

rilnS to

gr.,

IJ^^TS rzjfg'

ten, ]''"li2? ticenty

!*<3ffl

e. g., p.:

Ka*'? cZowd,

In other cases

doubtful.

is

(also XPC"!}*)

"iW

fo /lafe),

and

another

S'^S^t: nail, S^j^t: Zoac7.

happen,

to

Xnil3''"i!!<

to compel,

J^S'^ImX

represents Js and Ji

swallow, gulp down, and perhaps

but the latter


T\

''fflS'

13

compound numbers), yUTC

Kri^SiJir /la^red

fo burn,

!S;1:l"iW rai;e?i,

J^J or

egffir,

'ntsn meed, flesh,


'''^D,

in.

y represents
a

be unclean; io

iX'd'O to

loorZd, ^"iTCy ten;

in; (jo

break

to sign; nUtt" to

dream, iX^^n ass; ^:

Q"'3ri wise, iX/dbT.

S^tiyti tosfe,

(/o

Kjp'^

this,

j,

to die,

Tl'iIJ

In the few

we have loan-words from

other dialects.

Pronunciation.

dialects
1

Cf.

The

15.

ous sounds did not, in

all

and from Hebrew.

Haupt, ZDMG.,

This word

This

is

is

34, l"i sq.;

original pronunciation of the vari-

probability, differ

But

BA.,

I.,

the Arab.

(^

bocfc, Assyr.

of the mountain and the UBe ol Arab.

iV^

249s3.;

v^

connected with Arab,

from the cognate

in a later period the pronuncia-

Dalman, GJPA.,
Its

{Iru

high.

Heb.

y33

is

C/.

hill,

41sg.

infixed as that in

V'ltyV or

Arab. t>*i' y-jjO

top

tlie

the latter connected with

back. For a similar change from Arab. Y\"S to Aram. Y'J? / Arab. V^J"
>
Fraenkel, Fremdw., 42.

^3

and Talm. i{Tp


^
*

CONSONANTS

17]

some of the sounds seems to have varied. This is evident


from the variations in spelling and from the transcription we find
in Arabic for Aramaic loan-words.'
tion of

Gutturals.

and y by c

all

The Arabs transcribed

16.

The pronunciation

of

tt

H by

^ by

was probably, as with

Eastern Arameans, that of the voiceless guttural spirant

The words

or

transcribed are either taken from some western dialect

or borrowed at a later period.

As appears from

17.

Talmud (Meg. 24

the

M. Q. 16

b,

b,

Ker. 8 a), the Babylonians did not properly distinguish the gut-

is,

the

various

therefore, merely historic spelling.^

Hence,

words whose etymology

in

phonetic spelling.

Thus, in

iKl'^iil

mological
i^TIJ^B^tt

!!<

Tl

for y

.*

In

Jj^bliJ^X

"iHT to be cautious,^

^'T^'!!

pounded grain,
In

it.

have X or y in

we have very frequently

XIS

KHH

name of

Hm23"'!!<

buD

Tl for ety-

a canal,

In ybfl or Wbtl to crack,


to dry up, we have H for

tfyS,

^<^^^
l!^

f or

!!^

find

one another,

to return, KFlb^tip sieve,

"Tlfl

we have

as well as 5 for

n we

For

we frequently

shrubbery, and in other words we have

a kind of fish,

we have

of

retention

not transparent,

is

together, pT'lH to imprison,


to sift,

The

their pronunciation.

in

turals

gutturals in script

this, ~S5< to

(Col. MS.,

turn; while

Meg. 12

b,

S^y

alongside of KS5<) thicket, ^siK twigs, W^'I^U^ bulrushes, a. fr.


Of. Noeldeke, loc. cit.j also Nestle, Marginalien u. Materialien,
p. 69.=

The fact that post-vocalic ? is pronounced as a vowel shows


even more clearly that the retention of the gutturals is in many
Thus W2'Sp is pronounced t4imo. This
cases merely graphic.
points to an earlier

i^^Q'^tJ

just as in Assyrian."

Fraenkel, op. cit.. Introduction.


Noeldeke, MG., 58.
3 This word has nothing to do with "IHT to shine, but
metathesis, cf. Earth, ES., 3, 4 (IBIn and p'a).
1

Cf.

Cf.

is

^
the Arab. \

v^

For similar

''

also Harkavy's note, p. 356, oi his edition ot the TG.


similar promiscuous use of the gutturals is found in Phenician (Sohroeder, Ph6niz.
Spr., 79sg.), Samaritan (Uhlemann, Imt. lingu. Samar., I., ISsg.), Neo-Syriao (Noeldeke,
i Cf.

NSG.,

56sg.),

and

Palest.

Aramaic (Dalman,

op.

cit., 44).

the like are

way Hebrew words like nbyiO ITOX'SD a'^iyH I'CiTq bSiJ'a and
pronounced mAilo, mfiimor, mSiriv, mfiimod, m4ichol. But HD^yp

m a r 6 ch o.

The pronunciation

In the same

in spite of the

change

of accent.

of the above

and similar words

Thus, maim(5rlm,

is

>

retained also in the plural

maich61Im, maim6dOs.

;,

10

PHONOLOGY

II.

Palatals.

18. Initial

[1^

seems to have been sometimes pro-

''

nounced i< to judge from a few cases where Si is actually written


and from the fact that after the precative b the prefix of the
imperfect, even if it is followed by an a-vowel, is frequently
''

dropped.

Thus, X3^TB^i< dried ears of corn, S<b^^X willow-basket,

Ned. 30

'^b^yriffl that will be born,

B. Q. 113 b;

On

for

to sit, ySlIJb

Din''

b, li^'^j'^i

that they gather,

also written in a few forms of the verb

is

him cause to swear, "pbllb


we find at times the marked

the other hand,

""

him pass.

let

let

as consonantal

by doubling it.
19. J and i like 3,1,3 and tl had a double pronunciation
as mutae and as spirants.
3 is transcribed by the Arabs generally
as _.

sometimes as ,v

liS';

is

liJ",

is

So we

generally c

is

sometimes by

find also in the

Talmud

or

_,

and

^bp^S

partridges, IS^Ii and Tflplp to knock, Krnfl3"i3 and XFnrp"^p

"bp"]:)

shepherd's

t^PSp^p

bell,

properly noddle;

Lingiials.

by <y

^ by

and t\
ciation from
''I

lAj

20.

head, from ~S3 to bend, nod,

J is

and

rendered in Arabic by

is

''1

j'^UJ

t2 is

The

plllj

jump,

not distinguished in

jj

T by o

pronounced

is

modern pronun-

was evidently a lingual, as

"1

to

today not distinguished from 3

In traditional pronunciation T

like C

= iSri23"l3

Hebr. Iplp V lip

cf.

written promiscuously.

like

ji

it

could he

doubled.'

Sibilants. % 21.
rarely

(j^

is

In the Talmud

D and
TC

is

TO

are

(_^

iS is ,jo

and

ji

usually carefully distinguished,

while the other sibilants are at times used indiscriminately.


Thus, X^pB and S;pS street-well (V. L., B. B. 8 o) iiibtJ^pns
;

iitb'O^'ptk' flipping/ 'ritii!iri'l^i<

Sn^^ri-'K rows, F.

Si^C^K a certain quarter of meat;

^^I^**'

vine; i^TST, HDS^D ear of corn; I^^S

28 5;

!!5VC3>,

^'':i5>

T^D

i<1CN

biiuls,

S11I5<

crcejy^r,

M.' MS., AZ.,

pot; Dp? fo7Yp5'"fo sting; J^np-^iK

a certain meal;

iiFl'ffi"'"l!S!

MS., B. B. 12 a;

pC?

and

"p"]'!??

and

twenty; iUsV and C21

to tread.

i_j

22. Si is rendered in Arabic transcription by ^_,


sometimes by ^
1 and a are rendered by , and \

Labials.

[J

2 by

Cf. Fraonkol, op.

cit., 86,

and

l2'=l"'i<,

SO.,

232,

CONSONANTS

26]

3 by

sometimes by (^

words where

11 is

But 3 and

^ and S

With

11

the exception of two or three

written for etymological

11

the

Talmud

retains

are written indiscriminately in foreign words.

are sometimes

''3^113 a species of

written indiscriminately.

tamed doves,

and

"'"inS

""STCSIS

and

excrements,

""^ISS

KJ-iibi, xnsibit eel.


T

Ddghes and EdpM. 23. The rules for the pronunciation


of nSSHji as tenues, or mediae, and as spirantized are about the
same as in Hebrew and Syriac; but the following may be noticed:
a) Unlike the Syriac, H5i^jn has no daghes after a diphthong;

The n

b)

when

e. g., S<ri';a,

13''^^.

in the feminine ending KFl" is often not spirantized

a vowelless consonant precedes, even

preceded by a long vowel;

that consonant be

if

e. g., KFlbiSTlJ

inBS'TjQ are not spirantized to avoid difficulty of pronun-

c)

ciation;'

e.

g.,
*^'

ssniTiJ,

TT

xrnpTna,
t'.:

j^^onoa,
tt; for

i^"'n3i<, x^jfio,

tt:

:-

:tt:
tt:pronounced hard in the proper names i^ES

t'.:

TT
d) 3

is

'BB Papi.

Changes of Consonants.

Gutturals.

in the active participle Qal of

24.

Papa and

S changes

to

"'

verbs and of verbs following

^"13>

Also in the Pa"el and Ithpa"al of verbs K "y


stands, tl'^'^S listens, t\'^'')2 dies, T'''2 hinds, ~|''^3 com-

their analogy.

Thus,

C^p

pels,

'&''T\

feels pain,

omitted, T'TlTZJi^

in

J^^i^K

interstice,

The
and

b"'''T2J

The forms

remained.

only graphical variants.


^

enters,

b"'''?

55

asks,

ffi^^

he

T'^iTfl

D'^i^j^

etc.,

left,

are

must have also been pronounced


Alephs.

r!(5i5

Notice also

SH'iTa

Verbs Wj have passed entirely into verbs ''"0


25. n changes to 1 or in J^blj 5<b^3 he, she, lit. this one
In the last two
( 177), i<1p to he blunt, t^iri to be astonished.
phonetic
change.
Win
than
cases we may have metathesis rather
remainder.

'^

may

also stand for WJln

26.

Arab,

T\

^o^

Cf.

i^'^i^^T

rich landlord, ]/^!lT

appears frequently as

^Tt} thorn, Syr.

k>
1

t^

vi^

iXS,tl foliage

i^J^H a proper

of a palm,

name = X3^n

b.

Syriac Q-*oai

= ooiom and

Palestinean

iTl^'i'^X

= nStlift Dalman,
.

.'

12

Tin

return, Hebr. "iTH

to

changes with a

jy6 hyena.

Whenever

changes to

same word:

in the

'$')\^

Cf. also

In

17.

to

yb

Verbs

Palatals.

^W

cf.

But the

send.

for "'SS ( 174)

texts is probably

for

due

couple, the

*H;'nln3,,

But generally
Dentals.

becomes

j,

more probably = jj^


.

"Ijlfl

In

as
,

"'SX

of j to

changes to

"'S'^^IJ^Sl

vetch;

''D''T2"lp

^^vyT^^

^tTlipTp
in the

in the adjective ending

55

HN^^b

last, HSt^ap the first,

in verbs:

*!J5;n^b.'

"^

was

she

b.

elided.

is

31. 1 usually corresponds to

appears, even

the Libya?!,

n>{^tDn''i<

were changed, Col. MS.,'mQ., 25

^iH^^Tviif.

intervocalic

when

Arab.

and

c>

j,

but

corresponds to ^
Thus, '^T
then, now (182), n^T to slaughter'; i^iXl^n, KS'^;;! loss; ^}yc,

^T

Syriac

Cf.

nbS^n may
For

cit., p.

lament,

n\^\ii = jl'-iSn t,

is

this
41;

Hebr.

SOn'^'IT

.^

5<nn7 sorb-planta-

Brookelmann, Lex. Syr., add. ad

but with regard to


a

..

its

p. 112.

Assyrian equivalent,

fl

Hebrew

may be

change cf. Bibl. Aramaic tSjP'IX earth; in some dialects, cf. D. H. MtOler,
Noldeke, MG., 66; Munk, TM.'j?. 44, u. 127. Ethiopic SaqOqavja, o cry,

a Saph'el of *qOqaua

p2"l3

it

twigs;

K^3^T

stand for JlbSi'ttJ

German "koiken"
also

K^3'''^

Cf. prothetic fl in Syr. ]!"

original.

op.

dripping;

if^brj

"

*i<;:ap,

healed, Keth., 62 b;

"b
it'OTIJa,

to graphical errors.

Thus, n^'nnS the

occasionally

( 18), with i

dealers in vegetables;

30. Intervocalic

n^-.

The interchange with 3 frequently found

cakes.

balls,

j for ?

changes perhaps to 1 in

It

latter is

we have the change

i<!n'';3i^p

we have

interchange with 5 and

its

29. 5 and p frequently interchange:


!!in"i^Si^3

another

must have been originally

^JO it

28. j interchanges with

51. In
in modern Arabic and Syriac.
"^iVi to

is

have in a few instances passed into verbs

door-step;

K53T253

there

to laugh,

"Irtj

This would explain more easily

!'

inter-

it

3> ( =
^0)
=
=
Arab.
happen; i<3ij5 i^ySlSt

when

i<

^^

corresponds to Arab.

!?

Sometimes

16, 17.

cf.

[27

sibilant: i^np^p-^bn, iriwp''bp.'

27. y regularly

PHONOLOGY

II.

BG.,

IpW

to howl,

ed. princ.

Cf. Jaeger,

Syr.

]r^

Cf.

it

is

One

is

tempted to compare also Judeo-

diifloult to see

= ^22^

cast bubbles.

almond.

C/. 36.

BA., I., 489, IM.


Noldeke, UO., 4;i; D. H.

= ^-^OyO

although

Mllller, Inschr.

the historical connection.

Similar

is

the interchange of

von Scndschirli iOsq.,


,

63.

Cf.

T and

36]

CONSONANTS

tion;

W-nnt:,
i^rnt: M?ardro6e; HliST
tt::tt::t.

for itrT*lX 2/OMwgf gazelle.

1^

Arab.

In Kl

13

Hebr. nnin'n'; xb^lIX

t:'t.-

6ee,

( 185)

If^'^

corresponds to

it

In the following examples we have not an interchange of b


and ^ but a rare syntactical use of T which can be paralleled
in Assyrian: ^'l^'^a''! ^^h does it not mean to say, Col. MS., Zeb.
50 aj &()5D''S'7 ''"iblri'l i^l^T'l'] '"'liril and oxen for ploughing and
dates for trade, Sabb. 19 h.'^ In the first example there may also
be dissimilation due to the preceding llJ^b .'
,

32.

sionally

usually corresponds to Arab. Jo and Je

tS

it

interchanges with

corresponds to 'Omanee Arabic JLo

33.
dadianj

n sometimes

Liquids.

''ItlS

him

for irrigation, H. MS., B. B. 8

nummus,

85.

Cf. also

coin.
5

hide with Hebr. "OtJ

daughter,

ITllIl

MS., Sabb. 134

36.

"I

"1

''Itlb

b^VTQ

TT'lH sufficient

.'

Kfi^lb

Latin

iXpbS leech appears also as iXp^V

Compare

fowler.

Jj^SlC'^l

'i2,

in DTn23553 he

tlSl

also 'HSp to

would be in

similar change

changes to

But
9

"IS son,

but this

is

makes water, O.

V^S

Cf. also

CZ-.the variant in the

This

may be

in view of the fact that the

inJater literature:

Bag-

%21.

a.

graphical error.
\

it

in the precative parti-

for

a,

appears frequently as 1

Arab.

InHFTiljS the

he, for

they are identical with

if

Final

doubtful.

36.

changes to ^ in

In ybtJ

NFlS'^b turnip.^ ^6f.'&\^o

34. b interchanges with


let

^ti'a

but occa-

to limp.*'

interchanges with 1

^"^^Tp^, ^';y^y_; )X^ti'')

cle of the imperfect

and

thus, ^112

i,

alongside of

piBriS

change of

"I

a
to

J^f^

to Onkelos, Lev. 15:33

linbS = limS SG.

simply

29;

Srai^ =

niSlbbl

tor n^S'inb'l,

'lb ibid. 108; Spijl'^

and
'^b

ibid. 373.
3 The stock example for the interchange of 5 and 1 has always been HTX = 5TS
But from the fact that the word occurs only in two forms, iJ'^Tt? and ^"TS ^^ both genders, and only in the sense of the present, and used only in the set phrase H'^TOI^IOb fc^^TX
and only in a metaphorical sense, it is evident that such use of the word is only a piece of
school-wisdom, based on a wrong interpretation of a biblical passage. A root Tr&5 is a
mere fiction of our lexicographers. Later Hebrew literature abounds in parallels of a
similar kind. Suffice it to point to HDyS *o disclose, 1!SS2p end, and 35 tlSJlllfl grief. A
full collection of such words would be of considerable interest.
'

* Cf.

ST3''3 egg in Jer. Sebu., III. 34 d; but this

change of Jl to 12
6 For the same phenomenon
Hebrew-Aram. "THS to give.

cf.

may

also be equal to i^riJ^'S with

TG., ed. Harkavy, 55.

Cf. also Syriac

"\iJ and

,,

14

[3"^

PHONOLOGY

II.

change may in some cases


be phonetic. The physiological kinship between n and 1 seems
to be the same as between 5* ( = 5 ) and
1

attested in living speech/ such a

is

"I

37.

Tibn

changes to b in

On

T.

interchange with T

twelve (136).

'^G'b'n

tivo,

c/.

31.

stands for Arab.

^^

in ytSl to split''; JtlHjT clucking hen (connected with

make

noise, croak)

Arab.

vLa. to j^ass

D stands

38.

The

uo

for

perhaps Arab. Li^^^

is

through, cross,

to

Arab. Ill

vo

On

hope for.

wait,

in i:iD to

connected with

latter is

T^3

evidently connected with

is

cup corresponds

other hand ^Hio to

wound.

heat

to

KTISI

to

to

to

the

examine a

break open (said of

For its interchange with other sibilants cf. 21.


39. ^ interchanges with other sibilants (21), with a
It stands for Arab, u* in "]"l2 to he in need, "iSl to he
( 32).
few, yay to press together,^ y^iS to cry, shout =
fr''^^

an ulcer).*

^y^

to cast huhhles.
1

Maclean, Oram, of Vernacular Syr.,

From an

which appear
3

-'

Cf. also

original

in the various Semitic languages,

Hebrew DT3

locust

(')

6<J soil

rT'llST

2 p
.

among Persian Jews.

Cf.

ment

meaning from yJy^

put in orders -rJy^

and

nSiiC to

p. T\"''psq.).

V_j1.a5
*

6ooi;

from ^_/-0

p. 45.

Fraenkel, op.

cit.,

sew together.

^'i^'H book,

C/. later

pi.

mentioned in the Talmud

248; Earth, E. S., 26, 52.

collect, to

" <
vLa.^.
I

5\La-OT book

The developis

similar to

Hebrew 'Ji^JS ^oofc, compostKoTi,


u. Werke d. Saadjah Gaon,

compose, write a booh (vide Harkavy, Leben

There seems, therefore, to be no ground for doubting the Arabic origin of

as Fraenkel does (op. cit, 249).

^IDiO (Targ.)

to bear, carry, is closely

The same connection we

find in

zabftlu (Earth, S.,

50).

llSillil I'liin

Levy,

ISin and

cf.

'ISITC

= Arab. 5wO
5

to

I.,

' ".?

..'I

r?) books, Psalms, with 8JL^.^OT

as used

thatin i.jLXJ

Pratorins in SA.,

as second stem-consonant,

"

with ^jH'"^

to

"l

can be derived.

Through the intermediate form *Jt^ we get the form

of

cf.

and

with * iri"^ glutton; MiSnic !n^"\^3T receptacle with

'

-r

>--<*

For Ethiopic

121.

the forms with T

)S.<flJ all

^^0

connected with the idea of endurance, hope.

(Targ.) to carry, suffer, ensure.

Interesting variants to

TWb.

a. v.

^30

to an Arabic by-form

131D we find

The form "llID corresponds


vAJ

Similarly

a by-forra of 5*-A-0 pile, store of grain.

Earth, ES.,

1, 5.

Arab. i}^\

in the Targ. to

we

find

'

to Arab.

Hebrew

Assyr.

Psalm

96,8:

yyO

"13TB grain

CONSONANTS

44]
40.

interchanges with

'ffl

With

worth.

Labials.

In

22.

= Hebr.
:

in

15
bplT

bplH

to

weigh,

be

and 3

cf.

wash.

1 with

interchange of

Beth S^'an we have

for

53

iJ^S^p"!?

Arab. i^yijS-

Assyrian

'iby upon,

On

2.

in

T\

to

''ti'U

for 1UJ''a

]1L^)2

53

"^12)52

41.

3i|p"iy

42.
1

appears sometimes as

53

wes^/

i^'^'l^lX

!!<D''Sl'1''112J

cypress.^

1
53

sometimes as

changes to

in

lltlfinf Aph'elof -nn to return, B. Q. 81 b, and in "Si^Plip^ melting, Sabb. 110 6y in the plural endings of pronouns, nouns and
.

It stands for

verbs.

43.

words:

11

Initial

Wau,

rose and

!^'^"l1

terebinth.

!S53t5*lS

has been retained only in the following

woe! alas!

""I

its

in

''bi^l

proper (alongside of

''bl!*''),

XpTll tart, and in


has changed to ^

derivatives, HIJI meeting,

a few proper names.

In

all

other cases

it

DOUBLING.

44, Doubling takes place in traditional pronunciation


about the same way as in Syriac:
a)

As

characteristic of certain grammatical formations;

in

e. g.,

in the Intensive stems.


b)
c)

To show a double consonant; e. g., ''S3 5<53!!<


As compensation for an assimilated consonant;
,

e. g.,

iXC\'^

year, FIX thou.

for ^ibS u2Jon,

^1p_

To lengthen

e)

for a shortened long vowel;

As compensation

d)

''p?

(182).''
artificially a short

H'^^ father.
f) To preserve a short vowel;
X"i^R''Fl

e. g.,

e. g.,

^WB

mouth,

tongue, Arab.

,jUJ,

word;

SSIBi'

e. g.,

bridge, Assyr. tituru.

g) Doubling is retained at the end of a word in Ri^ thou, in


the pronominal ending of the participle, ri'^53S thou sayest, and in

Rabbi, usually pronounced

S"!
1

The Assyrian equivalent

TG., ed. Harkavy, i9, has


^

with the Syriac >05

py

or

Wn

^55
V T

for

{cf.

Jensen, ZA., X., 339 sg.) and

Lamed. 5511
1135
T
V

to see

may

S^I^S

stands

also be connected

of proper names in the old versions and in Josephus


e.g., Saddflk, Abessalam, Abennto, Annftn, for pIS,

shows us a
Dl5^llS.

But, in cases like Abessalam and AbennSr, the versions

taken Ihem to be composed of


4

amurrd

.*

The transcription
number of similar cases
3

"l2''Di5

is

S*l

C/. Nftldeke, Se., 23,

H.

pS

{=

'j3)

+ 01^ or 13

may have

16

PHONOLOGY

II.

[^^

Resolution of Doubling.
45. To judge from the cognate
doubling must have frequently taken place.

dialects, resolution of

In a case of resolution, the preceding short vowel was either


dropped, or lengthened, or retained intact by the insertion of a
liquid.
In the case of vowel-lengthening we can only know that

when the vowel changes its quality,


from pT)! to ''^'2. or from nflS to yaj? not otherwise.
Insertion of a Liquid.
46.
Inseetion op Consonants.

a resolution has taken place


as

a)

b)'

i:

Karn
T
'

ray, Pers.
c)

KTiaaK

nut.

feast;
^

pot;

Hflli^

t:-

^'^53
-:-

In the so-called Par' el forms:

mix, d'^ia to cut, pl^tl to imprison,


tiS"n2J

to

stretch oneself flat,

TliS'lS

or i<rniJp"lp shepherd's

i<ril2;3'l3

to roll; i^T^SriDi^ vice-

xt:-:

ustadar, and other words.

bPS

^^"1123

to shake,
to

let

blll"l5

to

hang down,

or TCp'^p to strike, tingle,

bell, Krifflana clod, iXi^'Tn

school-

boy, 'lip'l^p crop, craw.^

Note.
inserted

Assyr.

In words

of foreign origin

^pT233 he searched,

askapu = Arab

X13S peasant,

all

seems to be similarly

Tlj

Mandaic the same

oo

cf.

Assyr.

l!<33T2J^b<

iskaru

saddler,

= ikkaru^

before a /c-sound.

Insertion of tl
47.
tl is sometimes inserted in short
words in order to make them triconsonantal. Thus 'uTiy!^ fathers,

parents, plural of i^SK

bond-maid; ^{1^3 flashes

SfiaK bond-maid;
(i/'^ba), XtlpD mint;

^tlttii

the status of

"'nbir

end; Snil^pK

flanks; ^TUl'B^ mothers.


T T T

Insertion of a Semivowel. ^
or

'^

is

4:8.

In the plural of the noun

in a few cases inserted before the

ending of

]J<n'~

to

avoid an hiatus.^

assimilation.

49.

consonant

may be

assimilated to a preceding or fol-

lowing consonant either entirely or partially.


the partially assimilated consonant

may

consonant so that the resulting assimilation

Complete Assimilation.

50.

1.

In the

is

The

reciprocal.
J?

assimilated in the reflexive stems of verbs i^'S


1

latter case

influence the adjoining

Fleischer in Levy's Diet., IV., 484 6.


Cf. Sachau, Skizze des FelllcM-Dialekts von Mosul, p.
Cf.

15.

is

progressively

frequently

in

50]

CONSONANTS.

17

the Ithpe'el, more rarely in the Ithpa"al.'

was forbidden,

"iCFlX

was

healed,

up with wine (Meg.

^^iVpf) (M- MS. Er. 49 a,


once, for llll^ b^
In the

2.

from

"]X

regressively

is

are tired (A.

3.

^2

5<m3

726);

Z.,

assimilated

"''OTTIH

''alDi''i*b),

on the spot, at

IWa

not doubled.

is

in

A,

(eds.

name

for Jti''^^^

is

ttet/,

"jilS'^J^

10

Z.,

6),

/^ese,

''Sil

you

!lln''bFn2353

fo cm/ to pieces.

'^!J2i'^i^

assimilated in

is

6a/A

!!<WD53

(orig.

i<ln^Sa

6, i.^'CpbTil]

90);

itrin 6etoM;;

(^iS^nmS).

a certain dish

4.

assimilated in STirT^ij^

Dip seven, which stands for

mne, V. L. Taan. 13

ihid.

MS.

Col.

a proper

HS"^!"!

ma shovel, ^nrsibTIJ^b O. MS.,Sabb. 98

^m

6,

word the

last

tteir 6emgr dispersed

']in'1'^a

Tiiin

said,

y^V/Z

was

eds. ^bipb]3^xb), IFlbs

whence for

Thus, tZTiH^ was said,

Ht.'lUTliii.

that have been born (Ned. 30 6), ^53i5a''b

fl''b''^'n

cheer oneself

to

he sighed,

nSFlJ^

6,

was done.

3TI3*:=sabbu

Col. MS., Zeb. 60a,

= sab'u.

tissue tis'u.^

for

Similarly

hyena, for

452!!^

(27). '^a^^ ( = '?^'i<) Ool. MS., Zeb. 6 a6, 14 6, "^a^n


20 6; ''^''50 i6id. 18 6.
By progressive assimilation i^^Sa

ferry, J^^^S/J ferry-man.

many forms

b is assimilated in

5.

ascend: p&^b

pS^n

for pbp'-b

of the verb

pbD"'!;!

in

pbO

go up,

to

"S upon ( 170)

J^np^T

sharp-shooter 7/ pit or pbl


5 is

6.

/ace,
"]3&/.p

Ji-ry

assimilated in
goat,

V. L. Pes. 3

6,

thou,

Pi;^

^w/e,

!!<3113,J5

'y\T\'i^

in verbs i"S

woman,

ye, Ktiriii^

t/ear,

l^FlllJ

b^t352

and in verbs

oil

KSiSl

account

of,

i"b before 5^j", 12";

also in ~12 from.


7.

is

^52p before, ^PC\D six,


8.

tl is

!J53"'X

(=!j53 n^i?

"j'^rTOJ

the ban,

//lere

^^);

ts

Cf.

C/.

Haupt, SFa.,
Haupt, 5FG=.,

t/e

/loZd, eds.

M. Q. 17 ay
(553

tl^X)

T\T\^^

553^b

10, 1

10 1.

by analogy, before

AEV.,

10.

^rs/,

Pes. 110 6; i^TlSlIJ

hast pleased, Hull


(sic)

in the reflexive stems not

dentals or sibilants, and,


1

sixty;

assimilated in ^t3^p2

I put him under


187 6;

M. MS., Er. 146, i^ap


"K Mn/i7 (182).

assimilated in ^'^IS Aeaj),

''"15'

all

ttere
or

?s

'^'5^5

consonants

tiot

before
:

"iifN

18

PHONOLOGY

II.

was

sold, "inrj^ took heed, SffiSnB'^K

made profit,
9.

inserted"!; Nt'nSm = ]. v^,= Assyr.

Partial Assimilation.

H^'^Sy pot,^
b) j

is

ri

verbs T"2

in

J^ri^j^lJT

-Q

in

is

i^'jiuJii

Heb.

glass,

to ^ in

partially

partially assimilated to

tanners,

{^^^), ^?^^

gusuru.

Assyr.

joist,

ri-'S^jT

i^jb^MB for i^J^riiS

twist, ^'V'^'p

i4rii2;^"l3

assimilated to

"itliT'li^

To S

of a place.

.^

in the reflexive stems of

it

seemed small, 'En Ya'aq. Sanh. 95

in btOp to

small, (56), -nti^n

was necessary,

(92), Hebrew

TjC"2

and

a.'

""^"^li

proud,^

^fSTs'l

or ^Z'uZ

truth.

Js^^^C^p

j"/3

52. o)

,'

name
To "
To p:

"iJti^K he grieved.

assimilated to a liquid in Hb""'^ cradle,

Reciprocal Assimilation.

a.

white spot, and in

"ifj^tD

"To 1: in b -ib^jrib,' lifasi B. B. 8

SD^'Elp small,

kill,

is

)!am

in Xp'^^ti excuse,

T(^1ti2"'!!5

in nnt: to press.

d) D

salamtu.

in Xy^^t: Arab.

b and 1:* in Xtlb^T hod,

verbs 2"S

N and

ItT^rX he took heed, p^jVifl. he attended, and with-

out transposition

To

tamgaru;

with prothetic

a measure!'

i^bi^iy

a certain bird,
c)

"S

assimilated to

is

and M

Assyrian

51. a)

and D, and becomes

S to

^'T^TT^ they

artisan, Assyrian "^dimgallu,

S^bS'^TiK

ti, ::

was persuaded,

a. o.

assimilated in X'^aFl merchant,

is

':;

[51

first

Here belong

assimilated to

";;

then 5

But they may also be


T
In X"Il7 outfit, Assyr. gubatu, zubatu,
two parallel forms.
dress, 2 is assimilated to '2 then
to T 3 becomes 1
nZ"^ to
prepare still occurs as variant to 'l^T
to

Similarly iSSTS for

iJtStlS

ITI

Cf.

Cf.

ib^DDy

Fraenkel,

Cf.

nTa^ay

something to

b^3y digestion, PptDy kotoAuo-h, I'i'l^y


Arab. t^yXA^.^ Ascalon. Assimilation of 3

Kislev,

131:3

69.

Palestinean Otiy Aph. of CITO

concervs.
8

bundle.

white.
to

taste,

ifXT^S Jiunk,

In later literature

"237

occurs in PiDpI? retention.

Kvvriyo,.

iCf. Barth, E,S.,3Ssq.


''

Cf.

Targ. and Syr. b3~l1TS{

*']T''1t3

(JwLle

"

"

.-:

Cf.

mind.

w^-y.AA/!
I

or '^01113 is in form

to be out of
"

to he insane.

Barth, ES.,

33, 51.

In later

Hebrew

have met with 13-"aT;

and etymology identical with Arab. ijLii-Lb, from

For the development

ot

moaning

cf.

'X'Ti''

proud and Arab.

CONSONANTS.

55]

6)

sonant.

19

sonant and a surd sometimes change to a surd and a


ln"'"iSi(

sulphur (Hebrew) appears as

nunciation was probably in both cases

tT'"l3l3

The

pro-

alike.'

DISSIMILATION."

of

53. In words containing two identical or similar sounds one


them is usually dissimilated when the word is in frequent use.
1. b dissimilates to T in SFlb'^B'lB pepper, Col. MS., Meg. 7 bj

to

in accn: bread; xbrT'S to

to T in

(^177);

J^Tba^S

J^nbO'lX widow (through an intermediate *J^nb'obs

may be yCH

stem

mixture of

5<ri''bS'^^'.2

dissimilates to ^ in "p^ri

2. 5

3.

^ dissimilates to b in xbS"lin wild ox;


T T

4.

1 dissimilates to

ln''3'"iTi

ants.

dissimilates to

5. tJ

ti,1i^jT\

second)
rocket.

To

b in

be connected loith his descend-

in KH^tsiS spark, alongside of

in

but the

Bagdadean.

in nj^rT'IjS the

KjX pS'^'^Uib that I should


M. MS.,' Pes. 49 a.

black.

i^b''5'iii
T
; -

T\

and

two (but

"iTl'^n

lohite

slice,

Ht2''t3iSl.

VANISHING OF CONSONANTS.

Initial consonants.

54. a)

is

and in the imperative

S^^M another,

dropped

in

of i^lnS to

~tr\

S^n

come and

otie,

blS^

to go.^

dropped in some forms of the imperative Qal of verbs


following the analogy of the imperfect.
is

D
D

"S

55.

Within the word,

b)

there is not, from

IT'ii ifb

in a preceding vowel: iiJT'lin


bull,

head,

tillj'^"!

is

!n

quiesces

sprout,

It is
1

Cf.

Cf.
Cf.

ahursanu,

liriD

ii'T^ wild

Kln^TB

iiri";

''iTliri

It is

riD^n

(124).
a certain bird

SD'^liJ'I^N

beneath, below.

Arab, ^^^^ji

= Assyr.

Syr. ]xLho, Arab. ^Ui^I, ringdove.

JO*

In

a preceding vowel in J^I^IT favoring,

verbs.

Haupt. BA., I., 3; W. B. H. (Hebraica, I., 231).


Haupt, AEV., XII., 17-20; W. B. H. {.Hebraica,
Hebr.

StT''15<l'iFl

It quiesces

elided

syncopated in

or

SH.

nX~ (82).

we, ''Ht] one another,

"'JH^

aharsanu,

1''bs

also

syncopated in
in

from

form, from

in J4"S

especially

in the adjective ending

elided in contractions: fT'i

is

i^

'pbil those,

22i sq.).

I.,

O J
,

yO

Syriac jj.

ll-

20

PHONOLOGY

II.

IW

to visit,

Arab.

.J^^

to be

and

in 1t:^T small,

!3>

'p'^l

Dp^S

a,

to

In

(136).

root of

from

"jiS

( 56),

to do.

'13''7J

^D''^ri

MS. Zeb. passim,

Col.

a,

^ST with infixed

bread, and quiesces

eleven,

^D'^'Tlj

e.,

i.

i^SplSt ring, b^PS^'l

we wow/.

$'"2

few verbs

to double,

C|W

"l^3>),

pronounce incorrectly, Ned. 16

^t25>T = ^riyT

compound numerals

in the

to stick in,

awake (secondary

syncopated in

It is

t\.

is

It quiesces also in a

MS., Zeb. 60

Col.

vowel in some verbs whose


tW to exude, I^D

56. y quiesces in a preceding

second stem-consonant

[56

twelve, etc.

for "|5?^.

upon ( 174).

g'",
separate
elements g or
then the
The g in this case first became
u were lost.' Perhaps belong here T2J31I3 and TZJUlTZJ ?
57. J is lost

in

5<1^T

pair, scissors, and ""SX

58. b quiesces in "l!pip KaXa/xapwy,

"I

quiesces in the preceding vowel in ""Sp^p worms, i/p^p

compound H'lra

and in

dropped in a few participles of Pa"el:

M. 73 o; "jl^m^^ Yeb.
Pes. 53 b, and others.

I3''53lp
D is

syncopated in

rtTlTTS/p

dropped in

59. 1 is

!!<3^U5

Levy's Neuli. Wb.,


is true,

then

sorb-biish, ior

a.

!!>1J

in

^S),

W^'^iS! i" say.


is

/J

from

for J^ST 1^^ (or origin'! UtTin

vine, B.

M. MS., Sabb. 80

the

in

at,

60.

o)

b;

4=1

makes water
312

III.,

^1233123

trim the

MsVb.

Q. 48 ay

[sibi)

(If Fleischer's opinion given

ear.

b,

may come from

i{3^!!

"p^O M.

that

T interchanges with

J({D1^>5

= iJ<5"^K

) .'

In KrTlT

mr}1J

Final consonants.

ceding vowel in stems ^"b

!!5

V'b

and

and
"""b

quiesce in the pre-

The two former then

The appears in a few forms, especially before


and J are generally retained, but are treated in a
few verbs and nouns like !!^. Thus, !!<5rt = r!3j to rumble, V in
!!<''55
mint, i^'^'yifi. argument, "T2 to break, "'Hti to sink, "^13 to
pass into

"""b

suffixes.

t\

"^

tvound, ""CS to spoil,

"^3113

to slant,

"'pTIJ

to sink,

^'^^'^{)2t^\ti^

to

have

identified.
1 Thia phenomonon
XXII., 107.

But

For a change of

Perhaps also

it

may

is

frequent in Indo-European languages,


to

cf.

Praetorius, BA.,

in the Palestinean

also be a shortening of

proper

Nnb'^X

I., 44,

Cf. also

and Maclean,

name ijnbl

or contraction of

for

Nrilbl

Snby^

Fraenkel, op.

cit.

106.

child, as in Syriac.

Cf. also g 116. 119.

,,

CONSONANTS.

67]

some forms

61. ^ quiesces in

tive Qal: Stt^i>5,

21

of the imperfect

i^a^'b, i<^"'5; S'J'^y!

!!*'^^ri,

M. MS., Ber. 42a, acp he

and imperaIn

l/^a^5 fo say.'

H. MS., B. M.,
Asherj perhaps also in "'W-iJ^ is superfluous, but'this may be ''ri''."'^ (M. MS., Sabb. 64a)."
62. b is dropped in some forms of blS^ to go: i^TiS; he went,
iX^W he sent,

86 a; in

iXO^I small, ''IBS

M. MS., B. M. 101
MS., Pes. 110 6;

MS., Pes. 104


fo/oes,

"'I^IIJ

63.

"'"iri

may

^yQ

two,

for 13

K. MS.,

Mem.

2 a;

''T

go. Col.

he took, Qidd., 81

two hundred,

'^TH^IZ

^"l

^^'C!A

they say,

''S

The
^ for '^; )!&2 for 1^5^: (90).
loses its 3 only in one case: rniS71''b

"iv

is

is

feminine nouns:

of

state

is

"'^rilJli

or

"'^fllS

another, ^n5H

not retained even before suffixes in W^inj^b

Sabb. 119

late,

go,

he goes. Col.

he caught,

-I

matrimony;
it

him

"TIS:

M. MS., Sabb. 43 h.
dropped in J^IS^'H for ll^'^'l (159).'
dropped in ""S house, ISSlIJ Sabbath, week/ in the abso-

64.
lute

MS., Pes, 111 6;

Col.

h, M. MS., A. Z. 3 a;
In ^bp for ^tp light.
dropped in the dual and plural of verb and noun,

In

feminine plural ending


they

6,

let

''T''?

h!'

Tl"iri

"3

between,

103

h,

MSS. Sukk. 52 h.

D is

'^Dri

locked,

a, t^^''&Stb

RasI Sanh. 101 6; and

is

to heal him,

to

do

^np^'^SSb to try them,

usually apocopated in the sing. fem. of

verbs in the participles and the perfect.

85

65.

'2

86

a,

6,

apocopated in ^n again, b^Tlip bleio, MSS., B. M.


Rasl Taan. 24 a; ^D5 marnes, "Col. MS., M. Q. 3 6,

is

MS., Zeb. 5 a.
53 is dropped in many forms of D^p to stand: ^p''i5, ^pTI
ilp^b, ^p^5; ilp stand thou. Col. MS., M. Q. 25 6, M. MS., Sanh.
95 a; "-Sp", iXp^ stands; iHTy^ I stand. Col. MS., Zeb. 19 a, 5''pi7J
I explain, ibid. Pes. 90 a; lri''ln''pi>5 1 explained it, ibid. M. Q. 25 a.
Here the suffixed forms are derived from the apocopated forms.
67. JJilfia is^rillS desolaTkansposition of Consonants.

"03 Col.

66.

-^t;.t:.

tion; istm'a, i^'^ia

Sb^S^P

ef.

itrp^li

SiaS

Of.

The verb HT55

&5;n^3

says, 'Anan,

Hebrew

to

C. Lovias,

others.

quoted by Harkavy in MWJ., 1893, p. 225.


perhaps an Aph'el of bti?. For the development of meaning

and Syriao

IJIJ)

C/. i!3i?1'T3 TG., ed. HarJ^avy, g 181.

i Cf.

and

shuttle;

''<* is

nbyH pEn
,

water-course; KCSQ, Stisb chest; i(3^b"p


t:t:t'.

AJP., XVI.,

34.

C/. also 37.

22

PHONOLOGY

II.

VOWELS.

B.

ImAle. Pathah.

[68

68. Original

meat, KDpTT

Xnffljl

Satan,

Thus, i^nCB Passover,

first

syllable of the perfect Pa'el

is

or a guttural:

51 hj

iXTpT]) floiir,'

istbT'^ foot,

time,

iii.':^'']

garden;^ in the preformatives of the imperfect Qal; in the

iXTQ"^^

"I

and intermediate

in closed

syllables frequently changes to i (or e).

vexed Qidd. 70

"ly'^S

Sot. 4 h;

him

(132^^5 let

cool her

the perfect

72

ibid.

sellest,

IT'iilTa

fl^^'S'lS^

him lower

let

it,

Sabb. 67 a;

hast killed, ibid.

tT'bp)?

59 b;

breakest down, B. B. 4 o; in

fl^"iri&

placest, B. Q. 114: aj in the first syllable ol

the Aph'el "l/irp tlTi taught, A. Z. 3

6,

^bp^a"! //la^ he shout,

B. B. 5 a; 'iin'uJ^xb fo ma/ce loa/er, B. B. 19


unfit. Pes.

separated himself.

B. B. 74 bj in the enclitic pronoun

off,

a,

lessened, B. Q.

l33'"'52

lii'TQ

59 b; in the second stem-syllable

fT'Fl'')n"'b

M. 51a,

hast bought, B.

iT^Daj

Ned. 62 a;

h,

DiT'3 roared, 5ull.,

of the imperfect in Pa'el

when the second stem-consonant

hroiight near,

g. i"l"'p

e.

&y'"'biDS''i<b to

make

15 6 (fragm. ed. by Lowe).

Long Qdmeg.

69. Original long y53j5 at times changes to


Usually so when a has arisen in consequence of the
quiescing of an N bS'^Fl, ^'J^n, b^rn, bir:3 15J''52 CSrj from
original bSSri*, 'll^Nn*, b^kri*, bSMib*, 'l/i'j^'a*^ WXa* '(primae (or t).

rily

'Xn, 'i(^);

inf.

from

^nn^-^ri

"ni"!

wj/ii/e,

words

18 6;

to return,

^naS^n

like them.''

M. MS.,

/lead

kip^'l

fo toez^/i, be worth, Ar.

for'^TSt^'n*;' ^bpi?^a

^^^Jj-'M fo s/wd^/,

sraaZZ,

"ton"''!

^p"'';'!"'^

(223); and perhaps


j7

.'

kind of imal6

in the plural
is

B.

?iei,

^pS

"'^""'13

M. 73 a;
and other

yoiir vessels, garments,

are 'frisky, Sabb.


"-bitsp

of

inf.

great, "'nS^^T sma/Z,

their deceased parents or relatives, B.


also in the infinitives ^b'it:p

H6r. 12 a;

Ar. 23 a; "'nin, "mri

6ZacA;, "na"]

"'p^T

Pes. Ill b;

32 a;

M. 70 a;

''bicipH

^rT'^p^-'-JJ

man.

'!Z5''j''it

"'bitipnx

So

'bitapns

ending of the verb


'

V"

for

diphthongization (80).

Some

of these forms may be regular by-forms.


Barth takes the ending Ipl to be identical with the pronominal element we find in tlie
Ethiopic pronoun ie'etl {ZDMG. 46, 688, u. 1). In Mandaic this appears as tS
(Noeldeke,
MQ. 154) in Palmyreau it has the form Htl (Hal6vy, Mahbereth, p.
in Arabic
'

n"0)

15^"
is

'

'

IS^

'

'

"^"^

^^ would

noteworthy that this ending


3

So

in

this theory explain the masculine

in appears

form

imrj ?

It

only in adjectives.

Modern Arabic the nominal ending 5-^

is

pronounced

are pronounced ramS, cf. also the transcription of Aramaic 8,


op. cit., XVII.). For a similar change in Amharic, cf. Praetorius,

!,

such forms as

,_*

by Arabic d (Fraenkcl

Amhar. Sprache,

p. 23.

VOWELS

73]

23

Obscueation of a. 70. The obscuration of & to o, so


Hebrew, is rare in the Talmud. t5''i3n study,
*l5''^lni''P^B your weekly lessons, Ber. 8 bj Nlninil myriads, K. MS.,
Sanh. 2Qa {his); ^'V2 my lord, P. MS., Ber. 586.' The nominal
ending dn is at times obscured to 6 or U under the influence of
the n.
iXiW^'^ dried ears of corn; KjiTn!J( bed-room, XDVOj
characteristic of

trial.

Vocalic Epenthesis.
com. and the

The

71.

final

vowel

fem. sing, and the final U of the

2.

3.

of the first

masc. plur. of

the perfect influence their preceding vowel and are themselves

Thus,

apocopated.

becomes

qat(a)l(a)tl

q(a)t(a)let,

contracted

q(a)t(a)llt,

or

q(a)t(a)lu

qat(a)lait,
IT'bpp

or

and

tT'btip

becomes q(a)ta"l contracted to q(a)t5l bittp (232, 243).' The pronominal suffixes
akhi thine (f.), akha thine (m.) and ahi his, become a*kh,
a*kh, a^h and contracted, T|t, tjT Ht. The last form ahi
for ahu or ihu, is due to analogical influence.
An equivalent
form ihu became by transposition uhi (c/. ""(IttX his father)
and in analogy of the latter such a form of ahi was formed.
Influence of Consonants on Vowels. 72. The quiescence
of one of the consonants H 1
n )! y, or T lengthens the
preceding vowel.
Thus Xa"'X I say (for '-ia5<X*) K^"^1 her
head (for nuj>^^*) ''jp he went (for ^jp* = sagir); inrj to do
(for nayp); XDa for"nia it rumhledj"-''jp^'p for ''Dp'l^'p worms.
The same is the case when any other final consonant disappears;
Similarly, the perfect

*lbt3p

"i

as XpTT, SyJ3,

i^nt^^'^I,

for bpTi:

rnrS,

(159); "N for

inS-'^J

]i^if''

73. The neighborhood of an 5? sometimes produces imalfe:


four, ^x^^n eleven {=^y^iian), x^an^5 (? isyn-^K),

^yn"ii<

On the other hand, 1 and the gutturals m,


itma).
y change a preceding short vowel e, i, or ic, to a: IS son
(nn), 7tl"in two, (l^n*), ^)Tb he says, {^p^)*), ^T^ knows,

Ip'^rmj

'y

rt,

t^jiS

is late, "I52i^

says, niT slaughters, with

and

I'say (for HJI^JX)


'

Cf.

Of.

"iTa BG.,
,

TG.
blHD
T
.

Still

407, 417.

ed. Cassel, 41

*in2!il

Jastrow,

But

person for

1.,

X5?''2i2J

I was

for

satisfied. Col.

i.

But

i<3''7-N

MS., Meg^ 7

h.

the T In some cases may simply denote VIDp not 05171


ibid. 41, and G. Hoffmann, ZDMG. 32, 737.
.

JJTatSi
T

s.

v.

HUD

reads Nidd. 56 a

this is a mistake.

As

is

^133

/ swept, which, in his opinion, stands for


we have here "T^BS 3.

evident from the next page,

a frequent occurrence in the Talmud.

24

PHONOLOGY

II.

74.

The neighborhood

times a (or i) to

in the cognate dialects.'


KTrn^ll
Hi.'np'^'n

honey,

of a labial or of a liquid obscures at

This phenomenon

(or o).

ii

man

^412^3
'

a weaving, Sabb. 58

m^Byi^ rain-shower,

i!i,T'^'y\Q

katah,

Note.

In

+ mimation.
to

l^bb^li^

grain of seed,

of a gazelle;" mjjp^a inf.'Qal of ^ICp


lnn^3 Pers.

more frequent

i^nT^in date-palm,

shade,

a, ^b^Xi

is

(already in Bibl. Aram.),

leaven,

vine,^ ^"B^tH

iCS^IS,

['^^

wine-pressing,

IS^b'^T'l^i*

the

young

Yeb. 40 ay

to he difficult,

a certain dish.'

D^S mouth, we have an original nominative ^Q


In the first syllable of 5<b^T"l^>5 we have an attempt

render the Arabic p


Fluctuating Vocalization.
.

Some words

75.

fluctuate in

and it is impossible to tell which is the original


Thus iidm web appears also as ^bm HTb^Tifi i^Fibm

their vocalization,

form.
or

ribm, and'sipym;

kind 'of doves,

Jf^bS^l^

Nl^W

'y??/,

and similarly many other words.*


Shortening of Long Vowels in Closed Syllables. 76.

appear also as

t^b^'^iS

5<n"l^'^

In the traditional pronunciation long vowels in closed syllables are


shortened.

from rinS
i^'iria

most marked in the case of V'2'p as it differs


Ashkenasic pronunciation. Thus,
p'12^
are pronounced J^'^tlS

This

is

also qualitatively in

1'''l5p^

Compensatory Lengthening.
ing takes place in

Nb''/J53

77.

Compensatory lengthena proper name, for ^SS<

'Q^'^5<

(77, 90),

= fim^_; c/.77), f^^r^J its branches,


M. MS., Pes. 111b, for n^S^ = n^Sp of eds.; ^T'^n', for ^211 =
( 119) rr-D^b"'';'!'^ that they may lift him up, 2 M' MS., M^ Q. 28^6,
for f^'^i^b'l'n
i^lSiS star (through an intermediate kakkabu);
(=Arab.^t), !^T^^

liar,

;^

i^FTllSiiir!

trumpet; HCm^rD chain;

''b5''3

Xbi^2 a kind of doves; KFlbp'^p dung -hill;

sesame; ^XZ'Wt or

)X^'T''^

fly; i^^b^lb

partridges;

Ss^/JTIJVJJ

iii'^nij'iuj

67-ides-

man; i^l^bib^ ( = Kl''blb^ gaph'el of J^i'^blb).


Heightening and Depression of Vowels.

heightened to o in a
It

Cf.

bbp!!<

btOpD

78. Short
,

Long

must be remembered that some of the forms with u may be by-forms.


Noeldeke, MG., 17 sq., ZDMO., XXII., iS5 Dalman, op. cit., 65.
Cf. Fraenkel, Fremdw., XVII. G. Hofimann, LCB., 1881, Col. 416, 1882, Col.

final syllable

is

is

Cf.

or

chain;

)XPb^''ii

palm-branch;

)!d'l'^1

Noeldeke,

SG. Hoffmann,

320.

ilfG., 15.

ZDMG.

32, 754, cites

Bar Hebraeus

to Ezr. 16:24, gaibl'S for

gabbS

VOWELS

80]

25

sometimes pronounced U as in Western Syriac.


the case in infinitive forms ''b^tip ''b^tOp etc.
,

and pronominal

suffixes

"WK

I'iSK

V]T}^

This
;

regularly

is

pronouns

in the

^H", tt~; in the per-

vowel b^tip (71); in the names of


frequently in the plural endings of the verbs

fect with transposed final

the letters ^iT

C|^p

'"b: ^5n, !l5r\^, etc.

Final

e,

B,

his wife,

^Tl'Ti'^^.'l

Diphthongs.

Tlin, new,

lit.

tion; while in

etc.,

the one of his house.

79.

the latter has retained

is

is frequently pronounced i:
and in a few other cases; e. g.,

not plural ending,

if

they, Tl'in,

''ty^'^^

In diphthongs whose second element

diphthongs whose second element


Thus,

Kfl"'']!!!

house,

is 1

tread-

thong thus reappears is only incidental.


a) I and e: ^D'^^iFT'lS^ &^";in^i5 I became
145 b;

!i<125l)'^

are

80. The vowels t, e, a, change someThe vowels 6 and il to au. That an original diph-

Diphthongization.
at.

the latter

iXTi^'^lp'S, last,

pronounced baitho, bathraitho, but N^1t2 roast,


ing, )Xp^'\/\ exactitude, tavyo, dafso, dafko.
times to

''

vocalic force in traditional pronuncia-

its

pronounced as H or S

is

D'')'2''^!!^

was

satisfied,

B. Q. 113 b;

sick,

M. MS., Sabb.

'^V^}^

she committed

adultery, Sanh. 106 a; b""^^ clear, Sabb. 23 a 'Aruch; p''^^


pounded, Bega 14 bj t\'"''b connected, ^u\\. 11 a; ^'''^'2, bound up,
b''''3 measured, ibid. 105 b; '''T'';^ are bound up, B. M. 24 b, 108 bj
-pITO 34) H. MS., B.B. 8 a.
!!<D^^'q grit; "p^lTO ( = b^I'lS
,'

^^b''|'ys<

ibid.

she brought up, Sabb. 116 6;

124 bj

lAT^^^W

M. 49 b; Ki^^ip i

sow, Keth. 103 b;

shall cut down,

M.

i^S-'^Sri

they loere soiled,

cover,

MS.,' ibid 107 b;

MSS.

B.

rT'ri^';E)b

cursed him, B. B. 21 b; ^^''53 thou buildest, B. B. 4 a; n^^'Ciba

thou cursest, Sabb. 151 b;

upon, Yalq. MS.,

"'''ibS'

Col. MS.,

and

fl''"'t:^y5

YQma'83

thou hast brought, Ber. 9 b;

6; '^"'^^^V or ST'^lby

Meg. 7 a and elsewhere; the possessive

d:

''2'^i!:^;'1

M. 83 a;

'

= 15553) we are hungry,


as they are wet{sibi) ( = fT^pria^St)

kind of dove;

n''5n''"'52'^!J5

as long

]T'Z''^'2

Pes. 1116.
1

iqwu him.

suffixes ^D'^7

ilt-!^7.'

b)

B.

''i^C'liri!!^

Cf. 'Il'll

TG., ed. Harkavy, p. 5

IDIT

ibid., 33, n. 10.

26

PHONOLOGY

II,

pinnacles;

''^^^'^'2^

u, 6:

c)

skein J

thorn)

JiSIViIJ

'}!lT\'''JT\^^'^

[81

Kfflll'H

passage, habitj

{ = 'AT:r"rfi-^) food;

SS^bbll'^

iiplll exactness.

Transposition of Diphthongal Elements.


81. The elements
of a diphthongized vowel are sometimes transposed, the a-vowel

being placed after the

or

?(.-

orchards; ^1'^^^,

'''^^''3.

t:

-.

landlord;

rich

'

In such a case the

vowel.

usually consonantized and the

first

lengthened:

)it,T'''^'^ pullet; itn^HT,


tt-;tt:--*-

last are

^"IXS,

''T'^21

U^inh'^T,'^ i^l'iWii^T

armory;

tt-:t:

tt-:.

1^TCV\T\'''2

plural

't
n^^;iiri^3 fine linen shirt; )iC^^W2 5<^Xin7J poker; IT^'-t: 155^T''"'t3
Iti-It:-tt;-;
tt;
tt;proud fool; i^Tr"'";^ J^m^M proper name; X^VCS (n'-siba,
i<5"'T"!^t:

T:

i<D"'"'T^^t:

tt;:

nisiaba),
^:X^p^p;

XJ^'^I'S,

(sariqa),

"iTirToJ

(nasSra),

.\|^ ^)

CoNTEACTiON OP VowELS.
This

-first,

!!<"^ri!3

silk,

X3''|)"inp

t:t

as

82. a'(3 is contracted

sometimes
X^Sp

Snnb
T -

M.

Q. 12 6), X'^Sp

below, beneath;'^ \'i^


It T

^Luzzatto's objection

Rabh of ArekhQ,^

stand for

(Syr

''3Xbi>5inzJ

is

Adiabenean, X2^b the Libyan,


X'T'II,"
^
tt:t
t
Nehardean (Keth. 54 a, a. e.), X"2^X the

the

Note.

this

last, tXy^'^Ti the

Xb^yb above,
T

Jt^'bllTIJ

to

especially the case with the adjective ending.

is

heathen (Coi. MS.,

passim.

Akin

^S^Kp^lp,

woman (=ny3i!n).

lewd

to a.

^SlJ^j^^lp,

(sah6r).'

the consonantization of the ?*-vowel in


)

XjDX;?, v,; i^'lllaS

Xi?^;"I^T2:

nXS''"liS!

and explains

it

falls to

if
(
^

it

mean

= "i52>a)
Itt t '

the Cypriote,

Col.

MS., Zeb.,

to the explanation of Xi'^IX

XSX

the ground, since XD''"lX might well

Jastrow in his dictionary vocalizes

by one who arranges arguments, a

X5'''^K

lecturer.

In

such a case, however, we should rather expect the word to be


For although such forms may be found in
X5"1X not Xi'''1iS;
the Targumim
cf. e. g. Levy's Diet, on the Targ., s. v. "115
,

they may, in every case, be explained as scribal errors, or as


learned affectations.
And even if the word could be grammatically defended,

its

extremely rare occurrence (I

know

of no

Talmud) speaks against its being in general use, and


could not have stood the wear and tear of an ignorant populace

case in the
it

IC/. MiSnic (SBB), D1';B, D1';S5S, OS^'^^B, and i^ni'lDp.


'arftnu, hi'alAuu, for zir&nu, hllftnu.
2
3

With the two


0;). ctt.,

64c.

last words,

some such word as K^i!

Cf.

also Assyrian zi-

side is to be understood.

VOWELS

85]
through centuries.

^_^ by

explains that

but which

tall,

It will,

moreover, be observed that the Talmud

which

generally taken to

mean

Dr. Jastrow explains as well-arranged,

ivell-

'^'V'^

is

Whatever that may mean, and whatever we

halanced, thinker.

may

27

think of the Talmudists' etymologizing, one thing

that they read

is

certain,

Nobody would

as a passive participle.

S^S'^l^t

ever think of denying them the knowledge of a correct pronun-

mother tongue; hence, any explanation


offered must be based on the form tt5"'"lK
For other explanations of the name cf. Muehlfelder, Babh, p. 1, note; Goldammer's
note to his English translation of Luzzatto's grammar, 64;
Kohut, Aruch Completum, s. v. t]i''"1&5 Weiss, Zur Geschichte
derjUd. Trad., III., 147, note 3; HehdMg, ix, 18 sg.
83. Diphthongs are usually contracted in verbal forms: au
ciation of their living

contracts to 6; ai, to

g, I

taught,

hangs,

sees,

'Tfl

''bri

)5" clean, "(5^3

we want,

MS., Ber. 28

and

a,

(or d).

D"'!niX

Col.

MSS. passim,
In nouns:

others.

he placed,

throwest,

'''^Tpn

'y(r\''^3,

^J5''^)h

!!4b"'T1^X

"tfil^

they

you asked,
i^ray,

young

M.

gazelle,

ilJltl'^l''] his wife.


In qatl and qatal forms it
sometimes contracted, but quite as frequently uncontracted.
The later state is probably due to subsequent diphthongization

Syriac pi^^a^;
is

Thus

(80).

Km

t;-^(and

veil,

i^niS death,
house,

xn"'a)

Xln''"'a

tucket.

olive,

t---'

In the plural ending

X^^''^

ai{^Q,)

t:-

m\r\ thorn; but Xa-^H


inn,

''TB3^M

b{i''"'T

t;-

men,

arms, xbli'n

"'iii^

t;-

stones, 'h'Q

words.

Retention op Disappeaeing and Insertion of New Vowels.


In some cases original a in an open
84. Pretonic Qameg.
syllable before the tone is lengthened to a, as in Hebrew.
Thus
84111133, Assyr. gasuru, joist (the variant ISIlTUS corresponds

to Assyr.

for

"'Tri;

gusuru);

MdhQzQ,; '^'t'\ or ^TNJl proper, fit,


MS., Meg., vocalizes hz), for '^:p

!!<Tin/J

'jO hateful (Col.

?I''"l2
J{ji/J53 money; 1^1231353 Magian}
Other
in open syllables are sometimes
short
vowels
85.
retained and probably lengthened.
This is especially the case

T)^"i2i

necessary, for

;.

1 C/.Targumio pra,
tylHtt, l^Vy^O), Nnnit2p,> "^TrQ- Most of these nouns are
evidently loan-words in which an effort is made to retain the original a sound. Cf. also

Syriac

Hebrew

|ZaL all
jja^^ p'~ -^
nSH io encamp does not exist in

loan-words.

(A verb \2.m in the sense of the

any of the Aramaic languages.)

28

PHONOLOGY

II.

[86

with verbs which retain at times the full vocalization of the 3d


masc. sing, in the lengthened forms.
B. B. 8 a;

ilDi"i33

^pi^?b

let

them run away,

them study, P. MS., Ber. 13 b;

let

siT'lSb let

them do, B. B. 156 a; nb'^'ffia she cooked, Ned. 66 b; ]TpTiS^b let


him redeem us, Sanh. 105 b, and others.' H'lllJ' deed; 5t'nt2''T2
(But c/.
document; Slnnb"'i2 megrim; S<D^i3 cluster of dates.
92.)
vowels are sometimes found which differ from the
Thus, the preformatives of
original in whose places they stand.
the imperfect Pa"el take e or i: b''^p''J:< '^''"Jl^ri the preforma86.

New

and yH stems: e. g., D^p""?!,


niTl lli^nTl a nominal form like KFTiaiP entirely new is the
vowel in X^T''iK (orig. abzar), Hl'^D"'!!?; berry.
87. A number of words, especially verb-forms, take a pro,

''"^

Qal in

tives of the imperfect


;

thetic vowel to facilitate their pronunciation.

TlTlJiJ^

Sabb. 141 a; S52jH he swallowed, Sukk, 49 b;


silent.

17 a;

Pes.

objected, B.

'

Tt'p^V}'^^

she kept quiet, Qidd. 13 a; ^p'^FlipK

^-iMi^ wait ye, Ber. 53 b;


"T'^K

he kept

'lkm')i.

M. 110 a;

they kept quiet, Naz. 32 a, SCta 35

7 a;

p''nTrJ*

Ned. 89 b; klT/T)^ he
he hid himself, A. Z. 70 a; '^'T\t^

"^^X

she drank, Yeb. 65 b;

he was

he drank,

"iD^i|5

'

able,

a/ iP^U^ drink

ye,

Sabb. 41 a;

was spoiled ( 89), M. MS., Taan.

she committed adultery, K. MS., Sanh. 106 a, eds.

'iri'ijt

(80,89); K'a'IS^ blood.


88. In some cases a vowel is prothetically added to words
whose first consonant has a full vowel. In such a case the vowel
of the original first syllable
will

is

frequently dropped.

M. MS., Taan. 25 a:

dwell,

they

^"i55<

^n353''K they appointed

him,

Sanh. 26 ay Xj'^iK poll-tax; and others.

Cf. 91.
Loss OF Vowels.
89. Original short vowels have been
dropped in all probability to about the same extent as in the

cognate dialects.

Final long vowels have been dropped in the

personal pronouns and possessive suffixes.

and then

The
1

"^J^,

loss of
In

Hebrew

X2n3S became

94), n5K FlK "^npH ^FlX


final U in ilFlpt^
WX (v. 94)
(v.

similar forms are found only in pause.

2!TTTJ3"ii5 B. M. 846 does not belong bare; it

Tbe protbetic vowel

is

exceptional.

In

Cf. also 230, note.

is Ithpe'el.

may bave been influenced by


Cf. also Hommel, BA., II., 357.

in tbe perfect

differentiated ortbographically.

became MS^

"irt5i<*

Cf. STTQ"''!? Keth. 57 6.


tbe imperfect "^ and only

;,

VOWELS

93]
the enclitic pronouns T~

is

29

sometimes found for

in the per-

if.j''';

the pronominal endings of the 1st and 2d person sing, have

fect,

The

lost their final vowel.

H in the 3d masc.

final

plur. of the

perfect has been frequently dropped with coincident coloring of

the preceding vowel


the loss of final

The

The

very rare.

is

dropped in the objective

ally

In the other parts of the verb

71).

(v.

of the 1st sing

suffix, rarely

gener-

is

so in the possessive

vowels of the 2d and 3d sing, and the 1st


dropped in both possessive and objective
suffixes.' Also in "iClf^ became had, J"'K committed adultery, XXl''^
when, m^Si there is, the final vowel is dropped.
Syncope of Vowels in Consequence of Resolution. 90.
Resolution of doubling with syncope of vowel is found in KmiJri

109).

(v.

final

are generally

plur.

now

whence {]^

(U^nizin), i^DtJ

on account of

b'^'a-liH.

(b^tD'C

"pj)

;'

H^Y'^p of itself (b7p

b^); 'ixbi^ upon

-j^j)

(^1^3>).'

Syncopje of Vowel in Consequence of Prothetic Lengthening


91. The addition of a prothetic vowel frequently

of Word.

produces syncope ( 88) XS'lpX leaf; Sjb^X a kind of alkali;


mSiiA (KriB) bread; XS2 "^(J^Ks'lS) matting; 5<np^ {t^t\'^T\)
The same thing
wrought metal.
Cf. ~C'S< and "|rX (89).
:

happens when a word


tion;

e. g.,

^iJ^'i^S

lengthened by the addition of a preposi-

is

outside, "HISit inside.

Syncope of Vowel in Consequence of Segholatization. 92.


written document; ""jiT^ ''12ij''5< men; )Xrt\b^
Xlti'iT
5<1t:"ii:
,

Jennys megrim;
aCTZ.V
TT

many

''j'>2'r\

eight;

"'J'cn

deed, fact; H013


Kna^y
tt:
t;

"pFlpW

"pflbri,

thirty;

i<D3^3 cluster of dates; and


t:

others.

Accent.

93.

The

traditional pronunciation accents always

Prefixed prepositions and conjunctions do

the penult of a word.

not receive the accent.


1 Whether the t of the 1st sing, of the possessive suffixes and the a in the plur. of verbs
wore pronounced or merely retained orthographicaUy in Talmudic times we are unable to

decide.
2

Cf.

sCf.

Tunisian Arab.

Hebrew

ffi

for

mnln.
"T 1;

Targ. Onk., Lev. 21 14 and 23


:

29.

"Q for

"T

Cf. also

(.b'n'<12

liSyi,.

Ps. 69:9);

WlByi2 from

p^p?n ^"0^2^
,

his people

for I'lSy'l

p^| H

,.

MORPHOLOGY.

III.

PRONOUNS.

A.

PEBSONAL PRONOUNS.

Independent Personal Pronouns.

a.

MS,

rarely

WniX/we;
rarely

"j^S^'S

S^H

thouj ^tl^S,'
-|!im,

rarely

they,

masc.

^IMS,
;

he; 'tV^,

94. a)

^''t}

TOS/npS^

S3S< Ij

PS

she;

fjit,

rarely

m,

ye;

^tirS,

''tlpS they, fern.

References: SIS I, isfed. 5 a, 44 6; B. B. 59 6; a. fr.


15S we, Ned. 56 a, Ber^ 56 1; a. fr. SDniS MJe, B. B. 164 a, Sanh.
PS thou, Ned. 5a, 21 a;
11 ah (taken from Biblical Aramaic).
a. fr. MS i/iort, Ned. 91 6, Taan. 29 a; Sabb. 30 a; B. M. 26 &,
396, .109 6; a. e. -j^inS ye, Ned. 50 6, 55 a; a. fr. WS ye, Sanh.
109 a. '12^ ilPST Wia^ i/^m a^e thieves; WS1 SDS / awrf ye, Col
MS., Pes'." 110 a;' sin^layj^n S^n ^nS i^ zs'^/e w^o did, etc., M.
MS., B. M. 78 a. ^MWt/e, B. M. 'eds. 37 o. ^^--'S^j ^MS 2/e
yourselves.
MS 2/, Pes. 110 a (V. L., a. 1., n. 20). MS
PDS ye yourselves, B. M.
'T SDS1 ye and I are seven; !15"'^S^B
(V.
L.,'Zoc.
cii').
Pes.
110a
37a" nS ye.
H SDS1 PIS ye and
I are five. ^iT^S he, Ned. 55 a; a. fr. S^tl he, it is, B. B. Ilia;
Ned. 51 a, 55 a; a. fr. "i'T'S s/ie, Meg. 14 a; Nidd. 72 6; a. e.
^flp^S they, masc,
S'^n s/ie, it is, Ned. 23 a, 50 a, 91a; a. e.
Ned. 20 6; a. fr. 'y\T^ they, masc. and fem., in older language,
Keth. 23 a; Ned. 42 6, 52 6; Naz. 47 6, 57 6, 64 6; Taan. 18 6;
B. B. 165 6; Ber. 50 a; B. M. 104 6; a. e. "^np^S they, fern., Ber.
44 a; Keth. 2 6; a. e.
95. The demonstrative pronoun t^S^S is at times used as a
personal pronoun for the third person plural of both genders.
Gf. Keth. Ill a, Meg. 16 a, ^ull. 53 a, Bekh. 5 a.
96. In our editions there occurs once the pronoun sbllD he,
she.
'^HS SbllSI riS thou and she are relatives, B. M. 67 o; in
older texts it must have occurred more frequently; c/. Sbl131 SjS
I and he, Aruch Compl. Nid. 25 6; Sblljl ^H'S he and she, ibid.
Kohut, Ar. Compl., s. v., has also the variant sb''^5
Gitt. 68 6.
6)

'

Col. MS.,

Mog.

16 a, vocalizes

IrTlX

30

101]

PEONOUNS

The word

is identical

with

or

ftblli

31
originally to her, the

t^htT'2

having changed to 1 or
The dative fern, came to be used
for the nominative of both genders.
Cf. Xbtl'^i = rT'br!''5 M. MS.,
Sabb. 156 5, and 11, Ian, I, we, in the Ohaldeo-Pahlavi for
'ana, 'anan.
"^

97. The forms Sin-'i*, ^ri^Vi, ^HrX, Tim, are shortened


from i<!in^>* ^-^n^S ]'T\T^ ,' HD'^J^ the first' element ^ rx
f
being demonstrative elements 'S 3-|-''5<.' The forms iXTl, HTl
,'

are used mostly as copula.^

Enclitic Personal Pronouns.


98. The pronouns of the
and second persons are generally joined enclitically to the
participles, and rarely to adjectives, so as to form, with the latter,
one word. They are then shortened and assume the following
forms
b.

first

MASCULINE.
Singular.

Plural.

a-

1-

m-),

S5(7)

a.

[f-),

^D(-), 1^5(7), 15(7)], 5<5(-)

XSH],

X3(7)

|8.

a.

ri(-)

a.

^^t^t^{-),

^jn(-)

/?

[^(^7)], n(7)

/3.

i^n(-),

^n(f

IS.

[.]{-),

iX^i"-)],

[]X-), ]X^-),

-3(7)

'

2.

99. Of the feminine, only the second person sing, is found


in a few examples: ""b tiT'CiS! thou art forbidden for me, Sanh.
20 o; "^b nnsra wHt thou' marry me? Keth. 816; In"l2l153 wilt
thou lead? ibid. 63 a; lnX"'33 thou collectest payment, ibid. 43 b.
100. The forms under a are used with verbs whose final
radical is a consonant; those under /3 with ''"b verbs.
The forms
in brackets occur only sporadically.

101. The plural forms under a are sometimes joined

to the

singular theme of the participles and are in such a case preceded

by

S^nia

For examples see 271, 272.

1 On the various etymologies suggested for these pronouns, cf. Fuerst, Lehrg. d. aram.
Id.,p.2Slsq.; Stipteld, ZKM.,II.,12isq.; Boettcher, Heftr. Cfrom., 869, 2; 'Soeldske, Mand.
Gram., pp. 68, n. 3, 92, n. 1 Duval, Gram. Syriaque, p. 168, n. 2 Wright, Comp. Gram., pp.
98, 106; Dillmann, Gram. d. aethiop. Sprache, p. 267; Merx, Gram. Syr., p. 167; Levy, Neuh.
Wb., s. V. ^nS Jastrow, Diction., a. v. S. For the Neo-Syriao forms ahu, ahi, anhi,
;

cf.

Guidi,
2

lOi;

ZDMG.,

xxxvii, 293 sg.

In later literature:

^iriS (masc),

p1^

Cf. also

we,

ibid. 208l'jrii?

HG.

Maclean, Gram., of Vernacular Syriac,


319;

IHSS

MV.35; ^JnlS

Ke,

p. 17.

thou (masc), ihid.KiZ; ^Ri? ye, ibid.

HG. 394

15j!n] = t511nn] sAe, iftid.SOo.

32

III.

MORPHOLOGY

[102

102. In consequence of the promiscuous use of the pre3 and b with the third person masculine, the first
person plural adopted by analogy a similar usage. As a result
of this, both forms, the third person masculine singular and the
first person plural, became indistinguishable.
To remedy this,
the enclitic personal pronoun was sometimes attached to the
latter.
]T^Tb let us consider, Sabb. 30 6; j^bl2^3^b let us
abolish, Col. MS., Zeb. 38 o; "jSW let us infer,\hid. 106 h.
103. Rosenberg' sees in forms like i5Dp''p'i5< (Sabb. 83 a,
B. M. 86 a, a. e.)., Njpa^">5 (Sanh. 29 a), and" ND^-'niS (Sabb.
121 6), forms of the perfect with an enclitic instead of a constituformatives

This

pronoun.

tive

erroneou%; such forms are regular plurals

is

used for the singular;

cf.

below, 106.
explains {loc.

The same author

forms like S^^lSCn


as composed of the respective verb and the singular prob5"l/P"^n
noun of the second person " n!j5 " with apocope of final " n ."
The second element is rather the objective suffix of the third per-

104.

cit.)

son feminine, which latter refers to a word like SlHSil understood.

= mscn wvy^T^-,
IStT-riX = nr!7.:ri5< / wonder at it.

Thus, xiscn, i^na-'n

need

it;

cf.

)XD--h

= Punz we

be observed that not only do the suffixes for the


singular and the plural nouns show a promiscuous use, but the

105.

It will

singular and plural suffixes themselves are sometimes not differ-

The genders, moreover, sometimes interchange, though


much more rarely.' This circumstance seems to be due to the
entiated.

fact that

have

some

of the singular suffixes, having

lost their

more sonorous and emphatic


confusion of

all

become worn

out,

suggestiveness and have been supplanted by the


plural forms,

and

this caused the

forms.

106. Another perplexity


the use of the
singular,

which

indefiniteness.

is encountered by the student in


person plural for the same person in the
an expression of modesty or of generalizing

first
is

That plural

is

sometimes found together with the

singular in one and the same clause;

and I [we)
'

Das aramdische Virbuin

For a similar promiscuous use

878.

c. g.,

revicruher also having told him,


ivi babi/louischcn

of the

Tab}tud, p.

pronouns

'n'b "^"t'C^l

B.M.

"'^SD

u'^j~1

8 h; n>!;C"'2 iS^b'^

lo,

in other

languages

cf.

Botloher, op.

cit.

PEONOUNS

108]

I {we) am

jSK for

I (we) should

KD^!;

out,

not

a Persian,

not explain

M. MS., Sabb. 145

b;

^jif.

33

eds. ibid.

it,

yilp^p

28 b;

Pes. 90 a;

^^b (j"'l3pi53 S^b

pTn

50S

I shall cut down, B.M.

spit

1076.'

This use of the plural promiscuously with the singular has misled

even such

men

as the late

Jacob Levy'' and Th. Noeldeke' into

Thus Levy assumes a paragogic nUn


person singular; and Noeldeke explains such forms

erroneous theories.
the

first

iJ^S^btJp

mud,

which occur on almost every page

as scribal errors.

of the

c.

Whether these forms. follow

Possessive Suffixes.

107.

as

voluminous Tal-

of ^"b verbs or are plurals used as singulars, or are


causes, they are certainly legitimate formations,

in

the analogy

due

to

both

'

34

MOKPHOLOGY

III.

[109

109. Familiar nouns, especially those denoting family

rela-

tionship, are frequently used without possessive suffixes.

First person:

1.

M. Q. 12

Gitt.

a,

my father, M.

X2l

my

XHi^

M. Q. 20
a. e.; DS id.
YOm.
78 a, a. e.;
6,
6,
Meg. 12 6, B. M. 59 6, a. e.; XnnO
mother,

70a,"Sabb. 66
Q. 20

6,

fe,

Ber. 39

grandmother, B. B. 125 ah; ^^S my son, Ber. 5 h; inS my


daughter, ^ull. 95 6, Keth. 54 a, 109 6; flFl'']^ my wife, 'B. B.

my

132

h; K1^ fl^^lSS into

my

whole hand, Ber. 56 6y TT^'^^iD

my

to

and bring them to my house, Qidd.


22 6; i4;p'lia'''i'iy Xfl-'a "b from my house to the college, Ned.
59 6.- (in the parallel passage Ber. 55 a we have ''S<T''3T2J*lit for
Kfl^S).
K/3p''l ^Ktt what is that before me? i. e., how do I come
bed, ibid.; S5tT^3p ^np"'t353H1

On

to that?
s. V.

1S53D

Third person:

2.

die, Ber.

up

is

= "j53p

before us, see Levy, Neuh.

Wb.

wife

is

going

to

'trii'^db *inD"'bp|P

he killed all his masters,

KSK

^p would a father ever

D-'Xpn

5^'in "-XSp^J

(thy)

S^HriK his

iti'^iTS

56 a; iXTilTlp

B. B. 36;
rise

!ri52p

"

I.

T T

X^ap,

KS-'J*

before his son? Keth. 62 6;

a kitchen-gardener, Yeb. 118


an ant, ibid.

K^3j

6; IXl^j
T

ivhose

J^Dbip'^l
-

K3ST2J!ni3''I
T T
;

husband

whose hus-

6awd! is as small as

110. The

my

1!a

suffix of

the

first

person sing,

lord, sir, frequently; fl13 like

T2JS5 'i^'in

is

sometimes omitted

me. Col. MS., Pes. 105 6;

my soul, rejoice my soul, ibid. 68 6;


142 6, M. MS., ibid. ^Lag. 226, ibid. 15 6, V. L.
Er. 53 6.
In the last passage as an example of the

TCS3 ^Xnri rejoice

^'^'Dfrom me,'B. B.

ad

1.

n. 4,

Galilean dialect.

111.

there is and

fl'^ii

ln''b

there

is tiot,

verbal force take mostly objective suffixes.


differ

somewhat from those given

am, Ned. 81 a;
siSSn^i*

'^^t\''^

Pes. 50 a;

of their
suffixes

in the table below.

M. MS.,

ibid.

litl^X

^JStT'S

we are;

Yeb, 116

are; n-'^^X

is,

a, ^Sp-n^X Pes. 87 6, ^iS^in^X ibid. M. MS., you


B. Q. '46 6; !inpr\''K they' are, R. H. 20 a, a. e.,

jinDri^X, Tarn. 5 a;

"jID'-nK

iinpn^b they are not, Zeb.

87'6; "ibid.
'

on account
But these

inini?

M. MS.
he

is

Pes. 50 a, tllj? has

14

^n^;'pri"^b

Me'l'la

6,

absent, Keth. 22 a, a.

assumed

verbal,

more

18

7 a, read "iW^it = i6id. 5 6;

6, a. e.; 'tT1iT\'''b

,'

Er. 46

^llpn^K they are, fem.,


.,

belongs to legal

style.

correctly participial, form.

6,

Pes.

gebu 14

6.'

In i{ ^fT^S we are,

PRONOUNS

117]
Objective Suffixes.

d.

35

112.

Singular.
>-

I.e.

-^ri-

'

2.f.

Plural.

in- IX- 1^7 17

15(7)

'

xr7

15- 15- 17
,

i5''7

,^3^7 ,1^137

m.^

,i^3^7

i''7

^^^1

rt7,^n-,^n-,^n7,^7,w^7
3.

,^n3- ,Tl^ ,Ti^^~

,^n- -^07 ,i'in7 ,tiT- ,vt.T- ,k~

^n^7
3. f

wn^- xn- ,rr ,- ,Tr

^n3- ^ns- ^n3^,

113. The

distinction between the suffixes of the perfect

and

those of the imperfect are obliterated.

114. The n element


objective particle TT

that he swallow
tlfl''

Ned. 50

it,

is derived from the


from a form like TlVr'^bj.l
where the commentaries have ybm

in the

This
h,

suffixes

clear

is

in two words.

115.

1''-,

1~ are shortened forms for P\''T~,

fl"'37;

for tlT~,

But it may also be a mistake


X3S
=
stood
for
of the copyists: "TiT
'nr in3''; the sign of abbreviation was omitted and then written XS^
^flS''"" is so vocalized
by the Col. MSS. The Tflj"'! shows the presence of the enerK3''"" cf.

the Targumic

XD'^ii

getic nUn.
B.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

116. Those referring

to a nearer object, or to the subject

under consideration, are:


Sing. masc.

r'n

(l'^

fern,

'.''ITt

and contracted "'Xn

IS'^I

TTT

Plur.masc. !|n5n,
-

i'^T^tl,

'sn,
(^3nH,
- -:
..

rbn,
T
I

-flan,
1

"T

rbn).
T
I

..

to a distant object are:

Sing. masc. iXTSl, ('^''Hn, tj^^KH,

'''D^'^)

fem.

x^nri, 'qn,

com.

TlT'it that one there, the other.

tjSn, t|rX

(t;^^).

1?!) this,

coi.

r!3X, ^ny) these, those.

..

117. Those referring

Plur.com.

XD'H

xn,
^sn); ^^n,
xn, nan, ("ixn,
T*T
"T xiy,
TT
contracted from X^tltl

fem.

that one there.

that

ms. "xn,
-

36

118.
these and

""n^^

[11^

MORPHOLOGY

III.

only in the phrase "'TXI "'TK both this and that,

used for both genders and both numbers.

those, is

119. Eefeeenoes: 'y\ (j+'l) Gitt. 85 5, a. e.; -(""^ Ber. 38 6,


B. Q. 99 h, Sanh. 31 o, Keth.lTa^'SSt. 35 a, a.e. "plH (j+'^'l+Sr)),
Ker. 25 I, Keth. 103 a, Me'ila 12 h, and frequently in Ned. and
Nazir. X;i ( = -|'^), Gitt. 85 5. "D^ (+?^)> ^eth. 22o, 89 5;
Gitt. 85 5/ B. M. 15o, 18 a. in (]+xn),'Col. MS., Zeb. 89 a.
Xh (contracted from S'ln) frequent! SJ^'in (XT+SH), Ned.

53 a,'55

e. H'H Ned.

a, a.

Col. MS., Pes.

755!

41^0,

Jl^iy

Sabb. 52

5, a.

e. "'^Jin

M.'eOa, Bekh. 455. "Sn


properly an adverb; MSS. Men. 3 5; ''iH bS all

(-S^^S+Xn),

Pes. 535, B.

X-Jil),

('^'i+xn).

(only orthographically different from

Ber. 20 5;

this,

"Sn iS^bS without this, "'in b^t:a5< because of this, frequent.


'KH. frequent. ^ran ('(ih+^ri), frequent. il^in ( = ^3n = ^npn,
with compensatory lengthening (v. 77), "^S^'J ^j'^'^n ^ull. 11 o,
eds. ]"'bn (('bsi+i^n), Tarn. 11 a, B. M. 90 a," and' frequently in
'

Ned. and^Nazlr.- -pbi* (,+b!!*=Hebr. n>5<), B. M. 15 a, 67 5,


110 a; Taan. 17 5; b" B, 38 a, 63 a; Keth. "87a. Only in legal
''1'$
= 'j'''in), properly a singular, Gitt. 315, 45 5; Men.
style.
(
34

^SH (contracted from '^tlpri^'pflpn), frequent.

5, a. e.;

("Sn+iS;), only Col. MS., Meg. 2

5. "i^jH',

1.-Mnn (S^n+l^n) frequent.tj^i^ri


= r|''Nn), Coh MS., Zeb. 49 fC
^^''''i^i-l
(

ibid.

TF.,

p.

"^SHN

25. "j'^bn,

(l^+'i^tl)
a.

frequent.
'3^'^

e.' "^S-"q or

B. m'. 86 a, Zeb. 43 5, 5ull. 90 5. i^^nn (i^'^n+Ji^n)','


(^3+Y'^),
frequent. t]n or Tjn (t]+l!<n), frequent. T^-^n (69), M. MS.,
Pes. 1115. ^T^^ (!]+1+''!^), frequent. 1]3n (^+-n, 119),

frequent. TjS^]^ (tJ+i+'^X),' Ar. 325, Bekh. 205,

Forms

120.

in parentheses

are of

rare

Me ilS

155,

a. e.'

occurrence, and

belong partly to the Palestinean dialects.


1

The

"7

final in

Semit. Verbs, p.

^^

19,

demonstrative pronouns

note

is

taken by M. Scliultze {Zur Formenlehre des

to be identical with the pronominal suifix of the 2d person

1)

^tj

^SH^ would be hoe, hi, tibi. In the latter form he sees


the construct state of the absolute 1*13^. That ^ represents here the 2d person is,
however, not necessarily the case, since one and the same pronominal element may represent

he translates hie

different persons.

tibi,

Cf.

haec

ZDMG.,

tibi,

1875, 172.

2fl-ff.,ed.Hildesheimer, p.96, 'inS'in; *'e'e!f.,ed. pr.,86, "jinari, "'njn

HO.

491

TOb,

II., 68

Hebr.
JfF.

^Jlin
;

1in

ibid. 381.

ibid. 226.

I^H

Letter of Condol. of

Cf. for

the demonstrative force of the

nrbn, rbn, nsbn.-^jin,

25.

"vf

ttis'

Sam. Ha-Nagld

(legal style), rff. ed.

H-ff.374.-c/.

Harkavy,

"^TT},

'^\'''''i}-

^anan'el, Oear

b the Arabic >ilU j viUj


he. sn'^s (=i<inn)

Targumic s^jis

55:-.

to R.

'

.;,

PRONOUNS

124]

121.

37

Hfl is often joined to the following word, in which

case the final

E.

written.

which marks the length of the vowel, is not


XFi^n, s-'n5n=rT Rn, KFiyilJ S5n, HH

!j5,

pn

g.,

122. i^rt i^^n Si"^?! sometimes unite with a preceding word,


which case they undergo phonetic or orthographic change.
Thus, i^iin+iib becomes li^b is not; tXTl ']''i becomes ^3''X
,

in

K'^n
is

becomes

]''N;

''5''i<

not;

is

i^^tl (153

others.

contracted to ^iTa how

becomes

i<n+''!lJ5

J^""!!!!!*;

'

is

and

about f

hoio

it,

COPULATIVE PEONOUNS.

C.

123. a) The idiom of the Babylonian Talmud, differing in


from the cognate languages, has developed separate
forms for the pronouns of the third person, when the latter imply
the substantive verb and are used for the copula. These forms are:
this respect

b)

Masc. sing.

iiJ-]''!

Masc. plur.

^TiT'2

Fern. sing.

in''5

Fern. plur.

''}l5''3

Repeeenges:

that

it is,

iliT'D

who

Tl''^

the very thing, ibid.;


is it?

Pes. 104 a;

heis?^tl''^ Ber. 44

o,

what

''J^a

^il''i

is

i^iij!

i<5''n

^ItT'S

^ull. 43

it?

6, a.

Ned. 38

it is

HCliT

I,
^12

6; ilH^S

UTi

Taan. 24 b;

"1^52

I know where

do

e. !im X3^a Han Sinb^

and the same kind, 5ull. 79 a; and


MS., M. Q. 36, 96, a. e.; TF. 9.

they all belong to one

quently. "n^S

Col.

fre-

124. Luzzatto^ and Noldeke^ consider the copulative pro-

nouns to be of the corresponding forms of the personal pronouns


the former being formed out of the latter by the prefix D and
,

the initial

Noldeke

Such

lost

it

considers to be a mutilated

(loc. cit.)

a use of that particle

Hebrew

''53(1

SSM

etc.,

SMand

gram, del

wi,

dial. talm. Babilan., 52.

Gramm.-, p.

92, n. 1.

'lK

= 'jln,

tl'Ztl

would find an excellent parallel in the


where that particle also exhibits a

iCol. MS. Alfasl on B8sa 166 Tooalizea

'iJSlem.

Said prefix

in the process of composition.

'.,

"W^

(80).

Se'elt, ch. 18,

has

38

MORPHOLOGY

III.

verbal force; but

Merx {Oram.

[-'-2^

Duval's objection, Oram. Syr.,

c/.

168, note

p.

2.

^fl5''5 from a supposed form


i n i n -f- h u
through aphseresis of initial vowel, and from the
latter ilJl'^i through syncope of medial 5
I should suggest that
the copulative forms have an independent genesis.
They are not

Syr., p. 168) derives

'

derivatives, but parallel formations of the personal pronouns.

They

contraction of
of

^"lilp

"'111

= ''Inb

''flp

which

latter in its

the third person singular of the imperfect of

XIH

That would explain why these forms are used only

to he.

with the third person, while the

persons.

all

and the syllable ''S a


turn is an apocopated form

consist of the pronominal suffixes

Hebrew

may be used

tlSH

with

similar instance of the composition of i^in

found in the term


and ni .'

t\TT\ granted,

which

is

compound

is

of TlFl

W. H. Lowe^

"He

has the following remark about these forms:

(Luzzatto) did not perceive that the prefixed

changes the

The above
words are apt to mislead the reader into the belief that Luzzatto
was ignorant of the copulative force of these forms. As a matter
simple pronoun into the substitute for the copula."

of fact, he states

it (Zoo. cit.)

clearly enough,

and

it is

but just to

the deceased scholar that this should be pointed out.

E. Blucher'
back as 1838, recognized the true nature of these

also, as far

forms.

125.

1. ilS'^n

^S^-^n

frequent; SS^fl Col. MS., Meg. 7 aj 'TTl

Col. MS., Zeb. 13 6;

tractions of

pronouns.

92

h,

2.

M. MS., Pes. 60 a, this is, these are, are conand of the respective forms of the copulative
The uncontracted form ^TTIi "'tl is cited V. L. ad Men.
""(J

this

2, 8.*

notes

Noteworthy

is

the pleonastic construction of our

the copulative pronouns:

M. MS., Taan. 20

{his)

word with
^tl^S ir';n

these are.

126.
DriStJ

^3'^in

IJ^"]!!

.... ^TT\ means: this

D'a''11"l1 ^5''']n

same person, Sabb. 118

the
1

Levy,

The Fragm.

iVTi.

n. ch.

Wb.,

s. v.

is

one and the same,

e. g.,

Wardimas and Menahem are one and


6,

nDTl-

of T. B. Pesahim', p!

'I'a'isiiwbsB-itt.p. 71.
< According to HaWvy, ZA. IV.,

59,

38,

note

^Jl^n

1.

is

a contraction of JJIH +

"tX +

Sil

,,

PEONOUNS

129]
127.

^T^tl

'"'Ij'liS^

*in"'D

^Ttl

is

'inb'^l

sometimes used as a simple copulative pronoun:


this is

something unusual, Mun. MS., Sanh. 48 a.

from ^ISl ^Ifttt


what would it become?
differs

''tX'O

latter,

The

128. a)

the

meaning

first

form of the

older

relative

only in the Palestinean recension of Aboth


in the combinations "b"'''! ~T''^ (b + ''T, " +
,

(t^b

and

pronouns,

possessive

the

t'^f'

times

at

pronoun

occurs

''^

13, in legal style,

I.,

of the emphatic

''T)^

the combination

in

sb'^'^I

I have found besides but two examples of

that not.

^'^l)

tt) /tact's

EELATIVE PEONOUN.

D.

39

it:

TlbTO^ TSTi i<b ''^ that you may not share my fate, Meg. 16 a,
and btip
The usual form
"l? until he had hilled, Sanh. 96 h.
"''^

of

it is

"n

thine,

Sabb. 80

117 b;
jinb'^
''tl'l^'t

Refbeencbs ^b'''^ mine, B. M. 109 h, Ned. 50 a, 61 a; "qy^


B. M. 109 h, Ned. 5 a; nb^':; her, Naz. 30 a, Ned. 36 h, 10 a,

h)

b,

B. B. 33 bj

your, B. Q.

frequent.

The usual form

of the possessive is ~n^1

1^1

occurs but seldom.

is

B.

we

("^'^

TT'Sa) M)Aa/

is

H/J)

'it?

= k^n+"l53) who

who?

(^12)

MJ/iai

t]b-"l !]bl

^UtTQ'

(HH

now (quidnam?)

^T-^fl (^in^a

is

find

"''1

Ti^., p. 7.

INTEEEOGATIVE PEONOUNS.

129. a) yXD, -p
{quisnam?)

the form ~b^T

a reduplication of the relative

d) Instead of the usual t^Tlb^

"(isb^^

Suk. 44 aj linb^T their, Gitt. 84 b, B. Q. 117 b;


-jisb^
Sukk.44 a. "I""^ 1\T^_ H^T'l f^T'^ "jT^ ^liT"^ ^IflT^

c)

Ned. 49 a;

our',

'^^'H

+ '^n

he? whose

or iHTi
is

it?

np)

tl12

w/iaf? "H

("'HM

+ ]Ttlj which

"'37J

who

is

'!ri''5p

is it? ^i'U

she? whose

is it?'

'Sp, !lSa, ''Sa, frequent. ^a a.


Z. 41 &; Pl"'S "islPi^ na how do you deal with it? 'ij frequent;
I^T^n, Men. 109 a/ "pT "H, Ned. 26 6; ]^riti, ]-'^_n2 Tam.
b)

Rbfeeences:

Lowe, op. cit., p. 38.


Dalman, op. cit., p.
^^Sla is a contraction
TF. TOcaUzes I^IO
1

Cf.

Cf.

]iXa, -a,

87; cf.

a) in

Maclean, Gram, of Vernacular Syr., pp. 19, 55, 181.


some cases of y^"! KQ, i) in other of S'^H S'H (122).

*H0. 71, Sin ibid. 233, l^n


HG. 178, a. B."!!{>intt -Se'e!*. I.';
263.
'JSIQ UG. 22, 25, 68,
;

id.

for

ibid. 438

Hff.

IS.

&'eZ., pp.

95, 104,'a. e.

6, 77, 80, 83,

IJin HG.

276.

ntt

has
,

SliH

1ST3 used

40

MOKPHOLOGY

III.

[130

32 a; ^"i^n MSS. Zeb. 69 a; "TCa MS. K. 117, B. M. 2 5, Pes. 90 1;


^Tpi M. MS., B.M. 2 6; 'n^3/J'( = ''m + r;7J) M. MS., B. B. 8 a;
^Aem.? B. B. 12 5, for
^D"h, Naz. 12 a. iirT;ra'lNa wfecX

the usual

%T. ^anaa

^n"';'3"'7;3

MS., B. M. 82b.

iin''Dbs

Mrs. or

-rx somebody:

130.

Jsfiss

jbs

,'

So and^So.

!j5^n TIJ"'r5^

^^'ibp

a.

^Sn
T

12"'?"'><"J

"I'J
T

'somebody.
^rT'll'J,

so.

ini
-

\ome

stmt qui

''T'^;'

somebody;

bj

/cwowm

cf. ibid.

owe

^)^ ^7ie

M. Q. 25

the one .... the other

"153
T

K3''i< es^ qui,

'''TC^-I S53''i^

So,

man, B. M. 21

and

that, so

.... the other;

131.

and

i/w's

^12

i^pS^'n ^"'T yT'7J x/ ts

Wia< the place belongs to this or that

23

Mr. So and

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

DT^a, (Oy^a)'' something, ^t^^'IZ something.

^ini

F.

'

Positive Indefinites.

N.j

iV.

sivear?

"

F.
a.

why should he

"'i!*?;]

b.

used in the sense of some:

is

say.

S 132. S53by '3^3 the whole world

sometimes used in the

is

sense of anybody, anyo7ie, everybody.

133. pb^n and p^^S

for anyone: li^ri^ iiTiTOTil tXi^


t:-t
t:-:
t-:

I know no Hilldq and no


19 a;

!inb "'bSy;
5.*"'"

and Harry

are used like our Tom, Dick

p^^n i6^
^'i^T pb'')! i^bx X5!(4
t:-t'tt:
t:-t't
t-:
I know only a tradition, 5ull.
shall Hilldq and Billdq enjoy it?
i:<5yT'

Billdq,

pb^n^ pb''n

Sanh. 98

134. bS
whatever;

.^

'^

tT'b

T--.T Va

cjy^^j, ib ns^'^a'bs,

--
1

In later literature ^53

much money

Se'elt, 36;

15B
T
f

I'l

^Tj, sufficiency

This

is

xbi".

t:

SnS'nS

''J

MOJie,

'^

-S^J

in such

Kb,
bbs
t
t:

and such a

ln"^b

"|K';2

nobody, no one.
i^bi
t:

>^b

ibS

lY^b

nottt^o.
^

"^TITS for so

place, ibid.

X3^b

and

so

51.

Haupt ITa

is

not a mutilated form of

DyTO

but

is

the

+ ^Ta from; literally, of a sufficiency.


.

135.

used also for inanimate objects

In Palmyroan STayiTO cf.


read S'HJ'Ta
Assyr.

iCOyTO
T 4

is

In the opinion of Professor

Hebrew
3

^!Tl

i^'jby 'b^S

i<b

bS whoever,
bs whatsoever; Q^T/2 bS,
.

anything.

o")

Negative Indefinites.

'n,

whoever;

'^'2 bS

''I

bS whatever;

"'S'J

''Ta bS (Ned. 49
b.

in bS

every; "QT^ bs everybody, everyone; Itll

all,

eacA awcZ everyone; ....

ZDMO. 42,
mindSma.

398,

where the word

is

vocalized wrongly

perhaps conuoctod with the Arabic

iSjj iqJji(j

^\S^} misfortune.

l:

,::

42

III.

MORPHOLOGY

[1^7

Keferengbs: ^nbn, with change of liquids: M. MS.,


Sabb. 110 a. ''5F1 with original nan, as in ""'Sn, Col. MS.,
b)

M. Q. 9 a. "'ya"iK: B. B. 30 a, 60 a;

Er. 50 6; Col. MS., Pes.

13 o; a. e. nynilJ: Keth. 67 6; MTpFl


B. B. 62 6. ^O'^in
Taan.18 6. ''"lV''^1: Col. MS., Zeb.'58'6. IffiS 'IH Nidd.'sia.
KethV'62'6; a. e. '''in
"iri: K. H. 21 a; a. e. "^np ^^n
B. B. 133"6;
iipl': 2"M. MS., Yarn. 69 6, 84 a; a.'e. 'X''bn
:

Gitt.

68 6. ^-liry inbn: Ned.

41a. rriiay nbri: Taan. 14 6.


Tbpl Ber. 55 6.''^'ipS^i* Ar. 12 6;

-iW nbri Keth. 77 6. ''Ip


Cof. MS.,Meg. 17 a. 'X jnisS Ar. 12 a; Sabb.'98 6. XnniS;
:

2b. n'iW ^23^)1: Ar. 12a. ln''-f


916. -IC 'PiC: Col. MS., Meg. 2 6, 6 a. I'J:
Er. 76 6,
ri'yy: B. B. 916. nniayya^p: Er. 83 a. Xn-^li;
6.
Meg' 2 a. XnilJ: Bekh.' 50 a'. "^X^iari Ber."28
''Xirn
Sabb. 17 6. "'nra^ri: Ar. 12 a. n"JTB3> llJn M. MS., Taan.'l3'6.
nCTrn Nldd.' 54 a. I^npy Col. MS., Meg. 6 a, 17 a. "('ribW
Col. MS., Pes. 68 6. 'ri^': Col. MS., Pes. Ill a. -pnilJ
Col.
Pes. 4a, 9 6; Col. MS., Meg".

nniry:

B. B.

MS., Meg. 7 6, vocalizes


B. Q. 115 a; a. e. 'fli^^j

ns^
state

Col'.'

CpiS!

~|bi<

in the emphatic state

in the construct

iOb^

in the plural

-fSbx (Ned. 50 6), "Sbx (Keth. 106 a), and usually ''Sbs

'The plural of ^iST


A. Z. 16 a),

llin^l

does not occur in the plural.

perhaps

p'jri Ar. 13 a; a. e.
'pan
MS., Pes. 64 6. J^iS"! Sanh. 39 a.

ITITIJ.
:

(Ned. 50 6), "(XiaV (M. MS.,


(Hull. 7 a), and commonly kniia^ (Sanh.
is

j'Xin";

-23^ l;Sanh. 16 a)
Snann (Ber. 6 a), and i^ninn"! or SninVl (MS.' karlsr. and K.
5ananel, Sanh. 26 a) .'
26

riT

a, Gitt.

57 a,"Pes. 62 6)

that of Kria=in

is

137. Forms marked by a dagger end frequently


those marked by an asterisk are found also written

word; parenthetic forms are in the construct

also

in

in one

state.

138. The ending y^- is contracted to 'p-, {^~),]~, 'p", in the


numerals for 2, 80, and 200. Pinal d has been changed to 6 under
the influence of adjacent y in '3'^'IK "iD'^lil ^p'^bn and the like
(73). The ending 6 in "'iap represents an original aj. For
the sifting of vowel in ^'yOTi for'-'D^jn "pFlb^n for -pnbn c/. iYl.
,

Tho
sent ~T~
1

1 horo
cf. 70.

may bo an

orthographical luxury to

mark the

plural; but

may

also reprr-

143]

NUMERALS

43

139. In I'^'lFl and ']''Fl'nFl the original 5 of the second radical


has been dissimilated under the influence of the final
( 53) The
"1

form
first

formed by analogy of j''"in In jTl'^n original i of the


syllable became a under the influence of the following "I }
"'nri is

140. The following examples will


numbers greater than 19 are formed:
irri ^'^'lisy

nynniti

illustrate

how compound

"

44

RErEEENCES:

^^ri

too, Sanh. 95 a;

frequent;

"^a

Kflbn "S

Sebu. 42 a; mi:7pn
Seta 38 6; J^nbW

hundred, Ber. 50

Sanh. 8 a;

//iree,

nSSlIK

rnW

^^

ten,

"p^ln

Yeb. 88

""Si

four,

''S

Er. 30 a.

^n twenty-three, Sanh. 8 a; nS/p

l^'lffij

a,

MSS.;

^in'^a Col.

^ue, Yeb. 101 6;

"^S

[ 1^^

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

"^S

a.'

144. '^ri too takes pronominal suffixes to express determination, in which case it expands its form to I^R J'
Thus, "|5'^1"iri we
gebu. 31b; ^ayVl you both, B. Q. 60 6; -\\tT)y\ they both,

both,

Keth. 83 b; 'tTTVi

45 b; ^H^inn Col. MS., M. Q. 31 a?

ijull.

145. Luzzatto's remark (op. cit. 63), that the compound


numbers in ''~\'0 are of rare occurrence, I cannot confirm. They
occur as frequently as those in ^D

not oftener.

if

must,

It

however, be noticed that the masculine and feminine forms are

Whether such

sometimes used promiscuously.

a confusion in

due to later copyists,


is, on account of the lack of ancient MSS., hard to decide.
146. Now and then we meet with numerals taken from other
languages.
They are used in homiletical etymologies and as
illustrations of special points in Halacha.
Thus, Ber. 56 b, the
name Cappadocia is explained tr\W i^p'^'n J^llTCS XE33 " Kappa "
the use of the genders

original, or is only

is

means beam, "dika" means


Naz. 8 h

twice.
'il'Ct\

yS'lN

lij'^tSD^SS

"j'ij'^pta

jij"''^

WIS in ^plK

M. Q. 28 a

B. B. 164 b ^T'T}, ha, one.


'Ar. Sanh.

id.

irevTayojvos

!!{j^a

^S5

"ITtl

a7i

five

one,

(fold).

Ya'akob ed. princ.

'fin

89 a the Persian numeral

in the Persian phrase

oii^^iD

Symmachos says: h means

two, Tptytuvos three, TtTpayoiviov four,

Siyovos

i^S'^tH

Er. 18 a V'l (Svo) too,

ten (ScKa).

^ij^'^p Q^'niT

Tiiibiij

X^

1000, occurs

ass of a thousand

colors.

B. Ordinals. %14:1. Sing. masc. Sfip, ns^ajp,

40

a,

51 a

i!(t)''"i2p_

fem.

''^~

nyansa

i<p'':'52lp

1"l!n3 iTG.

-,

Earth, Nominalbtldung,

Cf.

In later literature

ll^mp

masc.

"'btiap

(Ned.
,

fem.

398.

"

62, 65;

Stlbtia

"

ibid. 489, 490;

'

p. 4.

WTin

they four, ibid.


d.

ibid.
i^PlbpllS
"
'

and Kautzsch, Gram.

364, 489;

ibid:m.

inTiya'IS

plur."

iXrri')yyp first.

In later literature

nyai''3,

i!(,'r,''''1Sp

HG.

For the

Bibl.-Aram., 65,

282;

"jiiTiribn,

IBM
1,

u. 1.

^HJiribn

they three, ibid. 61;

in these 'forms,' c/. NOldeke, Syr. ffvam.., 49,

NUMERALS

154]
148. Sing. masc.

"j^^^Sn

Kl^^Sn (Ned. 21a, 63 a), J^M'^^in

('Ar. Gitt. 6 a), second; ^i^ln^bri


t-iUCJ-^n^

"T*:

45

uNtl'^bri third; ^t^T^'l

seventh, Nidd. 67 b; uK'^'by tenth.

Plur. fern.

TT-:

fourth;

nn''''3>^a'n

TTT;

fourth}

149. The expression

and

b^^I^ (Gitt.

iH.'B'^

7 a) corresponds to the later

Hebrew

12

lilTS^"!

by, by degrees, gradually, successively.

^mp

Pes. 7

B. B. 97 a, Pes.

b,

"liTlSSt^

meaning by

Plur. masc. "^i^Sp

a.'

'l50. Sabb. 31

88

6,

Ar. 13

a,

a, ^i^n-'bn

is

used in the sense

of triple.

151. a. Like the ordinals are used a number of other


numeral adjectives:
Sing. masc. i<5'''iriK another; HC^Tfitii Col.

MS.

Pes.; iXr!^^^ TF., p. 11; fem."

(K.H. 18 5),"i5n^3'nm,
Pes.) ''^rm (Qid! 47
,

''^''ym (Col.
ri"';'5'iri^
"

MS.

a, B.'M.' "15 a, a. e.)

^rr^
22a)7"

6,

V.'Sing. masc. MJi'iria

masc. "Ij^^nn; fem.


the last tiDO cups,

TF.,

''K'lm

^n'^'im

,'

i^M'^irilS

. Plur.

p. 12, "^Snriiy!

fem.

If^ri^^'^ria

masc. ^IT'm.
ibkl 17

108 b; T^^^Q inST

''ii^lnnb

to

T5
my

cessors (descendants) ivho are to come after thee, A. Z. 10

Fractional Numbers.

C.

^^P
suc-

b.

numbers

Fractional

152.

fem.

i^t^^'^r^a; plur.

the last, the kt/fer. "^iOnd

^'T^'^'^^t)^

Pes.

(Yeb. 64 6) ^T\''^rm (Col. MS.

Sj^ri'^^S'^'ini;^

Pes.)

(Ned. 20

Hri'^'iriii

are

expressed partly by separate nominal formations, partly by various

The separate formations are:


KFlbW ^n^n ^mbr\ (Sabb.

constructions of the cardinals.

i!3bB, -^iibS (B.M.77a) i;


ed.'Sonc.) i; m'^'1 il ^^'9^''^'t>

abs,
87

a,

153.

wn

'j'^UJaiin

li^oz

''1157pin

S^nbri f,

i^ribn'f iud^;
}i/tts,

ribri

-pn^iibB

250;

^ribn ^^^

f,
f/ie

f,

*id

half of them, B. B. 8

the second z being spirantic

snyan
TT'!

S6.

when
250;

it

t^nilDH,

xn^iyinn
r-I- hg.
TST'! mv. m-, xniwan

In later literature: 5?n"in

i,

SG.

127;

niBUW

35 a;
a."

word

means three years

379;

ii'<^-

101;

J. 'd- 187.

NnTT'br!

t^nintey
T"i- ibid.-ua.sc.

nKiB'^^ari '&. eis; nxiT'fi 'bid.; riKi'^'ari 6id.,- nt^i'^s'an tbid.ew.


must have been nSyillJri*, S!n"i5'"*'iBri*.
2 Cf. Luzzatto, op. cit., 64, and Dalman, op. cit., p. 169.
3

154. In Syriac a difference of spelling exists in the

iln later literature: Sing. fem. KnlSri

HG.

ii^pT^P

i'^'^'^'^vl

Sukk.'32&; ^absnbn f,'Sabb. 346;

'^ribt}

Tem. 27 a;

The mntt

,,

46

MORPHOLOGY

III.

The same

old.^

distinction

[155

obtained in our idiom; we

may have

should, therefore, have to read Kflbtl in the expression

with the second


155.

xrib"'!!

J^bj?

spirantic.

The forms

come j'er metathesin from


Nnb^n. They were
interchange with SWIZJ six, and S^nViU

J^tl^riliJ

t;t:

XWlnTIJ

knri"'^, KnWTIJ, formations like

transposed to avoid their

t;-t;^

JSPbTl

**

network, forms to which, in accordance with the genius of

loeb,

the language, they must have been ultimately reduced.

be added that

Kfl^SmiJ

It

must

are as little ordinals as the other

N!n^!nffl

forms given in this paragraph, and the assertion of the diction-

must be corrected.
D. Other Demtmerative Nouns.
S 156. nXT'lT', plur. ''i<T)T'
single, imique; tlU^y^U'l quart (of a j^j), Er. 64 a, a. e., fem.
nm^, plur. iem. m'^'^Tzn ^t\tHT-2^ Col. MS., Pes. 109 6;
Gritt.
K^^S^ a square; ^'2'^'~\ name of a small Persian weight
22a;"XT15)p^n, plur^ "p^'P^^ one of the five hooks of the Pentateuch or of the Psalms; later the Pentateuch; tXT'^^'S'C'^n fifths,
aries to the contrary

pentads; p^T\, KW/jin NM/jTi &^n^^35:2n i^rijari j^ri^inin


It
t:t:-t:tt;
t;-;
t.tthomdn, a measure containing the eighth part of a 2py plur.
ln''^"3t3in; !!^"1TO5> the giving of tithes; plur. HlTl^^^'l^iay tithes,
decades.
Here belongs also the pronoun ''lltl one another, a
,

contraction of K'ln

Sna

city,

from

KlH with

nu^'J

'

the plur. masc. ending,^ and !!^nX53

hundred; properly a hundred

tents or houses.^

ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL EXPRESSIONS.

Adverbs of Place.
"^T}^,

^r\:}^

outside.

li^a,

IS,

inclusive,

157.

(91),

''5"'S

^^Yc,
"'3,

together.

"'^^'n "'33,

"'"'Itj

ra,

^xjia,

i^^^a,

""j^a

^K'ii^p','

^i^iax

"pn (Col. MS.,

Meg. 9

6)

'"i^'^niiip,

"- JiSaS

(9i)

opposed to "^Sba exclusive.

among

13,
from

top

others.

outside,

inside,

on

of.

amid.rJb)2

Kn,i<lDn*

before

S'JZ therein

here, in the case

us.

S^S'^ll

"iri (Ar. 30 a), ^n (Col. MS., Zeb. 1116) where; "1^2, fXTTra

whence;
1

SJ^i^tlb

whither;

KS^HK whereupon. "T

i55"'H

bS

!!<i''i<

bS

Noeldeke, SO., p. 89.


another (fem.), JIG., ed. princ. 826.

2'J'l'in one
8

Cf.

On

Maclean, op.

cit., p. 67.

the various constructions of i{3n soo Zunz,


pp. 591-598, reprinted in Vol. III. of his Gel Schriffen.
*

Das Adverbium 1S3 ZDMQ. XXIV.,


,

ADVERBS

159]

47

p'^lhS

~1 (Col. MS., Pes. 96 a) wherever, in all cases where.


instead.

b'^yb'O

^ISkTSlZ, above,

Dn,

dt^tl there, in that case.

upward, on

Slb/J

below,

^^pb

there.

"jlari

top, supra.

i^b'^yb, b^'Sb,

beneath,

92 o),

(Sabb.

ahead, further, infra.


firirt'^a
(Bekh. 8 6), ^tt\tb (M.MS., BeQa'lSa), ^7\tb (B. B. 4o),

n^rinflb (B. Q. 23 6), '^nria beneath, underneath, down, below

(82,158).'

158. With the forms


is to
li<

in ^>5laj5

^XljJt is prothetic.

some such word

in "'X", flS"",

On ^^H? rXPininb

be understood.

Dttl

see above,

KSH

are

as

82.

OT2
The

compounds

of

and Dn Hebr. D^ and l!<3 Hebr. TO, respectively. In


llJSri and 'j53pb ( = + dlp + b) we have the demonstrative element
1"
The reading of the latter "jlQpb and not with Levy "jSpb is
warranted by tradition, supported by the vocalization of the Col.
MSS., and has its analogies in our idiom. In X!ll3i< we have a
compound of J<( = by) and i2lil )i(TT\, ^"T^ consist of S|l and
In ''NFina "(^M^nnn + yj) and Xninb
'Jl, ^S respectively.
(i^lninri+b) we have syncope of H.
Adverbs of Time.% 159. "^H Col. MS. ""^N "T'S^ while, when,
itn

"j

when not yet.^^tr}^,


''itl'1

"^iril

"'iH^^ (Col. MS.', Meg.'

'Snii^), meanwhile, in

('= Si'^y

'!!<!l)

12 a vocalizes
often as.

meantime.

the

now, this time, nowadays.

ln53''i<),

TlSX,

when.

t^'CHt.

MS.)

last year.

i^ )

S^3'!l''i^n

Meg.

(Col. MS.,

still, yet,

even now.

6,'ka3i, ibid., has inbs|! ]'a), iFibsb

(Ned. 27 b) on the spot, at owce.' IpnuJN


thetic

vocalizes

bs lohenever, as long as, as

r\^''K

'''nSH, "^PlS'^X (Col.

nnbxb, "inbib" (Ned.'4

16a

S^j^i^i^n

"llnsb

^r!4<b

= i<'ri^ai'p
(

after,

-,

i<rn23'+ pro-

later on.

'T'2.

'rS

in the meanwhile. ^'^^^'\\ 'IS^'^', i<3X''^ (Col. MS., Zelb."32a,

with apocope of 1 and change of

ex post facto.

XH

5>

to

already, since.

>5 )

when

lit.

it

was done,

now, at present.

J^riTZJn

pXD^T sometimes. h)Srr')i. yesterday. ^'TTD'Tb (Col. MS., Zeb.

84 aj, Knn

K^rb

M. 17a), KiniK X^i^b

(B.

m^iX^TC^'Xibid.'ed. Ven.),

to-morrow.
1

SSin
T

h^ere,

^3,
HG.

""S

477 (bis)

The statement of the

accordingly.

W'^'llli^

when.
;

tOIK
T

^''13

now; when

where, ibid.

63, 69, a. e.

H. MS.),

'{ibid.

MS.),

H'Ji^b \ibid. F.
he.

''353

SnnJlb,
T
I

dictionaries that ^pbift occurs only with ?

after-

since, as

ibid. 315.

is

to be corrected

"

48

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

[160

naS
t:tt:

soon as. ~l n5J3 (Y6ma 13 a, Sabb.ll9a), "I ITQS b3,


t:^
-^

"1 (Col. MS., Zeb. 6 a) imii7, as


bj^fb

b55^S, soon.

"n "T
db^b

(Gitt. 85

fi^'st, from
K!^''?'^
(legal style), formerly.

more, further, besides}


Adverbs of Manner 160.
nt first, heretofore.

^Pl

verily, indeed.

U^^ri^j^

KT^S naX

J^ITlii^

'^H'H

a stronger

DiU^TlllH

Pes. 110 a), so, thus.

[fl^J^'^

expressly,

U^pl'^

iiflb

separately, alone, for

''DK31,

5<TliS!

apparently. ^^^b

only.

distinctly,

[''bifil

"'iJi'nl

''bi^''

'"13

for nougJd, in vain,


45linb (B. Q".'38a), ^"XSj ^Sj^,

212^53, well.

iTl^ntiJ,

for no purpose.'

sight,

(rf6''<os)

^jiOpbi!;^ crosswise.

(Ber. 5 6) certainly, surely, rightly, with good reason.

Tin
'iX^iy^Z.
H^"nb openly, explicitly.
{TF. %14,a and 'frequently), ls<in (Col. MS!,

o^raMi, ^5ri, ('Sn

proper~\.

my

side is

CVniX,

in case when.

bustrophedon;

iT^b'^p^3

H^'lMiiJ

I rest

by the way, apropos.

DSlJi

incidentally, occasionally.

quickly, rapidly, soon.

side.

'iit

on the contrary.

^55'^

!3^n again, aneic, moreover, yet

= b5')] (turn to the stronger


[= (lS'1 + ^+
(
argument upon what is superior; on the other
claim)

the

at first, at

ti;2J^"i!3

to-morrow.

legal style)

6,

the start. ^T\ tMTf^^C

O'i

b^lS

forever.
nmi!) pj
beginning.

^M52b

during, while, meanwhile,

''llnS

15*,

before, ivJien not yet.

TIJ^I^J

Zongr as.

''sbS

oneself.

n^^b

"'SsbS

uliUivb

i<;:bi^ ""-sbs

at first

^I^^Bb^

(MSS.

K.,

^Yp2,

Col. MS., Pes. (voc), Kb^/ja (77, 90) 'of itself.


ni^n, ]^70bT2J:s, t^'abli:'^ (Coi'. MS.,'Meg. 2b), granted

txh^it-),

Zeb. 82 a) just the reverse.

M.,

"i35J

gratis.

it

would be right. "lIHO round about.


^553110)3 ( 23)
presumably, probably, I dare say.
JJ^'obs*^ plainly,
simply,
is rigid, it

merely, only.

generally with

1^]p'}SX supinely.

the participle

Xp,

~)Xp

"p, a particle used

form the present

to

(66).

T'BTS toelV

161.

Jj^fT^Sn

ciple of M^i

formed of

is

nS^n

of 'nri

iln later literature: loni

TlpN

ibid. 456

inimb
- T

181".

ibid.

b""T12?

P- 305 sg.) it is

T^i
-

IDIJl

bS

(legal style) ibid.

Sis';

100;

is

a shortened form of

a contraction of fc^^H +

= rTa^X bD),

KlN'i'n
,

According to some "113

IDHIn, HG.
63';

and of the passive partiand the active participle of

this,

iS^n

let it be,

3^n3

+ 3 as

-..

TO.

ed.

ibid. 164;

Harkavy,

according to Luzzatto

1513S

if is.

In later literature: D~|3 verihj, indeed, So'el. 1; Ti^n thtis, so, HB. 86, 103; '1'in3
;'
IS'^rib separatelv,'MV. 32; K'^DS together, ibid".
lit more, TO., ed. Harkavy,
passim; cf. for the latter Nooldeke, NSo". 159. SplSb ( = UtT) ISb ) HG. 403.
3

HG.

29;

105]

ADVEEBS

said verb;

occurs also in the form

it

The

are synonymous.

J<'jb"4J!lL

49
ni'^tlil

The above and

used in reference

latter is

siiperior sort of authority {e.g. of Scripture) as

by the use
a one, such a

that indicated

1^

^SlTi

SMc/t

Adverbs of Quantity.
a

to Kasi, ad. loc.=^^''''l'3.

of the former.

to a

compared with

Note the expression

felloiv.

162.

"W^ISi,

(Gittin, 58 a) according

a good deal, much.


^yj^b entirely. ^^"O, ^^0, n''"]p /more. Tn\ K^TFT'la viore,
greatly. '''jT} bs ^itn '^'V^S (lit.'/? this) so much I---1' he's bS
It:

little.

U^ll^t:

-1 ^>57J3 b3'(Col. MS',

many! ....

lioio

26

"-bSJa ^2t3

h,

.... 1

''Sp

6 a), as

much as. ntl3 how' much,

tTalD the

more .... tlie more: K. H.


tlie more one lends his

M. Q.

n^njsi

TiJ-'j^^

it is.

^Pl'^

na3

^r^-]

b3
possible quantity, what

as much as
a
a
Vbp ^bp a much, very much.
Interrogative Adverbs.
t^lT^,
MS.)
lohen?
really so?
does
refer?
"^^ for what purpose?
{TF.,
p.'26).
MS.), where?
"n
ivhither?tuhence?^'D^tl ,\6
(MS.,Vat.
'^m, ^TlS'
M" 67
ques'p5^n,
expressing surprise or indignation) do you mean
say?
because?
what!? ^K (Ned.
num?
nonne?r\'o)) K'jb n'obK
^b
wherefore?
mind

the better

soever.

the least

possible.

llTSiSS'l tl'^3

trifle.

little.

HfTl'lD

%'lQ'i.

is

''D^t5

it

(Col.

"-,1^5/0

i^S^rDJ, ^ri!a,
117','

'i

"B.

-^yo,

this

tuhither?

(t5n+''''Kb)

^'D^tlb

t^ya

'^n

fiow?

&y,

(Col.

fl^^iii

to lohich

&5''^il!!^

J^n'^."'Xb

!s^5^n,'

little,

!J5S"I

(in

^-lyo,

tions

to

how.'?

is it

"'/J

''HO

'^i^b

'''b

Aruch. Compl.
16-4.

On

s.

+ "iK

Thus,

'^^52.^,

''51

tchy,

See Kohut,

doubtful character.

the punctuation of
"ii555J

"jbia ivhence

have we this?

ivhence^has he this?

^^'9

see above (90).

i<5)J

which

It is joined to the following

^12'^

v.

the apocopated form of


"i"-

a particle of

">

3 a),

Ij^}'^^'

latter

is

It is

compound

of

word, forming a compound.

f^'^bS/J

(Zeb. 8

b,

^Y^Tr^T'^ i^^^-

Naz. 48

b, a. e.)

MSS.) whence

have you these things?

The former
and ''53 are generally preceded by a 1
or "'5^1
introduces nominal sentences, the latter verbal.
'''C
If the verb be preusually stands immediately before the verb.
ceded by a negative, "^12 is often inserted between the negative
165.

''3

ffG-

63, 69.

itS'^S

Cf. Stiibc, Jiid. hahyl. Zauhertexte. p. oG.

50

MORPHOLOGY

III.

[166

and the verb.' "/^ xb (Sabb. 68 6), "'O 1Kb (Pes. 102 a; M. MS.,
Er. 20 6; Sabb. 32 a; B. M. 32 a, a. e'.).
166. Note the following idiomatic expression: .... ^^b 'ii'2
.... Sib couldn't we understand by it rather this? .... No ! it is
are used also as relative
rather . trc^^ Ki^H ^S^H and ^tl
,

adverbs.

Some

have

of the adverbs given here

at

times the force

of interrogative conjunctions and should more properly be called

interrogative particles.

Adverbs. % 161.
'('J^ (so Col. MSS.)

Affirmative
there is;

'f ii

instance

ln"'J5

takes

Of. II.

yes,

form:

verbal

Targum to Esther

M^JS

'ijil;

2,

K3"b ( = !!0 + n^b)

Kb

not, no.

,'

3'!j5

(= Hebrew
we

ilSl^ii

(=i<2+ri^!^)

"ITIJSK

o.

id'.;

n^>5

Kb), iXrrb

Kb, IKb (Kin

there

is

+ Kb)

is

not,

generally used with verbs, 1Kb with nouns.

is

H-jbll!

50

Pes.

are,

+ b + ^-

Adverbs of Doubt. % 169. KiS^'^, K'^b^^ (K"i

Hebrew

In one

"H).

18 rri^N they are.

Negative Adverbs. % 168. n^b (=


not, is not;

S^n^K

KBlIJ

later

TV'

T T -

perhaps,

may

it

wer/taps; niTSK
T

Col.

cf.

MS., vocal.

'.-

be, possibly.

PREPOSITIONS.

of

170. tK is an abbreviation
A. Inseparable Prepositions.
is used in all the significations and constructions

bK = by and

It is

of the latter.

Keth. 40

nin
tK
,

to

b, a. e.

KHK

Notice the

lit.

something that happened

The expression

is

a,

K^2KK

force of the preposition after

become, ha.ppen, befall, in the standing phrase

like ....

as

used also before gutturals: Men. 31

ivitJi

nirn '""-

this is somctltiiig

used to introduce an analogical case

an illustration to a previous statement of opinion on some legal

point under discussion.

171. "3. ~1i ~^j1 "Z, "j1 is used as in the Targumim and
Hebrew. A few examples of some rare usages may be mentioned.
nT-ij ^J-U Kn:aK3 tX^yC t^- the top of
the small intestines must
^
T.;"T t:-: t-;
be scraped up to a cnbifs length, ^ull, 93 o; K^p Tni:!! il^
Eabh read as a ]>riest, Meg. 22 a, i.e., was called up the first
to read the weekly lesson from the Pentateuch.
^"^S'C^ ini"K1
KTin'^ '12 '"i"'\i; and yet these are the most beautiful of the people
,

j-

3
''

The verb
In

XniN

in this ca?o includes tho participle,


,

StTib the ending may bo

W^

but not the infinitive.


but cf. Nooldeke, MO., % 213.

174]

PREPOSITIONS

51

of Mdhdza, R. H. 17 a. ^irilH bSj^ and he dropped torn in two.


tXTO'Ti'Z
atliW^ in the presence of three, of ten, Ber. 56 h, fr.
Cf also below ( 174). The n is found in the Talmud also in a
,

separate form " ^S

."

172. 3, 3, 3,
accusativi.

nice.

b,

b,

3,

unto; generally

to,

nota

from.

)2, "J,

173. To the Palestinean E. Jflhanan we owe the single


example of the use of b with oaths as a particle of asseveration,
and Assyrian.'
Separate Prepositions.
174. ''SK

as in Arabic, Ethiopic,

upon a chair;

K''X'n^3

"irins (^-inin
n3i<

account

= D3 +

+ bsi!),
on,

bl!^)

(28) upon,

on.

"'IlK

^SX upon their hands, Sanh. 17 o.^


c/Vnni.
upon; by dint of, by the way of, on

!1m''^T

of.

^linSl behind, backward.

on account

^tOK

for the sake

of,

with PellihI-Syriac yl

y^

]k:^

The word

of.

,4

and

is

connected

of other Syriac

\:Li

dialects.'

'T^^ "]N^ ^7"^ (^- 2- 15 a; Col. MS., Zeb. 35 b), by means


through, by the way of.
Cf. Hebrew T' by
'

of,

'

b^'om, {^X:m, ^"om), Snbtom, KPlb^'taiaH, for the sake


on account of.
The word is of doubtful etymology. The
original form was evidently b^t352!!<, a compound of b^ti +
+ b^
which former may mean shade, protection, burden, or going,
passhig; cf. the Hebrew bbjS "1^3^31
In the expression b^t2!ai5
of,

'!''-

^3(1 the final b of

'3rib iitoa
^S^5

(M. V. 6 Vas

^31]^

opposite;

b^tlSK

is

often attached to ^3ln and written

"'^nb

^pm).'

only with the prepositions b and

''S5t!Il

"2

'^BXb toward,

in the presence of, before.

YOrca Si a, A. Z. 28 a, we are told how a woman did not wish to tell R. Johanan the
formnla of a medicine, unless he swore not to disclose it to others. He agreed to it and
1

swore SS'ibS'O \^ bN"liB''1 SHbitb by the God of Israel, I shall not disclose it! He
T--:
T
Tl.t
TT
then went and gave away the secret to his audience in a lecture at college. When asked
how he could break his oath, he answered: "I said 'To the God of Israel I shall not
disclose it;' but not to the people of Israel." He thus explained the 5 casuistioally uS
:

..

a mere -nota dafivi.

^'35! in in'^'^nn

13 = ^"13.
house)
3

^2S

is a compound of ?>? npon and


135? p'llH 13 when we were at our lord's (at ti y

po)i their bosom, Sanh. 17 a

In later literature:

TQ

Se'el. 77.

Cf.

Saohau,

STcizze des FelUchi-Dialekts uore Mosul, p. 32, 37, 39.

*Cf. "-"i! I3IDB, p. SOSsg.


Ost. u. Westens, ed. MiiUer, 122.

But

cf.

13n ^taBS

TF.

2.

l^jS

Maclean, op.

cit. 187.

Res2]nns. d. Lehrer d.

52

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

on account

b^l'3,
^'3.

The

luithin,

Only

of.

b.
.'

form of the preposition 3


as ^S is due to a confusion

by, etc., is the separate

ill,

traditional pronunciation of

with

75

YOmfi,,

[1'^^

it

beiiveen, liotise.

""Si

"3," 'p2l,

iWS,

"rn,

^vi;^, between, among.

Nri'j^Sl,

Keth.

28a,M.MS.,Sabb.ll0a, ^ri'-W^; (H.G.339 ^nrii^^ ^n^\-n2:s).


Notice: '"iNpSl, ^i'^^n^, CoLMS., Meg. 12ab (Voc).
,

iJ^bS

TO

l^b^l

"ijb

nnn,
- T
"^3
13

^ and

''liljb

1K5
'C

^^13
,

except, save, besides.


o/fer, behind.

(:ar, a^, to, with, in

Ijb

imb,
r

nni<:a,

tvithout.

"2 ^zb

Va

13

constr.

of, toivard.

case
13

st.

5^13,

generally with b

Ijb, into, amidst; 13S in, within, amongst, amidst;

1313 fi'om, out.


'"]

SS^'pl'l

^f/fe,

similar, analogous

to.

"in only with H or b ''Itl^ ivith, by; "'^nb unto, to


The singular form occurs but seldom: ^ilub A. Z. 28 b.
,

toivard.

in.stead, in

Cibri
fl''

place

of.

This

nota accusativi.

Talmud.

tTtT"^

is

him, Ned. 49 o;

very rare in the


her,

l^'^l

it,

eds.

you, Ber. 38 o; Ij^^n; Nidd. 61ar"iinri; tliem,

B.

M. 906,
ni3

"3,'

roS

a. e.'

^?7.-e;

{6id. Pes.

105

13

^T" "^13
b

('

110)

(=1 + 5)

i^ibS 13

?Ae

= "j13 + 3)
(

1133

Kfce
;

me. Col. MS., M. Q. 26; ni3

"pri113

Zfe.
//lo^

lihx-

us,

SilFloln -^S

o/o

do(/, ed.

like, similai' to,

M. Lambert, R^J. XXII.,


Hebrew.
1

Babylonian

Ned. 50 6; ]'tt\'^
Ned. 25 rt, 41 o^

129-131 finds this

Z/A-e ?W6,

B. B. G5 .

(iOit)

(Sabb.

119n)=Hebr

Const. Sanh. 96

o.

for example.
form of the preposition also in Biblical

2 In later literature the older form p'l has been preserved: '^^ijnl tliee (f.) TG. ed.
HarkaTy, 1.5. Cf. also Noeldeke, SO.. 199, cote 1, and Lagarde, J/iWic/i,'!., 226. I. H. Weiss
(Zur Gesch. d. jild. Trad.. II., 138, notel), justly observes that the fact that the Biblical
Aramaic never uses ]n^ as nota accitsoti'vi except once with a pronominal suffix (Dan. 3, 12)
would go to prove that the use of this particle is a Hebraism with Onkelos and, wo may
add, with all other Aramaic languages wliore its use is found who intended to give by its
adoption a basis for the exorcise of R. Akiba's hermoneutic rule that every nota accvsntivi
implies an inclusion of sonio additional casi', identifying, of course, rT* with rii5. The
entire want of this particle in the Mandaic an idiom outside of the sphere of Jewish influ-

ences
3

is tlie best proof of Mr. Weiss' supposition.


Some

Hi-BOkvr

scholars see the same use of ''Zi -^1^" i" Biblical Hebrew.
V. 265-272, and M. Laniljfit, RJiJ. XXII., 129-131.

'()),

C/.

Dnbsewitz,

.
;

PEEPOSITIONS

176]
'SbS

= ''&5J! + p+3)

toward, in the direction

M. Q. 9 h, TTiib
T
Very rare.
DISb (Hebrew ''Sb) according to.

nib
T

unto.

to,

to

53

with regard

of,

B. M. 62

to thee.

to.

^nilb

b,

me.

sequence

of,

(M. MS., Men. 65 a), /rom,

'"'12

'^a,

W&Z

because

iy

until,

b3>

on, upon.

\XT^ j'S

Sby

on account

of.

"^ iy instead

of.

of,

till.

"Q

~'^S5

Kb'^S'b

Sabb. 156

6,

6, a. e.

above, beyond, higher than,

(41, 181).

before

(Sabb. 30

a,

a. e.).

W
but

Usually contracted to

on, upon.

^jv$ on, upon, 5ull. 8

Rasi,

out, of.

through, by means of (Ar. 16 6).

Kb''2>

in con-

T\l2!n)2

unto.

to,

ribtj'^5

Palestinean

through.

In the Talmud the word is used only in legal


found frequently in Se'el. and Hal. Ged.

with.

it is

b:3p,b

32 a.

Kb^'^pb

style

B. B. Ill a; Tarn.

opposite, against, before.

(Palestinean.)
D'lpb,

Djl?.,

D^p^

before.

l^p,

Sabb. 30 6; 67 a; Gitt. 85

6.

(Palestinean.)

W2p_

31

6,

''53p

"'^apb

''12^^

before, in the presence of, for.

Ar.

The word is generally used as an


before names of persons in authority.

'^'^1 553p53 before thee}

expression of politeness
''tlin

^ninri

beneath,

below,

under; instead, in place of

(A. Z. 10 a).

175.

"j^n

j'^a

means: both

this

and

that.

'\)>

-pS

'pS according to the opinion of the one as well as to that of

"l53b

the other.

176.

'^2

is

of rare use,

and almost entirely limited

to the

pronominal sufSxes, the apocopated form being used before nouns,

Note the expressions


very thing. JT'll
able.

P!^T')2
,'

rt^j''a

The expression

is

W'l'''i2

the

out of

it,

yea, of

same. PT'^tiS

b|i

it,

liJ^b

e.,

i.

he

of the
is

not

probably originally an ironical question.

Is everything so as if coming from him, by his authority?


1

e'el.

for a half.

'inilB'^pP from before them.

H. G.

100,

"^^5 for her;

ibid. 3S7,

Sjbs

''12ip_

54

MORPHOLOGY

III,

[1'^'^

177. a) The preposition b having become


identified with the accusative, the

want was

By adding

distinct nota dativi.

particularly

felt of a definite

to the b a

and

demonstrative of

determinate distance, TDtl, that want was supplied: the simple,

worn-out b now became

two 3 's caused the

first

or ilbiT'b

liblTlb

The concurrence

and become

to dissimilate

nbns or nbn^i
The dictionaries derive our word from b+^iT'S

get

b)

be evident that such a presumption


force inherent in

is

We

but

of

thus

must

it

untenable, since the verbal

neither relevant nor apparent in the dative

it is

Luzzatto's etymology of b + IT'S is subject to the


same objection: t^n would evidently be akin to Ethiopic nahu,
Hebrew tllfn which has also verbal force and can govern only
the accusative.
Noldeke connects it with the verb bflD to lead in
Assyrian and Hebrew, and vocalizes '^bUD with plural termination.

personal pronoun.

c)

15

o,

ilbili is

and

used as accusative in

libtl^] ^b 15'^p'^S

we redeem

ri''br!''3

n^''5'^3

her, Gritt.

38

try

it,

A. Z.

a.

d) nbln^i and fllb are used only with reference to men.

178. Traces of a separate form " ^b " are found in the


scholastic term t]''52yti^b'1 and according to the reason given by
thee, Ned. 37 a and frequently, and in ^tT'b
"'iTT'b
to them. Col.
MS., Pes. 116 b and elsewhere.
,

PREPOSITIONS WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES.'

fixes

separate

ii^p

number of prepositions are generally used with sufthem even exclusively so. Of the inseparable preponly two, n and b take pronominal suflBxes.' Of the
forms, ^nSSit, ^"lirtS ^Q^^, ^m, ]^^, ina, 'S-l, 13,

some

ositions

^in>

179.

i^^3,

f^'>

^fllFl

Kriblt:53i<5

of

mb,

'fllMpl

(53,

by,'Hb3'! ^iby, a?, bnp, i^bn^p, D^p,

are generally used with pronominal suffixes;

HnbiltifiK,

i^W^n, and nbn^S are found only with


never found with suffixes.

suffixes; the rest of the list are

180. n
ilia,

,a,

52

6,

Ned. 50

On

^a

t]a

T];a

lina, ina, ^pria,


6,

a. e.,

fn^a

^na (Coi. ms., m. q. is a) na


'^na. b: ^b, i\), ^s^b (Keth.
,

-(ria,

legal style), ft^b

the ijlural form of some prepositions

cf.

^nb (R. H. 5

Lagarde, Mittheil.,

I.,

231 sg.

o,

Sabb.

CONJUNCTIONS

182]
140

-nb (Col. MS., Pes. 90 a),

6),

(legal style),
rt'^i^a,

])

t^D^Il,

^lib

-jD-a,

(legal style),

J^JD-^a

(Col.MSS.),

^in^b, ^tl^b

^nb.' "fS:

-prib,

55

'S'/^,

"^rsi,

^5':"3"3,

tis/a,

^in^^ra

'Hrp,

(110),

1^X3

?js-a,

(legal style), ^'DT'd,

Pi^r?j

t^-^rp,

'

j^ra

]^nTi2, -jin^ra

]^'DTi:i,

"?

^Ds^a

1^7^,

^nr^o

i^Db

^n^ra,

181. i^by is little used with prepositions: t^^^^^ Qidd. 8b;


Ber.'sGa; tt^b? i5na TSS? searc/i lY, Sm-/' iSTed. 50 a.'

"nib"'?

we

Instead of S^bS

Sabb. 105

""liibK

Notice also the by-form

Ji^VW upon

b, a. e.;

which Col. MS., Pes. 93 b,


''I'^b^y O. MS.,

find usually "-lb?,

writes and vocalizes

B. B. 12 6

him.,

(5<''7

= >^-'-).

CONJUNCTIONS.

182. bis
either

it^"il!<

^i"'']!!

it

would be

or,

even

right,

Fl^aK
"'i?

or.

"'S^

I grant

""X
''S

Hebraism.

whether

or,

i^abllJa

hotvever,

but,
.

either

07%

i!>5

if,

whether.

if,

whether

you were to say


or, whether
or.

if
.

( 183).
then
.

"'Si

"'ii

if.

''Tit

'T'I'H

^n'^K

= nitl

iitl^iSl

since, as, because.

used like

''><),

!l3^N

or ^n^a q.

v. M. MS. and

ed.

Pesaro, A. Z. 55 a.

TK,

^rX,

^T'

exhortative and
t

instead of T
'^'55

(2

M. MS., Y5m. 30

6), now, then,

c/.

only in legal

For

81.

a particle introducing direct speech

pray, an

precative particle used with the imperative.

Hebr.

"'3
;

found

style.

(H. MS., B. M. 73 6), 3^it (Sabb. 152 6), nrj*


(YSma 57 a, Yalq. MS.) is a compound of "j^i^ if and ^3 S3 here,
now, q. u., and is etymologically identical with Ethiopic 'enka.
il3^X,

!13

"{<

Generally used in the phrase

t^rTJJtl ^3''S

if

now! oh

that! with

the protasis or apodosis sometimes unexpressed.


1

"jib

Cf.

3 !1T

in

TG. ed. Harkavy,

HG.

llSyS

with ^S^it
"3 show.

187,

^D'^S
,

535.

German expression

the

IT ibid.

SDTl

lOi,

Tiow,

sich liber

Etwas hermachen.

183. ^D1S< akin to

^fS, irS, and

now, shall I act? 3G.

410.

the

Hebrew

SiS"i]S.

This may, however, be identical

both meanings being possible with the latter form, as Ethiopic 'enka and our

56

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

the French ne

m))R,^
'^'ob'A

"'b^jbi^

if in

,^

any luay

~^K also; generally ^/33


.

MSS.), consequently.

^/jb^l^ (Col.
,

que.

Hebraism.

^b""^ if, a

[182

/ R)^ ^^N ^k^ (Col. MS., Zeb. 6 a) if not, bid, except,


Compare Latin nisi, Italian se non, IS^sH
KD only; cf.

X^'^SjS

only.

as

not, if not, hut for, if indeed.

C;^ also, even.

'^SD

"j^

S<"J

so.^

^55i<

^3^3N even

1 ^3 b^

^S b?

"li

even, a Hebraism.

if,

notivithstanding, although, though.

3!J5

SK

nevertheless, a Hebraism.

1 or b (31) so that, that, in order thai; for, since.


KtTH for, because.

perhaps.

lest,

i^'Cb'^

sh

then, of course,

for sooth;

bid, is not it!

means

this

to

Often ^Hl

say; bid.

b^Sin since, because, a Hebraism.


fj^yn, rjSbn, t^Sb^n (Col. MSS.) therefore (^tji + b +
1

n,

or

k^in)'.' '

RPt'Ctl 'Stl is that so

S^FTXh srnce,
"1 (Did, bid.

There are

and

now?

H'//e)!, if,

""^

well!
Kri'^Jj

see ^3

consecutive.

^3''5<

is it

Cf,

indeed so?

e. g., "^^XCi^'iVi

o.

used in peculiar way with "^^30

is

and

Often introducing a question: but,

also traces of the

her be freed, Yeb. 19

let

K-^lTi

''

is

of opiinon, '"i^3l3

1^3C3, without having any apparent force.

when, (= T

'13

^3

"'3

j3

+ 3).
having the force of

a postpositive particle

^3">^

M. MS., Sabb. 4a ^T'nn ^3 "jl!4"ob li-^^i^ isbl and


he did not recollect whom they had allowed. Qidd. 48 a ^13 "'U -3

and

of il3^."

'Xb

"iX,

HG.

406; ]sbi5 or not (.=

yh

li?

HG.

K^<i.

On

the cliango of o to e

cf.

'B.a-aiit,AEV.,22.

etymology see Jastrow's Diction, s. v.


word see R. Duval, BilJ. IV,, 268-273; M. Lambert,

For

its

On

this

ibid. IX., 290-301;

5'.

Jastrow, ihid. XI., l.jT-lM HaWvy, tTiaiTa P. ND


i In later literature we find the Persian
Qfl used for ON in the phrase l^rt
</
TO., ed. Harliavy, Index, s. v., and Letter of Sam. ha-Nagld
"l21i? H- 68', l^nCn,
read l^ri DD
The word is also found in Noo-Syriac cf. Sachau, op. cif., p. 38, Machvin,
;

DH

mU

op. cit., 161.


5

See on this

etc., p.

4").

Goiger, Lchrbuch z\ir Spraclic der .\fishnn,

23, 2

and Sachau, Skizze,

CONJUNCTIONS

184]

57

!13 ''i^!aa wherewith then, etc.?


Id. M. MS., Taan, 7 6, H.
MS., B. M. 67 h. MS. Vat. 117, B. M. 67 h ^li "H how then? M.
MS., K. R. 29 a il3 -ils^a m;7io <Aen.? B. B. 10a"-p ij^nan, I'bid.

read:

M. MS.

"p is^nirn,

"5 i^nirn

H. and R. MSS. "^ KPTiiHl'. B.'b. Ilia


id. and frequent in MSS.
Cf. Ethiopic

i6jci.

M."Q.'26 a, eds.

;'

ka, ke.'
"3 (shortened

from

"'13

or

13)

if,

B. Q. 846,

lohen.

a. e.

i^b i<b 'S z/ not, not.

"1 "'S^n

^bn
T

(ri^.6) so

T^S^n 'S

'^B,

m orcZer

i!Aa^,

^3

that. ^^Ti

Zesi.'

-1 ]r^

(-1 1^3

M. MS., B. M. 39 a) as soon

since.

inji^'J

1553 (13+']'2) in case, since,

from

"1'J

as, after, since.'

^tV>2

the fact that, shice.

^tT'Q

supposing.

bb353 hence,

T\tTi2i

it

hut, yet, however, nevertheless.^

then follows.

"" ''H'pS before that, ere.


also, too, even, frequently

''Si

preceded by CjX

q. v.^

183. is and ""St are often interchangeable so that, for


''5<
''1^
we may have iK
iit, ^S
^H, i!J<
IS,
promiscuously. Col. MS., Zeb. 2 a a. e., has tT'S^lsiii for the usual
tl^ya^lJ^; ii< if, id., ibid. 46, 5a; &53^K im id.', ibid. 56.
instance,

184.
This

frequently contracted with the following word.

is

'iJ5

some standing expressions;


Col. MS., Zeb. 226, a.
^-C^TA,
'0"'n''.
^

especially the case with

is

m'^ya^iJ^

S''3"b''S,

as
e.,

'

'sri^^
T

for "sn"
T

"

-'in.'

In later literature: 1-Q1S51D 1^{a


of Sam. ha-Nagld, 'yyO 1S1i5 H-. P- 651

In later literature:

ibid. 73
3

"1

m!Ti^

and iiin
5

13

"jIDIil

'jt?3

Af F.
or

lilil

speaTc.

^ini 13

ISTa

MV.

SDIH ^S HG., 63; -^ pDlH ^S ibid.


quoted by Harkavy, MWJ., 1893,"p. 226.
,

5;

!13

24, 33;

1^^

Letter

[ IpiHS

IX.

KiniM HO,

c/.

is

read:

'Anftu,

Jastrow,

o.

1'3, 533.

The word

is

compound of the

interrogative 1'a

t.

According to Dalman, Gram.,

The word

p. 191,

note

2,

1^3

is

the

first pers. sing. perf. of

perhaps connected with 'Omanee Arabic SJJ

also,

or with

21*

.ff+J

^o
to

increase.
of the adverbs, prepositions and conJastrow's Dictionary; G-eiger^s JUd. Zeitschr. VIII., 180-90; Luzzatto's Grammar, and Liebermann's pamphlet mentioned in the Preface.
6

For suggestions about the etymologies of some

junctions,

cf,

,:

58

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

[185

INTEEJECTIONS.

185.

""i^

^n

woe! alas! oh!

0! = Arabic

""lit

^pTllT ^p^H'i ^X come noio, Iceep quiet!

.'

IJ

more frequent in Palestinean Arago on! make haste! hurry up! quick! lively!"^

Qidd. 706.

This particle

maic,

^Vii;i<

i^'^^il

'1

''1

^^

^~\

""ll

woe! oh! alas!

iT^, the camel-driver's call.

Nin

(V. L. Pes. 1126),


!ST

KT

riT

(TIT

is

i^TT

(V. L.

tfotd.)

N^u.^K^b^nr^siVfi,
S'*^n

Syr.

MS.,

(Col.

Nh, ^H

(c/.

^fl, "ju '^\

the ox-driver's cries.

a cry to frighten

"?'i'^'>?> '?^'Ci.

are given in Pes. 112 6

t<n

tfeicZ.)

away

a lion.

'?^'>?.

'^^V' P^^""?'
as sailor's cries.^
Gf.

Fi.)

oU-kci olLiai

"^ID

"pa an onomatopoetic word imitating the dripping of

water.

^Tib very

well!

Ethiopic lahaia
Tli^p

'il3''p

Ti^n Tj^n

to

The word

right!

all

he beautiful.

T23''3 123^3

is

Gf. Jastrow,

connected with
s.

v.

ding-dong; an onomatopoetic word.

an imitation of bubbling water.

186. XT N^ ,* i^n S<n i^T XT and their variants are evidently


demonstrative pronouns, and their use as a means of urging on
,

animals and warding

off

superstitious notion no

"The

For the explanation

wild beasts

is

probably based on some

more apparent.

of this particle I

am

Gf, however, Arabic

indebted to Professor Haupt,

who remarks

ia Ip'iJn'C *^fcC is perhaps a cohortative particle, c/. Assyr. I, e. g., I qS '^^2 "^iC
come ottt, I rid T^ 1^5 90 down, etc. Cf. Delitzsch, Assyr. Wb., p. 333, No. 160; Prol., 135;
ZE., II., 389; ZA., I., 51; Assyr. Gramm.., 145. It is possible that the *i^ in expressions
"ij^

Rabbi, dbiy^lB ntOllO "'i? is the same particle. It is certainly not I, ela.
may be connected with the Arabic vocatiye particle Li Also in Assyrian I is used as a
TocatJve particle like "t^*! ^55 e. ff-i I beli; cf. Hilprecht, Assyriaca^ 1894:, p. 52." From
Saadya's commentary on the n*T'3t'^'D (ed. Lambert, p. 45) we see that at his time the

like *i^"l "iX

It

Arabic form

X"^

was

in use, just as in

Derenbourg, Manuel du Lecteur,


ilit on a Babylonian magic bowl,

modern Syriac. For its use in later Hebrew, cf.


and Epstein, 'Eldad ha-Ddni, p. 58, cf. also

p. 189 (497)

PSBA.

XII., 311.

^K'^'^n occurs also in Neo-Syriac, Arabic


583) and has nothing to do with i{"in to live.
3

Perles,

MWGJ. XXXVII., 10, finds

^nnX'n, M.V.,

328.

in

and Kurdish (Lidzbarski, DLZ.,

some of these words the names

of ships.

1896,

Col

VEEB

190]

59

THE VEKB.
In Geneeal.

187.

The law

of triconsonantality

is

carried

out more consequently in our idiom than in the cognate lan-

There

guages.

Almost

all

properly no quadrioonsonantal verb in

is

the quadriconsonantals can be easily reduced to a

consonantal

+a

it.

tri-

formative element; or to the reduplication of a

The few

biconsonantal theme.

pluriconsonantals that cannot be

so reduced are either denominatives or foreign words.

Verbal Stems.
188. a) The subjoined
end gives a survey of all the conjugations or verbstems found in the Babylonian Talmud together with the number
In Paeticulae.

table at the

From

of the occurrences of every stem.

this table will

be evident

that the stems that have proper life in our idiom are only five:
Qal, Pa"el, Aph'.el, Ithp^'el and Ithpa"al.

Beside the stems enumerated, a few examples of Haph'el,

b)

and Niph'al are found, which are all taken


from the Palestinian. Thus, JSaCDfltlb Yeb. 107 6, Gitt. 85 6;
Hithp^'el, Hithpa"al

Keth. 52 6.'
For
Taan. 17 6, Men. 65 aV 'W'bFi
nXSS'nnb
It':"
T T"
Haph'el cf. " Rare Conjugations."
189. A few examples of the passive stems occur only in the
participle.
Thus, Pu"al: !n;a^TI352 put under ban, Sabb. 67 oy
Wa^na [Targ. HDjina] becoming, eds. Taan. 22 b; ''^tlW2 post
:

dated,' B. B.

Ber. 44

171 6;

6. Pelal:

"'"l^iSa ughj,

CjSiJ'a folded,

rolled in ashes, Ber. 44

pTM^S

is

is

^uU. 51 6. Pulpai:

Hoph'al:

known, Qidd. 64 a6;

Rail, 'Er. 63 a; Kni^WJ


'DS^/J

6.

Keth. 60 6; itriblBSQa boiled,

ib^'^12

ISFl'lT^?-

rotten,

and elsewhere;

Bekh. 57

6.

190. In the dictionaries a Nithp'el or ]Srithpa"al

times mentioned.

No such form

The examples given by them


with the D-preformative.

was caught {tWVLt\

'''V^,

exists in the

are either

A real

86 a;

distinguished, 'Arukh and

evident, Sabb. 139 6

superfluous, Yeb. 74 a;

Knbsb^ljia

p'^S^'J is fit, Gitt.

is

some-

Babylonian Talmud.

Hebrew, or the imperfect

Nithp'el seems to occur in 1^Fl^3

184, and Hal. Pesuq.

ed. Muller,

p. 77), but forms like t^'^T^']?, n-'^^^M {ibid., p. 80) show that
this is the imperfect used with the force of the Assyrian preterite.
'
CSISan mmffin ed. Harkavy, 131, has jnfsbn'i.'n, (or jni^^n"'!?) KDiS I^^IZZ
I have reconsidered (Ber. 426, Pes. 1036), though in Aramaic context, is Hebrew.
;

60

MOKPHOLOGY

III.

Qal.

191.

The

Qal, or simple stem, consists of the simplest

The 3d

root found in the language.

5it2p

sing. masc. perfect is btJp

Beside bpp are also found b^tip

especially with transitive verbs.

and

chiefly with neuter verbs.

the imperfect

the three vowels a,

all

[191

The last form is


i, u occur even

Of denominative verbs "pX blH

stems.

1'iIJj

ItlH

rare.

"|3m

In

in strong

"pJ

dtip and D5p are examples.

Pa"el.

192.

This stem

formed from the simple stem by


Thus original qatal(a)

is

doubling the middle stem-consonant.

became qattal(a), a form

still

preserved with final gutturals.

Generally, the second a-vowel has given place to the i-vowel


originally belonging to the imperfect.'

times heightened to

following guttural, or

Pa"el

Dbs,

193.

prefix of

Thus,

changed

to

i,

if

some-

is

'CT'D,

D3\

par

~I35, 115,

C35p.

Aph^el.

vowel

the denominative stem

is

excellence; e.g. TpS*, T^3, tPj, 11T, piT,

qw, pb,

first

under the influence of a

(e), especially
"I

The

This stem
btOplSt

is

formed from the Qal by the

from blip

The stem-vowel

is

not protected by a following guttural, or

usually

"I

The

vowel of the preformative undergoes sometimes the same change,

and

Hebrew, but also in the


Denominative verbs are few in this

thie not only in the perfect, as in

other parts of the verb.

stem

DlHi^

contracted

rpSi* to gather,

preformative

l^bpX

dlX

to cut to pieces, Q''T7K to

to enclose, D^^lflX to

arm

represents an earlier sibilant,

through the intermediate stage of


Reflexive Stems.

194.

The

123

turn south,

oneself.

The

or D, probably

refiexive stems,

which have in
formed

a later stage of development supplanted the passive stems

by internal vowel-change, are formed from the active stems by


prefixing the syllable in^
Thus, bppns*, b^plTlK, btJpm are
.

formed from the Qal, Pa"el and Aph'el respectively. The original form of the prefromative was T\
The syncope of the vowel
of J^ and the subsequent prefixing of a prothetic vowel is probably
due originally to the imperfect, where, e. g., a form titaqatil
would easily become titqatil, analogous to the Niph'al in
Hebrew, where btp^SH is formed from the imperfect stem
n(a)qatil.
.

1 This is the current opinion.


ZA., v., 1-22.

But tho

j'-yowel

may

also be original

cf.

Zimmern

200]

VKEB

195. With stems whose

first

usually transposed after the

61

consonant

is a sibilant

the

tl is

but just as frequently

sibilant,

remains untransposed.

196. In stems

the

''"15?

t\

of the Ithp^'el is always doubled

in order to give the stem a semblance of triconsonantality.'

same

is

true of

The

stems.

"'"'V

assimilated to

Teason.

first

yy

is

T\

also doubled in stems

The

it.

fl

When

radical

the

and the

iJ5"2

when the N

of the Ittaph'al is doubled for the

tl is

spirantic

it is

usually assimilated to the

When

latter doubled.^

or a guttural the assimilation of the

tl

is

same

''"3

It is usually preserved in verbs

197.

The

stems when they follow the conjugation of the

the

first

radical is

"1

takes place without con-

sequent doubling."

198. The usual stem-vowel of the Ithp^'el is i (e), but the


a has been retained in some cases even with non-gutturals.
The Ithpa"al has, with few exceptions, a in the last syllable.
Moods and Tenses. 199. There are only three moods: the
All other moods
Indicative, the Imperative and the Infinitive.
are expressed by syntactical means. The tenses are also three:
The last is reprethe Perfect, the Imperfect and the Present.
sented by the participle.
Afformatwes of the Perfect. 200. 3d sing. fern. : The older
form Vr has been preserved in a few instances.'' T he apoc opated
original

form JS!", or n~, written promiscuously, is the usual ending. A


few times ln''7 occurs for fly, which form is either an analogical
marks the indistinct
formation after the "'"b verbs, or else the
"^

vowel-sound after the accent:


as in the
1

Hebrew

''"b

q^tAl^th.^

Several times Nln7 occurs,

verbs."

Bute/. 480.

2 Cf.

Noeldeke,

Jlfff.,

sButc/. tllbina
*Cf.

164.

mSbn

tTQy^ nbtS

'he

ed.

HUdeahelmer,

went

and

p. 282, 12J'^_1S (vocalized).

transgressed,

Ned. 23a;

ny^ti foundered,

TlB'^ptT'S? > betrothed, Dlb'^E'l] brought forth, Ned. 50a; H'Hiri broke, ibid. 666;
np"'"!y '^ed, Sabb. 67a; nb''tja ceased, SOta 33a; tl^'lpi? brought near, Yeb. 396;

nbltSJniS was aboUshed, Sabb. 116 6, fin Ya'aqob n3'iriirTiX ujas given, ibid, (the last
two examples belong to the Palest, dialect) iTlB'nBIS Keth. 62 b ; TlVi''^W'Vi was cured,
ibid.; tlpT' spii, Yeb. 396; and others.
;

5 nibtPpniS? Sabb, 1166


Harkavy, 550.

^tirty

eds.; cf.

ninDniB'^S was found, DIDISJn JTimiBn

eniered, B. Q. 48 a; ntlj)? Ber.516.

C7/.

also 536,

5.

ed.

62

MORPHOLOGY

III.

201. 2d
ending

sing,

masc: The_usual ending


Thus,

occurs a few times.

!f5n7

[201
ri7; but the old

is

didst vow, Ned.

MFl'I'lD

23 a; KFinin didst ride, A. Z. 4 6; sn-i^^X (i/1J5<) didst hire


thyself, Y6ma 20 6, M. MS.; Kri"'Sp wouldst have caused to eat,

5ull. 96 a; KD^SS-'K 'En Y., Keth. Ill a.


T

202. 2d sing, fern.: The old ending ''ri7 is never found but
the form ri''~, which like the afformative of the 1st sing. com. has
arisen from the former by throwing back its final vowel, occurs a
;

few times;

e.

thou

tT'b'Op

g.,

didst

placest (used as m.), B. Q. 114a;

66

n-^SjiK lentest (m.), Sabb.

1st sing. com.

203.
few cases:

156

6,

The

(241) and, with apocope


most common.

The

above,

tlS]5TI3

But

(Rail IT^p^ES).

found but in a

is

took,

6.

''7.

"'"^

is

''

np^'Si^

before

in

in a few cases

is

I brought

this is probably to

Ber.

out,

be read

and

6,

38 a

^17."
'^~

is

to

untenable from orthographical considerations.

The few examples with diphthongal ending,


MS., B. B. 73

Sabb.

The usual forms are JT'7


The first ^jreguent.; the

Rosenberg's supposition that the apocopated ending

be vocalized

Tr^

I came, Taan." 32 a6, Suk. 44 6,


I prayed, Ber. 30 6, M. MS.;

H,

of

last is the

Cf.

is

-'tfi'S.

was, Tam. 32 a, Suk. 44

wanting.

85a;

gavest, Keth.

The usual form

old ending "fly

^tT-riS);

Pes. li0 6;

6,

M. MS.

Keth. 65 a; tT'^S'^K

swallowed, Ber. 56 6;^ ^'^'2'^

(M. MS. mbl^TT);

Sabb. 116
^'TC^T\

""Fiybs

kill,
iCT'Illj';

''SmSN!

as:

^KpTiS!

removed, Er. 54

6,'

explained either as analogical formations to the

"""P

went,

H.

are to be

verbs or

according to 80. In any case the exception confirms the rule.*


204. 3d plur. masc: The usual form is ^~. In a few
cases

cases

we find 'yT due to the influence of the imperfect. In some


we have |"'7 '^7 due to the influence of the participles. In
,

the feminine the ending

is

'p.

205. 2d plur. masc.: The usual forms are


both occurring with equal frequency.

232

see
1

,'

But

'yiPr

For the forms

and ^Tr,

i^ri"'7,

^Vr~

a.

this is probably

^^nybS

rT^riS^bSl as in ed. Von.

2C/. g306p.

Das Aram. Verbum^ p. 10.


*0n the whole it may be said that

the fuller endings of the 1st sing. com. and the 3d


b) with weak verbs

with strong verbs in passages of an early date,


also in later times, to give more substance to the word.

sing. fem. are foiind a)

VERB

208]

63

206. 1st plur. com. : Alongside of the older form Kj- we


younger forms '^' and "7. For the forms ^T~ "u"^",
see 232 a.
Note "SiayilJ we subjected to servitude, A. Z. 2 6
find the

(M. MS.

This ending

""tsyilj).

is

common

in Palestinian forms

before suffixes.^

Preformatives of the Imperfect.


207. 3d sing. masc. : The
^ has been retained in the language of legal style,

original prefix

some ancient proverbs, in all standing expressions, and in a


few other cases. Usually the prefixjs/'b or b and ''S or 5
Both
prefixes, b and D are used interchangeably for indicative as well
as jussive.'
The 3 is, however, more frequently found in the
in

indicative.

208. That the b had originally a jussive force, largely


retained even in our late texts, admits of no doubt.
Compare
such passages as these: "'iribl ^^lySi '^ 'qby ^nj^b "lil 'rrb T02^h^
5<2t3 'ini^'l K^lti and let them tell him, etc., " may it he decreed by

Heaven concerning

thee that

it

be propitious "

Xb

and

it

will be pro-

no one praise himself in


order thai others may praise him, 2 M. MS., MQ. 28 b.
Against the current opinion that the b is identical with the

pitious, Ber. 55 b;

tt''3*lb''']'1'^

b'H^b

let

Arabic particle J, Assyrian lu, and that the


variant of b, Barth holds that the b

the

3,

that both b

and

used for the jussive, the

is

of different origin

last for the indicative,

particles are not prefixed to the forms btip''

substitute the

"'-prefix.

of his theory

seem

only a phonetic

j'DpTT

The arguments he advances

to be very plausible.

and b in the

etc.,

but

in support

There are only two

The

inter-

person of the plural, and (2) the ^


But the first may be explained as a

first

after b or 3 in the Aph'el.


false

first

and that these

points which seem to speak against this theory: (1)

change of

from

demonstrative particles, the

are

3 is

analogy of the 3d person, the second as due to the change

of the vowel of the prefix.

that a pronunciation

unknown

bt3p|||b

For the
is

last point

speaks the fact

unsupported by orthography and

to tradition.

That this form was so pronounced is evident from a form

Cf. also

131in we were, MV.

86,

and 271,

like

p^n

note.

3 For the various opinions entertained about the nature of this ? see the references in
Driver's Hebrew Tenses^, pp. 276-7; Haupt, B^., I., p. 17, note 20; Barth, "Das Syr. Imperfoot-Prafix n," AJSL., XIII., 1-6,

64

III.

Note.
l^ijCSb

let

MOSPHOLOGY

L^^^

few exceptional spellings

him

B. B. 43 b;

testify,

may
let

tn"i':iS"'b

here

be noted:

them cause her to

make a vow, Gitt. 35 a.' Note also pZl'^l^'Sb that I may attach
myself, M. MS., Pes. 41 a ( 53, 4).'
At times b is
209. 3d sing. fern. : The usual prefix is SH
or is to be
form
is
an
older
found instead. Whether this
.

explained by the use of the masculine for the feminine ( 284)

carmot be decided.

210. 2d

sing,

and plur. masc. and

fern.:

The

prefix is

invariably H.

211. 1st sing, com.: The prefix is invariably X. 3d plur.


masc. and fem. : The prefix for both is alike "'b b or "'j D as in
the 3d sing. masc.
212. 1st plur, com. : This prefix is generally D but some,

times b.

213. The vocalization of the preformatives of the imperfect


Thus, not only the it
usually takes gere instead of s^vft, as in Syriac, but also the
other prefixes, though with less frequency, follow the same rule.
This is especially the case in verbs T'y and y''^
The i? takes a
full vowel in consequence of its weakness; and the other prefixes
vary in some respects from the Syriac.

follow their analogy.

Bute/. 13.

214. 2d sing, fem.: The


Afformatives of the Imperfect.
ending is T~ or "'7. It occurs only in a few cases ( 249).

215. 2d and 3d plur. masc. : The ending is "^l", or^^ Both


The endings 'p~ and '~ are rare ( 232).
.

are of equal occurrence.

216. 3d plur. fem.: The ending is


n^: m^n^b are caught, M. MS., Sabb. 43

Once we find
also 411.
217. Sing, masc: The
'c~.

6."

Cf

Afformatives of the Imperative.


ending of the energicus has been retained in a few instances
"I'^rrnD flee, M. MS., Pes. Ill b; p"iS pay, Sebu. 41 b.'

218. Sing, fem.: The ending

2nd

is "p",

or

"'".

219. Plur. masc: The usual ending is ^~; but cf. 'yWCTii^
ye, Ned. 50 b.
At times the nominal ending "'" appears

(232).
I

Cf.

Noldeke, MQ., 166.

^rrmSb
3

But

TG.

this form

ed.

Harkavy, gTO; iniT'Kb HG. 411.


be feminine used for masculine.

may

VEKB

223]
220. Flur.

The only instance of such a form is ^''b^tip


The ending ]''- may be
(O. MS. sinrbpp).

fern.

Sabb. 12 6

kill ye,

65

equivalent to ^(13^7

The

>

and

IZ-prefix of Infinitive

prefixes of the imperfect the

sometimes a

full

)2

in infinitives

vowel instead of s^vft.

the infinitive Qal has

instead of

( 553, c).

Afformatives of the Infinitive.


sents the following endings:

K~

a)

t\~

this is considered

ending,' but according to Barth

'7

6)
it

The nature

221.

Like the
and participles has
In a few cases the '2 of

Participle.

222.

The

by Noldeke

infinitive

to be the emphatic

the feminine ending.^

it is

of this ending is uncertain.

the masculine ending ^~

Flirst sees in

T~

Syr. -~, Hebr.

pre-

111335,

{cf.

n^K tlBby) f Noldeke takes it to be the feminine ending of the


same form ;* Landauer explains it to be the plural ending f Barth,
an abstract ending.^ There remains still the possibility of its
being the post-tonic indefinite vowel for original d, u, which
change might have been due also 'to dissimilation.
One is inclined to connect this ending with the similar adjective ending in words like '^na'l "VTTi ^mri (B. M. 73 a), ^Vr\Tn,
,

TI/.S^S

"'Ifl'^ti^T

Arabic e for

and the

classical

For a similar change

like.

Arabic

see also

69, note

by analogy with "'"5 verbs.


The last is shortened from the
d) mi", ^~.
c)

even before

T\

iny, doubtful.

e)

word

nriZ

modern

1, above.*

'll'i'"

restore its

last

cf.

to

is

suffixes.

Only

223.

and does not

According

to Noldeke, the

an analogical formation from flSSK i/CpS^

whip, MahzSr Vitry,

f) lr

Cf.

in riBi/3

first

64.

The

We

last

let

p.

28, = ^ull.

(but

cf.

107 h)

forms (c-/) only sporadically.

here follow the enumeration of

all

the infinitive

forms found:
Qal:
^btppa,
'bittp,
1

btipa, bt)p)j, b^ppa, bit:p5j, bpp^a, Kbt:pp, ribtsptt,


^bitip^o,

ribt:p5j,

''.':ibpp, "."libtip,

MG., % 122.
Nominalbildmig,

%101.

|bt5pa,

bpp,

bppK,

bitDp,

bit:pj<,

'ibtip.
3 Lehrgebaude,
iMa.,p.li3.

p. 121.

'

ZA.,

MG.,

III., 274.

p. lai.

66

MOBPHOLOGY

III.

Pa"ei.-

^bitaj^,

bitap, b^tp]5, ^bc)i?,

^bBj?,

Kb^i?,

^ytpp,

bitsp,

^bitsp,

i^bira]?,

mb^i?,

b^p.^p, btppa, !<btt)pa,^-:ib^p,"'ibc)p.

"bitipK, 'biapiA, V-'ppiSi, 'b^pN, ^ibitapN, btipx,

j.p/i'eZ;

nb^pN,

[224

"jbitipi;,'bpp,

(^biapn),

'bitapss,

^^ibcipK,

^bitip'J,

xb^p5a, bt:p:p, bpp5j, btppa, bppi.


'

mp'el-

lbitipr\x

i^b^pns, ^btipm,

sbitspni^,

''biupiri^,

b-'tppriK', ''^ib^prib?

bicipnjj^

"btjpm,

b-^apris bppnj* bcjipins


,

,'

btppn^p, itbtipwj, ^biopni;.

ithpa^ai:

'^bitopriii'/i^bitspriii,

sbt^pnx, ^-^ib^pnjs, bitapm,

btjpriH, b^tapnii, i^biapna, 'bitapn?.'

ittaplial:

^bitSpFlX.

Plvri-consonantal stems.

Hnbpp,

nii^bpp,

Active:

'3'ibpp, 'IsibtSp, KZlibtSp,

Passwe.-

nibtpp.

"nibiapriH,

^abtipini*,

nbtipris^.

224. Sing, fern.: The


Afformatives of the Participle.
ending t\~ is rare." Generally.it is !{~, or n~. The first more
frequent.
The emphatic state i<n~ occurs but a few times. At
times the perfect ending
"l!Wa''a, F.

is

MS., B. Q. 43

found

'^bSil

fissured, Ber. 25 a;

is

6; ''Knn-'a ts low, Pes. 8 a.'

The ending "i"'7 is rare. The usual ending

is ^~
as in Neo-Syriac.^ More frequent is the verbal ending il~
occurs.
rarely '^~
At times the nominal ending
In a few cases one
226. Plur. fern.: The ending is 'r'
225. Plur. masc.

"'iSl'"

would be inclined

to

cut stones, B. B. 3 a;

we may

suppose apocope of

SSpSpM

"^l?"^?

"j

e. g.,

S^211J12T "'SpX

But

^iiiocking knees, Ber. 6 a.

such forms as singulars ( 235) c/.


'^niS other things, M. MS., B. M. 15 a; Nr"^ljX 'T12, eds.
also explain

Steuctuee of Veeb.

In General. 227.
now

ibid.

The form qat-

ul(a) of the simple stem occurs but in a few examples.

now

'b"'!2

Many

qatil(a) without difference


in meaning, and the old correspondence of i and m perfects to a
verbs occur

as qatal(a),

as

In 1"5 verbs by analogy with the strong verb.

This form

'

Cf.

Cf.

is

doubtful.

TKi'aTVQ ehe heats, Taan.


Dalman, op. cit., p. 229.

21 6

nflSriTBia

iC. MS., Zeb. Ml), has vocaliaod l-jayi.

fmmd, Sabb.

110

b.

Cf. g

1!;!.

233.

VEEB

231]

67

a perfect to u and i imperfects, is largely destroyed.


some verbs occur with either of the three vowels.
228. The derived stems have frequently u instead of the

imperfect, of

In

fact,

usual

I,

This

e.'

is

frequent in the imperfect, rare in the perfect

and imperative, and does not occur at all in the participle. But
such nominal forms as NpiS^S suckling, iXCiV2W2 robber, arfTtfiD
peddler, evidently show its earlier existence also in the participle.
I

am

also inclined to consider the

nominal form

J^bitip as orig-

inally a Qal active participle qfttill, a by-form of qatil.''

229. The stem- vowel has


forms of the

tives in all

a tendency to stay before afforma-

This tendency

finite verb.

is

predom-

inating in the perfect and the imperative, but rare in the imperfect.

The

participle regularly loses its vowel before afEormatives.^

230.
d before

it,

vowelless guttural, or 1

or changes an original

231.

i,

generally retains original

or u, to d.

Verbs whose stem ends in a conft of the plural from the


end of the word to between the second and last stem-consonant
(between first and last in biconsonantal verbs). This occurs
Ill

Particular.

1.

sonant, sometimes transfer the afformative

frequently in the perfect, but

rare in the other parts of the verb.

is

Levy* supposes forms like bitJp, bltipX, etc., to be infinitives.


Of course, he had in view only the perfect. The few
examples in other parts of the verb he either did not notice, or
explained them away
and the latter can be easily done.
3. Arguments can be brought forth on both sides.
In favor
2.

of Levy's theory are such facts:

a) Lack of a similar
b)

The use

phenomenon

in the cognate languages.

of unmistakable infinitives for finite forms in our

idiom as well as in the cognate languages.


1

Traces of this usage are found in the TargflmSm and in Assyrian

ritJi3"iriSt 2

Sam. 22:8;

'j^jiTri']

Hos. 9:2;

cf.

pITIT'^ Lev. 7:3;

Delitzsch, Assyr. Gram., p. 273 sg.

2 These u-forms seem to represent a much earlier phase of verb-formation than is found
in the cognate languages. The view that qatul(a), qatil(a> forms had originally cor-

responding derived forms just as qatala forms have, seems to be borne out by our idiom.
Cf. on this question Zimmern, "Das Verhaltnis des assyr. Permansivs zum semit. Perfect
und zum agypt. Pseudoparticip,'" ZA., V., 1-22, and Lindl, Die bab.-assyr. Priisens-u.
Prdferitalforvien. The theory that the u-vowel in such cases represents il, which stands for
i (cf. Barnstein, The Targum of Onkelos to Genesis, p. ai and references), does not explain
the presence of this vowel in the Ithpa"al.
'

'^

But

cf.

Dalman,

iNeuhebr. Wb.,

op. cit., p. 220, note

s. v.

UJ.

2.

68

MORPHOLOGY

in.

[232

Traditional pronunciation of the form bitip as

c)

On

4.

the other hand

used exclusively for the third plural


been an infinitive, it would not have been so

a) That this form

Had

masculine.

it

it

i>1t3|5.'

may be argued:

is

limited in number, nor in person.

That the

b)

"'"b

verbs should have had a form corresponding

to bitap of the strong verb.

That the corresponding forms in the derived stems show


clearly the difference of the infinitive and the epenthetized forms.
c)

Cf., e. g., b^tip^j;

with ^bitipx,

The throwing back

5.

with ^biupriN.

b^tjpriii

vowel

of the final

is

probably due to a

retrocession of the accent in the derived conjugations to the ante-

penultima, and, by analogy, also in the Qal.


retrocession are found in the nouns

now on

the

i5ln^p3][

and

Traces of such
"'jtiS^TU

accented

first syllable.

of the participles being used with

232. o) In consequence

the force of a tense, they and the perfect influence each other in
several ways: in exchanging afformatives

and structure of verbal

Thus, on the one hand, the perfect presents forms like

theme.

while the participles appear as

^'btip, ''bpp, instead of ^blJp,

instead of "fbpp, "bpp, 'fb^pp, "'b'^tpp.'


On the
other hand, the perfect, which ought to join its plural afformatives
ilbtip, ^b'^pp,

and the second persons to a singular verbal theme:


"iWbtJp, adopted from the participles the plural verbal

of the first
"pbt3p,

theme:

while the participles underwent,

jD+'^bpp, "j^tl+^ppp,

through the influence of the perfect, a reverse process, assuming


the singular theme before

jW +- bpp
b)

-3

The

b''pp also a

+ b-'pp

-|

plural enclitic

pronouns: "iD+btSp,

w + b-'pp

passive participle of Qal has beside

form b^tlp

The

its

regular form

latter is less frequent.

The accent being on the penult, the last vowel is indistinctly pronounced. But, I
sounds more like ft than o. This is supported by two vocalized examples: ^^"nZJ
they sent. Col. MS., Meg. 6a, and *^^'53J4 they said, Se'elt., ed. pr., p. 26. Levy, in accord1

thinlc, it

The VIZV

ance with his theory, vocalizes 51Ijp.


probably due to the influence of verbs
taking a
2

full

vowel instead of Sovft, or

In later literature

|!?"S
is

i5D1''D'13 U'is)

or

in the traditional pronunciation is

ys

a Hebraism.

their initial consonant frequently


Cf. S531, o.

we learned, Resp.

Mueller, 144 (er!ra GaOn)': and 'even "jlSlTinDJS

d. Lehrer d.
'i1D^inO>5 they

Ost. u.

Western, ed.

testified, ibid., 89,

VERB

236]

69

233. The imperfect forms without afformatives take


Thus;

cases the endings of the perfect.

Ned. 23 a;
nri

J!^532>p

"''ti7p"'j'^

X^^U

'13ri''51

"jbtt ^in^'b

that

Sabb. 30 6;
let us infer,

!!<FI

come,

we may carry

'^ifyCT'D.'^b

ibid.

come,

^tT'S

let

let

off,

let

i$"lpFl''ri let it

us bring rain, Taan. 25 a;

us all be one people, Sanh. 39 a;

HSr. 3 b;

"ji"'^?^!?

106 b ( 102)

;'

the whole

to disappear altogether.

us consider,

it

-(S^;:^

Wp''MrnsX I shall eschew, B. Q.


The
'En Ya'aq., Sanh. 98 a.

On

let

us abolish, Col. MS., Zeb. 38 a;

105 b; X3a3?-'N I shall be late,


same is met with in the participle.
Gender. 234. There are in the verb,
norni, two genders, masculine and feminine.
irregular.

in a few

be forbidden,

as well as in the

But

their use is

can be said that the feminine tends

There

is

not a single masculine form

that could not legitimately be used for the feminine, while

many

of the feminine forms are found in use for the masculine, both in

verb and pronoun.

236.^
Of the two numbers, the singular is frequently used when we should expect the plural. This may be

Number.

Cf.

235.

due to laxity of syntax,

or, as

in Syriac, to the orthographical

omission of the plural ending, or to scribal errors.


1

The

Cf.

section quoted

is

to be corrected by this.

Lotz, Tigl. Pileser, p. 98 below

NOldeke, MG., % 162

Barnstein, pp. 30-33.

70

III.

MOKPHOLOGY
Qal.

Perfect

L236

'

VERB

239]

71

STRONG VERB.

236. The guttural verbs have been

treated together with the

non-gutturals, since for lack of vocalization

we know but

little

of

the modifications the former underwent.

In the examples given, masculine forms have been given as


E. g.,
1!ll?''lS she became pregnant (Bekh. 47 a, Sanh. 69 a) I put under
masculine, although used as feminine, and the reverse.

masculine forms;

'\^TT12

circumcise yourselves (M. MS., Sanh,

39 a), under feminine forms.

EXAMPLES FOR QAL.

Perfect. 3d
S

V^L^J.'

bpip

sing,

masc 237.

a)

[BT bpp

he took, Ned. 51 aj pJn'i kept silent,

biSOp

M. Q. 28

a^

M. Q. 28a; nbllJ sent, ^Ow' heard, Ned. 65a; "^nti


shone forth. Y6m. 15 a.
M Vtip S ^>-^j. p^bp
b) [B btip, bpp; T b^tip, b-'pp
ascended, Ned. 66 6, Ber. IS'b; W^p tasted, Ned. 66 5; n^pTi: had

p"]? fled,

died, ibid.

ii"!?!! was destroyed, Gitt. 55 b; "|ipri


[T b^tap S '\ljujj
became foxy, M. MS., Taan. 7 a, H. MS., B. M. 106 6; yVj rose
up, came up, Sanh. 82 a; np1"in pilS the bright star has shone
forth, a Babylonian saying quoted in Jer. Talm., E. H. 57 b;
TjinS partook, M. MS., Ber. 46 a; ed. Ven., ibid. 57 b.^

c)

'3dsing.fem:'%238. a) [B nbpp, mbpp; Tnbpp; Mtli^bti^p;


WJTZJ

zd^]. nn3as/iesfoZe,Ned.346'; tV^B burst, ibid. 50 a;

heard, iWlb^

Ber. 51

^sent,

[B rlbpp; T nb^pp;

b)

ascended, Keth. 104 a:


Ber. 18 b. Sabb. 151 b;

"

6.*

IS^tT^yS,

Kp'^'iti

'

nj^bti^p;

s L_L_^_;]. xp;bD

was afraid, B65. 25


stung, Ber. 58

b; K^'D'iIJ died,

6.

masc.'% 239^. a) [B nbpp, nbpp; T KFlbpp, Flbpp;


J.
ri^nS didst write, ^ag. 4 5; Flbp^ didst
S
mbKtJp;
1:^4^
take, B. M. 63 b; Ppbp didsi^ ascend, Ber. 18 6; rinDy diids/ s^eaZ,
.2d sm^r.

B = Bibl.

Cf.

3 Cf.

Aramaic,

31TIB

HQ.

T = Targumic Aramaic,

M = Mandaio,

= Syi-iac.

ed. princ, 79 c.

% 200.

The

This last verb

Cf. 201.

spelling

flblip (never "ip) shows that this form


not Pa"el as Jastrow thinks.

Sb tip

is

is like

that of T.

'

72

MORPHOLOGY

III.

56 h;

ibid.

L^^^

didst hear, Ned. 6 a;

V\'$12'^

didst commit a

ri3>iIJS

crime, B. Q. 85 a.

[B

h)

hast married, Sand. 97 a;

!riIl^C3[p]

Qidd! 29

/em.' 240. a) [T

Keth. 65 a;

m-^bpTIJ

51 a; IT^ppp dids^ HZZ,

ibid.

';^tra.'$;

..a

ffmS

Ber. 57 a;

nbpip

foo7c,

>

.J

Tarn. 32 &; IT^DIT didsi

59

in-'bap

B.

fozt?/,

M.

a.

S i.S^]. n-'iny I did; Sabb. 145

n-'bla-'p;

didst spread out,

rip''"li

com.' 241. a) [B nbtpp

is^ sm^.

67 a

S Lji^u-oJ.

h.

sing,

d-t'ds^ Icilt,

M n^tap;

nrpp;

Ber. 18 h; Firtttp dids/ grind, Sanh. 95 6;

rip'^bc dids^ ascend,

2d

m-

7\-, nbtip;

&;

n^pbo I

103 a/

"'lay did, Pes.

b;

rose,

n^y^TIJ heard, B.

conquered, Sanh. 95 a;

M. MS., Sabb. 156

nbt:p;-

ri^bt:p,

''pTIJS /assed, Ber. 56 bj "bri^ J X)lanted,


I sent, M. Q. 16 &.*
T n-'b-^pp; M lY^btl^p; S ii>^J. n"'b"'3Tp I

^Xr* sfoZe, B. Q. 65 a;

Taan. 23 a;

[B

6)

tlbtJp;

down, Sabb. 116 bj

loent

156

ibid.

^ribT2

b;

^S"'C3 ^oo/c,

-p-^a'aJ Ze/Z,

3d

M. Q. 25

^o-,

^Tltl returned, ibid.

57 a;

[B

b)

^ITI'J
!lbtip;

10 a;

97 o;

bvm

-pytip;'

Qid. 70

Sanh. 26 a;

^p-'bp,

il5'''l3,

C/.

Pal.

^ibtpp;

Talm.

"pbtip;

Ber. 44 a;

^Ip^a searched,

6,

ijlanted, Taan. 23 a.

b^tip;

^o-,

cli^x].-

Sabb. 29 b; ^2^iTr died, Sanh.

2C/.S203.

lysbS

I swallowed, HG.

^!^'l^D^ I committed, EG.

ed. pr. 105 6.

ed. pr.

U9d; fT'S'lB
I paid,
'

ibid. 98a,-

HTlblB I
'

ibid.ilc.

siplftb

Ber. 226; ^n-^SS /ied, i6id. 56 6;

'C/.202.
3

Sabb. 29 6; 'SinS

heard, ibid. 56 a;" ^l^y made,

"'yp'lIJ

Slb^tip,

^p"'n-j3 //le?/ /cepi silence,

B. B. 167 a;

dripped profusely, C. MS.,

B. B. 8 a;

rebelled, ibid,

took,

bought, SSta 13 a.

silence,

[BT

av^]. WKSTB

6; ^p^y fled,

signed,

''b"'p"i23

a/mzd, Nid. 13 a;

a.

772asc. 242. a)

pZiir.

bt:p;

Gitt.

''3"'5T

[T n-'bitip].- "pimr I kept

c)

-iiJas

"'"^'rin

M. MS., Ber. 57 a;

partook, M. MS., Ber. 49

^H'-JJa

married, Sanh. 97 a;

ascended,

"'p^by

wrote, ibid. 105 aj

ln3"'ln3

Keth. 53 a;

fan

"iCn ed. HarkaTy,241.

'

'

sent,

VEEB

246]

73

were completed, M. Q. 28 b; ^S'^pFl became foxy, Ber. 5 b


(M. MS. Ci^pn, Beth Nathan 5r|!lpn^>5, c/87); "n^SS they tied,
M. MS., Ber. 56 b.

l70-'b;B

c)

[T ^b^ltip]. ^5113

d)

With final vowel thrown back:^

22

ate, Ber.

6,

ed.

Ven.

returned, Sanh. 26 a;
-?Qy did, Zeb. 99 b; p^lbo Taan. 23 b; idp bttWed, Sanh. 26 b;
TyOzt) relied, ibid. 26 a; i^lTj decreed. Mace. 20 a; b^TH robbed,

B.

M. 62 a;

1*130

slaughtered, ^ull. 4 b;

(1*137

were of opinion,

1*1(13 ar-e

1*11(1

ibid.

56 a;

10 a;

bright, Taan.

b*133 fell

3*11!l toere

TjlTlJH

are dark,

3dplur.fem. 243. "[b^^ they fell,


out, ibid.; "pS2 came out, Sanh. 101 a.

upon, Gitt. 57 a;

destroyed, Meg. 4 a;
ibid.

Sota.

IS a;

'^'^n

244. a) [BT ,*inbt2p


M
S ^iiv^J. |*in"'l3y ye did, Ned. 65 a.'
b) [TM *inb''tlp; S ^ii-iujj. -,*inT?? Ned. 25
2d plur. masc

Sanh. 108 b;'

ye took, ibid. 110 a;

*lFlb''p1IJ

Yeb. 105 a;

SlFlp-'Cy

dropiped

-pnbi^tSp

a; iin-^Tn?

biisied i/owr-

Arukh, A. Z. 72 b; ^frbrjU
circumcise yourselves, Sanh. 29a ('En Yaq. *irib''(17J).*

seZres,

com.

1st plur.

"j''bi5Lip;

*in3"'pp bj^eafc o#,

245.
T^^

,Ji4u5,

a)

"]

[B 5bt:p
!!^3iriB

S^jbtip,

we explained.

Dbt:p

Tarn. 32 a;

J^SSnn we signed, B. B. 164 a; ^jbpTS /oo/c, B. Q. 108 b; "jliri


returned, B. B. 74 b; XDtiTTB explained, ^uU. 77 a; "3"'13? we
'ji^'pIS we redeemed, Gitt. 38 a;
we disembarked, B. B. 73 b.

crossed, Ned. 22 b;

thought,

'j5''pbp

'jD"'l3D

we

[B^Wbpp; T S3b^t:p; M 'pb^tJp; S ^^, ^Il^L^J.


n"'5"4J we slept, Sanh. 7 a; "iraT bought, K. MS., B. B. 126 a.
c) "jS^pill? we j'Zed, B. B. 8 a>
Impeefect. 5d smgf. mosc.' 246. a) [B btpp"]; T bitipv
(b*lt:p-;); M bltlp-'D;
S "\L-Ju_clJ]. ntob writes,'M.. Q. 8a;
b)

Diya-^b tosses, Sabb.


ibid.

54 a;

14 b; niDT'b
1

iJM.

11a;

DiStib, Ned. 22 b; bi^rib transgresses,

Sabb. 110 a;

pibO'^b ascends,
is

destroyed, ibid. 9 b;

liTj'^D

'*]ilM"'b

decrees,

roasts.

M. Q.

Pes.

40 a;

C/. 71, 78, 232.

2 C/.

232; 'jInl'aS

3 C/.

232, a.

SG.

ed. pr. 143 a.

This seem3 to be a kind of precativo perfect.

A few forms occur without


16a,- ffiabi Ber. 28a.

b: ailfT^ Naz.326; iyi^^l A, z. lOo;

C/. 207.

'

-fblai. ii>d.

"Ijjy;^

74

MORPHOLOGY

III.

!.

247

Mace. 22 a; piirT^b squeezes, Sabb. 139 6; liay'^b

aiicn-'b counts,

transgresses, Ned. 4 o6; piltiS bolts, Er. 102 a.

Sabb. 141a; -fTC^b upturns,


140
Sabb. 110 a; '-"nrb ftit^/s, i6id.
bj T'D.T^^ does, ibid. 134 b;
l^nrb, t6jd. 81 a,'Ber. 30 a; -^^brh passes by, Gitt. 56 bj 3''12Jri^b
counts, Naz. 21 a; T'CS^'b /^as loss, B. M. 109 6.'
5)

[T b'^pp']].p''bp''b

c)

[BT

bpp-;;

Gitt. 676,

bs^tip-'D;

^ap'^b reasons, Sabb. 63 a;

mi^'^b) jumps,

ibid.

S -Vjuaj]. nns^b

y"!-"-!:

110 a;

85 a;

soiws, ibid.

counts,

mpri'^b

begins, Ned.
lisilUJ-'b

ibid.

14=

3a/

('Arukh

a;

p'lij''?

pushes in, ibid. 139 5y n'nn"'b is destroyed, Gitt. 56 a; l^"'b does,


A. Z. 28 b; ^lltT'D /s to/iiYe, B. Q. 69 a; D^p^b Sanh. 3 6."
3dsing.fem.%211. a) bip^'^n ia/ces, Sabb. 110 6; ylbriri
talces off the shoe, Yeb. 105 a.
c) nbTIJri ^rtfces off, Sabb. 110 a; "liJriSri (23, c) defcWo?-afes,
MS. H. B! M. 104 b.
2d sing. masc. 248. a) bit:p^ri killest. Pes. 25 6; tJilTSn
'

explainest, Sabb. 3

6.

"pblnri

c)

ti'lM^ri regrettest.

nri"iri gettest

5d

Yoma

passest by,

6)

18

Pes. 113 a; ^^mFI harvestest,

<>.;] -^Snin

-"3>n

doest,

M. Q. 27

1st sing. com.

"fbtipri

M. 84 6;'-'bmri

B.

6)

pi'^2'iS!

j^pps;

6;

a.

blOp^n, bstDpTl

fearest, Sabb. 63 6;

6.

250.

o) TIISmK

M. Q. 9 6; "iSf^
bip^S remove, Meg.

harvest,

buy, B. B. 30 6; ai-llS lecture, Sabb. 80 6;

16 a;

M. Q. 9

angry, Ber. 29 6; U'^pFl approachest, Sabb. 13

/ew. 249. [BT

sing,

a.

J ^r^/, Yeb. 65 a.
/ 7nix wine, Ned. 55

a;

"r^TiH.

do,

Gitt.

56

a.

Sabb. 816.'
c)

M.

17Jj

Q. 9

Sdplur.

With

1)

learn, Nid. 48 a; S-'^J^K /u-af, Ber. 24 6;

masc 251. BT

6it?/,

C.

Sabb. 75 6;

il^in"'?

"ibpp';;

'i^nbrb,

Ber. 37 a; ^dnSS wWi^e, Gitt. 66 a;

Wa'oi^b A. Z. 2 6 (M. MS., ibid., ^^Z^-'b)


'

Of.

soif,

"ibti'^p-'D
S ^al^uoj].
M. MS., B. B. 156 o;
MS., M. Q. 96; '^tjflTb run, 5ull. 51a;

stem-voivel omitted:

-^TiM-b return,
?|]nrb

^"IT!!^

6.'

Qinajlb He.

oJ. m-inc. 126c,

yibiH?

JfiM. 39a,'

'iinsrb

but pbri'^b

Sanh. 95 6;

ibid. 59 6.

VEKB

256]

'W'-b

96 6;

ibid.

take hold, Yeb. 92b; ^^bS": give a

"'D^ty^b

HQb.'

share, Sahh.

"

'

'

With retained stem-vowel:

2)

ilpiliyb y^ee,

B. B. S a;

BSca 80 a;

2) ilTaSPl, B. B. 180
1st plur. com.

6,

254.

a.'

M. MS.
a)

ibid.

Y\r^F\.

we

pi3,TIJ^3

Sabb. 119 b;

leave,

Sanh. 82 b; "liT^D decree. Pes. 105 a; nil?? associate,

SSta 21 a; jibS''b divide,


l-n??, Sabb. 87

Impeeative.

M bitip

tjiSTIJ

Sing.

-^IjasJ.

powr

ibid.

6,

Gitt.

masc.

"Il'p']

om^, Ber.'

stack, B. Q. 59

6)

a.

teach, Bfega 28 a; ^"l523!n learn,

"|^TIJ"11[!n

B. B. 130 6; silSyFl, t6id. 10

wp a

Ber. 53 ay C^^25,

Yeb. 31 bj ta^l^^b unloosen, Gitt. 69

1'^lu^b they return, 'En Yaq., M. Q. 9 b.


253. 1) "(ilDnrri ye buy, Taan. 21 a; yb'rnF\

are afraid, B. B. 10 a;

6;

a.

"i^STS ftw^/,

/em. 252.

2dplur. masc.

bitlp-'S

156

"VTD.'Sb do, ibid.

'TilTXi'h testify,

5rf pZttr.

49

^IM^JS study, P. MS., Ber. 13 b;

With final vowel thrown bach:

3)

b)

75

a)

a.

[B bpp

bitip

dance, Ned. 51 a; t^lbs spit out, ibid.

62 6;

bipTZJ fo/ce,

B. B.' 6 6;

IZJiia

pw^

6.

Tjp

[T ypp].

56 a; ^tipS Pes. 12

255.

Meg. 16

tt)ors/iip,

6; Cpp) /tan^r mjj, B.

M.

59 6; d'^yp /as/e, Ber. 5 6; I'^m 6om; doiuji, B. M. 59 a; b'^pTD to/ce,


Sabb. 142^6; ^^3? do, Bekh. 8 6, Gitt. 68 6; p^DB cut off,' Sabb.
75 o; t]b go, only in one proverb, Sabb. 13 a; Tn""?, Ned. 51a

and elsewhere (18).


b!!<t:p; S Vju:]. nbia take off, Ber. 28 o; 5^12
c) [T bpp;
hear, Ned. 7 6; S'lS i^a?/, i6td. 25 a; nbs serve, A. Z. 18 a; tJTIJa
drag', carry, B. Q. 93 a; iri!lL choose, Yeb. 68 a.

d)

By

analogy with ^"b verbs,

'''n'la

(259,

i,

note), 'Arukh,

Naz. 46.

[B ''bp]?; T -bitip; Jer. Talm.: 1"'btl1p,


vA
.,]
'b^pTB
take, Meg. 'l8a; "'Vn conduct,
S
I'^btip;
Q.166.
M.
6) [T "'b'^pp]. "Tny do, Yeb. 63a; ''rTO M. MS., M. Q.
Sing, fern. %2m. a)
?

16 6;

^p''Fnc fceep sz7ew/,

Keth. 108

a,

"En Y. ( 23

[T 'bpp; S
Ned. 66 6; and with loss of stem-vowel
(M. MS., i6id. "fms).

.Ji^^]. ^payj leave, Ber.

c)

C/.

Iinay'^b

>

lag- Serlra, p. 23, ed.

BrQU

''tl'l''?

^''irjD']

816;
J^2/)

Harkavy's

c)
"''inn

6reaA;,

^ee, Pes. Ill 6

ed. of

'Sjn

"Oft 54.
,

76

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

masc 257.

Plur.

1lbt:1p;

al.lju5,

Er. 94 a;

[B

^ibpp

^ib^tip

Palest. Talm.

^oiLjuo]. SQiiriS 'toW/e ye, B. B. 40 ay ^IpW

^ee, i&id. 8 a; ^"pTp


ilb^lpB

a)

[257

Ber. 28 a; ^niTih wMsper,

bolt,

Sanh. 26

"^b^lpffl

vowel: ^pTIl examine,

68

Gritt.

a,

Yema 82 6;

Qidd. 81 a; with omitted stem-

ft.

wWfe, YOma 77 a; ^tJ^p


Ilia; ilTny do, Bekh.'sft; ilTja remo?;e, Pes. 5&.'

[T

h)

[T ^btlp;

c)

open

40 a;

^3ln3 B. B.
Bekii. 8

d)

Palest. Talm. -jibtip

Sabb. 41 o;

ye,

/as/e, Pes.

'ilb'^tip]. ^a'^nS

S ^a<4j, ai4j5j. innS


WlT sow, ibid.;

return, Sanh. 26 a;

^^'Ifl

with omitted stem-vowel:

measure,

^riTB^?^

6.

With epenthetic vowel: "l^'Tri return, Gitt. 68 6; vflti?


M. Q. 28 6. The last example may also be

couer yourselves,

explained as singular.

O.

Mil ye, Sabb. 12

MS. has

for

the objective

39

a,

S .^:^^u_ju_i', ^_i_Si.juj] .
But this single example is doubtful.
and the form "pb^tJp may also contain

/em. 258. [B WbtDp

Plur.
"I'^b^tip

a.

^n3''bpp,

it

suffix.

'pTT')2

have yourselves circumcised, Sanh.

M. MS.

Infinitive.

259.

The usual form

is

bt3p53

the other forms

occur sporadically.
a)

miqtal

bpTOb

to take,

Ned. 12

suffer, ibid. 51 a; HS^'^bb to do, ibid.

21 b;

~p"JJ"'a

Naz. 22

6.'

gulp;

to

I'tiTB^J

to

smear, ibid;

miqtul: biSptjb, Nidd. 66 6.

c)

miqtil:

T\'''g'l)

weaken, Ned. 68 a;
A. Z. 28

"IpS'^S to

to stand,

annul, Naz.

TS'llp'/J

to be holy,

"

b)

particular,

37 o; bnp''7pb

h,

76 a;

to

t:''TBS"'a

harden, Pes. 41a, 74 6;

'ffl''bpa

to

83 6; T'Bpa 7o 6e
cause soreness, 'En Ya'aq.,

to be clear, Pes.

A. Z. 31 a; Cf^T/J fo

6.

miqtala, miqtila ( 223 a)


KripM, B. B. 296;
B. M. 106 a; SiaJJ^tt to do, Sabb. 50 a;
ny'irab'to sow, B. M. 106 6; tl'i^^W^ 'to keep silence, Qidd.
d)

KripTS'^ab to spread,

13 o; NSb'JJab

to take off, Gitt. 56''6;'i{|pffiX]b

to deluge, Succ.

"

53 a;

!!<n"ip''5pb

/o

approach, M. Q. 28

a."

"

raiqtale, miqtil6 (226): ^yVr\^'>2 to take back, 'Ar.


23 a; "'bpTflM to be balanced, ambiguous, ibid. 18 6; ^^M^'^M fo
e)

learn, HOr. 12 a.

VERB

261]

77

/) qiitul: "lil3 to vow, Ned. 216; DiCpb to divine, Gitt.


68 h; r(\-ao)) to lean, Er. 15 a; Diypb to taste, Ber. 28 h; bipirb
fo take, Me'lla 17 6.

qatal or qital: JTHp

gr)

gull. 51 a;

YOmft 19a, 'Arukh,

trouble,

/o

M.Q. 25

punish,

/o

11333>

a; [JS^bSL fo swallow

it,

B. B.

74 6; but this may also be the emphatic participle Is^ybS]


Ji) qiitiilS: ''Tciisb to withdraw, M.MS., ebu.l8\- "'"liasb
to cross, Pes. 74 b; "'pl'Sl'lb ^o a/toc/i oneself, Keth. 1116; ''Piibsb
fo serve, Ber. 27 6; 'ilTcH to have in mind, Zeb. 36 a; ''riia^ /o
harden. Pes. 41a; ''Siba fopwii owi, M. Q. 4 6;
Yeb. 102 6.

fe

""SibTa

draw

out,

t)

qitala: xnaffib

spread

to

OMi,

M. MS.,

B. B. 29

y) qatltiie, qitluiS: (by analogy with verbs


'i'Tia,

'Arukh, Naz. 4

^^i'^-l-'a,

Note.

Our

6.
,'

''"b)

"'.'^i'^l'^a

6.'

idiom shows a tendency to use the form

as an absolute infinitive with finite verbs of all conjugations.


this reason

they

many

may belong

of Qal.

There

of the forms given under

lit.

"'bltip

For

are doubtful, as

to Pa"el, although used as inner object to verbs

is,

however, no doubt that some of these forms

are used as Qal.

Active Participle.
is

b^pp (or

b'^pp), the

pated when the word


lable is

whose

260.

The form

of the active participle

vowel of the second syllable being synco-

is

The vowel

lengthened.

of the first syl-

sometimes changed to I, &, or ai (69, 80). Verbs


stem-consonant is a guttural, or "I take a in the second

last

In the lengthened forms A is shortened to d in


traditional pronunciation (76).
In the feminine the ending
syllable (73).

As

T\~ is very rare (224).

this participle is

verbal force, the determinate state


Sing,

masc 261.

explains, ibid. 3 a;

"I"'|Il?

a)

'p'hlD

is

very

leaves

mostly used with

rare.

off,

Ned. 2

jumps, B.^B. 96 a ( 10)


M. Q. 16 6.^

holds, ibid., 6 6; IXIlTIJ

Cf. Jastrow, s. v. I'lS


In later literature: 'iin'JSip (voc), H(J.

J99. ^erlrd, p. 8;
3

Cf.

lyiapsb

Tl^n SG.

377;

ikfl^.,

yilS

30 6; ^'''n

P- 40.

ibid. 402.

34;

jiTOIMb

6.

M. Q. 17 a; ^ID

6) ninS begins, Ned. 3 a; "I^S transgresses,

8 a; rtjD is sufficient,

6,

does, ibid. 25 a; I'^SO laments, Sabb. 90

ST

knows, Ned.

Tff. ed. Cassel, 104;

liTO^S

78

III.

Sing, /em.'
ibid.
ts

9 b;

M^erf,

262.

Rasi^ Pes. Ill b

[262

M. Q. 28 a; XCltj'1 runs,
XTlH returns, Sabb. 151 a; i^JlH^
[M. MS. iSSWO (69, 86), eds. t^^Dri'''''53
rt^TTt pushes,

17 a;

{1133' does, ibid.

(80).].

MOKPHOLOGY

263. -pJltlS open, Ned. 22 a; "("'ppS divide,


38 o; 'play M^owZd make,\bid. 50 a; '^bpl? /aZZ, m" Q. 14 6;
'CSFl toA;e /loM, Ned. 6 b; "'btiS are neutralized, ibid. 59 a; "^353
sfoZe, i6tcZ. 62 a; ^i>tDp fci'ZZ, B. M. 86 a; ^pn'^ importune, Taan.
Plur. masc.

ibid.

28 6; ^nbuJ send, B. Q. 20 6.
Flur.fem. 264. ]'n'lB dragged along, ^ull. 51a; l^pip

are

to die, Ber.

56 a;

"jITIS

ibid.;

_/?/,

are frisky, Sabb."32 a ( 69)


H6r. 7&.
]'Qtri_

Passive Participle.
erally retained its

265.

nominal

"ipbo

come

wjp,

t'&id.

20 a;

y^cifwait, Ber. 17 a; [''^npy

The

passive participle has gen-

force, except

when used with

b to form the periphrastic perfect, or present.^

following

It is therefore

often found in the determinate state, both in singular and plural.

In a few cases the

stem-consonant has

first

a, as in

Besides the usual form b^pp the form btop

is

Hebrew (84)
found in a few

instances.

Sing. masc.
is

266.

frequent, ibid. 33

ibid.

54 &;

2t}'2,

b,

a)

S'^flS

56 b;

^''^Tlj

Sabb. 116

6;"

written, Ned. 3 a;

H'^iTIJ

heard, ibid. 41 a; T'Sy


t]''"^:2,

Ned.

3a and

occurs,

is

made,

frequent;'

-fiy is preferable, Pes. 95 b.'e. xb'^tpp killed, Pes. Ill b, Sanh.


65 a; i^n^'Cn wet, ibid. 93 a; JiS'^aT invited, Ned. 24 a; i!i,T"2
pious, chaste. Men. 49 a.
b) 'O^'aw compressed, Bekh. 43 b; T^^KD laid on hands. Col.
MS., Zeb. 6 a; y^lp"! extended, M. Q. 28 a, 'Arflkh jTO mixed,
Y6ma 81 b; ^^inS shines, Sabb. 116 6; 1^3n broken, ibid, 67 a.
'

e.

i^S^nn 6Mrra^,

M. MS., B. M. 85

Sing, fern. %2Q1.


opZ, Ned. 91 a;

&'2)^'^'2

o, eds.

Sanh. 37

a) XTC^ab clad, Ber.


necessary, ibid.;

is

a.

20a; KTn2> wsed,


l^)T'"lt2

troublesome,

i^riTai burning, Sabb. 67 a, P'es. '25 6; Sri3"''in


sharp. Col. MS.^ Meg. 7 a (voc.) i<nip''bp weak, Yeb. 113 o.'
&) b^pTB ts toA;en, Sabb. 63 b; 'nir^'2 wrapped up, Gitt. 68 a
25 a;

ibid.

e.

IC/. 224.
2

The b

fta^ed,
'

ia sometimes omitted:
Sabb. 26a (the following nb

piip

ftcw

heard, Ber. 56, for pT^b ^'SaTB;

HSIJO

is object).

^'^T'S in TO., ed. Harkavy, 20.

"V^^HtVi sewed, AlfasI Yeb.

end of Pereq

12.

VERB

270]

79

Plur. masc.%268. a)

I'^b^pTr are taken, Sabb. 63 6; ^y)>Q


Ned. 7 a; "'ETip spotted, ibid. 25 a; "'S'^ffirj of importance,
Ber. 16 ft; '''lay wsed fo, Keth. 60 b; TI^Tj stretched out, Sabb.
138 a; ^b'^pFl o//m?Z weic/7i^, B. M. 44 6; "^rT'DTT are found, occur,

differ,

M. Q. 12 6.
6)

'bilplfl

ambiguous, 'Ar. 18 6;

absolute, Ber. 61 6, SSta 31 a;

'b^pn o/>ZZ

M. 69

B.

''3^1211

"^tS^l'DTp

no6Ze, A. Z.

106;

'"I^XDa

long-necked, Keth. 60

6; ^"liQp /loZd, B. Q.

6'^

112
Ned. 38 6; p'^Di
married, Ber. 43 6; "3"'ln3 "(3113 written, Ned. 37 6, 38 a; e.
SnS''pn poor, 6ad, Pes. 48 a; "^K^b'^TCr; mashed, SuU. 93 a; and
with double plural ending, "jfiySS; modest, chaste, Sabb. 140 6.
Piittr.

M;et>/i/,

fem.

-jTay are made,

a)

269.

6.'

Paetioiples WITH Enclitic Subjbct-peonouns.^ 270. The


combined with the pronouns of the first and
the second persons into one word to form the present tense. The
participles are often

third person, as in the perfect,


ciple.'

When

is

understood with the bare parti-

thus combined they have the following forms:

Singular m,asculine.

becomes

XSbpp

b'^tsp

"

K5b''t:p
niA^pi

b-'pp

"

ribtpp

riH b-'pp

"

nVpp

i^DX b'^pp

Wi^

Singular feminine.
iiDK

Sbtpp becomes

WbtDp

5i< Hb^^tlp

"

j^bpp

"

ribpjb

i^b'^pp

"

nb'^pp

nj*

[Wb-'tjp]*

80

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

[271

For variations in form of pronouns cf. 98 and examples


below (271-2). For plural 1st person used for singular cf.
106.
References. %211. a) XSTn^

J do, Ned.

^S&T^^ Itaste,

5 ay

22 b; Si^^J ^ buy, Er."iOo"&; Xr^T I feed, support, Gitt.


56 a (50, 6'^)VW"^3T I buy, B. B. SOfo/^Nanii I vow, Ned. 9 aj
KS^ailJ I hear, ibid. 72b; iX:T'2Vi I am satiated. Col. MS., Meg.

ibid.

lb (73)
ibid.

XjTrtD

I explain',

HiiTpTriQ

Taan. 21 a ( 106)

and frequently; ]-b]^

24: a,

i^jiS;

shout, 'Arukh, R. H.'"34

6,'

iXybptS

3Tra

eds.

I take,

Me'lla 17 6y'

will go,
;

this

form

is

perhaps the passive participle.


b)

knowest, Ti^Ziy trespassest, Ned. 23 a; rT^SD art of

ri?'!"'

opinion, Ber. 2 6;

22

tastest, ibid.
killest,

c)

with retention of second stem-vowel; tT^btip

b,

Sanh. 48

thou hearest, Ned. 3 b; but Pi^T^p thou

ri^JpliJ

6.

/.

tlK'^sa collectest

we hear, Ned. 13

-ID^yati:

a,

81

6,

payment, Keth. 43

6.

Ber. 17 b; IT^J.^

we

R. H. 47 a; "^pCB we divide, Ber. 12 b;

''i^'pZ^

we

do,

begin, ibid.

j5"''lTa we decree, Ned. 10 6; "5''ipcy we treat, ibid. 59 a.


we remember, B. M. 8 6 (232^^) ''r^pm we (I) Zot;e, Sanh.
y)m we kill, M. MS., Sanh. 95 a.'

14 b;

;'

jSnS'n

8^6,-

d)

"|^Fl"'^"iy

ye pledge yourselves, Sanh. 39 b;

astonished, ibid. 95 a;

25 a; ^inrppn

Ned. 81 o;

are wise, Ber. 56 o;

i/e

sinb-'pTi: 2/e fo/ce,

^!n'^"i/J!i<

Sanh. 110

a.

2/e

are

"j^ri^^aN ye say, ibid.

|!iri^'725

M. 109

a, B.

W^tl^n

ye do, B. M. 73 a;

'

J have learned, K. H. 23 a, Sabb. 63 a;


I remember, Taan. 20 6; X^TtlS J remember, ibid. 19 6;
KDp^irn I am esteemed, Ber. 18 6; i^jT'Trri J am suspected,
272. a) XSTaa

XSTp'^

Ber.

'5

6)

6.

rin^ffitj

</ioti

art esteemed, Ber. 18 6; FlP'^12 thou art in

need of B. M. 33

a,

thou

Meg.

art

wont,

Ber. 13 6; T\TP'S> art free ^ ibid. 11 a;

28 a;

'td'^'i'S

thou

art

pained,

T^'^^jT)

Taan!

25a(/.).
IC/. Noldeke,
2

Sfl.,

64B.

In later literature:

ibid., ch. 93;

fljimi we

-ix

'^XA niH

give,

MV.,

I was going,

p.'sS; ^IDlbtSp

rx

Se'elt., ch. 1;

we

Mil, ibid.

76.

llsbiTO we circumcise,

VBEB

;273]

81

ISTP?' ^^^- ^^^' ^^^-' T'?!?''?? "'6 ^ ^"st/, /reai,


Pes. 90 6; pS"''!? we are better, worthier, M, MS. Taan. 24 a;
']5''j'bB we differ,
Er. 10 6;
we accept, assume, Ned.
I3"'p''p3
41a; 13''"l"ia follow, Taan. 24 a; '|3Tpa we learned, ed. Ven.,
<')

'

Ber. 62

d)

a.'

^Fl"'3''113r!

Sabb. 1216;

t/e

are worthy, Taan. 15 6;

^TTTbQ ye

differ,

Er. 106;

^inS'^'IS

*lFl''TBa

ye need,

you have

learned, Col. MS., Pes. 66 a.

Pa"el. Per/eci. 273. The vowel


generally d, before gutturals mostly

the second syllable tends to stay in

all

Pa"el.

Perfect

of the first syllable is

or e (68).

the forms.

The vowel

of

82

III.

MOEPHOLOGY

Pa' 'el.
Imperativi;

Sing. 2d masc.

Continued.

[274

VERB

280]
b)

ni'^TIJ.

83

Qidd. 12b; ^DDSlT thou didst invite, P. MS., Sanh.

1096.
1st sing,

com. 277.

M n-'btiXp;

n^btip;

under ban,

ibid.

I flattered, M.

17 a; Tt^y^'p

Q. 17 a;

J gave for
c)

less,

(!llD''ai33

3d plur.

M. 103

B.

I have

f/iet/

jjm/

49

b; ''InM

^^'''Ip

!|btlp;

23 bj

tte?/

made a

''S'^SII

'''123

noise, Ber. 57

!lbt)p;

6.'

b).''

Talm.

Pal.

ilb-'tap;

70 6;

aitt.

'iS'^pFl ^/let/

a^4i]- ^^'^T?'

^o-,

!lp^>p ttet/

instituted,

Ned. 10

a,

they vexed, Keth. 61

BSqe 11

to,

they sent, Ber. 42 a; ^nSffl

56 a; 1123 they diminished, Taan. 24 b;

Gritt.

'''1?^

5d plur.

masc 279.

-ilp^n Pes.

71a.- siJT'SBn ferw

2/e,

b,

M. MS.,

54 6;

[T
Gitt.

1inb''tpp

Yeb. 31 b;

"iWffi

|inb'"c:5ip

sold,

A. Z.

a.*

M. MS.,

i6id.; -iWDSD

2/e

toowZd

a.

is^ j)Zwr.com. 280. a) [Ti^lb'^tOp;


4<Db''3p

b,

70 b; !inr3T you

Pes. 40

illT'-lDB

Aaue endangered, Ber. 25

we

116

removed, 5ull. 59 6; t]inD

//le^/

a)

Sanh. 101

jiinitJS Ber.

*''\y^

6.'

a.

^oLi4i]. *inb''ap

I put

they brought near, Qidd. 81 a; ^IT'SlT

-jilpri

clung

6)

-f

[B

o)

M. Q. 3 b. Pes. 30 6;
C. MS., Meg. 7 a (voc); l^lp?
c)

Pal. Talm.

"n-'SlTp

6 ('En Y. M'^'I^Ta)

gathered you, B. Q. 113

under ban, M. Q. 16 a;
172 b.

praised,

ibid.

n'^b"'^)?;

6; '^rpn B. B.

[T

b)

Meg. 7

S ^-, o^^J]. ^b-'Sp

removed, Ber. 42 a;

Gitt.

ribE)|D;

I brought near, Sabb. 89 b;


I said grace, Ber. 49 a.

sent,

masc 278.

M iVb^mp;

ilbt:p;

^Ae?/

''S'^'IS

[T n-'btlp]. "n'ilTfl J

b)

[B

a)

S i^<4u^]. n^b^ap B. Q. 70 a;

took upon, Taan. 23 a;

M I'^sb'^mp; S ^-, ,;i4i].

S3i'''lSl

we (J) said

."^58

grace,

Ber
]T'Z)'''};Z ibid.; "iDpn we instituted, Succ. 4 6; "rblBS
6, eds.
we cooked, B. B. 73 6; 115''1!L (J) we pronounced a benediction,
M. MS., Ber. 58 6.'
6) XS'ltJB we freed, Qidd. 52 6; XS^'^p? we cleaned, B. B. 74 6.
;

nipattj nin.iBS

ni'i';!

'

iT'TlB tf^y sent, SM., No.

i C/.
5

hg.

Lm.

ed. pr. 47 c.

203, 232, a,--]!|l:|TB1')S. TG., ed.

S;ttJlTB. TB.,

II. 52;

IJiran

(voc).

ifttd. 5.

Harkavy,

210.

niDinn

s-ff- i7 c.

84

MORPHOLOGY

III.

[281

281.

Impeefeot.
stem-consonant

In the imperfect the vowel of the first


with a few exceptions, always a. In the 2d

is,

and the 3d person plural the second stem-vowel

invariably

is

omitted.

5d

sing,

masc 282.

[BT

a)

M b^tlSp-D; S V^J.

bWtO):':;

&''-\Th he divorces, Ar. 23 a; 2''^^)' dries, Sabb. 141 a;

T]^"ia3

says grace, Ber. 46 aj

Qidd.

20 a;

b'^apD receives, B. B.

6)

"l'^TI3''b

pays, B. Q. 108 a;

0^1233

1''3-r3 sells,

4 a; U'T^b Yeb. 186;

sends, Sabb. 140

Ber. 51 6;

b,

69 a.

b-'lSa^b Gitt.

shaves, ibid.

ribS'^b

110 6; ^arb smgfs, Sanh. 7 a; n'rim pZaces, B. M. 84 aj nbisb


strips,

Sanh. 109

b.

liarb seZZs, Sanh. 95 a; bi-H'^b stofces, M. MS., Sabb. 66


Yen. Ber. 36 a; -jinTb 'En Y. ^Ar. 30 b, eds. ]'3.T)>'

c)

b.

t]i^=lb ed.

[BT

sing, fern. %283. a)

Tflaicn B. Q.

20

b,

Sabb. 110

bC)C);?n;

6) I'^irn sends, Ber. 18 b; nbllJn takes

Nidd. 6

c)

TIJi^pFl

2d

sing. masc.

&)

off,

Sabb. 110

a.

a) b'^Spri B. B. 21a; yBTCri thou

'"'STFl sellest,

B.

M. 107

ttoM pullest out. Pes. 113 a;

"l|5?ri

S V^iz].

&.

284.

repairest, Yeb. 63 a;

b-'l^Si^p^n;

o.

a.

^IBijsri

thou believest,

'

Gitt.

30

6.

com. 285.

1st sing,

[B

a)

btOpi);

b^tDpX,

b''t:p-'i<;

S ^4I]J. bSpX Ber. 28a;'b-'apX 5ag. 5 6; '^'''inK


Ber. 48a; 1\-'^^''. Ber. 22 6, M. MS.; fl'^a^'^K I prepare, '^uW.
b-'tiKp^K;

60 a;

tJ-^IBp-'X

b)

^"nilJ^X

c)

^inrx I

Sdplur.

Qidd. 40

send, Sanh. 98 o; ^priS!


sell,

B.

M. 108

ibid.

50 a;

wproo^, Ber. 54

"j^btJp';;

"'Spri'^b

3dplur.fem.%281. [BT

"jbtSp^

di'^i^l!?, ilG., ed. pr. 113 a;

TiaPK,

l^iinb,

M ()Hbt:i<p^D

Igg. Sertra, 25.

re., ed. Cassel, 9.

"''iSB"'!? let

them give a

"j^l^J^ "ItSTB,

HG.,

vex,

b.

S ^ol^].
Ber.

they order, Gitt. 49

lasy^b they hinder. Col. MS., ZeV. 40 o.

pbt:Kp''3;

Meg. 4 a; ipy^b

7 a; ^)^'^p^b

say grace,

a.'

masc 286. [BT

^bap-'b Gitt.

^S'la'^b

a.

ed. pr. llOd.

28 a;

b.^

S^l^Ij].

"

VERB

292]

com. 288.

1st plur.

?ag. 5
13 5;

Yeb. 121 a;

b,

1X1T5

Ber. 45

we

[BT

a)

t]''^n5

85

vUa]. ^ai?"?

b(^)tOp3;

iypi we

Pes. 103 b;

order, HSr.

6.

send, Sanh. 109 a.

b)

"I'riTlJS

c)

t^iinS Ber.

36

a, ed.

Ven.

Impeeative. /Sm^. masc 289. a) [BT bWlS):;


b'^ti^p;
S Vil]. I'^at seZZ, Ber. 62 6; y^BTB repmV, Yeb. 63 a; D'^lj]?
Tam. 27 &; b-''3.p_ B. Q. 117 a; T]'''ia Ber. 54 ay rr^as prepare,

:rm

M. Q. 27 6;
6)

M. 4 a;

send, B.

-I'lTfl

Meg. 11

count,

30 b.
binp Sanh. 48

6.

^we

^iSS

foY/ies,

Ned. 44 b;

"im

believe, Gitt.
c)

bj -(iST B.

M. 108

a.

Sing, fern. %290. a) [T ^Y^pj S .J-^Li].


66 6; 'a^Ti: pa?/, B. M. 42 b.

mosc 291.

Plur.

K. H. 17 a;

come

late,

[BT

a)

prepare, A. Z. 17 a;

^T'-IT

^ibWtop;

Infinitive.

^^'''^p

292.

mT

qV^]. ^ri^SS

come

earZz/,

ilS'^lSri

B. B. 22 a.

The usual form

of the infinitive

is "'bilSp;

The change

of the first

4a

^'^ypwtolie,

the other forms occur but sporadically.


rare.

i is

a) qattulS:' "'niM Col. MS.,Meg.

Sanh. 98 a; 'SiSS
to send,

^o-,

Ber. 8 a; ^T'M spread out, Er. 94 a; witli loss of stem-

vowel: !lpFB Gitt. 84 6;

vowel to

^^m coofc, Ned.

42 a;

ibid.

Sabb. 108 6;

""riiaTlJ

;'

to give praise. Pes. 2 a;

'^5in|i fo 6?ess,

Col. MS., Zeb. 86 a;

(voc.)

'"ite fo

tJea;,

"W^^rb Ber. 296;'^3'isb

M. Q. 96;

fo

Zie flat,

^yn^
'^'D.Tf^

Sabb.

104 a.
6)

qitttilg:'

proper

i/ie

''i'iT'y /o

thing,

"''liS^nb to subtract,

B.

M. 108 a;

mafce on 'erub, Er. 75 6;

qattala:

Ned. 2 6; KliBlj
d)

qattne

e)

qattalfi:

XDISlTb
to 6e

"'TM

fo seZZ,

A. Z. 30 6; XplScb

to Zas^, Pes.

Zte/a^,

^Sip'^lnb

fo

do

explain, Zeb. 59 a;

make unfit, Zeb. 42 a^


and MSS. ^bl-ST^Sb

wanting, H5r. 11

''Dab to

to

"'bia'^S to

for ""bia^b Pes. 85 a, read with eds.


c)

Zeb. 37 6;

'Sii"l''Fl

to doM6f,

6.

52a, B. M. 86

a.

M. MS., Sabb. 104a.

Earth, Nominalbildung, SlOlsg.

Cf.

Yemen MSS. have sometimes 1~

or 1"~ for i, which

is

the Arabic

way o vocalization.

86

MORPHOLOGY

III.

[293

/) qattala: iXn^:ib to cut, split, B. Q. 113b (but


Dictionary, s. v.).

UT^b Yeb. 39 6; ysn

g) qattil:

TC^nb to sa?/ g'race, Ber. 53 b;

qattHl:

/i)

TlJ'ITIJb

22

tji'Qb Ber.

cf.

Levy's

wound, B. Q. 87 ay
B. B. 82 a.

to

/o uproot,

(This might also be a form

6.

qattal.)
i)

j)

maqattil:
maqattal:

tU'lTlJab

'Arukh, B. B. 20

fo patch,

maqattala:

k)

become darker, Nidd. 20 6; ^jS'iab

a.

!!<'11i)D"'pb

to free,

Qidd. 646.

qattaluiS: ''.'^i^SS to fumigate with sulphur, B. Q. 93 6y


to benefit, M. Q. i2 a; ''^r^'Tl to turn, V. L., A. Z. 88 6.

I)
'^iirnffi

m) qattalui:
z

B. B. 82a.

113370 to

'Arukh, M. Q. 12

''iTE'lTIJ,

a.'

Active Paetioiple. 293. The 5J-prefix has sometimes an


vowel.
At times it is dropped (58), especially with enclitic

pronouns.

294.

Ned. 2 6 (8);
t^BT^'C puts under ban, ibid. 1 b; V'^n'J explains, ibid. 34 a; "pST53
sells, ibid. 31 6; b"'lOD'J neutralizes, Pes. 115 b; T]"''1S"'"J clings,
masc.

Sing.

B.

M. 71 a; perhaps

Ber. 18
6)

'I'jin'J

"|i1p53

Meg. 12

recites,

6; nba^'a rotes, Keth. 85 a;

Ber. 10 a, 13 o;

makes glad, Ber. 35

Sing. fern.

Yeb. 63a;
Ml]5Tp5p

J=l"i]^)i

ni'^js"'?;

295.

><ni'lBp73

lies,

Ned. 91

116;

l-j^'nlBb

ed.

296.

"fn'na

SM., No. XXV. (voc.)

'

nSSIia.

ineffective,

relents,

5<'nay''a

i/ie?/

H. 32

SniSS

13; Xlaiatlr'' ifi'^-SSa;

Harkavy, 290;

i<'^?^52 t^exes,
'iiC\'^^'^,

Ber. 55 a;

Yeb. 63 6;

a.

''"l|3^ia tell lies, JR.

B. Q.

Ber. 15 ay

adorns,' ibid. 636; ti^ytrV^ turns, ibid.;

anger, Ned. 21 6;

'!y1-|2'ab, TB., II.

a-ff.> ed. pr.,

ipi^O,

ibid.

No. Lxx.

Iffff.

b,

&rira,

35.

vex,

pro-

24 6, Ber. 10 a;

i^liia;

r(?.,ed. Cassel,28;

9.

133d; DlpSia,

''^yiS/J

6; ''pbp5J remove, "S'l^^i

nounce benediction, Ber. 44 6; ^"i^Sp Taan. 23

Xpiinb, HO.

'l2y"'7J

seeks,

6.

rTHSS/J atones, Mace.

comes near, B. B. 73 6;

23 a;

'TUn"'J3

Ned. 91 a; XniSSa makes

PZwr. masc.

Q'''^]5

returns, Ned. 33 6; MbrOJ shaves, ibid. 19 6; ri3353

leaves, 'Artikh,

ibid.

^^11 wounds, M. MS., B. Q. 87 a;

6.^

101 as
nXliCTp

also

a) ^"1S7J explains,

Se'el., ed. pr., p. 20

pnsb <o cxpiaire, TG.,

VEEB

302]
Meg. 29 a;

^r\ya52 frighten,

Ber. 18 6;

5l22J7i steal,

87
scatter, strew,

r^Xl'^2

Gitt.

57 a;

A."Z." 19 6; ro^)? Ber. 18 5; 'TlJair

^"it32-'7J

vine-gardeners, B. M. 73 a; ^T^lUJa Pes. 113 a;

!n2Jm273

benefit,

M. Q. 12 a.'

/em. 297.

PZttr.

Sanh. 67 6;

"jjIjTpt:

Passive Participle.
Sabb. 65 a;

in,

Sabb. 109

B. Q. 34 a; ^DlHT?

a,

stretched flat,

n'^pM

iS

37

a,

Sing.

&ro/<;ew,

Sabb. 104 a;

nearer, Ber. 44

/em. 299.

Ned. 8 6;

masc 300.
''p3253

Qidd. 39 a;

squeezed

p'^n'^TJ

Taan. 25 a;

ta^^BSD enfoVe,

y3j7.3

is

leprous, Hull. 60 a;

&.

proper, Taan. 22 6; K'iBna Ned.

4^5ari7J

intercalated, Ned. 63 a;

PZwr.

298.

wanting, ibid. 23 6; i^p5C7J doubtful, BSga 4 6;

i<'ltsri^53

!!<"i4iy73

masc.

move,

yirntl^

a.

explained, Ber. 55 a; pSS'O pampered,

"Tffi37J

"jSlba

Singr.

wink, Sabb. 62 6;

|7l2'17J

keep warm, Gitt. 70

Sn"i3y53 m;i/A young, B. Q. 47 a.

e.

]'"D']J.^2

Yeb. 63 a; "fSSM are gathered,

pampered, Sabb. 54 a, 109 a; ^pBC^ doubted,


6 bj

"-h^^B /tVed, Ber.

^ffiS^IlT?

cZWed, A. Z. 28 b; "'SSSa

gathered, Ber. 56 a; "i^STa, AlfasI, B. M., Pereq. IV.

Plur.fem.

301.

separated, Keth. 5 6;

jn^a^J scattered, Ber. 56 a;

placed with interruption, B. B. 73 a;

I'i'Sys:

Paeticiples with Enclitic


a)

ibid.;

answer, Sanh.

Sabb. 108
6)

wt'ZZ

X3S''';;a7p

thou explainest,

PlTlinSTp

56 a;

Si'^nnilJa tee 6ri6e,

1D'''T^C"^

we put

91a

(f.);

Active
J

5*3'}^tl70

S^32T7a SJ5

2SDp1"lS)3,

36 a;
,

^uU. 58 a;
(f.)

-ffff.

ibid.

ttoM
;

]^5'n'^T23"J

repeat,

send,

|l3'''ppD23

Pes. 58 a;

j^JplL'':

ed. Pr. 1006.

r(?., ed.

seWesif,

52 a; ]Tpr\-X)2 we

]l^p^p_

riS"ina Ber. 53 6;

M. 72 a;

B.

FlS^aTa, Alfasl, B. B. 406.

Taan. 24 a; W^iSPJ

in order, Taan. 14 a;

]5"''1)ji|;7;,

]Tp'-!2'a ibid.
I

Ber. 53 b;

Mapj

linnTJ m7f ttoM lead, Keth. 63 a

")3''a'^p7J,

^iull. 7 6.

6.

FlTClJ/J divorcest, ibid.

c)

are tithed,

Subject - Peonouns.

Participle. % 302.
SjI'^tj'J

pblna are

p"ip?3 are near, Sabb. 104, a;

"li^j'lO'J

Cassel,91; JIJIp^D'H, ibid.%9.

lue sell,

we

Qidd. 59 a;

tefce,

silence,

Yeb. 41

Ber. 44 a;
ibid.

6."

33 a;

88

MOEPHOLOGl

III.

[303

d) iin'^SSna ye favor, Keth. 846; ^in^S'llX: Ber. 42 a; *iri''p>pa

ye remove, B. M. 73 a; ^T\T\^\6p Keth. 112 a;


Sanh. 30 a;

j^ri''a>li:

M. 77

diminish, B.

]'!\Pi-Db'4V

Sanh. 30 a; W^baj? Sabb. 88 a;

M. MS.,

W-ISS

a.'

Passive Participle.

10 a; mpB-^a Yeb. 65
1416; ^^

303.
6 (f.);

FiT^SU thou art bidden, Ber.

b)

ftl^Xi thou art with child, B. B.

'

we are far, B. B. 73

c)

]TVV''T?

d)

ilFl'^i'lpa 2/e

TOffllTtfS'a

ffG.

t/e

are

tear, B. B.

'J^nbajSTS

ne.

6; ir"1)33a Yeb. 47

65

a.

ed. pr. 107 a.

6.

304]

VERB
Aph'el.

PEBrEOT

89

90

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

L^*^^

EXAMPLES FOB APh'eL.

Perfect. 5d
S

Vi4]. rncX

masc 304.

sing,

he

testified,

a)

[B

btipSl;

Ber. 58 a; p^blN he

lit,

TM

b^tip;

Sabb. 21 h;

T|53i< entrusted, Sebu. 45 &; rnpN; Ned. 39 h; b"^pTrH cawsed to

^bm

pass over, Sanh. 77 &; "j^prij! (68) greio old, Zeh.' 59 a;


became worm-eaten, Mace'. 7 6; ^^rn?"'!!* 'En Y. Bekh. 44 b.
b) raiTS; he looked at, Ber. 28 a; "TTii^ Ned. 41a;
made profit, B. Q. 50 a; nSUJlS; /ommcZ, B. M. 23 6.'
c) niXS; putrefied, Naz. 50 a; ("|5''3'"i7JT13N; causes us to hear,
Ned. 73 a/ Meg. 7 a, K. H. 6 a, Taan.'sOa).
3d sing, fern. %305. a) [B mbp^H; T Snb^tipK, nbt:pi^;
rii^b-'tapN, rii^btlpi^; S i.<^j. nb^nriX she began, Gltt. 73a,
Yeb. 79 5; IniJ^SIil; Nidd. 57 6; nVa'iS Yeb. 26 a; n^"'ant* Alf.
Pes. 7 a. With loss of stem-vowel: HTranK Nidd. 57"&; Tsyy^'^i^
Yeb. 39 6 (legal style).
b) ^'n^m M. Q. 27 b; Kfl'ICS; Tern. 31 a.'
c) ilDipTSl s/ie became old, Nidd. 47 a.
3d sing', masc 306a. [B nbtipfl; T !j5riyt:pX nb^tipS;

mi^

Pal. Talm. flbtipX;

nb^t:p!!<;

S i^i^uol]. mCSiS; didst

spoil,

Keth. 61 6; mnC!!^ didst witness, Pes. 113 bj FlSpHSl madest difficult, B. B. i29o; TmTlif, didst turn. Pes. 86 6;' rinSffiK didst
find, B.

2d

M. 63

'

a.'

fem. %306 p.

sing,

1st sing,

com. %301.

tT'Sn'IX didst place, B. Q.

a) [Bnbppll;

41 a;

'p^TtllS!

''p'^TtlSl

I have

have destroyed, 'En Y.


b)

'rairiS!

I gained

supported, Ned. 22 a;

B. B. 26 a; ntl^blS^

ibid.

Sabb. 140

6,

a.

tY^ytlpSi; Pal.

Talm.

s z^S^l].- m-'ip-'a^K i stirred up,

n-'btipX; Mn^b''t:pis;, r\^bt:pH;

Sanh. 95 a (Palest.);

114

claim to possession, B. B.
'^p"'n'^b<

I have removed,
tVir'Ti''i!t. I

delivered, Taan. 29 a;

25

a.*

B. Q. 20 6; "Jl'^nK

J chased away,

B. M. 108 6; ^n'nriX Sanh. 95 a.


3d plur. masc %308. a) [B Jlbppri; T ^b-'ppS;; Pal. Talm.
jlbt3p5; M b-'tip!!*; S ^o-, ol^u:!]. ^l-^l.pK Zeb.'86a; siTJlCK
1

Whether

rilSlDi^ is originally Qal, as

or Aph'el, as NOldeke
2
3
*

nnaiCi?, TG.,
riplTnS, BO.
I'l'iftSS

(voc).

(GGA.
ed.

Kautzsch holds (Oramm. des bibl. Aram.^


immaterial as regards the form.

p. 174),

1884, p. 1019) asserts, is

Hartavy,

388.

ed. pr. 102 6.

i?ff. ed. pr. 8:^c; nS'i'inSi!. SiW.

No.

v.

a (voc)

TD'^yDSI,

iftid.

No. xxui

VERB

314]

91

Sanh. 27 a; T^'p)^ grew dark, Pes. 118 hj

'!\'iT'^p'A

With

Ber. 50 h; ^p^'HTS were far away, ijull. 17 a.

came

before,

loss of stem-

by analogy with the participle: ^l'1p''lS! 0. MS., Zeb. 86 a;


B. Q. 73 a; "fa^pSl Hag. Hat. Sabb'. 88 a; ^IT'IS^ Men. 64 6.

vowel,
'''inpIS;

h) ^raiTlS; Ned. 50 a6, Sanh. 109 a; ^^^Jli* Taan.'23 6; iinbas


were successful, A. Z. 26 a.'
c) !lbilpT2Nl they caused to he removed, Qidd. 81 a; (sinriE^ISX
iAe?/ separated them, ibid. 69 6).
d) ^iiariN! Nidd. 66 a; 'Tj^^^K Gitt. 2 6; -j^^aTK Ber. 50 b, 55 6;
TSl^iSI; Qidd! 70 b; ^WriK Meg. 14 6; p^iniS! Aare adopted, Hull, 4a.'
'Sdplur.fem.
309. inSffliS; have' ameliorated, B. M. 110 6;
inSlTflJI; have found, Nidd. 48 a.'
^dpZwr.maso. 310. a) [-jilFlbtlpn; T ]^nb''tipi)|; S^iz^v^Lol].

'I*lFlD'''nf\Si

ye

made war.

Tarn. 31

b.

M. MS., B. B. 1716; liinilSTIJSI! Sabb. 67 o;


^tT'TOTCH ye paid attention, Succ. 81 a.
Isiplur. com. 311. a) [B KSbtlplTl; T I^V^p^; M ,"'Db''t:pi<
S ^-, ,J^1]. )5''b''nriy; Ber. 15 a. With loss of stem-vowel:
6)'"j!iri-i3'7K

'

jD'^brin^ began, Ber.

]5''T'l5S

Sanh. 26 6; li^bSpK Nidd. 30

a.

SiTOTBi* Pes. 26; '0'2'^i Ned. 79 a; "^t^y^^ C. MS., Zeb.

6)

68 6;

14 b;

iS'^nSiliii!

Sabb. 30 6; -^^ry^'m Har. 10 a/

Impeefeot. 5<i sing, masc 312. a) [B bppnv bt:p^; T


M yt:pKD; S V^oj]. r'^Sb Qidd. 81a; p-^'riM 6ecomes

b'^pp;:;

stcee^,

Ber. 39 a;

'T'53n''b

D''"irib

puts under ban,

pwfs under heavy

restrictions,

'Ar.

5d

smgi. wiasc.

313. a)

lets fly,

'ffl"'j5'ri

p";???

^Sri Keth. 16 6;
A. Z. 10

1st sing,
^) '^y}^

com. 314. a)
I i'^^^^ ^2/ word

6.

p'^in^ Taan. 23
6ac/c,

Sanh. 102

liyblDS? became worm-eaten, Hal. Pes., 61.

niaiCS. -H"<?- ed. pr. 98cJ,- pTOSS?. iti'J. 1306.


'J^IMnS Hff ed. pr. 29 d.
jjn'inN!, TG., ed. Hartavy, 80; Ijn'an^, ibid.

4
5

milSib,

sybaS>

6.
6."

TG., ed. Harkavy, 335; niD'^b,

-Srff.

ed. pr. 94 c.

^'IHS

a,"

punishest, Hag. 5 6; b^llFl

windest skeins, 'Arukh, Yeb. 63 a; yXDriFl Pes. 7


6) raiBn ^wdes^, Sabb. 152

Qidd. 17 a;

Yeb. 88 a; "T'CSb B. M. 58 a.

6) I^l!"? B. Q. 81 a; SaTS-'b t6td. 49 6;

Ber. 6 a; ySipb Ned. 25 a; rTiS-S

28 a;

g 64, 330.

-H<?. ed. pr. 35

cJ.

a.

92

MORPHOLOGY

III.

Li^-*-^

masc 315a. [B j^btppn':, l^btlp^; T l^btipV


-pbtapW; S ^al^]. iia^p^VSabb. 151 b; ^^-in^b 'Ar.

3d plur.

jilbpp^;

28 a;

they notice, 'En Y.

Ifi'Xy^b

^Ttlt^b Aifrs. B. 29

pay

masc 316.

^pTnri

alLjusi].

1st plur.

com. 317.

nSia? Sabb. 30

b)

Vi.D]]

."Capy!

Gitt.

56

o.

[B iVbppnri; T

-j^btppri;

M -lbt:p>5n;

"i^naTIJri

Alf

p^jn Taan. 23

a)'

l^iT'aTIJri

ye

ibid.

6.

6.

Impekative. S'm^y.
S

"iTZJa'nb

ye claim possession, B. B. 29 5;

Ned. 91 b;

attention,

56 a; tt1p"'5 Sebu. 12 a;

o.

3dp?Mr./em. 315^8.
2d plur.

Git't.

masc 318.

hide, Sabb. 51 a;

b) rriSX ie^yZ^/, Sebu. 30

a)

T'^'lpii

[B bCipH; T

b'^tipK;

Ber. 55 b; Q^'^py! Ned. 3a.

npSSt' Succ. 44?).

fe;

fifm^./em. 319. a) [T "^pplS!, "bpp^; S .^^1]. ^a""^pi?


Sabb. 151 b, eds.
Plur. masc 320. a) [T ^b"'ppi<; Pal. Talm. jlbt:pK; S
^o<4J], qXJld]]. ^rnpit Ned. 40 a;
Slb'^nnX bet/m,

M. Q. 22 a;

south, B. B. 25 6;

'En

Y.,

Bekh. 8

fiSp-fnt^

'early,

Sanh. 70 b;

c)

^l^O'^niiS;

fwrn

^b'^^TS''^ tois/,

Gitt.

67 6; ^^nJS

a.

^piliriK

Ber. 13

8 &;

'""

6.

[T sibppl^]. iia^tl!^ arrange the pieces,

b)

Sanh. 38

6e

sirojic/,

62 a;

hail! Gitt.

^1!ia5l!<!

teach ye, P. MS.,

'

5.

d) n^nriS reiwrn, Keth. 84


Infinitive.
all

13 6;

siT^aJlS! feac/i, ibid.

come

Ber.

finish,

il^a'^bTTK

321.

b.

The usual form of

the infinitive

is "'bitipji^;

the other forms occur only sporadically.

'aqtHle: ^Ti^SKb Qidd. 70 6; ''linCtJl ^o /es^z/2/, Macc.6o;


to separate, Qidd. 69 &; ''")i3"lS; to remind, Ber. 14 6;
'^y^tljif. to warn. Mace. 23 a; ''Ili'Jlni!!; to' be astonished, B. B. 98 6;
''W'i'n'2^ (23c) to declare false, Sanh. 69 o; '^rii'TlS!; to extend,
a)

"'TiinSN;

B. Q.'50 a; '"Hia^b to cause to grow,

M. Q. 2 6;

''?i"l)ib to

destroy,

Taan. 29 a (50^.
'iqt1il6:

6)

make

(some
c)
'

"'biOS'^iib

water, B. B. 19 6;

to

make

'3'it2p''iib

unfit. Pes.

to

14 6; ^aimiJ^Kb

inform against,

eds.).

'aqtttl

m^yiSb

rti7jriS

(Meg. 25 a)

is

V. L., Pes. 17

a.'

a quotation of the Targuin to Lev. 18

21.

to

Y5ma 20 6

VEEB

327]
d)

maqtul6:

the T6seph6th)
e)

f)

maqtal:
miqtal:

M. Q. 10a (catch-word

to stretch,

"'tliFl'P'a

irnSab'/o

A.7i. 10 ay U^^p'Q

let fly,

YSma

M. MS., B. Q. 816; mtJ-'ab

'r\rT12

6;

Sing.

masc.

322.

a)

"fJ^riJa

THpa

9 6; yj^^lpa ibid. 13 a; T'^VC Sabb. 140 6;


T)2n2 Sebu. 46 a.

6.

"'.'itoi*

carve, cut to pieces, A. Z. 38

"""Jlainiit) to

Active Paktioiple.

18

to trouble,

Meg. 22 6.
g) naqtal: TinD B. Q. 816.
h) 'aqtaluie: '":i^|lpS! to teach, MSS. B. B. 155
(contracted from

of

53 b).

(^n^';'1p370 Ber.

93

6.'

Ned.

Ber. 60 6;

'

6)

^3T0 reminds, Ned. 32

Sanh. 1066; ^12^12

lets

B. B. 98 6; 11^35^ Zeb. 25 a;
(Smg-.

/em. 323.

gfiVes

(eds.

inm^?;

PZttr.

226).
masc 324. a)

B.

m! 109

54 6; mffla

causes
i^nil2i53

B.

loss,

6.

M. 17

X3CD53

6;

causes _pam, Sabb. 93 6;

c/.

28 a;

isni:m73 Sanh.

A. Z. 3

n53a''73 feac/ies,

fTlDSJ/O

marriage, Ned. 23 a;

"53-1073 'Ar.

nSfflM i6td. 316,

6;

hear, Ned. 5 a, 55 a;^ t^^fl'J is astonished,

"'iTriS^J

90 6;

6e^m,Sabb. 144 a; ^IpS^ i6td.;


69 a (23c) ""ITp^^a B. B. 149 a;

''briria

Sanh.'

Meg. 18

li-isn^O

6; Ti'S^l'a Pes. 112 6;

^ICSM

a.

6) 73"1p73 Gitt. 56 a; "T?? Nidd. 12 6; "r"l373 Pes. 112 6;


"TpST? Keth. 67 6; by analogy with the perfect.

Plur.fem.

325.

"jbrjlnT?

B.

M. 16 a;

28 a; 1^0373 cawse damage, Taan. 25 a;


Sabb. 33

'("fnjfi'O

"iniliSTS

are black, Ber.

cause pain, eds.

6.

Passive Paktioiple. 326. prni2 Bekh. 12 6; pDM ^ull.


59 a; !!<373C73 A. Z. 25 a; i^ba'ia Ber. 17 a; "3'i:7J Nidd. 12 6;
iybn73 'Er. 21 a; -iJJCS?? "En Y. '^uU. 59 a.

Paeticiples with
Participle. %321

a)

108 6;
M.
B.
73
a.'
profit,
dip, Sabb.

'

"DnTaS! to wait,

2']b TBTa SJ3,

SaMlblBM

>

HG.

TG-

Enclitic Subject - Peonouns.


tXyD'')>TT2

I^STp?"'?

deliver,

spot7,

Active

^Eag. 5 a; i3b"atia

ibid.;

iXT)^Tp2

cause

324.

ed.

Harkavy,

-Hff. ed. pr. 70

(f .)

245, 275;

ini^Ta

"jbOTSp,.

ibid. 98

c.

ibid., 334, 337, 340, for

SJS

94

III.

nna^r

6)

destroyest, B.
c)

26 bj

46

M. 86 a (M. MS. 'n^a'in7j).


B. M. 109a; -S^briW^ Ber.

J!45''1C353

Yoma

jS'Tl'lba

22

6.'

19 a;

M. MS.,

l5^1?CS7p'

Pes. 55 o;

84 6;

Ub;

Pes. 105 a;

''i'l'^n^a

Fin")ri53

jr'I'ina ibid.
ji'^pTnt)

Keth. 103 &;

Sebu.

]T'p^rr\12

"

d) ^Fl^2"'5na ye flatter, Keth. 63 6;


i6id.

[^27

Ber. 19 a; TiTjbwZ strippest, ibid. 56 b;

6; "l^l^iiri^

'Ar.

MOEPHOLOGY

ilFl^'l'in^J /e

fetrw ai^a^/,

^F\^S:im (or

^Pi"'S3ri7^)

M. Q. 22 a; WTCS7^ B.M.'73a.

'jjininriia, TB.ii,w; -jayiaipu, . 38; ijtsI^' hg.u-, jjris'a, s-e.


Tff., ed. HarkaTy, 231; jlS^plJin'a
TG., ed. Cassei, 91.

pr.l25(J; Ipp'T^Jila

,'

ed.

VERB

5328]
Ithp^'el

and Ithpa"al.

95

96

MOEPHOLOGT

in.

EXAMPLES FOR

Perfect. 3d
b'^ppriK].

MS.

ITHP'^'eL.

masc 328.

?|^b^&t he consulted, Ber.

Tpr

Ned. '29 6;
(0.

sing,

[328

[B

a)

27 b;

was pierced, 5ull. 46


Ned. 67

'^'"lp2''

p'^n'irk);

a,

T ^ppriX,
was necessary,

btipn!^;

T\'^^''^

p^r^

a;'

76 6;

Pes. 88 &

tO-^rrniJ^Jfi

disap-

56 6;
p'bt:^^^ was
6, M.Q. 12 6;
was taken away, 5ag. 2 6.
"^"iT^ was punished, M. Q. 25 a; "Sp'^i* took
h) [T bppnj^].
offence, Ned. 22 6; t^ST]"^ was irreverent, Ned. 64 6; b^T^ took
trouble, Zeb. 15a (bSpK 5Lull. 44a, id.); IpSfll^ was insulting,
split, 'Ber.

peared, Ned."50
b'^priTliS

M. Q. 16 a; "lin^S Ned. 50 a;
62 a; ri?rn2^5j5 was /oMJid, ibid. 50 a.'
disobedient,

c)

nilr\3"'5j5

29 6;

'Er.

ivas written, Zeb. 26; biSS^i^

'T^iSFl^i^ ivas spilled,

Gritt.

yS)5"'X

arrived, ibid.

grew bulbous, *Arukh,


wzY/i an

57 6; biprii< me^

accident, eds. B. Q. 29 a; jibS"'!^ ias divided, B. B. 121

3d

/em. 329.

sing,

Taim. nb-^apn^, nbtipriK;

nb^pFl^K
Silli'^a^^K

[B

a)'

nbtipriJl;

6.^

tlb-'tipriX;

n^bia-'pn?, nnbti-'py;

Pal.

s ii^zl].

met with accident, B. Q. 29 a; i^Tnyn^i^ Sabb. 3 a;


was soaked, Succ. 10 6; K'9"'TrS"'!f5 was explained, Ber.

Ned. 606; Isrsrin^S was turned, M. Q. 20a;


nb^nXJ-'k was likened, Sanh. 95 aj nn''b5!n"'i< 'En Y. Ned. 50 a.'
6) iOC3''!!< was ashamed, Taan. 25 a; nbcS"'K became unfit,
25 6;

XS^np^"'!!* ibid.

Zeb. 15 a;
B.

HSprK was

M. 846;
2d sing,

XyS^l^S*

pierced, BEull. 49 a;

was

mia'^N

rebelled,

taught, Ber. 246; XS'^p^T!^ Sabb. 148 6."

masc %%^Q).

[T Xnb^tipnK;

Pal. Talm. ribtlpn^X;

S 2Ji4-DZl]. ri5"i3^!ii5 didst mingle, Keth. 77 6;

nb^tipnS;

nibxs-'XB. B. 176.

" istsing.com. %%il.

n"'bt:''piny, ln''bt:''py;

I was married, Yeb.


1

ISOniS, 3G.

501;

nibtpSniiiC Sabb.

Pal. Talm. nbtlp^ti;

S luLjJzi].- ''S'"n.t:i''!!<

b'C3niS
nCb

[T^ 'TCb^tiprr'^;

Gitt.

58a; 'aT3^5*

660.'

2isjii'pBis Aifasi, nsTan'ii


3

a)

(or

bmniS), bo.

niDbn,

ed. pr. 133 d.

passing into i"b.

('En Y. nblt?pn"i!)

Palestinean. n"'n3r\Tp">N, TO., ed.

Harkavy, 550; l^'OniBX was heard, SM. No. xcv., passing into 1"b verbs; tCiipsn

HG.

293.
*

The

^bUp'^b
to

'

traditional pronunciation of lengthened forms of the Ithpe'el are Sbtip'^S >


What justification there is for such a pronunciation it is difficult
**^'

*^b'^P'^''5

'

tell.
s

^S'^blQlS,

HG.

ed. pr. 100 d.

VERB

336]

97

[T n-'btlpri^]. ln''y^]3'' I arrived, Sabb. 1456; ^b]?'']^


Sanh. 97 a, Ber. 49a; '''ljriCl!j5 I am engrossed, F. MS., B. Q. 40 a;
b)

I took counsel, B. B. 806.'


Mplur. masc 332. a) [B

'Sb^a'^i^

Pal. Talm.

^ibtDpriH;

M llbtiSpny,

ilb-'tppm

ibtapnX;

S ,=<4^4, ov^^zl].
B. B, 746; WrS-'K were afraid, Meg. 3 a; 'S'^'ltDS'^ijJ

"^ibtipn'^i*;

^i''Snr\''K

llbtJ'^'priy;

726; ^j^^B^^ were divided, Sabb. 156 a.'


6) sibpM^i*' 'Ar. 186; !iyxb]3^i^ C. MS., M. Q. 12a;
differed, Zeb. 116; ^SbSK were swallowed up, Sanh. 110a;
Gitt.

were charred, singed, Nidd. 28 a;


c)

!1S^D3''S

d)

-mm,

Yeb. 108a;

were ashamed,

b^SS"']^

Zmie, M. Q. 9 a;

106 a.'
3d plur. /em.

broke

YSma 196;

Sanh. 109 a.^

rebelled,

-I^l^^a'^J^

were caught, Taan. 236.44 a; n^t:BK fooA;

tiiiprjt

Meg. 4 a;

qfl'"!^

in,

Gitt. 296.*

took heed, Qidd. 696;

-liirr^rSSi

in ruins,

b^'STifi fell

'p'^tinij^

^jbs^i^
''5'^?^'X

pT\m ^uU.

were blasted, B. M. 1056;

fi^lFlffiS^

tbid.

S ^-,

"|2p2"'X

Y. A. Z. 17 6;"

[T

itb-'tpplni*

Vi^zl]. ]n5rnr"'ii5

..i4j.zl,

Qidd. 706;

333.

b"'?a'^K

'Arukh

Y6ma 196;

a,

ibtOpHK;

were

j?']]?''!*

bowed, 'En

'<^y2^i<

were

^i5n''k

torn,

split,

'En

.'

jitib'^tips';

B. B. 24a;

were married, Keth. 53 d;

by analogy with ^"b


2d plur. masc
334. [T

Y. Bekh. 36

xbclpflK,

"jSirib'^ppriX

s ^ii_v.4u_o4]. iinp-^bnpi*

b.' q.

"jirib^tip-'ny

io86 (m. ms.

^n"'pbFlpK); ^inrnyn'^N ye became rich, Har. 106; ^ln''n"iFl''i^ ye


postpone, wait, Sabb. 136 a; ^ri"''1pB''X ye took leave, M. Q. 9 a
('En Y. illn'^TtpS^S).

com.335. [B Jf^Sbtpprin; T Kib^tapnt^;

1st plur.
I^Db-tJpS ;

S ^-, ,-^4^4] lybp^K

"^ull.

Ill a;

Imperfect. .Sdsing.masc. 336.

b"'tip-'n''D, b'^tip^S;

SG.

[B

btiprr;;

49 a.'

b^tppfl'];

ed. pr. 115 a.

'

"I'lS'l"'^.

'iiaibS"'S, Igg- Serlra, 29; iblBrilCi?, ibid.

]in5rnS, Bal.

Pes. 73; lybp-^S,

IDIISSC, TG.

Harkavy,

ed.

J7<?.

HG.

37.

129 (voc).

320.

ed.pr. 92o; tSlttniBliSS, ibid.lWc.

<*

';n?rnp"'S HCf- ed. pr. 130 a ; inbBiSi! ibiahsi d

'

S33"'MnDS!

"pb'^tJplnS',

12"?bp^i^ ibid.

S -MLx&i].

^niSniBSI,

a)

Igg- Serlra,

'JSIDI'I'aSIS

AlfftsI,

"jnjSriS

B. M. IT.

Igg-

Senra,

15

l/'T'py)

98

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

b)

nan-'b is broken, Ber.

takes care, Gitt. 696; nirillJb


c)

biOS'^b ts unfit, Zeb.

5d

sitig. fern.

B.

l^nS^^rn is done,

6)

nnnn

337.

28a; inrb' Sabb. 1105; ^H^r?


is found, Ned. 44 a.'
a.

t:"'TrB"'ri

is

explained, Sabb. 140a;

M. 295.
M. 107 a; ^^VtTl

B.

is 6ro/<;en,

5d sm^. masc.

27

a)

L^^^

338.

TlJinbn

Zisife?i,'

B.

is

done, A. Z. 10 a.

M. 59 a.

com. 339. a) if^lT)^. I consult, Ber. 276.


"ijppi!; I am engrossed, B. iQ. 40 a; ^'^tTI^ I go
"'

1st sing,
b)

back,

Ned. 50 a.^

3d plur. mosc
-o^^lIaj].

116;

340.

[BT

^bp5''b are unfit, Zeb. 46, 5 a;

^H'lri'^b

wait, Sabb.

134 a;

]lbt:''pn''3

^jbS''b

differ,

"j^bp|Pln';;

^sblj'^b

ibid.

exchange, mix up, ibid.

546; ^bj'^rt get accustomed, Ned. 666; ^UJS^b are punished,


Bega 16 a.
3d plur. fem.%i^l. ^UTplii'b are heard, M. Q. 166; "]tl53rib
ulcerate, Sabb. 546.

342. l^btOj^lnn Keth. 19 a; ^iSpS^Fl are


2d plur. masc
ashamed, Qidd. 18 a.
Impeeative.
Sing. masc.
343. "iH'iri^ take heed, Pes

112 a;
118 a;
95 a;

ybtS"'!!*

make

yarniiij^
t3''T25'j3^X

have untied, Yeb. 396; y-\B^' take as pay, B. M.

adorn

thyself heard, Sanh. 95 6; nSriTBi^ find, ibid.


thyself,

344.
keep away, Nidd. 47
345. The usual form the

Plur. masc.
Infinitive.

Sabb. 26 a.

^"itl'^Tii

of

a.

infinitive is ""bitSpHS^;

the other forms occur only sporadically.


a)

'ithqatule: ^Sib^^i^b

MS., Pes. 1106;

to act slyly, Sabb.

38 a;

'ithqatula:

c)

'ithqatalft: lD5rib

d)

mithqatulS:

Xtti^?^!!^

(fragment ed. Lowe);


e)

mithqatal:
last

Without b: ID'H'?

laibB^b HG.
,

to be
to be

''bisp'^ip to

imrd
is

3 a.

Mace. 23 6.

''^^'O'^'^IZ

example

126; ''nimrK M.

106; ^blSrxb M. Q. 2o6; '^I^T^T^

"'jibB^l^ to differ, 'Br.

6)

21b; but the

fo cowsmZ^, B. B.

^niinilJ^S^ 'ibid.

married, Keth. 536.


broken, interrupted, Ves.S

peel

off,

Yeb. 76a.

B. B. 173a; ^\m''l> to follow, K.T^.

more probably

Qal.

delivered up, B. M. 88a,- IJl'^TI A. Z. 286.

ed. pr. 106o,-

'jWlBnib

TO., ed. Hkrkavy, 546.

VBEB

351]

mithqatala:

/)

99

H. MS., B. M. 86a.

nJ3"'a to be lashed,

g) 'ithqatalliie: ''I'iin'nTKbfo^oM) over,'Arukh, Y5ma78a.'


Paetioiple.
Sing. masc.
346. a) t]"'b52''a Ned. 54a;
Pl''3>lil^53 is frightened, Sanh. 94 a.

H. MS., B. M. 86 a;

b) narj? is lashed,

'^HTO

Pes. 8 a;

Sing, /em'. 347.

Keth. 57 6;
Sabb. 94a.

JS^tt'^^'^a

broken,

i^inS^ri^?

M. MS.,

Pes.

54a;

XinXl-'a rebels,

nets slyly. Mace. 236; XapS'^a'is married,

masc 348.

PZwr.

is

C|t:)3"'a

1116.

ibid.

"''Sbaria regret, B. B.

4a;

'T233?''a

are

punished, C. MS., M. Q. 25a; ''SSnna Meg. 46; "abS^a dijer,

Ned. 54a;

hide themselves,' Sanh. 26 a;

!lT3a''7J

Plur. /em.
I'lpa'^a Gitt.

349.

'J"'be"'a

Zeb. 186."

]yr{2'D

Ber. 6 a;

lyariTEa Sabb. 236;

716; ]Spy')2 are wounded,

ed.

Van. Ber. 6 a; "jnora

are married, Ber. 56 a.

Paetioiple with Enclitic Subject - Peonouns.


350.
Ski'lS'^a I remember, Ber. 446; K3'1ln'^l52 I take heed, B. B.

a)

29a;"N5'i^a''a stretch myself, A. Z. 7b6;'k5d''Sna Sabb. 32a.


FlDSria art caught, Ber. 56 a; lnlD2''a art married, Keth.

6)

'

'

616

(f.)."'

WTpS^a

c)

Qidd. 39 a.

EXAMPLES FOB ITHPA"aL.

Peefect. 5d:

b!}*t:5<pni<;

Pes. 104 a;

49a;
316;

masc 351.

sing,

bt)|?r\n;

V^i]].-IWn-'S 6ecame rich,

']a'!JT''J5

was

sold, Ber. 5 6;

b!ll''!T''S5

ibid.

41a;

"IP^'^S

became

6) T2:''ariWPes.8a(ed.pr.);

G-itt.

rich, ibid.

Q'^PtTl'qSi

306;

b'E))?riX;

bSFlp-iJ!

was manured, A.

696 (236);

nnS''i< si^e brought forth, Gitt.


1]3?^!!i5

[B

a)

inriiji

Z.

Ned.

50 a.

was closed up,Yeh.l5b.

was burned. Pes. 826;'pii)Flp''X Er. 60 a; ai3a"'S


M. 79 a; ffli'^jJ-'i* 'Arukh, Ned. 31a; liap-'X has
profit, Sanh. 81a; litSB''J<(1) let her be freed, Yeb. 19 a.
d) ''ir'lFniJ''S was 0/ 6ewe^/, Gitt. 35 a.'
c) Cli^niB"'K

was

stoZez^

B.

2"'JibBitt.fl'e.264.
3

Cf. for the

development of meaning Arabic Jovj' and

^
Ji(OVJ'.

100

3d

MORPHOLOGY

III.

/em,352. [B

sing,

i^LjJii]]-

tiyBriii^

nbTSpntl;

[352
nbEli^riX;

M nKbt:Npny;

iecame leprous, 5un. 66a;

NTj:2nD"'X

was

YeK

1086; Hirc'^T^ escaped, B. M. 86b; ^'^^'nm


staggered, Nidd. 175; iSTi:'Tj3"' imr'^Ip^K, Keth. 62 &; tTiT'^^pn^X
Ned. 50 a; m2:"'';!]3^i< was betrothed, Yeb. 110 a.'
2d sing, com'. 353. [nbppnn; T Jj^nbtJpnijJ nbtSptlS;
h-ji|igTE^S! art'in error, Zeb. 26a;
ribxtlXpny; S a v l l']]
n33?'^ij5 didst stay, 5ull. 1056; ri'iaB"'5< didst neglect to come,
Keth. 1116; T)p^Ti^ didst busy thyself, Keth. 776.
lstsing.com.%354:. [BMb^priH; Tn^b"^pn^X; MtT'btJi^pny;

persuaded,

S i.S^z|]. 7ariB''S^-J sivore, Sanh. 1096; ^bSPD'^S J Zoofced,


B. M. 856; ^^^TTiCi/i I was in danger, Keth. 61a, O! MS., Sabb.
1456; "-nnr^^ Pes. 113 a; "TltomiS^i* J s/refc/ied myself out, B.M.
856.^
3cZ

a)

M irbstOSipnj';

llbtipIT^X;

rich, Taan.

6)

masc 355.

pZwr.

286;

lilprniJ-'K

[B

^btJpntl;

^bC!pni<; Pal.Talm.

S ,a<4-^4, cJ4I4]. ^inrK 6ecame


MS., M. Q. 256 (eds. !l?Fim)."

^nyTi:ri5<(?) 0.

Mace. 56;

up, K. H. 236; "i^Sri^X

"lilpy-'X

Yeb. 646; D^innCK were closed

made profit, A.

Z.

26;

"iW^l'^N

may they be

scattered, Pes. 1106.

show semen, 5ull. 936.*


356.
357. NDpSTi< I am [we are) attached,
Sanh. 29
Imperfect. 3d
masc. 358. a)
5ag. 56;

3d plur.

'i^^^^

fern.

1st plur. com.


a.

sing.

"lytiii'^b

87 a; rn^ll-'b Zeb. 316; 3nc"'b Sabb. 81 a;


disfigured, B. B. 1546; Qbnip^I B. M. 108 a.'

nffiSn-'b Gitt.
is

6)

fc^iinisa is

3d

sing,

burned. Pes. 826."

/em. 359.

niSSrin Zeb. 25 a; bsptin Beg. 38 a;

tularin Ber. 51 6; ,:a'^Tn happened,

83 a;

2d
2d
'

=i

M. Q. 186;

covered with straw, B. M. 1036;

ySFniJ'^Fl

Keth.

19 a.
bsnCFl B.M. 85a; ^?^::n Sanh. 95a.
sing, /eire. 360;8. ^^FlS'-Fl Keth. 26.

^^iriri is

lySaSI^J

"[^V^T) ibid.

masc 360a.

sing,

(for

n"!?"),

&li^.

No.

a.

n^^lB^X,

re., ed. Cassel, 53.

'pia'^IS TG., ed. Cassel, 1 IsbSnOS MM. Taan. 22.


The regular form is very rare, having been superseded by the one with transposed
;

bl|13"'b

final vowel.

^l^^nfflliJ, rG.,ed. Cassel, 53; "jySrnCIS. ibid.; ']lBna''S, HG., ed. pr.
'-db'^yri'),

sotaioa.

ainmijlb,

TG.. ed. Harkavy, 343.

81c2.

VERB

368]

com. 361. nnnC^

1st sing,

23 &;

^aS'^K ibid.
3'd

47 b;

Gitt.

in'TjlL-'b

^ipba-^b,

^^T^

a)

Ber. 316; "^y^Sys Taan. 25a;

o.

'^bm^b Ned. 27 a;

336; ^^nrb Taan. 236;

'Er.

ISa'ilT^b

71a;

^Slti^-^b Sabb."

^pVnp-'b B. B. 43a.^"

6)

"im-b

c)

^W33 Yeb. 72 o.

'

Sanh. 98

masc 362.

plur.

101

Tesapheth, Gitt. 336; ^Sil^rns3(?) Sabb. 110a.

'^mb

3d plur ^ fern. %363.


2d plur. masc364.

com. 365.

is^ pZifr.

Impbeativb.

Ned. 276;

Succ. 136.

Taan. 25 a.

"i^'tliaD

masc. 366.

Sing.

-IjJria'b

a/^nnjrin B. M. 59 a.

iVdnanFl Sanh. 19

a)

5ull. 60 a^

bSITlpJi

Yeb. 456; "m-'i* 6e/a^, Sebu'. 476.

ia^^!!< /lide thyself,

6) XtyrH!^ eds. Sebu. 476; vfriFna^S^ AlfasI IJull,

1326

(eds.

r|riFn2:"'K)".'

masc 367.

Plur.

a)

TOSXCi''^ AlfftsI

6)

^THtaX M. MS. B. B. 41 a.

c)

ill^aa-'S B. B. 406.

Infinitive.
''bilOpriSS

368.

B. B. 406.

The usual form

of

the

infinitive

is

the other forms occur only sporadically.

'ithqattulS: ^ninsn'-xb to open, Gitt. 69a; "MinnCX


to he closed, K. H. 236; "'^iaFl'^x' to profit, Sanh. 81a, A. Z. 26,
Yeb. 926; "''li'na'^S to scatter, Gitt. 336, YSma 26; ''riiaFnB''>^ to
praise, Pes. 506; ''ji3'nT''i< to he sold, 'Ar. 296; "tiitsab Meg. 76,
a)'

C.

MS.
b)

'^'J3i31Il''!^b

'ithqattul

to
:

and perhaps ^ItSS^!^

cheer oneself up with wine.


Wi^an'^i* to he astonished,

to he'freed,

Yeb. 19a;

2 M.

MS.

Pes.

ni'^SfS^ Tos. Gitt.

17a;
336.

c) 'ithqattala: J^bSFlCKb to look, IJufl. 60a; i*1p3>n-'ti


Men. 7 a.
d) 'ithqattalS: 'yTi^ii, to he singed, mdd. 28 a.
e) 'ithqattal: "f^':^''^ to he torn out, Ves. lllh.
f) 'ithqattaluiS: '''^tt^'PT^f. to wonder, Qaxih. 20a.

g)

mithqattala:

h)

""SinnTas to melt,

K'^tSB'^Sb to he freed,

Sabb.

example may also be imperfect;


B.

I^DS'^r

tJI'^iSIS?,

M.

SG.

110a
cf.

Kasi Yeb. 19a.

(l/qnTIJ

tZ-TOS).

This

3626.'

906.
ed. pr. 82 d.

3ll!3ii)nii?, TG.,ed.Cassel,g41; litySPtplSSb

pr.lOSd; IliianniBS?, ibid,

a c.

TB.,

II., 33;

ysniplab, BG.,

ed.

102

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

Participle.

Meg. 16 a;

369.

Sing. masc.

jS'ira is

[369
a) ^B'Ztya

is

forgiven,

sold, M. Q. 10 &; ^5^:2X3 grieves, B.

M. 84 a;

yaSip is smitten with leprosy, Hull. 60 a; H'PS^p opens, Taan.

24 a.'

b)

"fSrip-a 'En Y. Bekh. 44b; D'^^Fllca is paid. Pes. 28 a.'

c)

''Birnca benefits, Gitt. 44 o, 5ull. 131a, Keth. 108 a.


K^iSS'^a btdcZen, Yeb.

Sing.fem.%310.
oZd, 'Ar.

19 a; pVl2,

tf.p'^r'a is sold, ibid.

15a (by analogy with


Plur.

296;

g-rotos

t5;"1t53X2

BSga

^"b).^

masc 371.

1"'pSript:

50 a;

Wc/i, Pes.

Taan. 236; "^bsnpa Succ. 45 &,

'''iriypia

gre/

]^^"iri"'53

are explained, Taan. 14a;

Flur.

65&; W)3-ra

/em. 372.

^ba]3"'53

ibSlTlpa

are pleasing, Taan. 236;

'l5Sl'1'T52

ZooA;,'

are soW, Mace. 26.

Bega 20 a;

]TB")S"'a

explained, clear, Meg. 3 a; l^aFlplS are unclear, ibid.;

']'J"]-r'^

are
^e

trimmed, Ned. 616, Kasi; |'^?tl2a Sabb. 1406.

Paeticiple with
a) K59''nnu;a

am paid,
I

B.'

373.
M. MS. Sabb. 23 a; XM^rnBl?
am paid off, B. M. 676; jjO^FlFlpa

Enclitic

Subject - Peonoun.

associate myself,

Q. 9 a; SS^ip^npS

hide myself, Ber. 316 (f.); i^DyaPlira

swear,

Keth. 85 a;

I am married, Keth. 626 (f.).


"^6) raa'llTa thou art sold. Mace. 26; n^jSe^a Yeb. 656 (f.);

Kaip'njSa

riSnrnaa B.'m. 69 a; V\ymz Taan. 25 a.


c)

we are

li'-i^'iir'a

sold.

Mace. 2 b.*

d) Wpbrip?; ye are paid

off,

leave, B.

M. 109 a; W^JFiyJa

(^^^Fl^nbrnsa) ye become tired, A. Z. 726.

veebs D"S.
374. The 3 as first stem-consonant is assimilated to the following consonant whenever both meet without an intervening
vowel, or vocal

s^vft.

This happens in the imperfect and in the

infinitive Qal, in the

Aph'el and in the Ittaph'al.

Qal frequently loses


which it is derived.

initial 5

'

yjUni?, SM. No.

nitinip)?, BQ. ed.

'

nW'1|5"'')5,

S^SriyUJitt, T6.,

BG.

by analogy with the imperfect from

X. (voc).

pr. 104 d.

ed. pr. 82d.

Bd.

Harkavy,

The imperative

78.

VERB

382]

103

In the verb pbD to ascend, which in consequence of the synis formed like a 5"3 stem, we find also a form ^pD they
ascended (Taan. 236) in the perfect.'

cope of b

The

frequently remains

emphatic consonants,

Aph'el passive participle.


''"b

before

gutturals,

and B. Notice pB'^S is


But this may also be an

sibilants, S,

taken out (Succ. 45 a) for


passing into a

unassimilated
''J,

'pBT'12.

!ni<D3ln''l)^b to

he slaughtered, "Er. 53

h,

form.

EXAMPLES FOB QAL.

Impeepeot.
3d sing. masc. 375. a) ~|iBp''b o?;es, Ber.
51a; biBi'^b falls, Meg. 226; biW^b takes, Gitt.'686; flinrb
goes down, ibid. 676; bfe-'b Meg. 226; t3ip5''5 Gitt. 69 a.'
6) tT'nrb Sabb. 110a;'-|n''b (8) Sabb.'i04a.'
c)

M^rb

blows, Gitt. 69 a; n5''b Ned. 40 o;

'

nST

withdraws,

516/
3d sing, fern. %316. piSS^n Mace. 14a, Ned. 65a, 66a.
2d sing, masc 377. a) bit2"'n takest,'B.'M.. 105 aj jin^n

Ber.

M. Q. 206;

"u;it:rri

No

c)

npDri marriest,

1006 (from Sirach).

example.

1st sing,

strippest, Sanh.

6)

M. Q. 96; Yeb. 1006.

com. 378.

gro out, Gitt.

a) liaS

56 a; mirT'X

acquire, B. B. 136; piB-'X

go down, B. M. 156.

c)

nWii I marry, Yeb. 65 a; inS


ItjJV J ^eep, M. MS. B. B. 29 a;

5d

piwr-'.

6)

ilpB^b

]^pB5"'b;
]il3ri''b

^6)

masc 379.

pB"'*?;

a) l^pB'^b ^o om/,

K. H. 18a, Bekh. 586;

c?o mj),

M. Q.

ilt:pr5 take.

t:^p^5

M.MS.

2d plur.

,j?S''b,

masc 381.

illpiri

1st plur.

"ipS'^b

ISiSD

^tlpiFl

Taan. 24 a;

^nirT'Fl

t^13rS2

a''D5b

*pS57

a''D35

Sal. Fes. 39.

SG.

Qidd. 81a.

SITOS"! B.B. 169a.

go down,

ye marry, Ber. 86.

com. 382.

apiSS"^ B.B. 169 a.


3

Ilia;

'En Y. M. Q. 96.

o) piB"'? Gitt. 56 a; nitT'S 2

Pes. 1186; niri''b B. B. 736.


Of.

Pes.

Pes. Ilia.

5dpZMr.'/em. 380.

M. Q. 22 a.
MS.

96, C.

Ned. 55 a.'

s-we,

B. B. 736;

Gitt. 566.

ed. pr. 1196.

C/. also

Hebrew

TiPfP[, nf5. etc.

M. MS.

104

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

Sanh. 96 o;

b)

']ri''5

c)

Iprb

slaughters, Sanh. 25b.

B. B. 29 a.

Impbeative.
yi33 cast

D''35

[383

Sing. masc. 383.

a) tiip3 take, Sabb. 147 ay

yis YSma 205; lia acquire, B. B. 13 6y Di3


^i'^ wom), Qidd. 41a; bit: take, B. M. 28 b;

off, ibid.;

61a;

slaughter. Pes.

pis Ber. 17 a.
6) a-'W marr^/, Yeb. 45 a, 63 a; Pes.
iri firwe,

c)

Dp

fceep,

Qidd. 70 a;

~|t23

raise up, Keth.

60a (Kasi

Cpti?)

away, Sanh. 1006; pD ascend, Yeb. 63 a.

S'OT^./em. 384.
Flur.

1/e

^T'jp

24a, Ned. 776.'

''bp fa/ce, Gitt.

masc 385.

^ron come
b)

Yeb. 63 a;

n-ljS

Gitt. 566.

"itii

tofce

113 a;

a) ^iWpS Sanh. 90 &; ^p^lS Sabb. 156 a;

down, Sebu. 31 a.

remove

94a.

ye, Gitt. 686, 'Er.

c) ^nClD Ber. 536.

Infinitive.

npra
19 a;

386.

Sanh. 756;
133-'r B.

M. 746;

miqtal: npD53 fo c/iiseZ, M. Q. 10a;


M. Q. 9 a; l^ra Ned. 666; yaD^J Sanh

a)

1t:!3^5p

nTM

Ned. 28 a; pS-^a

ibid.

50 a; tip^^

i6id 786; bs^ttb B. B. 10 a; "n^ab Sanh. 113 a.

miqtil:' n^pirj 'En Y. Sota 12a.


c) miqtul: nin-'7jb 'En Y. B. B. 73 6.
d) miqtala: Xntprsb 8M. (No. xcv.),
e) qutul: -li'ii Ned.216.
6)

Gitt. 686.

EXAMPLES FOE APH'eL.


Pbefeot.

71a;

3d

sing. masc.

M. MS.

387.

a) 2''p3K married, Qidd.

]i^m
Men. 236; p-'QK Taan. 24a; flTli^
Keth. 626; j'^SiS she miscarried, ^ull. 42 a.
6) inx 6ro/ce off, Mace. 8 a; ripS removed, Gitt. 536; SpSK
married, Yeb. 121a; ^tl?^ enlightened, SOta 6 a; by analogy
with '"b verbs, "^^BiS! touched, Sanh. 336; (n"l'^i|! he forbade her
by a vow, Ned. 50 a)
t2"'p5lS

Ber. 7 a; -fpJSt sttrroMwded, Sanh. 69 a;

Ber. 39a;''a^EK he increased,

c)

niCD^ 0. MS. Pes. 1106.

3d

sing. 'fem. %S88. np-'BiS;

Yeb. 656;' t^ty^m she

let

B.M.596; npSX Ned. 7 6;

flow, 'En Ya'aq. 6267

(t^fl'^'niS;

bade her by a vow, Ned. 216).


1

IpD

SJlf.

No. oxv.

nb"iBS<

Se'el. 18.

n)m

she for-

VEEB

402]

2d

masc 389.

sing,

i) nbSN; Yeb. 65 &;

didst increase, Ber. 5 b;

a)

Flp''S5<

didst answer satisfactorily, B. B.

rifirijiSt

129 a; t)rm ^uU. 1376;'npSX


is/
r\'')>m

Sabb. 1516.

didst compare, Zeb. 5h; PitLm

TVL'^JS,'

sm^. com. 390.

105

ibid.

43 a.

Vi'^p^SS Rasl Ber. 38a, eds.

Yeb. 655; ^S^nSSl 'Er. 54fe (203), 'En Y.

masc 391.

3d plur.

sip-'Bi?

^f^^;

ibid. ^FlTON.'

38a; ^Trn^ M. Q. 25 &;

Ber.

Ned. 25 a; ''pSK Yeb. 25 a, by analogy with participle.''


392. ^ri^lTIBISi ye remove. Pes. 1086.
M.MS.
1st plur. com. 393. Slp'^-t!^ Alf. B. Q. 47 a;

^p''i3>f!

2d plur. masc.

^Tm

Er. 546; ]^^tyrT^ Keth. 266;

-jSpN;

{we) give credit,

^uU. 48 a

(KasI different).

Impbefect.
B. M. 196;
'Ar.

-3d

394. Cfp^ Sanh. 69a; p''B3


sing. masc.
Sanh. 52 a; iLyX compares, Zeb. 496; TIJ''p"'b

TIJ''Sb

286; b^S^D Sabb. 1176;

2d sing. masc.

395.

com. 396.

1st sing,

SSta 40 a.

3d plur. masc. ^397.


2d plur. masc 398.
Impeeative.

56;

rf)5S);

Sing.

B6ga 256;

(ri-'UJpib

p'^BFl
TT'-Si);

B. B. 126;

^p-rb cause

it,

Sabb. 83a).

^aK I rescue, 'En Y.

damage, Sanh. 65 a.^

ilp^Sn Sabb. 966.

399. a) 'Ji'^'^ii. compare, Zeb.


Mace. 22 a; n-TO Sabb. 110 a.

masc.

p'^Sij!

compares

Qidd. 66a, E. H. 13a.

6) yaS; Ze/^ow, Taan. 256.

400.
Plur. masc. 401.
Sing,

86;

fem.

")^n"'M^

"'Sp^ cut the hair round, B.


^Ip'^EH

M. 106.

Sanh. 76; ^p"'&N bring up, Bekh.

pZace, Ned. 506.

Inpinitivb. 402. a) 'aqtGle: ^aiSit Bega 7a; ''biSS


5nll. 426; "niOi?; Zeb. 206, Sabb. 186; "^piSiiJ: Ned. 26; -^biSK
Seta 21a; ''^ipK to compare, Zeb. 496; ""niOpK Yeb. 120 a;
((T'tpipDiSfsb to make him assume, B. Q. 856).
6)

'aqtil6: "p-^BX

c)

'aqtaluie:

analogy with
1

''"b

TTIS, ininS,

''^iTIJpsb to

BG.

180;

2n1DS
3 innisb sG. 454.
'lipSSb

Sabb. 1016; ^n^BK z6id. B.B. 166 6.

compare, Ker. 256, Zeb. 496, by

verbs.*

nG.ed.pT.S9c.

M.MS.

Alfasl M. Q. 4 a.

I^ISK

AlfasI Yeb. 656.

106

III.

d)

^py^'^at.

MOKPHOLOGY

[^03

Ber. 35 &, Gitt. 53 o; "Sipixb to give on credit, A. Z.

636, by analogy with T'S verbs.

maqttile: ^biS^J Yeb. 356.


Active Paetioiplb. Sing. masc. ^403. a) t2''J?DM Pes.
110 a; 1-^035^ Qidd. 69 o, 716; p^W2 Mace. 26; p^TO Ber. 356,
1"y
ri''ria Qldd. 646; "pTBia Mows, Sabb. 119 a, by' analogy with
e)

verbs.
^

91a; n&a Zeb. 206.

6) 3>a53 Keth.
c)

Pes. 116, by analogy with

pa''52

&-n^./em. 404. nbsa Yeb. 356;

S"S>

verbs.

Ifb'B'U

Sanh. 109 a;

Hbsa

saues, Sata 21a; X^-Ta B. B. 26 a; nbStt Qidd. 86.

Plur. Twasc 405. "n&X! M. MS. B. B. 1666; "ptM Yeb.


1216; ^pSa H6r. 8 a; "pbsia B. M. 936; ^^^Sa Alfasl, ibid.
Plur. 'fern. %AOQ. ]yi)^ Sabb. 38a; "jpsa E. H. 23a.

Passive Paetioiplb.

Xnra

407.

Sing,

masc: Tn2 Ned. 50a.

Mb. Plur. fern.:

]Tin'D Ned. 916; B.B.


69 a; V^WplZ compared, Ker. 11a, by analogy with ''"b verbs.
Plur. masc. 'ylitXD Alf Ned. 91 6.
408.
Paetioiplb with Enolitio Subject - Peonouns.

Sing, fern.:

ibid.

a) Mjp^ea Ber. 38 a; iHp^p2

1326; WS^iSa

riapM

6)

1136,

save, Sanh.

1096; HS^pSa 5ull.

I go
B.

around, Meg. 29 a.
M. 105 a; nnpra Ned. 23 a

nnsa

Sebu. '31a; riTIJEa Gitt. 3 a;

(f.);

ripB^ Pes.

B^qa 40 a.

irnpSa Yeb.' 120 a; ]T-iiW^ Be5, 7 a; ]TpW2 we bring up,


Sanh. li2a; ']5''pBr), \Tlr\n2 Nidd. 3 a; ]:rb''P2 we save, Sabb.
115 a; ND^pSaSull. 1326."
c)

'

VEEBS S"5.
409. The perfect and the participles of Qal are regular. To
what extent initial X in the perfect had a full vowel instead of
Qere I find once
s^vft cannot be inferred from the orthography.
in "la-'K he said, Keth. 1036.'

In the imperfect and in the infinitive the H does not appear


and the preformative has er6.^ This vowel could have arisen
from short i or might be a contraction of ai, the ii having been
changed to
1

Cf.

1TOS

they said, Se'el. ed. pr. 26 (voo.)

avy, 69, passim; "113^ he said,


2

But

cf.

TaS"! M. MS.

SM. No. xxvi.

Ber. 28a;

T^^alS.

w said,

TO.

rt^bSSb YOm.

756.

i5^'l')a"'S!

(voo.).

inrbDSJU

B. B. 816;

ed.

Hark-

VEEB

411]

107

In the imperative Qal the K usually takes


the verb 01^ to go

p.

full vowel.

In

usually omitted.

it is

In the Pa"el the S

usually syncopated in the participle,

is

rarely in the imperfect.

In the Aph'el, verbs H"S pass into verbs T'S


cases they retain their original form, the

ceding a-vowel and producing

but in some

quiescing in the pre-

&.

In the reflexive stems the


is usually assimilated to the preceding T\, but sometimes retained. In a few cases of the Ithp^'el
the Fl is further assimilated to the second stem-consonant.
410. The verbs bTl(5 and "iSS drop at times their final con!Ji

sonant in unlengthened forms.


^53K

This

In the participle active

ative 5<a''X.

especially the case with

The

only once, in Gitt. 565.


are evidently

'

variants

'''fDiH

= i<a^ri + 1i),
(
From U553''ri"'!!<

^'D'^Y^

one who says, which

is

says (60, n. 1).


For verbs "S and

^"b,

!l5!a^ii5

is

of

Prom

of editions

compound

imperfect are fre-

Xa"?"!!*

must be distinguished

compound

giving the forms

= Ka''b+-|ij5) and
(

if thou say

and

the

in

(73).'

they say, occurring

The word

if,

in the imper-

I say

iW'^lait

erleichternde Lesarten.'
*

^an+iiSK (115)
The apocopated forms of ^52S
quently found compounded with 1S<
of

K53''|)

l!<5''aK

the last form must be distinguished

is

is

giving in the imperfect iX^'b ,^ iXW^T}

i^'^ri'^i*

i553''ri^!!<

= ^?'? + T!5)(
SS'^tl^X there

there is and K535<

of 600-615; for y2^tl of 623.

EXAMPLES POK QAL.


Impbepect.

bin

411.

3d

masc: a)

bi5''b eats,

Ber. 18b;

Sot. 32b.

b)

brb

C.

MS. Meg. 126 (voc); b^?

c)

brb Ned.

3d

sing, fern.:

a) biS^n Yeb. 70a.

In SM. PTi5 drops

Stt^b SM. No. Lxxm. (voc).

'

55313S

* Of.

BG.

92,

Ber. 276.

8 a; ID'^D ties together, Gitt. 69 a.'

sing,

its

5 constantly.

passim.

the similar form j^SI'llnDS, 232, n.

'llall says, Ber. 28a, Pes.

1.

9a and elsewhere

in the phrase "Tall I'D

blDI^. Qidd. 696.

108

MORPHOLOGY

III.

b)

bTFlSanh. 775, 78 a.

c)

llj-n "Er. 755;

2d

sing,

2d

sing, fern.:

masc:

brn

blS^Pl

S5t. 12a.

Ned. 915, Mace. 195; T^is^n Pes. 21a.

thou goest, Keth. 54a.'

"'brSTl

1st sing, com.: a)

[^1^

Pes. 745;

lia^il;

bii""!;!;

Ber. 245; t^l^H

"

Pes. 745, Zeb. 28

a.'

'

5)

b-'m B. Q. 108 a, Yeb. 65 a;

c)

la"'^!

Sabb. 1375,

3d plur. masc.

9a; ^brb'Ar. 22a.


2dplur. masc:

Y6ma

T\')Tb B.

b^ii? Pes. 745.

815.

M. 65 5;

^5 Gitt. 69 a;

^ibS-^S

M. Q.

'

]^brn Sabb.

Ber. 455, Sabb. 1405;

"j^^^'^n

1405.

2dplur.fem.: ^brn Ker. 175 (216).


Istplur. com.:
5)

M. MS.

Ber. 315.

315;

T]''??

412.

Sing,

masc: a)

Impeeative.

2a;

bii^i

ci)

yn M. MS. Ber.

1\is^}^

Sabb. 59 a, Pes. 21a;

'Ar.

29 a.
"li7;3''S

b'i'D^^ Gitt.

B.M. 145, M. Q.

69 a;

(S'-bp^S* eat

it,

Sabb. 118 a).


225, 25a; TjK hire, B.M. Ilia.
M.
la-ii;
Q. 26 a, 'Er. 44 a, Sabb. 157 a.
Sing, fern.: a) ^b^T go, B. M. 425, Ned. 665, M. Q. 165.
5) -bSS Ned. 775; ''^m B. M. 845.
Plur. masc: a) ^b^iK M. MS. H6r. 12a; ^b^H Bekh. 9a/
^b^T Meg. 16 a.'

58a;

5)

b-^rX Ned.

c)

bSS!

5)

^bS^ B. B. 215;

b'^T

Infinitive.

413.

TOT^ ibid. 39 a.
a) maqtal or miqtal:

95, 10 a;*

b'D^)2

ibid. 45,

^rab

80 a;

DD-^a

'Er.

5)

maqtala

c)

qutule:

"pbTP: sa.
TG.

or

^-liaK

^53"'13b

Ned.

33 a, Mace. 15 a;

i^ntt'^ab

Ned. 9a, 16a.'

Ned. 95; ""lia^X C. MS. Pes. 895.

220.

ed.

Harkavy,

iblT SJf. No. XXVI. (voc).

i/i'g^'a

In the phrase
fern.

ibid.

Ned. 27 a5.

biT1|S!

HO.

495, 73 a; br)J

miqtala:

3d sing.

ibid.

Hag. 155;

9, 28.

140.

fc^TJO'l'^b "^fi^^

the ending

X~

seems to be the objective

sufifix

of th

415]

VERB

109

EXAMPLES FOE Pa"eL.


414. Peefect.

T^K he distinguished, Sanh. 636.


Imperfect . ( ^^'''7^^! I shall destroy them, Gitt. 57 & )

mayest

;'

"IIBXFl

believe, ibid. 306.

Imperative.

"itBlS;

believe thou, Gitt. 806.

Inpinitivb. "''linis; B. M. 51a; ^"fin^ B. Q. 74a, Ker. 20a;


MS. B. M. 596; (Winxb to do it later, Sabb. 119 a).'

^binS^b E.

Active Participle. "l)jX53 Ned. 4a, Ker. 20a;


74 a;

''Sba

they

Gitt. 70'a.

Passive Paeticiple.

piaxa

Keth. 62 a;

teach,

^^'2)2

''yyX)2

they

B.Q.

strengthen,

seated in the saddle, Nidd. 14a.

is

Active Paeticiple with Enclitic Subject-Peonodns.


Sib^aiSsa B. M. 596; i^3a''blf);5; I strengthen, Qidd. 48 a. iS^iriHa
Zeb. 866; ]5"'5Sa ebu.'41a.''

EXAMPLES FOE APH'eL.


415. Peefect. TaiS^

he

hired,

waited, Meg. 16 a; "njiX 'Er. 756;

"IjN!

M. 77 a;
B. M. 65 a.
B.

t]'"nii*

he

IMPEEFEOT. b'^iib Yeb. 68 a; l^ib 'Er. 66 a. t]''11'n "Er.


^i'lin ye will lengthen, Ber. 8 a, M. Q. 28 a.
Impeeative. Tlii^ lose, B. M. 51a; Taii 'Er. 80 a; I^IK

54 a.

B.M. 76 a.*
Infinitive.- '^'liaiKb B. M. 116 a; ^T^iX
B.

M. 1016;

79 a6;

92 a;

l^ii^b ibid.

[Tl'^'^^^h ibid.)

''biDNib

Sanh. 1096;

b'-SS/J

//le^/ Zie

Cf.

Hebrew r^naSin Ezek.

SS'bS ^e'.

C/. ;[Sjl'a teaches thee,

ipiSii? ffwe thou him to

813S?b HG.

28:16.

eat,

HO.

ed. pr. 31 a.

ed. pr. 95 c.

11p^1)D

Si've

b''nsa

'Er.

31a;

6 a; )3''biia Sanh. 20 o)

Yeb. 63 a.

M.

1.

6 5rl")'ilO

Z. 15 a;

in wait, A. Z. 396.

"'^^is^b

Yeb. 68 a; (SlbcSxa B.M. 856; Trkmi2

maJcest dark, B. B. 7 a; rTljiS B.


tt'ia

756;

.'

Active Paeticiple. "I'^jia A.


tj'^'lSa

'Er.

Yeb. 68 a; ''"imb B. M.

power of

attorney,

BG.

ed. pr. 88 d.

110

MORPHOLOGY

III.

[^16

EXAMPLES FOE ITHP^'eL.

416.

masc: a) TriFl''!S! was locked,


BLuU. 526.'
b) yiFl''S>5 happened, M. Q. 18a; ^hvrtf, B. Q. 32a;
3d sing, fern.: a)
XtT'iJ! Ned. 896; ntT^ sighed, Meg. 16a.
b) tl^-iFi^ili Mace. 6 b; Hf.'^^Ti^iit, M. Q.
i^C'^iniSt Ned. 90 b, Gitt. 56 a.
116;' KXn"!!* Pes. 1036; n^arT'K Ber. 456. 5d sing, masc:
ri"ljri"'Sf! ^thou hast hired thyself out, YSma 20 6, M. MS. iiri'ia''i5 .
ist sing, masc: ''Mm Sabb. 1456, M. MS. "^D'^^Sri'^JS! {%i6). 3d
plur. masc a) ilMSn^JSJ Keth. 166. 6) ^npn-^JS! Ned. 79 6; ]T\^r{'^
3d plur. fern.:
Sebu. 48a.
c) l^iiarT-H 0. MS. M. Q. 256.
Pbepeot.

3d

sing,

I'lmtl^^'Er. 43 a.

Impeepect.
Zeb. 55a;

417.

^5^^

i6id.

3d

sing,

56a.

masc: a)

b'^lDKlri''b

60a}

6) nprT'b Sabb.

eaten,

is

^CrT'i Pes.

M. MS. Sanh. 55 a. 3d sing.fem.: a) ysrT'n Bekh.


Ned. 806. is^ sing, com.: Ipn^X Qidd. 65a.
Ipn^n
6)
3d plur. masc: flll^n^b (B. M. 1126), read:' ^'Ijrrb; ^Ipn'^b
Men. 566. 3dpZMr./em..- jXri'-b Ned. 796.
67 a;

IS-'b

16a.

Infinitive.- 418. a) 'ithqatul6:

Nidd. 23a;

"^'liDPl^lSt

B.M.766; "ptn^X R.H. 23 a; "'pi^FlS Yeb. 436; "ntn^K


M. MS. Ber. 59 a; "liTBri^liiJ R. MS. Pes. 65 "a.
'"li3n''X

6)

'ithqatula:

!!<'iiDn''X

A. Z.

52a;

SJ^-lian^i^b

Alf. B.

M. 766.
c)

'ithqatil:

Paetioiple.

D''':?^^^*

419.

M. MS. Sabb. 1456 (80, a).


masc: a) b''pi|5!n''a Qidd. 59a;

Sing,

b^in^); Sabb. 109 a; TnFl-'a Pes. 56; TXDrilO 6.


6)

Ipn^a Sanh. 476;

Meg. 16 a; liana O. MS.

1jri5a B.

Pes.'

M. 76 a;

MS.

Pes. 65 a.

^S'^a ^^id.;

Itl-M

65 a.

Sing, fern.: '^/TimtT'lD Naz. 506, ^Ar. 156, B. B. 39 n; xbiHtl'^a

Bekh. 16 a; IS^Dria Sanh. 476, Ned. 80 a, 91a; K^jna' B. 'M.


65a.'
Plur.

masc:

"^bSJ^tl^a

M. Q. 11a;

^biFl^a Bekh.

B. M. 76a.
Plur. fern.:

])lii^t\^^2

Diarris sm. no. lxx. (voc).

XID^a so.

293; S'lnitjl^a

Bekh. 16a.

HG.

ed. pr. 128c, passing into

yy

16a;

^IjlTTI^

423]

VEEB

111

EXAMPLES FOE ITHPA"aL.

420. Peefbct.

Paetioiple.

Infinitive.

mourned,

b^ia^^lS! iJiey

57 a.

Gitt.

mourn, B. Q. 59?).'
mournes, Sabb. 136 a.

''biSHtT'!!* to
b''!il!!!llri''a

veebs ^"y.
421. Verbs of this class retain the K in many cases of the
Qal and of the Pa"el. In all other cases they generally pass into
verbs

'

''"1^.

EXAMPLES FOE QAL.


422. Peefeot.

grew

h^'^iE

borrowed, Taan. 216;

Tli'^Jia,

lfitX3,

he

Ned. 40 a. ri'"'b''N!T2 Sabb. 1306, BSga 226; ^'i^W

sick,

B. Q. 40 a;

TT'b^iri

B. B. 366;'

tm

Sabb. 152 6; bilXffl


HQ^i^W Yeb. 116 a; 0. MS. Meg.
tte?/ asfced,

"Impeepeot. ^b^TT-'b

I asked, Taan. 236. il^JSlTB


30 a. ']^nb''KTfl B.M. 79 a.

"'bxip

26.'

Sota 85 a,

Impeeative. b''if!'^ Ber. 96;

^ib^JJ^ffl^b

biKTT

'En Y.

ibid.^

b!m. 836. "^b^KTr Keth.

63 a. ^b^JJlT;: Me'll. 176.*


Infinitive. bi<Ti:"^ab Me'll. 176, M. Q. 18a; bWpb C.MS.
M, Q. ibid.; iKlfl^p Pes. 746, Sffl'^a M.MS, ibid.; m'D^'aA.Z. 686.

Active Paetioiple. n'-JSnC Pes. 746; t]"^"]!!: Sanh. 64a;


Meg. 22 a; ^".^3 Gitt. 68 6. !!<5';'^ Sabk 1566. ''bKTS
Meg. 286, ''b'^^TIJ M. MS. ibid.; ^n'^i^TB Pes^ 746; '^S'-^^p M. MS.
ibid.; ^T'^I m'.Q. 28a; ^Tii.'l Sabb." 866; ^T^ M. MS. ibid.;
b'^^.tC

j''l''^3

Ned. 546.

Passive Paetioiple. D'^H^ Keth. 616 (84);


39 a; iXTp^tXn Pes. 34 a; ^p-X); Yeb. 100 a.

KD'^Hi:

Sanh.

examples foe pa"el.


423. Peefeot.
Taan. 14 a. ln^T*>T23

b^^TZ?

left over,

Impeefeot. ilb^!]ia"'b
1

IlinSniSb

SnblNTB,

But

this

iblffi

'

11S{H''b

nb'^SiiO. TG. ed. Harkavy, 376.

429.

SG.

ed. pr. 110 d.

T^lTi:

B.B. 616.

Gitt. 560."

TG. ed. HarkaTy, 321.

may also be Pa"eL

SG.

Taan. 216;

he

left,

M.Q. 216,

112

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

Impeeative.

H.MS.

Suoca 36 a.

^T'^1^ leave ye,

Infinitive. ^-nisTiJ
^bii^TIJ

16 a, Sabb. 126;

'Ar.

37a;

B. Q.

[^24

^b^^TlJ

A.Z. 276,

Meg. 22 a;

''b'^^^

Kasi

"b^^iij

ibid.

Active Paktioiple. b^ijnra Yeb. 766; T||aa B. B. 72a;

I ask, Taan. 32 a). J^^^M loans, Taan. 216; iXy^W12


96^ "b^STBa Taan. 216; -b^T^p B.M. 276, H. MS. B. Q

(i^ib-'l'ffla

Pes'.

37a;

M.Q.

(j5/T!'^r)

Passive

9a).'

1X053

Paetioiple.

unclean,

M. MS. A.

Z.

396;

i^nxoa Tern. 22 a.

424.

she

tib-p^at.

Taan.

29a. '^biTIJiiib

24 a;

"-bpi^S

Gitt. 776,

776,

Gitt.

lent,

Keth.

79a. FlbirlK M. MS.

1056. b'';2Jia A.Z. ISa;

b^^pS 'Ar

Yeb. 1206.

EXAMPLES FOE ITHP^'eL.


425. Pbefeot. b^irri'^X

flLull.

Y. Keth. ibid.^b^Pl'i?!. Ned. 65

Imperative.
Impeefect.

rcb^Trn^X 'En Y. ibky

a,

Ned. 90 a.

b"'T2ri^5

b'^fflFl^ii

526, -Keth. 776; blfln^H 'En

S6ta 366;

y^^lZ'''^

Yeb. 15 a.

''bari''!)^

ibid.

Infinitive. ''biuJPT'X Ned. 59 a, Yeb. 88 a.'

Paetioiple. b-^fflna Ned. 59a, 'Er. 306; D'^X^X] Ber. 506,


51a; bffiFDp M.MS. 'Er. 306; t)^m, tl^^'B'D Pes. 28a. ^DN^a''^;
"

Yeb.

is'^a';

yb^TTC Ned. 65 a.
EXAMPLES FOE ITHPA"aL.

426. Peefeot.
Qidd.

-i'^^'r\tri''i^

12b. ^y^T\TL^^

B. B.

he remained, Sanh.

36a. "''I^^irnahjjj

95o; ^XmiJiil
M. 84a.

b.

^Wip^l^ Sabb. 43 a.*'

Impeefeot. "l^|>rnrD Nidd. 42 a. ^TSpir-'S Sabb. 606.


Succa

fcsTa'";ri'a AlfasS

nblXniBI^ SG.

ibintJI^ls He.

4 ']S?'11l:rnBi<!

TG.

32

6.

ed. pr. 846.

ed. pr. 756;

ed.

ibiSlBIS BG.

Harkavy,

376.

400.

VBEB

4:28]

VEEBS

113

^"13.

427. The only verb which retains


soak,

other T'S verbs became

all

initial 1 is D^l to stain,

was
These verbs present the

probably pronounced as a consonant.


following peculiarities

In Qal

drops

to sit,

ifl"^

"^

its

by analogy of V'S verbs.


In Ithp^'el Some forms of "li'^ and
Sri'' is sometimes contracted to ITl'^i^

few forms assim-

"^

In Ithpa"al
-"lb see

form

a variant the

other verbs pass into T'S stems.

all

ilate their

an*' to

it

']''M''';'y!

''

initial

in the imperative

sometimes also in the perfect.^


In Aph'el I^IT to go to the right, has in

give, does

The

in the Qal.'

''"S

Some forms

1^

are contracted.

pass into

VJ

For verbs

stems

"^"13

and

598, 599.

EXAMPLES FOE QAL.

Peefeot. 428. 3d sing, masc: a) ^"'5'; M. Q. 28 o, Mace.


10a; 115''5'; was withered, Gitt. 69b; fpr borrowed, 'Er. 636; n^lTI';
gave, Ned. 50 ab, 626; I'^fl'] he sat, BSga 20 a.
6) ST Ned. 506, Mace. 66; DH" Ned. 506, Ber. 58 a; nfl

MSS.

Ber. 58

3d

a.

sing, fern.: a)

i^Tb';

Mace. 176; ra^tT_ Qidd. 60a.'

6) ln?T> n'lb\ Ned"; 506; np^^ Yeb. 396; tl^Tl" Ned. 436;

niJn^ V.LVSanh.'l096.

2d
2d

masc:

sing,

sing. fern.

t^'2tT_

In^^tT]

lstsing.com.: a)

Sanh. 109a, Ber. 56a;

PBr

Sebu.

37a

Keth. 85 a.

fl^b^i';

B. B. 73 6;

"'b'^i';

t6zd26a, Sanh.49a

A.Z. 106, Sabb. 1056; tT'pb"; Tam. 32a; "Sb^ Sebu.


37 a; "ST Qidd. 40 a.
3dplur. masc: a) tt'^n'; Keth. 626; ilTIJ^;!'^ B.M. 74a; "'n'-n^
6) Sn^nn"

'En. Y.

Y5ma

6) ^nn":
c) niin^'

696.

Mace. 10 a; ^inT B.B. 1186; !Qn Hull. 50 a.*


they sat, M. MS. Sabb. 49 a.

1 According to Praetorius in Nestle'e Syriac Grammar, remark ad 40 a


verbs are the older and the Y'S in Syriac and in Arabic a later production.

fect,

Of the three synonymous verbs

'^tX^

"IHD

^JTl"'

the

the two last never in the perfect, or in the participle.

innX

tf^ey

gave,

8M. Nos.

xciv., cxvi.

first is

(p. xi),

the 1"B

never used in the imper-

114

MORPHOLOGY

III.

[^29

Istplur. com.: a) ]'y2^tT B.B. 736;


b) "iSnriV I3nn, ibid.; SSnn^ B.M.
Imperfect.
429. 3d sing. masc.

n^b

M.Q.

Hull. 135 a,

H. MS.

jlb^S';

ibid,

56.'

a) t|irb Taan. 12b;

96, A.Z. 286.

b) a'^n-'b A.Z. 286, Pes.

DW Sabb. 119a; fpr? Q^^^-

86a;

20 a.
c)

Yeb. 176; yTD Ker. 56;

an-'b 'Ar. 306, Nidd. 65 a; tl^).

JIID i6id., read JJTi.

5d sm^.

niTn
6)

Tb^n Mace.

c)

y^'n'Qidd. 806.

2d

sing,

143a, Taan. 25 6;
Yeb. 616;

3d plur.

]^Zi'rrb

^HtV

il3>Tb

fern.

"Er.

l"'riri
^''T)''^

Sdplur. masc:

'

776;

lin''ri cZoses, Gitt.

176.

masc:

1st sing, com.:

''Sb''b

Mace. 176;

/em..- a) lib'^Fl

Sabb. 1166.

[n]"'ri"'P

B. B. 1596;

^iSb'^b

Istplur. com.: fpyi Ber. 626;

430.

Sing,

(Witli suffixes

tttl'-ri

26,

54a;

B.B. 406.'

Taan.

''an'^.D

masc: 3n

5ag. 56, Y6m. 746.


Plur. masc: iQn Sanh. 109a;
H6r. 12 a.'

M. MS. Er.

ibid.

Sabb. 65 6.

2dplur. masc: "^^nTH YSmft 726;


Imperative.

Mace. 86.'

Bekh. 446, Sanh. 986.


'Er. 536; ifiln'-b B.B. 8a; ^nm

Taan. 22 a.

\^b''b

54a;

give,

25a (233).

Ber. 56, Pes. 746;

M.MS.

'2''7\

1096; ^n^Fl
TnTVl give her, Sanh. 1096; ^in^an';;
''nH

ibid.

give ye him, Gitt. 576).

Infinitive. 431. a) miqtal: 5)^53 HOr. 12a, Ned. 88a,


Mace. 66; 3>Ta C. MS. Pes. (voc.);* ^tT'D Ber. 96; ^Tr')2 B.M.
636; pS-'a Ned. 556; Tlin^ab to dry, B. M."74a.
6)

Hnmo
^"'

miqtal a:

"-jDra Ber.

Active Participle.
ibid.

15 a;

'

inin

ll'^ri'^n

Here we

y'121'ab

biSI

''

"

ITl'' z6id. 296.'

No. ocxni.

HO.

ed. pr. 101

find in"^!!
AlfftsI

X5

cJ.

the imperative with a negative.

Sanh. Pereq

Igg- Serlrd, 24;

iv.

ainX''

SJlf.

XSrab
" "'

406; ''WJ B.M. 926.


Sing, masc: ^T Ned. 8a;

432.

22 a;

rrb-- t6id.

Silf.

Qidd. 9 a; Jj^nn^a ibid. 1066;


^

B.M. 17a.
c) miqtale:

No.

V.

(voo.).

Cf. 554, n.

3.

ytT

437]

VERB

TOT

Sing, fern.:

Plur.

NJT

Ned. 91a;

masc: ^Sn^ Ber.

115
ibid.

63 &y

Ned. 296;

9fe,

''pS''

i^iln;

B. B. 73b.

Ned^ 556;

"'JT

ibid. 626.'

PZwr. /em. ;

Pes. Ill a.

-jnin;:

Passive Paetioiple.

433.

Ber. 48 a; Tp"] Sanh. 336;

masc: TT
Ned. 55a,
''
MS. A. Z. 106.

Sing,

T^ M.

Sing, fern.:' HS'^n'; Sabb. 1056; XS'^n'; Sanh. 107a.

Plur. masc:

^''TtT^

Meg. 146; I^XTH'; M.MS.t6id. (nominal

ending).

EXAMPLES FOE APh'BL.

fpm

Pbepeot. 4'34.
S'^nii^

3d sing, masc:
B.M. 606, 636;
he placed, M. Q. 25 a; T-biK Sanh. 69 a; -jaiH ^wrned /o

the right,

p-'TX

Y6ma

Zoofced,

MS. Sabb.

726, O.

886,

M. MS.

ibid.

1''53'''^J<

5ull. 956.

5d sing, fem.: tl^r^i^ Keth. 60a, Sanh. 1096; i^l'^lnii^ A. Z.


176; nrbiK B.B. 133 6; flTbiS* 'En Y. Ned. 50 a.
2d sing, masc : nSTiX B.
164 6, Sabb. 66 6; FlSliX ^uU. 58 6
5d sm^. /em. IT^STiS^ M. MS. Sabb. 66 6.
1st sing, com.: 'y^Tf\'A I placed, BSga 166.
3d plur. masc: *ll''ln'i!!< sa/, Y8ma 69 6; ''S"'ln''iH placed, Qidd.

86, Bfiga 6a.

3d plur. fem. l^piS^ se/ on fire, Sanh. 93 a.


5d j)Zwr. masc^'-jiinnniX O. MS. Pes. 876; 'En Y.
:

Impeefect.

435.

3d

sing,

masc:

fpD'lb

R. H. 176;

ibid.

CfTl'S

'Ar. 306.

masc:

2d

sing,

2d

sing. fern.

'2'^t\"\T\

1st sing. com.

Ti'^piFl

Pes. 114a.

Alfftsl

Yeb. 85 a.

l^biN B. B. 91 a; T^fliK Sabb. 67

a.

3d plur. masc: (l^llPb let them place her, Sabb. 110a).


Imperative.
436. 2d sing, masc: Tbii^ 669-6^, B.B. 91a;
n^'riJ'! put down, Sabb. 77 6.
2d plur. masc: ^TpiN honor ye, B.M. 57a; ^b''liK bring

Gitt. 676.

t/e,

Infinitive. 437. ^yilii* Sanh. 896; '^riiniiJt to will, B.B.


131a; ^libiX Bega 23 a; ^niflii^ fo place, M.Q. 25 a; ''nin''ij!b
we

give,

"

ID'^atT'

SjyTiS we

MV.

85.

informed, TG. ed. Harkavy, 439;

SST^biS

AlfSsi, Yeb. 65 a.

116

III.

O.MS.

[^38

A.Z. 30a; (t^^-'niU^b Gitt. 576); ''S'i&X


A.Z. 26a; lyili^b B.^M. 426;' ^SOiS 'Er. 56;

Pes. 87 6;

Keth. 64a;

MOEPHOLOGY

''S^&ii!^

"pm

Be^a 23 a.

'SiOiX

438.

masc: Cfpi^i 'Er. 56;


Tbia Bfiga 23 a; b'^li^ Sanh. 95 a; ^^fi'^ M.Q. 216; IJ^ia and
Tpi^O /le Tionors, Sabb. 119 a; MSia Gitt. 576, M. MS. Sanh. 966;
f|&i7:i Keth. 64 a; (is^ib^ni'^ I carry, "Er. 276; KDbni^S B.M. 41a)
S'm^. fern. tuyvii M. MS. Ber. 48 a.
Plur. masc: "fbiTJ Succa 53a (Palest.); "''$'f\1Z Sanh. 89a;
Wia Y6mal86.
Passive Paetioiple. 439. i^Spto 'Ar. 306; but this may
be the Hoph'al as XnS^a
Active Paetioiple.

Sing,

'

EXAMPLES FOE
Peeeect.
n\'l':n''i<

440.

3d

sing,

ITHP'^'eL.

masc: a)

Sanh. 93 a; l^brT'S 'Er. 56 a;

T'b''t\''^

n^n"'5<

sk

Sabb. 156a;

himself down,

Sanh! 100 a.'


6) nn-'^n-'K Sabb. 137 a; S'Tn'^X iUd. 71 a; '$T''T}''^ M:e'lla 10 a
c)

nin'"kg:uii. 53 a.

3d

sing.'fern.:

t^'2^tr't\^)k

M. MS.

Pes. 726;

i<:n''rT;ln^i<

^ag.

5ulL 9a,B. B. 166; KTy":n delivered herself,


XTbm 0. MS. Pes.
2d sing, masc: TO''Pr^ Sebu. 42a.
3d plur. masc: ^Tb''^'^ (^^T^^OT) Ned. 306; !Q"'ri^i< Sabb.

15 a;

HTb"'":ln"'iJ!

lore, Taan. 23 a;

'

336;

iinri'-y!

"Tb^f^ Yeb. 71a.


441. pb'';;ri"'K [%] who will he horn ( = "pb^n'^l ?)

ibid.;

Impeeebct.

Ned. 306.
Infinitive. 442.

'l'ib^ln''5<

Gitt.

Paetioiple. 443. Sing, masc:

YSma

85

a,

SSta 45

Sing. fem.

85

a.

'V^''t\^)2

Meg. 12 6;

"yiT\''12

6.

NTb^^'^n'^a Ber.

53 6, Taan. 25 o, Bgga 12 6;

KTb^na

B6a26.
Plur. fem.: '\]yy\'Q Ned. 306; 'jb'^na Bfiga 26, eds. ,Tb';ria

EXAMPLES FOE ITHPa"aL.


Peefbot.
Sabb. 716;
1

But

cf.

444. 3d sing, masc: a)

^|3^ri''J<

716.

'$'Tt\'^

escaped the memory, B.


2

iliTltTii?

B.'

was made aware,

96;

SM. No. xxvru. (voc).

liJ-'iyt

id.

A. Z.

448]

VEEB

117

became dear, rose in price, B. Q. 46 a,


m''^^ he gave up, B. Q. 28 a; m-b* P. MS. B. M. 21 h;
warned, B. Q. 4 a.
46?)/

b)

'Ar.

"I'j5'^!|!!j!

SO a;

^T^Ht.

was

M. 22a, Rail B. Q. 68 fe; ffii!!*''^ eds. B. Q. 68 b.


^StTf^'^'^yt, Ber. 56, B. M. 77 a; ITlFl^IlK Nidd. 30
com. "'^^'^''^t)))!, I am honored, Meg. 28 a.

liiiiiC^i^

B.

3d sing Jem.:
isi sing.

ft.

3d plur. masc. :
'Ar.

2b;

TfC\''^it,

Sabb.

"-fiST^^

64a

Men. 93 a, Keth. 29 b;
(this

may also be the

"''iri^i'i*

remained,

singular)

^iin'^S

^!lp''!!j! rose in price,


B. M. 108 a; l^lp'^'ii* Gitt. 52 a;
M. MS. Sanh. 46 6.
Impeefbot.
445. 3d sing, masc: TliS'^DS is dried, Gitt. 696;
TlJifl^bM. MS. B. M. 216.
3d plur. masc: 'r\'^'''t}''b Sanh. 47a; Tf^^^b ibid. 466.

5:ull.

906;

ry^'Ti'^Hii

Infinitive. 446.'

"'iip'^linii!

Meg. 28 a; ''''nin''|'X M.MS. B.Q.

M. MS. B."q. 24 a; ''IWDb to" be closeted, Sanh.


''TDiH^Ni'B. M. 216, 22 a6; "nin^i^ Sabb. 1286.'
Paetioiple.
447. Sing, masc: "iFl'^'a B. Q. 676; ^'jS'^^ia
Sanh.- 46 6; M. MS. ^^^'^t)'U; m^"^ B65a226, B. M. 22 a6; yr^_
676;
37 a;

'^W^^ij^b

is

overbearing, S6t. 476;

Sing.fem.:
Plur.
''T23X'':;ri52

ffl^S-^a

B.

H^^'^^'a

masc:

IFl'^M

superfluous, TF., Ker. 6 a.

Sabb. 1286.

"njj^iia, ^'l)3"'::ria,

M.MS.
M. 216;

b'.

Sanh.466;

B. 101a;'''TIJX"a B.

j'^Tri'^a

'''1)3''::lna

M. 216,

P.

Meg. 28 a;

M.

'^TTlS^^a

superfluous, TF., Ker. 46, 5 a.

VBEBS S"y.
448. Verbs of this class are closely
many of whose forms they assume. This
in the active participle of Qal

allied with 1"^ verbs,


is

especially the case

and in the whole intensive stem

Sometimes they pass into forms of verbs """b less frequently into
"^"3.
In verbs with a transitive meaning the forms are
frequently treated as fully triconsonantal by doubling the second
,

those of

stem-consonant.'

In the Aph'el the preformative takes sometimes


produced to e. See further 475-479.
1

Jaatrow's assumption that ^Ip'i^K stands for ^py*iK

is

which

is

unnecessary.

'I'nia^n'iNb TG. ed. Harkavy, g91.

3 For the origin of such forms


Vocallehre, p. 83.

cf,

H. Grimme, Grundziige der hebr&ischen Accent- u

118

III.

MOEPHOLOGY

Qal, Pa"el,

and Aph'el.

[448

VEEB

450]

119

EXAMPLES rOB QAL.

Peepeot. 449.-3d sing, masc: a) bS he entered, C. MS.


Pes. 1126 (voc); b^ B. B. 416, Bekh. 86; pn hollowed out,
Pes. 28 o; tin M. MS. ^ihid., 'ArGkh Sabb. 103 a; y_ Sabb. 134a;
t\^ M. Q. 25 a; V]? he cut down, B. M. 65 a; D3 c/iew, Y6ma 81 6,
Ber. 366; tsb he cursed, Sanh. 113 a; 173 he cut, Hull. 135 a;
ina dragged, Sabb. 296; Tli^pn Pes. 1116; p^Ti spU out, Ned. 666.
6)

T^

c)

b')S>wentup, B. B. 1326,

3d

sing. fern.

old, B. B.

516;

n|51?-!

was

clear, Sabb. 666.

a)

she spit, Yeb. 106 6; tllBp

in'jS'l

s/ie p'reia

1676; nb? Taan. 236; Kflb? B. Q. 48 a; nnb? Ber


Yeb. 105 a.

6) "'KV'ia, with ^"b ending, 'Er. 64a.

2d
2d

sing. masc.

Fl^^ thou didst suck, 5ull. 58 6.

sing, fern.: t^'d'D B. B. 96.

1st sing, com.: a)

'XlSn

6)

ty^b?

I reflected,

Sabb. 140a;

Hull. 176;

13 a; by analogy with verbs

''JS^IBj?

'^'11

ibid.

I ^ave grown old. Hag.

^"b.

3dplur. masc: a) ^b? M. Q. 12a; ^12^ M. MS. B.M. 108a;


iian Mdd. 596;
Sabb. 516/ tlTTii Succa 306.
6) ^a^p i^/ie^/ cm"^ doiw, B. M. 108 a.
c) b^l? Bekh. 7 a, Gitt. 72 a, Yalq. MS. A. Z. 26.
2d plur. masc: illT^BFl 2/e spit, Nidd. 42a, Sabb. 996; ^VD''SiT\
M. MS. t'6td./ in^StY'X read ^n'^sri'^i^ O. MS. z6id.'
1st plur. com. : WT2J''^p B. Q. 926; ']3T23''T23p M. MS. ibid., B. B.

1426;

]T%

V. L. B.^Q. 926.*

Impeefeot.

Wnb
Sabi).

450.

Hull- 11 &;

134a;

Tia'-b

3d

Succ.376;

smms,

lil3''b

masc:

sing,

Gitt.

Mace. 5a;

lliilT'b

mixes thoroughly,

t]ib^b

676;

a)

Ber. 26;

bi3>"'b

M.MS,

biS"?.

M. Q.

25 a; li"l^^b picks out, Bekh. 57 a; Tip^b shears, Hull. 135 a;


scrapes off, 5ull. 836; riinb''D washes grain, O. MS.

^i"ia5

Pes! 36 a.
6)

b'^S'^b is

SM. No.

1112;

With change

clear, Sabb.

666; y^^-'b swcfe,

xcv. with diphthongizatiou of a;

of Jn to IB

c/. 532.

With prothetic

The forms SiW^IDp lilCllCp are more probably

1096.

as in Neo-Syriac.

z6id.

cf. 87, 88, 91.


,

adjectives

and should be vocalized

120

III.

MOEPHOLOGY

[^51

o) brS lifts, Sabb. 128 &; i^^'b ibid. 134 a; '^B'b annuls, Ned.
726; Tp-'b s/iears, Sull. 135 a.
5d sing. fern. : pT\'^Ti spits, Yeb. 105 a; V^pFl cit/s down, B. B.
606; TT^nPlK. H. 216.'
sing, com.: yip'^iSl B. B. 606, B. M. 107a; bi^iS! Ned. 49a,

Meg. 29 a.
3dplur. masc:

]^b^^'b

Ned. 396;

il2pib Ker. 286.

(WTp^b Succ. 30a6);


2d plur. masc: WSiri Succ. 30a.

in^jS Ber. 636;

1st plur. com.:


i6zd.

TBirT'i

M. MS. B. M. 1076;

^^jS^i

YSma 356;

M. 1076; y^p5

yip'-i B.

926.

Impekativb.
spit out, Keth.

451.

616;

masc: a)

Sing,

59 a;

'qia spread,' Ber.

606;

Cjiri

M. 836,

Pes.

Vl'p B. B.

B.

bijJ

946; ^i^n demonstrate, B. B. 296.


6)

y^p M. MS. B.M. 1106.

c)

y^ deduct, Sabb. 896 and frequently.


'^'^ Sanh. 706,

M. MS. H6r. 12a;


B.M. 1076, 108a; Wn celebrate, Hag. 106.'
6) ^b'n O. MS. Pes. 1116; ^ib? H6r. 12a.
Plur.

masc: a)

Infinitive.

452.

^iS^lp

a) miqtal: Vp'O focw/doiow, B. Q. 85a;

MS. Meg. 12a (voc); ^Tl^ Ber. 66; pT53 Ned. 666;
Ned. 68 a; pTO B. M. 74a; 1p^52 Sabb. 184a; nS'^ab
Ber.
tie
up,
fo
236; "I'^^^ab M. MS. ibid.; ppr^S to tie, obligate,
Yeb. 226; ririb''a to wash grain. Pes. 36 a; Tp^ab 2 M. MS. Pes.
qi'^a C.

Ta^tJ fo CMf,

1116;
6)

-l^iaa

t6id.l076, 108 a; bblfl^ab to stitch together, M.Q.24a.'

qutul:

''TiTab fo g'O

Active Paetioiple.
n-'^Xn

H. MS.

ibid.

M. MS. Pes. 1116.


masc: yxp B. B. 26a;

om^ of the way, 2

453.

19a; ^^Sp

Sing,

i6id.;

b''::^

Men. 65a;
Y'";^

88 a;

D'^l'.n

B. B. 19 a;

Ber. 8a;"p^';n
"Ip

Sabb. 149^-

Sabb. 134a, in

1076, B. M. 85a;
B.

M. 93a;

Hebrew

T^p

b''::^

ibid.j

Ned. 68 a;

V^^^

Mace. 8 a;'

fashion;

B. B. 19a;

ri'^tlb

^'';]^

Pes.

D'^an F.

i)2''^'n

^ull. 86;

SJf. No. XXVI. (voc).

2T131'n TG. ed. Cassel, 34.

SSS'^'^n

36a;

Sabb.
rf;;3

Yeb. 63 o;
^^"13 ibid.

MS. ibid./ ^^'Ip^

HW trembles, B. B. 167a.

Sing, fern.:
i^biy

^"^l^p

M. MS.

Zeb. 19a.

VEEB

455]

121

^W

Plur. masc:

88abj

A. Z. 386;
M. Q. 146; "'2'^';^ "Er
fp^^y
Sanh. 103a; l^^ky M. MS. Pes. 646; ^nnb Pe8.'40a;

-"D^^ri

rr\'Z Sanh'.' 23a; ]'^3^5 C.

MS. Meg. 12a (voc).

Plur. fern.: "p^^y ^uU. 506;

murmur,

']ni''l

'Arukli

s.

nm.'
Passive Paetioiple.

454.
134a;

clear, Pes. 746, Sabb.

:s^]

Sing,
5>^-!

masc:

a)

!5ull.

3>''U3

6ad, Taan. 296; b^p

476;

Sanh

46 a; b^^ M. MS. Sabb. 28 a; b''^^ 'Artakh ibid.; p^^;n powdered,


Bega 146; 5:T^';b jomed, 5ull. 11a; C]''':3 Keth. 1036; T';:S fed up,
5[ull.

1056;

M. MS.

Taan. 206;

S"^";?

'Arukh Pes. 746 (80); TTS

iHT^

is

smooth, '^nU.^tlb;

is

cwi down, B. B. 59a.

i^S'''"!

wea/c,

Keth. 366;

s%, shrinks, Nidd. 156; S^l'^nri beloved, Ber. 43 a;


112a. e. i^nb-'p Naz. 126; XHS*''?^ Taan. 206.

i^ryS ts

5uli.

PZwr. masc; a)

M. 1006; "T^l

B.

'S'^^b

]'''V13,

''b^p

Gitt.

^T^^ B. M. 246, 1086;


M. 1006; ^'^''1 eds. ibid./
are attracted, Bekh. 306 (83);

'Artikh ^[ull. 766;

joined, connected, 'Arukh B.

M. MS.

'Sb'

XS'^DiS!

35a; ^:pp B. B.
MS. B. M. 246, 1086; "^"b H.

Pes. 306;

^^''TT

88 a; "TT 5ull. 166; 'T!^ 2 K.

MS.

i<ryi

Q. 46.

engraved, Gitt. 686; V^p

is

Sing, fern.:

B.B.74a.e.

Sabb. 23a; p^pn

b^^b^

K^^ap m!

p^pn

6)

Sanh. 886;

ff;!!:

Pes. 726;

ibid.;

B. Q. 186;

Plur.fem.:

336. e.

^"la,

]"'rTa

"jS'^p

T\^,

Sanh. 1066;

^irja

'En Y.

ibid.

are closed up, 'Er! 66; jl'-nn Sabb. 106,

nb'^bn, read: Kflb'^bn hollow, ibid. 51a.'

with Enclitic Subject -Peonouns.


455.
Active Participle: a) KSS'^.'^S I force, Gitt. 38a; Xib'^^S I enter,
5ull. 76; 5'''::il3 I cut down, M. MS. B. B. 4 a.*
Paeticiples

6)

M.

Q.
c)

Ber. 76, 626;

rib'^^y

rni:''^!!

Qidd. 106;

'i5''T2J''''n

we take

force, 5ull.'i96;

into consideration, Yeb.

'^''^'%'\l

R. MS.

italSP

sTiortene, Igg. Serlra, 7;

B.

ITW HG.

Pes.,%8i."

Passing into 1"S verbs.

311^in freedmen, 3G.


*

C.

MS

Passing into

*i"5

verbs.

ed. pr. 24 d.

106 a;

I5"'S"'']3

we

M. 69a.

d) W-'b^'^y Ber. 626; '^TT^ ye cover,

riS'''^T

120.'"^

M. MS.

ed. pr. 24a,-

^l^y TB.

Ber. 16 a.
II. 25;

']15if3

Hal

122

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

[4-56
''

EXAMPLES FOE PA"eL.


Perfect.

456.

3d

sing,

V''^p_ B. M. 108 a;
M. MS. Sabb. 1166.

1166;
b'^by

b"');3

.;(|

masc: a) b^*'? TSma 21 o, Sabb.


he laid dow^'a 'rule, Qidd. 60a;

3d

'

Yoma 9a, 18a, Yeb. 61a;


^^^^
"

sing, fern.:

"

Gitt. 686.'

1st sing, com::

up, Ber. 57 a;

'ri'''b''^'$

^'^^i'^

Sanh. 26 o.

bW

they went up,

1st plur. com.:

Impeepect.

104a;

3d
2d

0-.

sing,

/ went

!i:''*'j5B.MU076.

MS. M. Q. 12 a.

457. 3d sing, masc:

b"-!;?!^

^"'^''11?

we entered^M-eg. 286.

']5''b"'^5'

Tj35"'b covers, Succ.-

sing, fern.:

'En Y.

Sdplur.masc.: a) ilb"'!]5'Pes.ll36,B.M.836;
6)

!!<3?ri

^'

brought up, Keth. 61 a;

tied up,

'

'

h) T^yn he polished, K. 71.4:11).

b''^y"'b

136.

M. Q.

enters, Sabb. 74a,

'^.

96.

<

masc: 'b^'^^T\ bringest in, Zeb. 116a, M., Q. 96.


masc: '6^^Tb Gitt. 56a; ^b^^D Pes. -646; ^b"'''E)"^b

3d plur.
play, Yeb. 114 a.
2d plur. masc:
it, M. MS. ibid.)
Impeeative.

(tT'S^bbnri Sabb.

458.

Sing,

masc:

1196; HS^briri ye profane


b'^^S'

B. Q. 596, Pes. 94^;

sharpen, Sabb. 32 a.

Tjiri

Plur.

masc:

Infinitive.

36a/

MS. Sabb. 32a.


459. a) qattule: 'bw Mace. 216, "C. MS.

!|b^*;5'

Ber. 8a, HSr. 126; iO'^H O.

appreciate, honor, ^ull. 133a, Sabb. 130a;


acumen of somebody, 5ull. 436, Ber. 336; "'Sisb
form, B. M. 74a; "'nin^ to light, kindle, Sabb. 119a; ^piS^b

Zeb.

"^nil^n to

^^i'^nb to try the


to

H. MS. B. B. 736;
Sabb. 140 a.

''Siatl to

6)

qittale:

"'niFl^b

4)

qattala:

S^b^^J

d) qattil:

lower,

YOm& 846;

^SiST to soften,

M. MS. Pes. 36a.

Zeb. 36a.

innb M. MS. Sabb. 130a.

Active PaEtioiple. 460. Sing, masc: b^^^lD M. Q. 25 a^


y^P'U sports, Suco. 53a; 'O^^nz digs, H. MS. B.B. 58a;. eds
ij-lbl'^y

J7e.ed.pr. 67 d.

aili^y TB.

II. 5

(passing into 1"b).

VEEB

463]
t:"'|;ri

n^H/O 5ull. 133a (8) Tj^Stta Zowers,


covers, 'Arukh Succ. 53 a, M. MS. ibid. 31a;

ibid., ed. tl^Bjn ibid.;

Yoma

846;

b^tj-^p

!>bt:a

M. 836.

Flur. masc:

"'b^'^pa

ibid.

196;

]''33"l53

Sanh. 10ba;'bYlV R- H. 34a, M. MS., ed. ^Y.;

stretches out, B.

murmur,

Bib;

ibid.

113 a;

passing into

B. B. 916, 'Arukh ibid, "'bbpa

Mace. 116, B. M. 74 a;

''b""]?'^

was/ij ^ull.

]-'))W2

"'fb^'^'p

636;

Ber. 66; ''bbn

V.'L.'ad B. B. 916; ^baS Qidd. 50 a,

''"b.

Passive Participle.
Yeb. 1036;

T'))'!

"'ptsna Yeb.

M. MS.

''bbn^J desecrate,

Flur. fern.: r'^bTO Ber. 66;

S""!!!??

/Smgr. fern.:

B.

123

461.

covered, B. Q. 506;

"/

506;

"'bbp5Q covered, B. Q.

14 a, Nidd. 146; '(W'^na B. M. 84 a.


I^Bb'U moulded,

Plur. fern.:

masc:

Sing,

lnri553

crushed,

M. Q. 12a/

polished,
i^bbt253

M. 74a.
Plur. masc:

V. L. ad B. B. 916.

r-'btitJ

nSSblS moulded,

'''I'^l'!"'?

acute, Yeb.

''

M. MS.

B.

M. 74a;

'(l^tlp

RasI

Keth. 626, Sabb. 82a.

Paeticiples with Enclitic Subject -Pronoun.

462.

Active Participle: a) NSn'^ana 5ull. 133a.


6)

Pb-'^'a g:ull. 79a;' n''-;^ba

c)

^Fi^b^^?

M. MS. Sabb. 1516.

Keth. 112a; 'En Y.

ibid. !|ri^b"'yp.

1056, M. MS.

d) ja-'anna Pes.

Ber. 52a;

"J^b-sja Zeb.

55a;

l5''i3Ca"Succ.'l3a.

Passive Participle: a)

^'il'^'n'U

I am

ready-witted,

^'Er.

13b.

examples foe aph'el.


Peefect.

153a;
1106;

3d

trm

463.
filled up,

y-lH Pes.

36;

sing, fern.:

3d sing, masc: CflNt warmed, Sabb. 51a,


M. MS. B. Q. 50a; Dans M. MS. Sabb

b^m

B. B. 23

Sb"^?;^

Sabb.

a.

1166

(80);

nbriNl

B.

'

'

144a.

2d

^
,

sing,

masc: Phyi^

'Er.

3d plur. masc: a) ^Y^t^


Sabb. 156a;
6)

(nWlS

10a; nbllK B. M.'406.

'Er.

446; ^by. Ber. 62a;

B. Q.'52a).

b^ns they renounced

their right, B. B. 23 a.

^br\i^

124

III.

Imperfect.

464.

redeems, B. M. 53 a;
AlfftBi

Y6ma

786).

sing,

masc:

2d

Imperative.
b-'iSJ?;

^biy^l;

masc:

sing,

M. MS.

Sing. masc.

b^'llN!

Qidd. 126.

b-'p^i

'Ar.

29a;

466.

a)

'aqtule:

M. MS.

^XpiHSl

^'':^5lif.

Q'^riNl

Sabb.

Pes. 766; '''lip^ Sabb. 51a;


"''linpK Pes.

27 6;

B. B. 34a,' A. Z.

"^yiniK

Sdia 21a;

to protect,

37 a, B. B. 99 a! "blpixb Sabb. 1296;

1186;

bri''3

cools himself,

(n^"^'i/"'b

Pes. 1186;

^bii3y;t6id. 86 a. ^aianX Nidd. 43 a;

Pes.

Yeb. 880;

b''I5^b

Sabb. 141a;

10 a.

Ned. 56 a;

Y6ma

L^^^

Sanh. lOOh.

b''yFl

465.

'Er.

Infinitive.

^'^^''b

lip^D 2

Istplur. com.:

153 a;

3d

MORPHOLOGY

118 6; 'li'lSS
O.

^"lipii^

^lip-'K

MS.

M. MS.

Pes. 76 a.

miqtftla:

6)

Hf.'arr'n

Active

49 a; Q^HXa Hag. Hatt.

51a;

Taan. 246.

Participle. 467.

t^-^aa

ibid.j

masc:

Sing,

bTO M.

a)

Q. 18 a;

D"'TO
n^j353

Ber. 546; b^bnS washes, Hull. 956; T^^tt B.

Pes
Sabb.

B.99a;

b^p^tt Sabb. 1296.

np'^a Pes.

6)

'

76a; M. MS. np^rj

ibid.;

Utj^'a ibid.;

bp^H

Ned. 196.
c)

y-ia Qidd.

Sing,

MS.

fem.:

64 a.

)X^rp2

protests, Keth. 77

Pes. 76a, passing into ^"b verbs;

perfect ending (232);

Plur.

masc: -f^na

nbna

6,

SSta 21a; X"';;ri H.

t\12)2ryi2

Taan. 216, with

B. B. 1326.

B. B. 60a;

'"C^'Q

Ker. 24a;

^IDS?^

A. Z.

156, 16 a; ^lana Sabb. 153 a; ^^^;i^ B. B. 99 a; ^a^^TO, ''"llpa

H.MS.

ibid. I'd

a; with retention of

i:

"^^pa Ber. 36 a; ""Tlpt-

^'Tl^niZ B. B. 19 a; -b^tfO^ profane, Bekh. 45

6.

Participle with Enclitic Subject - Pronouns.


468.
'
I weaken, Keth. 85a; (K)'55''ni7:2 B. Q. 1126.

a) ^'SS'pZ

6)' ri3>-ia B. B.
c)

7a,M. MS.

t\'''$'y)2ihid.

-D^b^ptt Pull. 46.

EXAMPLES FOR
Perfect.
Ned. 77 a;

469.

b''riP"'K

ITHP'^'eL.

3d sing, masc: a) p'''p''\Vlf, he attended


was profaned, Ker. 7 a.

to,

VEEB

472]

y^FC^ was ruined, 5ag.

b)

125

D^H^K grew warm, Sabb.

5 a;

1106; t^nTK he trembled, gull. 96 a; TlS^K Bekh. 59 a; DTPT'ii


Sanh. 276/
c) DiTR^X was proved to be a perjurer. Mace. 3 a; DilO'^K was
covered entirely, Meg. 276; DiS^H was razed, gull. 44a, Bekh.
44a; tJip'^X she quarreled, Nidd. 676.
'

5d

sing, fem.:

ending;

"'K^S^l^

'l!<3>^ri"'X

3d plur. masc: a)
Sabb. 157 a;

M.

wos damaged, gull. 10 a6, with

"""b

she became wild, Nidd. 506.'


^p''p'nT''S

they attended

Ned. 11 ab,

to,

Hag.' Hatt. Pes. 1186; ^S'^^pn'^X eds

^)2''')2rxy^^

Q. 256.
6)

flat,

^2^pri''i)t

ibid.;

were cut down, M. Q. 256;

^53jfri''iJ!

^yrnr''y!

were beaten

were proven perjurers, B. Q. 73 a; ^"imiJH

became hard, 'Artikh Nidd.

486.''

n^m'^Vi B. Q. 78 a.

c)

2d plur. masc:

ye played, Qidd. 216.

^f^"'bb^''K

1st plur. com.: "D'^pp'^ri^ Ar. 226.

Impebpbot.

470.

a)

b"'HriD is

pro/awed, Qidd. 536;

^''tlP'^b

104a.

'Er.

6) y"inb becomes unlucky,

2M. MS.'M.

Ned. 40 o;

b'^I'^b

raised himself up,

Q. 286.

2d

sing. masc.

6)

DitaTl thou art completely covered, Meg. 276.

Infinitive.
^p'ip'^irS 'Ar.

a) firiTFl gull. 96

471.

226; 'nin^'^X A.

Paeticiple.

472.

M. Q. 17 a; p^p'^ra
Gitt. 706.
b'.

B. 606;

wo f(yu.nd out, TG.


SliatT'S
T
I

Ned.

Z.

ed. pr. 128d;

This word may


b'^nnS show that we have here

226;

ed.

HaAavy,

233;

n"1131S
-

profaned,
is

clear,

^Ipp'^rS

Ithpe'el

pp'^T7J

ibid., 74.

ibid. 1156.

but forms like JTiri'D


by 'analogy with 1"iy stems.

also be, as in the Targrumim, Ittaph'al

is

b'-lSna

226; xbnn-'a Sanh. 51a;'

n'a'aniS HG.

a) b'^HP'^a

Salbb. 466.

Sing, fem.: SnriT^ A.


Bekh. 76.
1

masc:
9a,

nriTa Sabb. 58a, Yeb. 116a; yp^r

ppTO

razed, gull. 44a, Bekh. 44a;

Z. 396.

Sing,

B. B.

6) 'S'TOZ gull. 126;

M. MS.

to be

"'Sia'^S^

a.

126

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

^pp'^ra 'Ar. 226; ^VTrp'i^ A. Z. 22 &;

Plur.masc.
B. Q. 73a;

^ppW^

Plar.fem.':

[^'i^^

Qidd. 626;

''"nxm

Bekh. la.

"'lir^irj

Ned. 616.

y^llp"'"^

473.
Paeticiple with Enclitic Subject - Pkonouns.
'Ar.
22
a6.
'^r.
a.
3^pp'^T-'7J
22
6)
) ^JPT'^T^^' ^?Pi?'^T^'r>

EXAMPLES FOR ITHPA"aL.


474. Peepeot.

he was married, Meg. 276; tJ^riD^'X

bi)3^!!<

became mad, wild, 'En Y. Ned. 41a.

she took cold,

riiS!^2'a2"'H

Sabb. 129 a; SDSrT'X she entreated, Gitt. 68 6.

Impeefect.

bi'lj"'?

Succa 266.

Infinitive. "ni'lM^iib Meg. 66;

[]]'

^tip'^b

O.

MS. B.

Participle. b''^3'ri53 YOma 516; ^']S^a Pes. 746;


crushed, Succa 816; t]3nnp B. Q.
^I'lnn)^ Keth.

44a. NSS-^rj

626. 1'l'in''7J Rail Ned.


VEEBS

B. 736.

lnri3"'a is

ibid.

81a.

616.

'"ly

475. The verbs of this class are properly verbs with an


Like the J"? verbs they go ultimately back to bi-consonantal roots. The difference between the

originally long stem-vowel.

two classes being, that the bi-consonantal root was in the one
instance pronounced with lengthened vowel, in the other with
lengthened, vulgo doubled, consonant. Cf. Assyrian inubu and

inu^hu, itlbu and itibbu,

Both

etc.

another, as in the cognate dialects, so that

classes

run into one

often diflBcult to

it is

which class a given verb belongs.


476. Verbs mediae H and verbs mediae I are in most forms
alike and it would therefore be impossible to tell with certainty

tell to

the one from the other.

The verbs mediae

lay snares, use strategy,^

'p'^

ure,

T'U

tT'7J to die, D''D to

to hunt,

yiS

T'S, to

ornament.

i5'^T

IMM.

= A88yr.

ITI'^SI

The

tV^

to stay

last

TIJ"''^

TD

are probably

to tread, b''3 to

to visit, if

to listen,

over night,

y^

has "lilt for 1"TI1D.

to

b''''\

to

meas-

^ Arab.

to be

p''"l

two only in Pa"el.

dftlu.

Gitt. 38 b

judge,

put on shoes,

to bubble,

the denominatives

to

Xljj'

empty, and

examine, and

481]

VEEB

127

477. In the active participle of Qal an ii is introduced


between the two stem-consonants as bearer of the second vowel.
This X has been retained in only a few cases of the singular masculine; in all other cases

it

has changed to

in one case to

'',

(506,6).' In the participle passive the 1-vowel


diphthongized (80, 803-5).

478. In the Pa"el and in the Ithpa"al the root


to a tri-consonantal stem

by the insertion

latter occurs only in '15, IHI?

and

with

The

peddle, overtake.

"IIT to

last

is

to

extended

or of

word

(in case the last

consonantal in the Qal), the denominative piT


roll,

",

of

frequently

is

The

1.

is

not

tri-

blow up, ^IT to

two have

also

forms

479. In the Aph'el some verbs pass into the form of T'S
Others change the original o-vowel to i, which is length-

verbs.

ened

to

Strange

e.

like 'DTl'/J.

Or

e- vowel in a

the persistence of this

is

form

such formation by analogy with verbs '"S

is

480. In the Ithp^'el the verbal stem remains bi-consonantal


(but cf. tl'inCS and )>^*n')2) the fl is usually retained and has
(196), and

Tflj'^

is

not transposed

before an initial sibilant.

some older grammarians, is inclined to consider the


Ithp'el of these verbs to be a remnant of an older Ittaph'al.
According to Koenig' the doubling of the T\ is due to the nature
Marti,^ like

of this consonant,

i.

e., is

purely phonetic.

481. Verbs whose second stem-consonant is consonantal 1


or ', as: i^'n, in, K'H, i^^xi, Hie, N12, sn, KiTc, iris,* iin,
yi5, bl5, ni2, nil, and "llTfl, do not belong here.

Note.
Mliller,

For

further discussion on these verbs compare A.

ZDMG., XXXIII., 698 sg.;

525sg.; Haupt,

.Z^J..,

bert, Semitic Studies in

ihid.,

XXXVII.,

II.,259sg.; 'Kom.vae\,Sud-arabischeChrest.,

Kautsch-G-esenius, Hebr.

p. 31;

Noldeke,

Gramm., 26th

Memory

ed.,

72; M. Lam--

of A. Kohut, pp. 354-362.

According to Professor Haupt ("Der Halbvocal u im Assyrischen," ZA.,


qSuem with elision of intervocalic u.

II., 259 sg.)

form qa*m stands for

Anm.

Kurzg. Gramm.

Lehrgeb. d. hebr. Sprache,

Schorr, Kohut, and Bacher explain TDIJ? to be Persian

li-Lsi,

wJ!

or

d. bibl. aram,.

wa

Sprache, 63,

i,

II. 1, p. 471, n. 1.

and Ethiopic uag'a.

but cf. Arab. ijiLa.

[jliLc

128

III.

MORPHOLOGY

Qal and

Pa" el.

[482

482]

VERB
Aph'el, Ithp^'el,

and Ithpa'al.

129

130

MORPHOLOGY

III.

[^82

EXAMPLES FOE QAL.


Perfect. 3d

lk

besieged, Gitt.

^D

sing. masc.

M. 77 a, B. Q. 6a;

bT B.

ibid.

482.

a)

Dp Ned. 22a, 51a;

Ber. 186; IBS remained, ibid. 396;

56a; tin Pes. 107 a;

y'^ stuck in, Hull.

396;

18 a; CS Pes. 1106; ^n Sabb. 103 a.

Ned

tri2

6)

12a; lia M. Q. 276;

b^T B. M. 446, 45a; ^2


^uU. 846/ q^ Ber. 56 a; Q^i Taan. 23a;
1106.' c) biT fell in price, B. M. 108 a, Gitt. 42a.

boiled up, bubbled,

MM.

D-'a

5d

Pes.

sing,

Ned. 50 a;
Sanh. 95 a;

nn'^a Sanh. 1096; iCrr'a

6)

506;

/em. 483. a) nbl Taan. 23 a, Ber. 63a;


na^ Gitt. 69a; nt:]? Ber. 516; SS53 6ecame
sb^M. MS. Ber. 63 a>

Sanh. 26a;

XlT'i

5d

(tT'rip''T

M. Q. 276; nna

ibid. 96,

n^QJ?
so/i^

Ned.

she supported him, ibid. 1086).

masc 484.

a) F\'pp_'^ag.l5a.'b) riri"'aBer.546.
1st sing, com. 485. t^''^pj' 6. MS. Sabb. 1566.'
singr.

masc 486.

3d plur.

a) ^^"0 Pes. 30a;

M.Q.25a,A.Z. 86; ^m Sanh" 103 a;


25a; ^^35); M. MS. ibid] (88).

^Ip'H

B. B. 7o; ^12^
^^3 Taan'

B.M.65a;

6) ^n^k Taan. 21a, Pes. 42a; ^ri^5j Ber. 56, M. Q. 276; ^T\12
'En Y. 276; {TtW they nourished him, Be^a 326).'
c) Qilp, b^lT, Qidd. 12a; |^'1 Keth. 486; l^i:! went a-fishing,
M. Q. 11a; I'T'^ Alf. i6id.
is^ pZitr. com. 487. a) iXyDp Yalq. MS. Sanh. 966; JiDnn
B. B. 1156 (Palest.); Kjn':; AlV B. B. 29a; ]2OT Keth. 62a;

ji^rp Gitt. 576;


b)

j^'l'^

Ijn^a Ber. 316;

Imperfect.

Wa^b Ned.
Tern. 29 a;

3d

b!"b. 29a.''
"jS'^ri^a

ed.

sing. masc.

Ven.

{6i(i.

488.

a) VTlb

916, Taan. 66; p^T'b infers, Nidd. 456;

Succa 376;
b^irr^b rests,

'En Y. 'Er. 656.'


Ned. 51a; r\'':2''3 M. MS. B.M. 32o; n^Th

D^S"^?

6)

b-^S-^b

c)

n-b

Gitt.

68 a;

nj"'::

"Er.

104a.

Y6m. 206.

3d sing. fern. 489. a) b^n^ri Ned. 61a; 'B^Xl"'ri prepares,


M. Q. 276; W?jri i6td. 96; D^n'YSm. 536; D^pn Bekh. 446;
Dilp-^n

26a6.' 6)

'Ar.

MM.

n^ip TO. ed. Ha'rkavy, 72.

rri? TG.

reads

nm

Ned. 10a.

"f^p.

ed.

Harkavy,

13 (voo.)

*ni1"1'l dwellest, D'lXSn IDIITI 106.

^g.

jfii'jQ

NDMfS TG.

'

nW

'Dlpn

ed. pr. 696 (/.).

ed.

Sabb.

Harkavy, 555.

75 a.

S"G. ed. pr. 276 (read: 216).

VEEB

500]
2d
2d

masc 490.

sing,

63 a; b^in

fem. %491.

M.MS.

^S^SFl

thou shakest, 'En Y. Yeb. 63a.

com. 492. i^Tk Keth. 556; Wp^^

1st sing,

Yeb

l^uW. 12a, 112a; b^T"'n

n^pn Pes. 113 o.

ibid.j

sirig.

b^'D^T)

131

Ber. 28a; ^p^^

M. 1056; Wa-N M. MS. Ber. 64a.


3d plur. mosc 493. ^S^p^b Ber. 456; ilWi:'')? M. Q. 96;
Sabb. 1486;

T23!ni|!

B.

and by analogy with verbs y"?: ^I^n^b Sabb. 756; ^ina'^b Taan.
236; !|a^pb ed. Ven. Ber. 456.'
2d plur. masc 494. ^Iffi^bn Ber. 36 a, Pes. 36a; IM^pn

5uU. 866.

(read ^^ilpri)

com.- 495. a) U^T':_ 'Er. 65 a; Q^p-'D Gitt.


46; Q^p'^b Gitt. 54a.' 6) Dn 'En Y. 'Er. 656.

:Zsf

Gitt.

pZitr.

Impeeativb.

58a;
926;

T]^53
!lp

Plur.

C.

masc.

496.

D^p Ned. 51a; "jW Ber.


123^52 prepare, B. Q.

lay down, ibid. 59a, Taan. 66;

MS. M.

Q. 256 and elsewhere.'

masc 497.

36a;

ibid.

Sing.

316,

TJ^ITIJ

a) ^la^p B.

M. 62a;

r.r\ Pes.

4a;

^ITIJ^b

B. Q. 966; ^u:W wr^e on, B. B. 9a.

6) ^tT'S stay over night, Taan. 246.

498. a) miqtal: bn^a Ned. 57a;


"a ibid.
88a; nT7J Pes. 746; nTl2 2 M. MS. \b'id. 1206; T^"^ri Sabb.
316; -jT?^ YQma 876; DD^/jb ibid. 78 a; nil-^ab Sanh. 109 a;
Dp^a Qidd. 33 a; W^-'M Gitt. 686; nn7jb M. Ms! Ber. 606.'
Infinitive.

"

6)

miqtul:

'Er.

D^5''I3

65a; l^ra 'En Y. Bega 326 (quoted

in'Er. 86a).
c)

MM.

miqtulg: ^aira
Gitt. 576.'

Active Paeticiple.
Yeb. 52a;

tT'SllS

Pes. 1206;

'7ji37J

'En Y.

Sing. masc. 499.

Nidd. 366;

b"';;^

ibid. 36; D^'^D ibid. 15a;


Ned. 796;"ri^-'a
"T
" T
"T
Kln''1'!S Sanh. 8 a; Htilf^b cursing, ibid. 49a.

b-'Tl

fc

e.

6)

n-'-^a

Sabb. 996/

iVo

B. B. 416;'

'Slna

Ned. 5 a;

'pbH'^

lays snares,

i6id.;

T'iji'n

v!l. Sanh. 966;

n^^::

M. Q. 146.

T^2 Yeb. 63a; 1"n

returns, V. L. Sanh. 966.'


S'msf.

/em. 500. X^^S Meg.

X);:''^ *&i^T

286;

:'T

XS3-'''3
T
:t

Sanh."7a; xn^T
SM. No.

'^fl^'a''

M.Q.

'Anau quoted by Harkavy,

0^1)73

^inrSI"'')? topressttem, M.Q.


6

t6id.

t :t

ifllQ'')?'

96.

256; xb^^ri Ned. 4a, 17a;

966; X^T
t :t

XIII. (voc), Palest.

MWJ.

1893, p. 225

'

^n (?)

(voc).

106,- inS'^lt'iTi ^Ifasl ibid.

Tl"1 TG. ed. Harkavy, 555 (voc).

ibid.

Cl/pN).

llp = Assyrian taru.

1086.

HG.

183.

132

MOKPHOLOGY

III,

masc 501.

[%^^^

Ned. 15b, 16 a; fpU ibid. 15a;


^'n-'''}^ Mace. 11a; "'B'^^'l M. Q.
'p^^T
12by^-4.^y Yeb. laj^^TT^I^. 'Er. 73a; ^S^TT boosf, Gitt. 286;
^)Ty^ Ned. 76a; ^a''';l3 Bekh. 136, B. B. 1546.
'Plur. /em. 502.' yTy^ B. B. 73 a, Gitt. 45 a; ]b^';3 measure,
Plur.

A. Z. 71a;

r/'-'l
It
T

'{'b^'^ri

Ber. 12 a;

j^n^ro B. B. 91b;

Zeb. 1166;
81a'/ -(a^-"^
T
T

Pes.

Passive Paktioiple.

Sing.

104a, Meg. 186; D^D

'Er.

516;

D-'p

A. Z. 766;

/em. 504.

Sing,

masc.

503.

Meg. 186;

dozing?,

516. e. SWb

iOn^p

Sabb. 21a;

:t

a) T^ri awake,

rf5>

Yeb. 52a (80).' e.

D''':'1

-|W folded, gull.

6)

in"""!
It

Yeb. 63 a.

1S"'";D

'Arukh ^uU.
Sabb. 67 a.

!!<tl^b

Sanh. 49 a.

citrsed,

Ned. 156; ^b"! B. B. 110a; xn"?


12'^6;
NS^";!!: A. Z. 526;

MS. Meg. 30a (voc.);" Sr"'":'^ Qidd.


S53''";|2 B. M. 186 and passim.
C.

"

PZwr.

masc 505.

326 (80).

B. B.

"^r^TIJ

Participles with Enclitic Subject-Pkonouns.

ActivePar-

JJ^JT";^ B.M. 856; Kja^S*)?


M. 676; SiDT^D SuU. 105 al
14a; FirrJ^S^Alf. Keth. 1096; "n^^-]|5 B. M.

ticiple.%506. a) SiTl^ Keth. 1036;


Ber. 11 6; t55n^';VEr.266;
6)

BfiQa

Fli'^']'!

55a''.';T23

B.

nr';^ art low, Sabb.


nj?^^''?! B. Q. 996;
thou art cans67 a. hn"'^^:S M. Q. 276;'nS^^D Yeb. 63 a; nilJm
t
t
T
T
T :t
66 a; rnr-^'I^Men. 78 a;
:

ing annoyance,
c)

M. MS. B.

^TiT-'xi '^^^-

Sanh. 16 a;

we

i5"''^^';uj

A. Z.

Ipp-'-;!^

^^'^'

B. 1376.

^- Q- ^^"^'

estimate, B.

'^^- '^^"-'

irp^"^'^

M. 39 a;

"5''tJ"'"'b

ir?"^
486;

ibid.

75a.''"

d) '^rCTC^;!

Sanh. 29a;

measure. A, Z. 71a;

W^p'^'^'n
'

'^T\''1Ty^

Y6m.

B. B.

172a;

^ri^y^3 ye

836.'

EXAMPLES FOR PA"eL.


Perfect.

12a;

-p)]?

507.

3d

sing,

masc: a)

D"')]p

observed, ibid, la; \2^*Q Gitt. 566;

he finished, Ber.
t^^^)_

Taan. 25a;

6)

M. Q. 17 a.
T^^ Qidd. 81a; r^D B.B. 41a; T^T heretaincd, B.M. 166.

c)

'I'^-lS

'^'I'lj

laughed,

Ber. 30a;

-1T12

IDQISp, MV.

i ptctttred,

^niai;^J3

HG.

He.

]^^'2

ibid.

30b;

\r''3

ed. pr. 1206.

5.

ed. pr. 110c,- W^S'^I'S: ibid. 1146.

ibid.

33b; t^"^ ibid.Ub.

VERB

512]
2d

masc:

sing,

133

116;

T\iy^^p Ber.

PS^^'T

thou didst forge,

B. B. 167 a.'
1st sing, com.: fr'>Ty_ Sabb.

1186;

''')T^p_

Yeb.^646/

^1T^)_

Taan. 23 a.

Sdplur. masc: ^T^y Keth. 626,

Gltt. 89a.

Istplur. com.: ]TT^;^ Sabb. 306.'

Imperfect.
^"^b Ber. 56;
on, 'YQma 786.

2d

sing,

508.

masc:

1st sing, com.:

3d

sing,

masc:

B.M.32a;

n'l^a-'b

M. Q. 96;

T2:''|;nri

D^)]|Di5

B. B. 163o;

ta'^^pb Alf.

D-'lJp/b

Sanh.936;

U^^J^'Fi

'D''^^)

puts

'Er. 54a.'

Taan. 21a.

3d plur. masc: ^T^lb B. M. 806, B. B. 43a; ^3"'^Tb Hag.


Hattalmud, 'ibid.; ^^s-^Vb. M. 426; ^^'''JTD M.MS. B. B. 43a;
^O^'^B^^ cast lots, Y6ma 22a; ^p^^^L^ estimate, B. Q. 966.
'1st plur. com.: -^syj Sabb. 306; D^);|53 Taan. 21a; ]TT^y)
MM. Taan. 126 (233)!
Imperative.
509. Sing, masc: j'');? Ber. 25a; D^|;]5 B. B.
1596.
PZwr. masc: MT'^p^ Keth. 19a; ^1^*;^ Sanh. 316; ^Ip-^^T
gull. 1096; il^^sp examine, 'Ar. 216.
Sabb. 96, Ned. 776;
Infinitive. 510. a) qattule:
^Tfiri M. Q. 25 a; ''Siilib Ber. 17 a; ^^iyob ( =^yi''Db) V. L. Hull. 10 a.
6) maqattala: ka^sp5jb to put' on, Gitt.' 566; (t^'^r^'iab
^
R. H. 16a; ^Hi^^T^b MrMS. ihid.; "Hrr^rpb Yeb. 65 a).
Active Participle. 511. Sing, masc: a) y^%'2 adorns,
Ber. 30 6; t:'')]t2a 6Zofe, B. B. 163 a; ^;!;r;"J Ned. 50 6; D'HI^a M. Q. 2 6;

W?

D^)])5rj

h)

'mr'^2

Ned. 4 a; n^sija

^^m

rolls

eds. B. B.

i6-<d.

7 6.-^^1170 R.

H. 9 6;

y^lipa'

Ned. 18 a.

about, Bekh. 44a;' "ytXTra 'Arukh'E. H. 96;

73 a.*

108a; )XS^^t'Q Qidd. 73a.


Plur. masc: ^IT^&C B. Q. 59a; ^j-^'^ia 5ag. 3a; "'n^'lli? Pes.
306; ^r\-ST5;MSS.'i6id.; ^"l-'STp R. MS.^B. Q.1136; ^T'^TO'M.Q.
146, B.'m^ 17 a; iQ-'^'na B.B. 56. "'Dl^pa Y6ma 286.
Sing, fern.: Xn^^ira B. Q.

'

Passive Participle.

512.

Sing,

t^^Q B.B. 23a.


1

nWi^D SG.

J{3"Hiy

TG.

ed. pr. 886,- n2"')!?

ed.

Harkavy, 555
Harkavy,

masc: y^nz

ift'ti-

HOo-

(legal style).

T"'.?ri r(?. ed.

p"'SiyTa l99- Serlra, ed. Goldberg, p.

1.
36.

B.

Q.72a;

134

MORPHOLOGY

III.

L^1^

Sing, fern.: J^'O^^pJ Qidd. 65 6; Xa^^tlp trimmed,

Plur.

masc:

Ned. 206;

"D-'^^Sa

"3"^ri<2

Men. 88b.
"T^Z'C

Ber. 54 a;

B. B. 21a.

Phir.fem.:

Bekh. 44a;

'^'I'W^

Pes. Ilia.

"51^570

Participles with Enclitic Subject-Pronouns. Active Participle. %513. a) X3p^flS"^Sanh.966,B.Q.84a; Nwr^iD Gitt. 30 a.

m-'sna B.lA.lSa; r\'^''TC A. Z. 9 a; nc^^E B. B. 6 a.


'li-'J''^?^ Meg. 306; '^T^TOA.Z. 4.a; iit.yT^T2 Sanh. 186,

b)
c)

11 aj 'T-Q^^^-g

]TC-'^2)2 B'.M.

Passive Participle.

82a.

Gritt.

5i4.

a) NDa^^n^J Qidd. 8

6.

m^^jna Ber. 16 o.

6)

EXAMPLES FOR APH'eL.


Perfect.

B.M. 1046;

515.

masc:

sing,

67 o.

Dpil><

MS. B.M. 65a;

b-T'^ 2 E.

6)

3d

p'-'liK ibid.

a)

D^j5i^5

Ned. 72a; ^"SiS

taught, explained, HSr. 136.

(n^a^n^ij; he objected to him,

B. Q. 106 passim)

ypIN B. B. 23 a;

c)

exchanged. Tern. 17 a,
nnyt

/le

smelled, Ber. 43 a;

3d

sing, fern.:

2d

sing,

nbnx

masc:

S6ta 13

^"ny!

41 6;

IJull.

a,

'lii"'b>5

Ber. 186;

HDX Sabb. 48 a, 154a;

B.

^r^X he

kneaded, Qidd. 46

6.'

C-jK B. Q. 105 a.

144a; xrinx Yom. 826.

B'.

686;

Tp-'n^^ Gitt.

[= np^S SM.

No. xcv.

(voc.)].
1st sing, com.:

^T'SA^

3d plur. masc: a)

I placed,
!l7;3^piK

B. B. 167 a.

M. MS. K. H. 24a. A.

Z.

50 o,

^70piX Sanh. 76.


'6)

20 a;
c)

:?s<

126; ^^--S Nidd.

B.B. 23 o.

biinN!

com..-

^Ziir.

SJ^J^piX B.

^iVriS Ber.

Yeb. 46 a; ^Htl^ Zeb. 956.

2d plur. masc:

ibid. J

Nidd.506;

!lD"n Ber. 196,


^n_3S;

'^V\'2''\m
"^''/JpiS

HQr. 106; qnr^pls 'En Y.


Sebu.

246;

"j'^'pis

M. 856; ^ffin-nis Sabb. 12167

TO'J^pN C.

Imperfect.

MS.

/6i"d.

B. Q.

106,

^^-

MS.

masc: Cpib Ned. 79 o,

Ber.

!!<;"'?n'ij<

Zeb. 666); XanDN B. B. 746.'

516.

3d

sing,

56; -^'Tb Men. 94 a; rinib K.H. 28 6; nrb'Er. 64 a, A. Z. 28

n:
T

A. z. 286.

This form

is

perhaps Qal with prothetic

i5

6,

520]

VBEB

1st sing, com.:

B. B. 826;

M. 105a.'

^/Jpib B. B. 325, O.

MS. Sabb. 134a;

Ber.'53a; TIT': Taan. 15&;

^in^D

MS. ibid.;
2d plur. masc:

^ITJ^D

B.

D'^pii^

3d plur. masc:

135

C.

nrb

^/Jpib

Zeb. 6 a,

Men. 94 a.

^Slb

^rVlFl Ber. 196, Nidd. 506; ^in^Sn A.Z. 386,


'

^nnin 5uii. 1416.

'

1st plur. com.:

Impeeative.
Z/s^en,

D^piS Mace. 166.

517. Sing. m,asc.:

"'pilSt

Sebu. 31o;

JT'SS

B. B. 74a.

Infinitive. 518. a) 'aqttile: rjipix A. Z. 506, M.MS.;


^i;iDisb AlfasI 'Er.

1036; ^apib Yeb. 246 passim; "pili

to

empty, K. Z. 586; "bim, ^bm', B. M. 65 a; 'biTX 2 K. MS. B. M.

776; 'Diss casting

Succa 556; ^^ins B.Q. 17a; "nil^l

lots,

Sabb. 1466; ^nijK Keth. 47 6; ^ITX ^ull. 38 a;


5ull. 416, Zeb. 6a;

""li^J^Jl!

6)

'aqtulft: i<apiNb

c)

'aqttil:

7 a^

B.M.

ZTtyc Ned.

18a

856.

TiinV B.Q. 117a.

d) 'aqtala: S^TOSb S5ta


e)

^"li/JS Tern.

Tern. 106.'

maqtule:

^']'V212

Active Participle.

33a

(Palestinean).

V. L. to Zeb. 56.

519.

SiJig.

masc: a)

and frequently; T5J7jTem. 7 a; n^pi; Taan. 246;


T37J Sanh. 95 a;

ma ibid.

896;

m2

TC^'Sa

Ber. 546;

Sabb. 6 a; ^-^^n^ Ned. 506

(80).
6) n-'pra Meg. 26; b-'Tia B.M. 65a, 776; T^ia B.B. 29a;
n^nia M. Q. 13a and frequently; DpT:2 M. MS. Sabb. 716; I3ia
B.B. 29a; rili/O Sanh. 396, Ber. 436.
c) la^a Tern. 36, l06, Zeb. 6a; mrj Sabb. 110a; n-'fl^S
Men. 1036, Tarn. 356.
Sing, fern.: SrSS M. Q. 176; XTOa Ber. 62a; r^^pla
'Ar. 256.

Passive Participle.
soiled, eds.

B.Q. 18a;

Sing, fern.:

masc: DIIS^, CiSa

ffia Yeb. 46a, B.B. 55a.

nra^ Ber^256.'

TlSiS HG.

ed. pr. 986;

IDinS SM.

No. XXV. (toc).

^SCSTO

520. Sing,

Se'el. 96;

IITiS

SOTQ

TiJ. II. 34.

J?G. Hilech.

Nidda (/OTl).

136

MORPHOLOGY

III.

masc:

Plur.

Succa 26a;

''n'C

"

1^521

rjpi/J,

^52pi7J,

''

''

B. B. 69a.

Plur. fern.: p'P'V2 put up, B. B. 69a;'


Sabb. 46a.

Paeticiples with
Participle. %521. a)

smell, Keth.

4:9

a; K3ra5?

(i/C^I) soiled,

Subject - Pronouns.
explain, Zeb. 103a;

Enclitic
XS'^/Opil:

'p^tH'C

M. MS.

Active
K3"'M"l'i7:3

j'%, Ber.30&;

S5nni?J B. M."l046;

Tnm2

Sabb. 21a; M'^'^na

^''

J<35^-:ria

M. Q. 17 a.'

'

b) h'aprn HSr. 3a, B. B.

46a. n^7.3pi7J

Sanh. 1076, Gitt.


c)

72o;

'Er. '506,

]Tm2

3''3nia Qidd. 506;

Men. 90a.

5ull. 476, Yeb. 76a; ]T-2pro

Nidd. 5 a.
d) ^n-'TJpi-J Sanh. 446.

EXAMPLES FOR ITHP^'eL.

522. 3d sing, masc: a) iSFl'^it awofce, Ned. 30 o,


68a; prT'X
SuU. 14a; mn^X
Qidd. 50a;"nan-^X Gitt.69a.'
It
T
t
shyed,
t2"'1Flp"'!!<
became
mad,
Ned. 41a.
6)
c) ni^n^^'Er. 396, 40 a.
3d sing.fem.: sriiri''!)^ was pleasing, Qidd. 45
3d plur. masc: a) '')^^0^^T\^, Sabb. 1246; ^Din4< ed. Soneisso

Perfect.

Gitt.

6..

ibid.

6)

MS. Sabb. 1246.'


masc: 'yP7\'h 'Er. 104o;

-inn^X K. H. 16 a; D^lim O.

Imperfect.

528.

3d

sing,

~;n"'b

rests himself, Sabb. 155 a; DlirT'b Sabb. 756.

3d

"llaRO became fallow, B. M. 107a;

sing, fern.:

b"'TrT'Fl

B.M. 66a.
3d plur. masc: ^ISFl-'b Sabb. 436; ^bTD'^b B. B. 42o; ^blFl^D
M. MS. B. B. 141a.
3d plur. fem.: -p^TTb B. B. 141a; -Dliri^D Y6ma 59 a; m^^rT-b
^
^^
^
M. MS. Sabb. 436 (216).
'

'

''

Infinitive. 524.

"niynxbBer.4a;
'Er. 396,

a)

'itqatulei:

'aiDni* Yeb.

Nidd. 45 o; ^Siin^xb Sanh. 266!

'jnitt AltftsiB6ea27 6.

^SJDlnp

AlfftslM.Q. 17

l/m'a=v'nnia

Dir-iii; (=

c/.

a.

Hebrew form

mr^ = Din-rs)

i'e'ei.

^HiDFl-'X

Qidd.

63a; "nian^KGitt.'ega;

n'ilQ"'3

88.

YOmft

75 6.

'

45 6;

^mn^H

'
:

529]

VEEB
'ithqatfilan,

b)

'ithqatilan:

137

'En Y. Yeb. 63a;

SiDFT'lS!

commentary "iCV "p".


Paeticiple.
525. Sing.masc: a) TOria
F. MS. B. Q. 18 a; inna 'En Y. Qidd. 50aV

1^'3^1'^5 ibid.,

b^lTO

b)

IJull.

'

is irrigated,

45a; OlIFia

B. B. 8a, 126.

Sing, fern.: ^JlM E. H. 16a; Nljna Keth. 526, Qidd. ia,


xbTn-'M Gitt. 88 aVhima Ned. 836."'
'

TT

TT

masc: '"aJ"iri"'7J are tread upon, B. B. 101a, C. MS.


M. Q. 25 a; ""imj Nidd. 45 a; Wna, XTlF1^7J, Pes. 656.
Plur.

Plur. fern.:

Keth. 526; {ciinr.:


It T

'{}Tn-/2

TT

YOma 53a;

l^DllFl^/J

Sabb. 46 a.

EXAMPLES FOK ITHPA"aL.


Peeeect.
B.

M. 306;

(80);

526.

3d sing.masc: a) T|iii''!St Ber. 176; Zl^^rrHt.


M. lOSa/'fiS^S B. Q. 1136

Ber. 36 a, B.

Q^I'^S-'i*

gull. 95a.

p|!3"'y!

Bekh. 60 a.

6)

]-''^T^

c)

nTr!!< A. Z. 11a.

5d

si7ig. fern.:

nl^s^!n^^{

Ned. 506; ^Sn^^n^N

Xy^'nc^K M.Q. 18a; KT^'^N Meg. 146;


2(1 sing,

masc:

1st sing, com.:


.3d

6)

na-^^rr^X B.

-i^^'rx

A.Z.

1st plur. com.

n^'lM-'Fl

"'n^^'n-K

M.Q.

26a.

becomes incumbent on me, M.Q. 26a.

H3n^|;)j''lS!

n^^n^D Ker. 26; n^^n^b R. H. 246, Gitt.

R. H. 15a; D^^S^n Gitt. 18 a; D'^H^nn "Er. 54 o;

D^l^ncn Meg. 146;

Bekh. 566.
Impeeative.

izi^sanpl

528.

A.Z. 64a.
Inpinitive. 529.
^'li'^rxb Gitt.

^^"')ian"'X

a)

'ai^^rib,

'ithqattula':

1'piliJ'iS Igg. Serird

rilal^jS'lS

TG.

ed.

'^yi^rip^iJ!

Yeb. 34 a;

.^2;

J5W|3"X Sanh. 47a.


n'^DIISJl'^X TG. ed. Harkayy, 436.

Harkavy,

233.

H. 29a,

^n^^n^b' R.

become ye converts

'ithqattulS:

"nWXb,

56 a;

M. Q. 96;

gull. 13 a; 'Si^M^Hb gebu.'256.


6)

SOta 356.

116.'

Impeepect. 527.
556;

nc'-'l'B^i*

30a.

^TiiTHi Qidd. 816.'

masc: a)

plur.

M. 306;

Keth. 85a;

MD^^sS^^5 Gitt.

to

Judaism,

Sanh. 186,

'"?i"J<

M. MS.

138

III.

MOKPHOLOGY

[530

Paeticiple. 530. "f-lSrj Ker. 20a; t^T'C doubled, M.


Hull. 515 (passing into'^y); fijI^Src Yeb! 586; Si^^rs

MS.

Yeb. 23 a; '''r^pnp B. B. 112 a; fP^'^iDbj Hull. 92 a; ^-T'^T-Q


With enclitic pronouns:
G-itt. 85a; "(Dl^ini? 'En Y. Pes. Ilia.

Xn^i^niT.: Qidd. 13 a;

Sablb.'l316;

J^S-'liarj

Succa 255;

nS'-'^Tlca

AND

T'b,

56 a

retain their

!!^"b

l!<

"'"b.

in a few cases; verbs T'b

only in two examples of one stem (539, 547); in


cases both have

Gitt.

Sanh. 676.

VEEBS ^"b,
531. a) Verbs

n3-'';rj^7J

become

'^"b

other

all

verbs.

appears in a few verbs ( 535-6 )


Feminine forms like those given under 536 a may also, for all
we know, be of intransitive structure.
6 ) Intransitive structure still

The vowel before

c)

the afformatives of the perfect

is less

certain than the vocalization of other parts of the verb, as

little

help can be derived on this point from traditional pronunciation.

The

d)

insertion of an

St

to preserve

an

i-

rare in our printed editions, but occurs with

MSS. and in Gaonic literature.


e) Some verbs in the Qal and
the

first

vowel

is

exceedingly

more frequency

in

in the Ithp^'el have V'Jp after

stem-consonant instead of seva, a phenomenon we have

met with also in the strong verb.' We might call it a Hebraism.


To what extent and with what consistency such usage prevailed
is difficult

to tell.

Endings of the Peepegt Qal. 532. 3d sing. masc. In


verbs of transitive structure the ending is a or dj.
The latter is
an analogical formation after the derived stems, where di is a
diphthongization of

ending

3d

is

i.

In verbs of intransitive structure the

I.

sing. fern.

The ending

in verbs of transitive structure

is

and dtd; in verbs of intransitive structure, iiid, t'd


ltd, di.
The last form is difficult to explain.
2d sing. com. The ending is St, aft, at, e, in verbs of transi-

diai, did, at,

tive structure; it in those of intransitive structure.

at

is

shortened from

1st sing. coin.


IC/. 884,231, 266.

ait.

The ending

is Stl, &t, 6,

di (80).

The ending

534]

VERB

139

3d plur. masc. The traditional pronunciation of this ending


not 6, as would be expected. This is supported by the
vocalization of the C. MSS. (573) and must be inferred from
such forms as "SlM (567), ^^tom (573), and ^i\1iTit. (585),
where we evidently have the diphthongization of U to ui, as in
Neo-Syriac' In a few cases we have un.
3d plur. fern. The ending is aidn, ai. But the last form is
is

U,

doubtful.
may be the singular used
2d plur. masc. The ending
plur. com. The ending
It

1st

last is

for plural.

etun,

is

is &nQ,,

6tii.

The

6ndn, 6n, BnU, an.

shortened from ain.

Endings of the other parts op the Qal. 533. ImperThe forms without afformatives end in 6. In a few cases
we find d, just as in the infinitive. Second fem. sing, ends in
iln.
Second and third plur. masc. end in un, U, and S (532);
third plur. fem. in jdn.
The ending 6 is probably masculine.
Imperative.
Sing. masc. ends in t or d.
The last ending
may be a shortening of dj. But compare note 2 to 550. Sing,
fect.

fem. ends in

Plur. masc. has u.

di.

Infinitive.

The usual form

of the infinitive, as in the other

miqtal. It occurs here in two forms ending in g and


The first comes from ^"b verbs, the latter from T'b verbs.^
Participles.
The ending of the sing. masc. is 6, at times
diphthongized to di. The sing. fem. ends in d.
The usual
verbs,

is

in d.

ending of the plur. masc. is u, less frequently 6 and rarely 6n.


Whether forms ending in "^^^^ are masculine and are to be vocalized T''~, or are feminine,

is

impossible to

culty obtains with the ending "T

din and

may

The same

tell.

may be

diffi-

a shortening of

Feminine plural ends in

be the feminine dn.

idn.

534. The perfect in the derived stems


but slightly from that of Qal. Sing. masc. has usually t,

Derived Stems.
differs

It

rarely d.^

Sing. fem. has never

dt,

but instead

it

has at times d.

Imperfect, imperative, and participles do not differ in their endings

from Qal.
1

Of. also

The
M9,

n.

1,

infinitives are
and 583,

u. 1.

formed

just as

from strong verbs.

These forms may, however, be explained by analogy

of strong verbs (231).


2 Of. Earth, NB., 162d.
In the discussion of the infinitive ending 1~ (222)
overlooked Earth's correct explanation of this ending by analogy of verbs 1"^.
is by analogy of verbs Y'b
inclined to think that the infinitive ending |55

The vocalization S{~, as

in Palest. Aramaic,

is

unknown

to tradition.

have
I

am

140

III.

Qal,

Pa" el,

MORPHOLOGY

Aph'el, Ithp^'el,

and Ithpa"al.

[534

538]

VERB

141

EXAMPLES FOE QAL.

Perfect. 3d

sing. masc.
535. a) J>a Ned. 366; XTH
23 a; IfTiiil ibid. 76, 226; Stia M. Q. 12a/ KTCp he hid himself, Taan. 29 a; TOt: Mace. 12a; WKn B. B. 91a, Qidd. 71a
(531e);' TIJt:^i< A.'Z. 70a (87).^'
ibid.

6)

M. 856;

M.'jvis. B.

-^S^Tn

'bFl ibid. 128 a; Xt:52 ibid. B.

Q. 1126.
c) 'inTIJ Ned. 77 a; ""ip was spoiled, ibid. 506; ^^p it sufficed,
Keth. 956, Taan. 32 a; ^T^m Sabb. 141a; ^^SH-'S^ was able, Keth.
62a; ID^H M. MS. Taan.' 7 a; ]ri< K. MS'. Sanh. 106 a; ir^S
Sanh. 106a (87).'

3d

fern. %?,S6. a) H^^jn she learned. Pes. 626; Sl^m


E. H. 266/ i5;:tia B. M. 86a;
Ned. 51a;

sing,

iT^^Sri
"

6)

XW

mn

Taan. 25a;

repeated, Qidd. 81

mniS

6.

wn/ied, Yeb. 396; nTll

s/je

Ned. 506Vx'Qa B. Q. 115 a/


'En Y. Taan."25a.'

Pltit:

Meg. 16 a, B. B. 36; Mai

Alfasl ibid./

Xtm

^Xjn Taan. 25 a; ^SJO s/te wew/, B. B. 796.


d) iS3p Mace. 8 a; riK^Sb s/ie /la^ed, Sabb. 26a;

sfte

6m7^^

c)

became healthy, Alfasi

2d

com. 537.

sing,

456;

Gitt.

a) tT'np Sanh.' 1136; n^Dn

tT'bp thou didst burn, Sanh.


ibid.;

''DT23

/Aoti didst learn,

6)

nsp

c)

tT'l!2

Ber. 246.

WioM

dt'ds^ griVe

96 a;

n-'Sp

T\r'r2.

she

she waited, Yeb. 1216.

U^tr'nTIJ

B. B. 59 a;

R.H. 22 a;

rT'';3p

'En Y.

B. Q. 176.'

more, B. M.

83a.''

thou didst want, Taan. 29 a;

tT'tlTB i/tow

dids/ tarry,

'

1st sing,

com. 538.

a)

m^

Taan. 25a;

-^Tn

'Er.

406; 'JS

Sabb. 140 a.
1

The explanation

^SiSn SM.
Xt3H

ibid.

No.

of

XDH

given by Jastrow,

Tii. (voc.)

No. XXV. (voc.)

S^y

s. v.

^3

is

SISHI Seder R. 'Amram,

itid.

incorrect.

p. 8;

i?y3 SM. No.

vii. (voo.)

No. xxvni. (voc).

3 'jT'^iS! she committed adultery, seems to be shortened rather from an original masculine
form than from a feminine form.

* Cf.

n^tS'Sa

Kethlb in Dan.

4 : 21.

This form might be masculine for feminine but cf. similar Mandaic forms before
enclitica, NOldeke's MG. 191. The apocope of H presupposes a shortened form fltOTO
s

*nD3

she wept,

NOldeke,

Cf.

JT152

9 Cf.

Silf.

SM. No. CLIV. (voc).

MG.

191.

No. xcv. (voc)

the qer6 to Dan. 4

19.

StT'yia ibid. No. ccxiu. (voc).

'*

142

[ 539

MORPHOLOofy

III.

b) ''30 I gave to eat, ^ull. 95 a; ^KTtj Ber. 10 a, 566; X^a


I emigrated, Pes. 496; ^i<bp B. Q. 98a; ^ii3l2J ibid, lib; ^sbri
'

Ber. 57 ; ^itDp Keth. 826.'

masc 539.

3dplur.

pifte aioay, Ber. 6 a;

a) ^^n Mace. 36; ^TH f6id. 5a; ^ibS

546, Sabb. 386, Taan. 24 a; ^513

t6i(i.

^TlJtp

they wept, Ber. 56; T\^ Ned. 8 a, 776; ^p"] ibid. 25 a;

25 a;

JlKpn

6)

mn

'yt^'3.

Taan.

learned, taught, passim.'

^jFl i/ie?/

sinned, Sabb. 56 a;

i/ie?/

154^53

they filled, B. B. 786;

]S[idd.'66a.

hdplur.fem.

116

Ag. Esth.

(in

ed.

^''nir

Buber)

masc 541.

2dplur.
jiin-'S'n

540.

^i<nb

Meg. 21b j "'Xba Meg.


dried up, M. Q. 11a.'

they threw,

Sabb. 1166;

"iin^bS

Meg. 23 a; ^Iry^ M. MS.'

i6icZ.;

542.

a)

^in^-lTi:

6.

M. MS.

Pes. 556; rT)j

]:^:;c

Ned. 65 a;

in^Tn B. Q. li7a;

ye have allowed, Yeb. 37 a; ^tl'SC '^nW. 95


1st plur.com.

,^n^Tri

56a; Sj"3n M. Q. 25a, Sebu." 306, Mace. 36;

'("^t^

jrba we we7-e exiled, Ber. 58 a; ^^bs M. MS. ibid.;

Ber.

Pes. 176;

p']D'i2

M. Q.

136' (80).
6) iSri

56 a;

"ly!!!

we Aave learned, Ned.


we asked, Ber. 21 a.

Impeefect.

40a;

yn-'b ibid.
^bj^b

3d

Mace. 8a;

sing. masc.

'Dp'^b

('6(:d.

^:2^b

5 a,

passim;

543.

486; ^n^b

M. Q. 7a;

"17)1

we

"H^b Ned.

ibid.

5b;

'"Ip'^b

sauj, Ber.

26,

12a;

Ber. 3a;

^ipa^D was/ies, Sabb.

1406;

"in^b Ned. 40 a; -inb Ber. 556.*

3d smgr. /em. 544.


51a; 'apn B. M. 866.

'^'nTCri

throws, Sabb. 110a; "'JTri Ned.

2d smg-. 545. Masc: ^Tn^n M. Q. 96;


''iian Pes.

Fern.:

113 a;

"f^'^iJ-'Fl

is< sw^f.
'T-^X

^Ij-aP B. B.

wantest, Gitt.

com. 546.

^yn^Fl Ber.

^'i;iJ"'X

856

(legal style).'

Ber. 456;

"SrX M. Q. 22a;

Sanh. 26 a; "n^-^X Pes. 107 a; ^D^X Sabb'. 1106.

iinitn HG.ed.pr.md.
''^mT\ AlfasI'Er. 88a; !lt3S^
'

ISin

'ii/

Ji-irT] Bor.
'

saju ^<,

re.

ibid. Pes. 1036.

ed. Harka-py, 182.

r,:,h.

The three yOdLs are

49a;

iMa.

to pievi'nt the reading ll'^SS'^P 3d plur. fern.

553]

masc 547.

3d plur.
24 6y

iltaa-^a

b)

VERB

'

rmc/i, t6id. 25

a) ^bl'^b

masc 548.

^3jri Ber.

Ber. 626; Slin^n Sanh. 100 ai

1046;

Sabb. SOb; ^y^^b Taan.

a.'

Nidd. 66 o.

"ihri"?

2d plur.

143

86; ilbnn gull. 50a;

ilTllFl

1406; ynwT^

ibid.

lilFlTIJ^n

Sabb.'

Sanh. 100a); ^3rn 'Er. 546.


1st pZwr.' com. 549. "-TriD'Ber. 226; "'"^TTD Pes. 1036; -^yaS
Yoma 69 6; ^3pD Gitt. 14 6;'" ''SyD Ber. 31 a; ^S^S 'Er. 54 6
(c/.233).
('Tn-'Fl'

Imperative.

22a;

"^riTIJ

carry, Meg. 28
6)

HDp
"

nbn

550. a) ''111: Mace. 11 o, Ber.


Ned. 3o; ''Ttj ibid.' lib j ^S ?6td,; ^"l^

a.''*

436; miZJ ^Arow, gag. 156, B. B. 1556;

63 a.'

/em. 551.

'Swgf.

rejoice, Pes.

''likt^

696; ^Sin Ned. 66;

Keth. 616.

Plur.

12a;

masc.

^DFl

//irow on, Ber.

6it2/,"Ber.

"J^nilJ

Sing.

626;

ibid.

masc 552.

!|m2 Sabb.

IKpinitive.

S^yp'^a ibid.

12 a;

666;

'Er.

ii^ys-^a

M. 86 a.

M. Q. 17 a; ^Vi2 ibid. 22 a; ^Tll HOr.


41a (87).
a) miqtal: a) K'^lIJ^a Mace. 11a;
Yeb. 4 a; ^y^12 Ber. 3 a; ^D^a B. M.

^ntC

Wm

676;
553.

XTn''7J

75 6;

j6id.

")X3.'r"i2

Ber. 406;' Kj^ba Zeb. 9 a;' nFlTIJa

^Iffl-'^J t6id.' 8a6; ^TO^J mVq.


106; ^'ip-'a tVjfd. 186.'
6) 'm'iqtala: ^"rmz Pes. 1136; X;;Dn-'7jb Ker. 3a; X^Dpa,
n;Dpa B. M. 476; X^yip Keth. 2 a, Berl 26.'

B.

/8)

^StT-a

Ned. 46;

4 a; 'in^a Mace. 6 a; ^p-'a

ibid.

''

'c)

d)

muqtal: mipVa Yeb. 40a; ^rvyV2


miqtalat:

riSi7J Gitt.

Sabb. 58a.

62 a (V22e).

iqtal: Xin^X^Bekh. 44a (259 j, n. 2).


qutulS:
""Hjpb Sanh. 95a; "I'lnnb A. Z. 386; "['istpb
/)
B. B. 936; ^.':l5nb Ber. 116; ^;:iam M. MS. Ber. 606; ^ii^^b
B. M. 406.*
e)

"

'HDS'^ ct'e o,t leisure^

2linttJ
3

-H(?. ed. pr.

form like

Ned. 376,

68d.

HDp may

be explained as a shorfcening from 'i&CDp

= '^5P'

^^ ^^^ ^^^

and the imperative in the derived conjugations in Syriac, as a reminisBut it is more probably a kind of precative perfect. Cf. 244 6.
cence of verbs X"5 or T'b
The use of the third for the second person would offer no difficulty in our idiom.
infinitive i^Dp")?

4Tl'im2Jb Hct/. Fes.,


ibid.U.

IV^Vd

p. 80; ^'}'ynrd^

re. ed.Cassel, 7; li^y iWF.32; ni5?'Ta ibid.Zl;

144

MOBPHOLOGY

III.

miqtal&n: 'pC'Db

g)

Mace, la;

^t\i ibid.

baihe, Pes.

to

This form

1186.

Sing. masc. 554.

166; ^p2 Ned. 196;

^bS Ber. 56;

Sabb. 156 a/ 'DKlC

S'mgf./em. 555.
X;tB7J

washes,

ibid.

836;

2la/^''^'^ Gitt. 84 a; X^pb

atripb

let

a)

'^''50

ibid.'; ^^-^ip^

Qidd.

her get well, Taan. 216/

K^;|"lTr

jS'l

Pes.\l6o;

c)

!n|5

M. Q. 12a, Ned. 49a, 526;

MS. M. Q. 36."^
B. Q. 596; ^ms M. Q.

Gitt.

38a;

Wn

JlTll

"Succ. 206.'

Plu7\fem.%551. a) ]y2. Ned. 376, 396;


Ber. 17a; "f^TTj^ ibid. 25b; y-p2'^ ibid. 20a;

l^^iT

'l-'^b?^

"'n)?

MS^

Sabb. 886; "SSn C.

-j^D

!l^7J

^'bn Yalq.

44^6.

6)

146; Vy^^bid. 19a;

ibid.;'

]'''';^^

Sanh. 103a;

''''Sn

M.

waZfc, B.

Taan. 246;

-,-'3?^

Sanh. 136; ^Dy S6ta 48a;


B. Q. 1136;

C.

is full,

Ned. 68 o.

masc 556.

Pliir.

"-^n

gets dark, Ber. ZZb; X^a'H Ned. 716;

^""ISP

Ta/x^niz: M. Q. 4a; ^""^i^


Gitt.

"'Ijn

'n:2 splits,'^xi\l.l2Sb}

is different, Pes. 23 a, passim/


MS^ Meg. 12o (voc.j; ^^b^-'T2 fills, MM. Sabb. 106; nh^^Z
ibid. Taan. 24a (80, and Noldeke, MG. 22).

^J^Da

is

may also be the objective suffix 3d plur.

uncertain, as the ending -an

Active Pakticiple.

[ 554

^^^aC B.
]K;;Da

M. 45a;

Sabb. 65 a;

M. MS. Sabb. 626.

^6)

"^Hpri

Passive

B. B. 916;

]i^b^2

Sabb. 626.

Participle. Sing.

Meg. 7a (voc);

masc.

558.

Ned. 516; ^jn Ber. 16a;

^blfi

bs

a)
"'bs

C. MS.
M. Q. 28a;
"'Dp, C. MS.

''b'D

Nidd. 21a; ^Tri'(MSS. ^TKn) M. Q. 126; ^'I'x',


Meg. 256 (voc); e. K^TH fit, Ber. 23a. ""KDO Meg. 256;
hidden, M. MS. A. Z. 76a (passing into T':?).
1

njxy

ffff 69.

This

usually taken to be a nominal form ^553S

is

STr"'ti

Pronounce

For vocalization compare H'^riS?"'


^D'^TH with diphtliougization (80).
These and other examples go to show that our traditional vocalization
(4.32, n. 3) = iaiteb.
is younger than the fixed orthography of the text, a phenomenon not to be wondered at,
since such pronunciation may be at least six hundred years later than the fixing of the text.
In the light of this, the statement in 17 should be modified.
3

*For the imperative use of the participle cf. Noldeke, MG., p. 378; and Maclean, .op.
Cf. also the frequent TH ITn and pTQ 1"1DD in the "JTOT-formula.

cit., p. 142.

may

This

]y3 HG.

also be the fern.

IIITS

cf.

234.

277.

''lyaXp 8M. No. LXXIi.

(voc.)

lyn JQR-

IX. 682 (voc).

563]

VERB

b)

^'^Tn debarred,

e.

145

unfit, Ber. 23a.'

Smsr./em. 559. HT^m Sabb. 636;


113a;

;5p Pes.

Jt^Tn

M.Q. 186;

Tern. 7 a (69); UtTl^ti

PZMr.^masc 560.
Sabb. 156a;

i<;;'lTl?

S^bfl fiVr.

Yeb. 8a,Ber. 366;

25a; N^n, S^rS,

TF. Ker. 6 a."'

5ag! 5o, Qidd. 76;

6) nK'^pa

']''';ba

a)

-j-"]!!:

'Er.

Meg. 146;

j'^']3p

^"'STn Pes. 110a.'

446;

'En Y. Ned. 506;

j'^id

Ber. 616, Yeb. 8a;

^V^

^"^nTB

captives, Qidd. 726.^


6) ^Tn ^/, Sabb. 1246; ^Dp B.

M. 73a;

^5D /lomeZ?/, Ned. 506;

^1p are gathered, Yeb. 121a.


c)

Keth. 606;

^s-i2i

Qidd. 30a.

''i^^pa

Plur.fem.%mi. a) "p^TDp B. B. 846; "p^np Ned.376,38a;


IK^^^an M. MS. Sabb. 138 a; "6. MS. ibid. '^-"IT].
^6)

Qidd. 81a.

e. i^ln'-^nTZJ

Participles with Enclitic Subject- Pronouns.


Active
Participle. %562. a) KD^n Sanh. 946; KS'^Sa Keth. 1036;
^

W^Tn

Ber. 136;

Kr-lp,

Kr3D JAa^e, Y6ma 96; i^S^I

I read the Bible, Qidd. 496;

S5''';'1i5,

ttS^niS

Yeb. 1076;

Ki'^^'ITrV sow,

Keth.

1036; -pn^ Sabb. 376.*


6)

W^Nidd. 36;

carries/,

H"'"!'^

Ber. 626; h'^nc B. B. 176;


c)
iS'^bn

ln"";ia

we must, Ber. 96;

iJ^D'-yn

Nidd]"4a; IJ^TO,

MS.Zeb.passzm('83");

IJ''^^,

f^l^D

Meg. 28 a;

art thirsty,

T^'t}!

M. MS. B. B. 4a^

-jS^an t6id.

ibid^lb;

M.Q. 16a;

7a;

-jSya,

"jD^SS
iSSl,

(s'^^''^?

Keth. 636;

we want,

C.

Alf.t6{d (80)

15^xb7J A. Z. 536."
d)' in^yn Sanh. 93a; ^n-a'^ Taan. 146; silT'lTB A. Z. 726.
PassweParfocipZe. 563. X5"''1D Ned. 7a. ]3"'H''p3 loe are

skilled, Qidd.
'

n"'''imC

30a.

feepj,

HG.

ed. pr. 134a.

'^nsitpia TB. 11.13.

^IITn AlfastBSsa336.
*S5p"'y5
Cassel, 91
'>

SM. No.

XXVIII. (voc);

SSS^DT TG.

ed.

Harkavy, 72; riDS^yS TG.

ed.

('/.).

n"i';iy3

^g

los.

TI3"'Tn se.

60; 'J311D ibid. 100; 'Jjya iMd. 97; pI'iPI'D ibid. 2m; 'i^'^'b^ ibid.Ul;
jJI-lTn 'itid. 525; 'jDig'i'g 't6id. 178 (69"; 'l131"ibp^ H-'s.'ed'pr. 15 6,- S55l''^Tn TG. ed.

Har'ka'yy,64;

SJJlfn

i6id.78.

146

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

[564

EXAMPLES FOE PA"eL.


Perfect.
(voc);

-^blS

564.

3d

sing,

masc: a)

he prayed, Ber. 21 o;

M. MS. Zeb. 19a;

-Fin he lowered,

''^tT

C.

Ned. 50 a;

"'b^

^liQ. B. B.

MS. Meg. 146


"'STIJ

Sabb. 98 &;

37a (with

resolu-

tion of doubling).
b) ^5<5b Keth. 72 a;

3d

sing, fern.: a)

UtTi^-D

"-NSTC

Sabb. 58 a;

Una

B. B. 395.

Keth. 686.
Yeb. 656; ^nrro
'

Meg. 13 o.'
5d smg. com.: ty\^ b" B. 5a; H^S^B didst change, B. M. 966.
1st sing, com.: a) -n^b^ M. MS. Ber. 806; eds. '''pS.
6) ^'312? I answered, Bfiga 22a; ^i<:iL"] I raised, B. M. 109a;
^^'^^ I made, Sabb. 1566; ^i<b'l Yeb. 926.
3dplur. masc: ^l^lb Pes. 526; ^^IIJ //le^/ jwadf^, Yeb. 34a; ^^^
K^^bs A. Z. 28a;

6)

i*;"??

they prayed, Ber. 306.

3dplur.fem.: '5<3T ^/(e?/ committed adultery, Keth. 1016.


Impeefeot.
565. 3d sing, masc: a) ^>jbBer. 556; "bS'b
i6i(i. 6a; "'bS'^b t6K?. 76; '2'n"'b makes expiation, Zeb. 5.
6) !!<^^^b makes nnclean, ^ull. 70 o.
3d sing. fern. : '^^iri grows, raises, B. M. 71 a.

2d

^nrn Sanh. 97a. XSpn Pes. 113 o.


^Sa-^X Sanh. 96 o; "SrS (6/f?. 966; "B'JJS B.M.

sing, com.:

1st sing.com..

15 a; ^b^X Ber. 30 a;

''"IjN

Taan. 25

a.

3dplur. masc: ^Hy'b Zeb. 5a; "bQ-'b Sabb. 148a.


2dplur. masc: ^Y^'^V} Ned. 40a; "!l3S^n Sabb. 1406.
1st plnr. com.: ^riFl^i

we

lower, Zeb. 546.

Impeeative.
566. Sing, masc:
62 a; ^3^ Taan. 24 a; ^530 Sabb. 52 a;

""b^
'E'J:

Ber. 30a;
Gitt.

73o;

"'SB

Pes.

"O: Sanh.

1076.
Plur. masc: ^b'!\ B. Q. 117a; ^3E Pes. 1116; ^tS3 'En Y.
M. Q. 286; ''b^ba (=^b ^ba) Sanh. 9(5 6; ''^tD? cover yoinselres,
M. Q. 28 6 (532).'
Infinitive.
567. a) qattule: ^^ib^ Ned. 496, Ber. 76;

'^'2.

Ned. 91 n;

nSIST HG.

;)27

''^^ibj

nS"'?15

Sabb. 106;

^'i3Fl

Ber. 20 a;

''.^ib'^

ibid.

.<'eV?. 121.

number of examples of Qal and Pa"el used where we should expect a


reflexive form. Of. the same pUenouionon in Biblical Aramaic (Baer's Daiiifl, p. lix). The
explanation given there is too mechanical. The solution is rather to be found in semasioi^Thero are a

logical reasons.

Ims agltatus

est.

Cf.

Hebrew ^bn

Ps. 10:3

and

nPS

ii

many

cases,

and

Syr.

^V

flucti-

569]

VERB

147

57a; ^^^'B'a Zeb. 21a; ^yiib Qidd. 456; ^^iS'l C.MS. Meg. 13a
(voc); '^'li':n 'Arakh A. Z. 386; ^TiTJ^S b" 6.37 a.'
6)

qattftla:

c)

qattul:

''iSB'l

B. B. 142a; "i^sb Succ. 416; ^kwb Sabb.

d) qittul:

^ib-'a

'Er. 88a.

Sebu. 406.

tH^'^'im

155a.
qattftlu:

e)

Rail Sanh. 1016).

(!in5il''B3b

/) qattalut:

{t'l'^tyr^'ab to fill it uj), B.M. 105b).


maqattala:
K-'^bVab Qidd. 81a; (rT'^S^jjab S6ta 40a;
g)
'""
"
rt''.':baab M. Q. lOa).
A) maqattal or maqattil: '3a7jb ^o eose oneseZ/, Ber. 62 a;
'

'

'

'

i^bpj or i<ba7J 'Er. 12a; (^nDSrab' Sanh. 1016).'

Active Paktioiple.

568.

masc:

Sing,

436; "ST^a Zab. 5 a; ^WM Yeb. 716;


^ull. 58 a.

^STIJa ibid.
"Jf^llS't:

"'370

Ned. 36a;

''S-aJa

B. Q. 246;

Sing, fern.: S^^bia Sabb. 1406; n;bj7J Ber.59a;

!!^3p7J

wai<s

longingly, Keth. 626; X^'^'^^'J t6id. ll'a;' N^"!?!^ ra/ces^^ag. 5 a;

ifrm^2,
'

X;:aEl''52,

1406;

Bekh.

346;'!!<'';':np)J

masc- a) "i^na Ned. 65a}

'PZwr.

^aEJ"7p Pes.

97 a;

^ISDa

throws'M.B.. 24a.
^b^5J Ber.306; ^SStt Sabb.

Keth. 1056; ^ib^a Ber. SOa;

^ibj^J

Sabb. 186.
6)

M. MS.

^ifim^l^

Plur. fern.:

Pes. 976.

"^1)2 observe cleanness, Nidd.

666;

j"'"'"n2J7J

sing

antiphonically Sanh. 14a.'*


,

Passive
Ned. 496.*

Participle.

Sing. fern.

569.

Sabb. 29 6; H^bl^J

N'^bvi/J

masc:

Sing,

is

"'bS^'J

or

^bSlJ

on high sea, Ber. 57 a;

^"hyn Sebu. 45 6;'e.'Kn;'b?)J Bega 326!


^'

Plur. masc: "pbyi? Sabb.' 65 a; 'SnTS

cot;e?-ed, Gitt.

58 a; ^b?5a

Sabb. 1096, Ber. 10 a!'


1

The two

last

examples passing into

yy forms.

The

last

example with resolution

of

doubling.

TR.

2lib?b H(?.30; ^TinU rG.ed.Cassel,86; i5 TGOttb


^ib^ 4&i(^- 22' ^ilTp Tff. ed. Harkavy^ 82.'

/fffl'-

^V^rfi 24

n'lt'ib^b- T.'^^S'Q'

II. lo";

DO

th

Syriac |_4.9aj^ antiphony. The Samaritan 'I'l'Ttt? which Heidenheim explains as


a contraction of nirt*^ 1"l'iTiJ (Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift fur Englisch-theol. Forsch. u.
3 Cf.

Kritik,

I.,

406-7),

probably has the same meaning, and must be vocalized

The uniform orthography lby53 speaks

'I'^bytt

SG-

257.

for the

form "^^yTS

^^mD

148

III.

Plur.fem.:
e.

[ ^'^0

are trimmed, B. B. 69 a;

"j'^^BTrtt

^'n^'^y'a Ber. 8 a.

MORPHOLOGY
liiS?^

5ag. 5 a;

'

226.
Enclitic

C/.

'

Active
Subject - Pronouns.
Participle. %510. a) HT'Bp'U Nidd. 206; W"'i>?52 Ber. 8a;

with

Paetigiples

XJ^Btl^O

BAOlb;

more, B.

f^ive

W'^QDM, KSSra, Sanh. 107

a.

b) 'nbj7;3 A. Z. 28 a.
c)

Succ. 486;

15''|lTlJb

Sabb. 118 a; -jJ^SM Sebu. 35;


'Er. 12o; ]T^TS12 Qidd.

jD-'-lba

we deduct, B. M. 109a; '^D^K^pa

l5^3Da

b. b. 1306.'
46; iran:a
" "
It
;

d) ^ri^S53r27J Nidd. 19 6;

Passive Participle.

l^rc^a-IS:

571.

Ned. 30a;

we are

]^''^^'^

^T\^^tya Ber.

55 a.

better, Pes. 876,

Zeb. 55 a.

EXAMPLES FOE APH'eL.

^pm

572.

3d sing, masc.: "'ptlX Ber. 8 a; "''^ni* ibid.


Sabb. 110a; "jriit Qidd. 706';"^:27^i|: M. Q. 28 o; "^nx

Perfect.

a;
he counted, B. B. 486;

4:8

3d

''"inK ibid.

a)

sing, fern.:

i&tm

1556.

B. Q.

996;

Y6ma

X;;3nx

536,

Sanh. 93 a.
6)

Xbnx

2d

sing, com.:

she

n^t:50K Sanh.

B.

Sabb. 26a; Kbn^X 'En Y. ibid.

lit,

n^DnX B. M. 63V, A.

109 a;

M. 84a; np^JK

rT-'-^p^aS

Gitt."

Ber. 96;

Z.

146;

tT'irilS;

M. MS.'

''ID'aSl

g:ag.

5a;

i6td.; DDriH

376.

I asked, IJull. 57 6; ^"i3N B. Q. 36 6;


B.M. 346; ^NJnX A. Z. 146,- ^XtO/JN Sanh.
109a, B. M. 736; '!!<TCD5< Ber. 536; "Dnii! H. MS. B. M.' 84 o.
Sdplur. masc: a) '^t^'O^ Sanh. 109a;
i6id. 996; ^ITtlH
Ber. 28 a; ^3n!S; C. MS. Meg. 12 a (voc); ^2-ii|; 5ag. 146; "'Dm
Sanh. 1096; '"b^"^ M. MS. A.Z. 746; ^'^"012)^ Sabb. 129 a (532)
1st sing. com.

"DriK 'Er.

546;

'fflplS;

"i{Dpi<"

WK

^S^inS

Y6ma

226.''

ist plur.

com.:

IJull.

1396.

j3''12:pN!

^T)m

^ull.

1106; ttrrnx

Sabb. 1566;

Imperfect.
573. 3d sing, masc: ^pbb Qidd. 81a; "'p'lpb
B65a4a; ^r^^b Taan. 296; ^-\Tb B. B. 1556; ^-)mb Qidd. 766
(208, note)'; "in^b B. B. 167 o.^
'

T'?"^^?'? ^^-

" !*

'<??'!??' S'C. ed. Cassel, 91.

^JI'^Dni? Igg- Serlra 25. ItirTiffipS


3

1lni 9ag.

5 6.

T6. ed. Harkavy,

74.

578]

VERB

149

3d sing, fern.: "-plpn B. Q. 496; ^ysFi B. M. 71a.


2d sing, masc: ^inPl B. Q. 117a.
Sdplur. masc: '^lyb K. H. 56.'
2d plur. masc. ^btiri A. Z. 37 6.
Impebative. 574. Sing. masc: "'iriil; M.Q.226;
:

1046, Yeb. 46 a;

fem.:

Sing,

^"IpN;
'

"^inN; B. Q.

1166.

30a;

Pes.

^bn>!;

j'^inN!

Kasi

Sabb! 35 6;

rpm bring ye, A. Z.

Ned. 50a;

ibid.

siDlnN;

1406.

B.M.856;

106.

fem.: ^ins Sabb. 1406.

Infinitive.

575.

Qidd.9a;

'I'.inpS;

^I'tpX B.

M. 456;

a) 'aqtul6:

Ber. 17o;
"^inj!!!

"^'ib^IX

'I'isniSsb,

^l^.i^pK Ned. 206; ^l^ipm


Sabb. 13 a; ^^tSK Yeb" 74V;

Sanh. 36 a; "llimb Sabb. 141 a; '"^'tm

Ber. 25 a; ''K'ibs^H M.'MS. ibid.j


""imrSlb

''I'iS'lb

M.'

Q. 26;

'aqtula':

c)

maqtule: ''^is-i?^ M. Q. 26.


maqtal or maqtil: 'irT'a B.B.167a;

"n-a B. Q.

^^''^ipicii

86 a.'

'I'inffib

C.MS. Meg. 12a

'^.ISriH

6)

d)

M.

'

Sabb. 26a;

^bn^Jj! light,

masc: Tim

Plur.

16 a, for

"-paN; Pes.

''Hia''X

'

MS. Taan. 216;


Plur.

B^ga 15 a; ^EDX B. B. 21a;

^blSSl

A. Z.

(voc).

Qidd. 9 a.

Alfftsi

^ir!tjbi6id

'En Y.;

Active Paeticiple.
576. Sing, masc: "'ilna Ned. 166;
^paa Succ. 376; ^B'^12 M. Q. 26; 'TTQ Sanh. "lo'9a6; ^'Ip'^a
Taan. 24a; ^b^-^a Zeb. 426; --lina sAomjs, 'Artikh B. Q. 86 a.'
Sing. fern. I ^STSTpZ Ned. 206;' S^ltia Keth. 65 a; X^S^a Ber.
62a; 'bs7^ Ber. 25o (224) K^JCa B.B.736; X^Dpa Qidd. 7 a.'
Plur. masc: ^l^WJ Mace. 10 6; -pnina M. Q. 16o; ^3pa B.M.
816; ^ina Ber. 556; -jma Ned. 50 a} ^Sp'-a B. M. 456"; "(bna
;

'

Pes. 1136.

Plur.

fem.:

'j^'lpa,

i"';:jna

Seta 21a; -aoa Sabb. 796; "iirja

take a vote, Pes. 52 a, passing into Vy.

Passive Participle. 577.

Participles with

"i^l^E'ia

B. B. 142a.

Subject - Pronouns.
578.
Active Participle.
a) ^T'T^IZ Ber. 49a; ^T'^t'Q YSma 86a;
^p'TQ I lay down, Sabb. li9o, passing into ryrSD'-jria Bekh.376.

HG.

'il'iDpb

i;;ib3i'ii{b

ed. pr. 109d.

TB.ILU-,

Harkavy, '342;'t{^50Sb
3

Snffi'Q

no.

Enclitic

I'l'lblSS: ibid. 42;

S-Jf.

ed. pr. 68 d.

No.

vii.

iniCBb HG.

ed. pr. SSe,-

lipCSb

TG. ed.

150

MORPHOLOGY

III.

n^m^

IT'ira Sanh. 39;

n^vap7J Nidd. 36;

6)

mm

n^Sna B."b.'176;

[579

Wpl^

Ker! 256;

B.

]T12y2 Sabb. 1566; ]Tp2P2 B. B. 21 a; jS'^Bpa

c)

B.Q. 236;

"IJ^nna

Hull. 596;

153 a.

Y6ma 83a;

Sanh. 20a.'

-Ji^pTIJ^J

d) 'y\mty)2 Sabb. 145 a.'

EXAMPLES FOE

ITHP'^'eL.

Peefect. 579. 3dsing.masc.: a)

M. Q. 28 a;

Ned. 50a;

^nPl^ij^

^nTS Zeb. 196.'


^6) ^i<Tnri^XB.M. 846;

'^3riri"'K

''ijS^X ibid.

'

Ven.; eds.

'ffl"'i3''!!<

25 aj

45 a;

M.MS.

396;

SOta 486.
t6td. ed.

KTai)3"'5<

washardened;

TTiyHi

'^Trin-'X

^ira-'X t6zd.

"^iJ^a^S

104 a;' vai^^k Sabb. 746;

X-nn-'K Pes.

c)

''NnnilJ-S Gitt.

Ned.50a;

"^IT^ he refused,

B.M. 77a (87).


5d

sing, fern.:

)Xyfy^ Bekh.316; i:;3p_''S Sanh. 93 6; Ji^lFlTIJit


H.MS. B. B. 74a; X^bn'K 'En Y.'Sabb.

Yeb. 105a; X^JPO^N

156a; K^Tn^N^Yeb.

rvb-jT^ Sanh. 107 a;' S^j^-'S Ned. 68a.

8 a;

Nidd.

^S'nS"^

6)

506;''''!!<b5^i<

Men. 36;'^NnTK Zeb. 32 6;

Hull. 566; ""^K^p^X


Gitt.

^k'ari'j;i5

38 a;

M. MS.

^k'^rna'^S Zeb.

166, 326; ^na''i< 'Arukh Hull. 586;^Syn^i)! Keth. 49a'.


Pes. 766;

c)

t^lltO^lS;^

2d

sing. com.

n"'3rin'S B. Q.

1st sing, com.:

'^TOtl'X

28 a; ^nS'S Sabb. 156 a;

'V^-'ift,

3d plur.

31a;

Sabb. 156a;' ^Ip^'H Ned.

5ull. 17 a; !1D^^n'B. B. 126, Sota 40 6;

iim-'l^ ibid.

23"6;

20 6; n^l^B^ys Yeb. 79 a, SSta 356.


''Sbn'tflK Bgga 46.

Ber. 53a;

''bn'l2J!:<5

3d plur. masc:
^nnilJ-'X

Hull. 586.*

"15a^5<

^bn-'5<

'

^'n jJ-'ys

Hull. 17a;

Ber. 25 6;

!l3ri5

Taan.

S6ta 48a; Vyn'S 'En Y. ibid^


fern.

"f

Istplur. com.:

Impeefect.

""'bri'iaX

580.

^"iM^b Sabb. 35a;


Ned! 67 6.'
'^rpba Mr,

Keth. 23 a; ^;br5< Gitt. 56 6 ( 226) ."


Keth. 33a.

^nn-^T-'S

3d

sing,

''inai^D

masc: a)

'Er. 12 6;

"'Dnri'b

^'rrb

Sabb. 1206;

m! Q. 28a;

"'Jla-'b

76.

l^ni^aSila TG. ed. Harkavy,

XiraniSf! HG.

W5.

ea. pr. esb,- I'a'lS .V. No. xxv. (voc).

*nx"inriiBis no. va
=

WiSn"iS5 re.

"

IIJ-iniBX AHtet Pes.

'

"'"IRfl"! B.

ed.

nsibais; hg.

Harkavy,

ed. pr. 95

6.

:)4B.

486.

M. 856, Sabb. laBa; lila'^rT'D HO.

ed. pr. 126(4;

lS?nriffl"'b

HG.

73.

583]

VEEB

b) aaiTT}^))

'Arukh

151

Gitt. 68a.

3d sing. 'fern.: "'"IFl^^Fl Yeb. 86; "Spriri 'Er. 536; ^DH^n Men.
12o; ^a-'ri Ned. la, 106, 216, 516, Naz.'l36.
2d sing, fern.: ^anpFl Sanh. 946.
Ned. 50o.

1st sing, com.: '^yTiITiH

3d plur. masc:
^)T)i Taan.
'

29a, M. Q. 13a, Bekh. 57a;


236; ^V^i Ber.'49a; WSD ed. Yen. ibid.
^-iFlTS^b

'Ar.

3d plur. fern.: ]^'nr]irh C. MS. M. Q. 13a.


2d plur. masc: ^ITnnri Ber. 356; ^nniBFl Yeb. 37a.
Imperative.
58i. Sing, masc: ^'lp"'X B. M. 406.

Sm^./em..- ^snCfr^ Sanh. 946.


Flur.

masc:

Infinitive.

be locked up, Bekh. 86.

slb3"'X

582.

'ithqatule:

a)

';;;il|3"'X

Meg. 186; '^I'iTrin^X B.M. 636, Ned" 50 a}


li06'(50); '^I'iya-ift'Ar. 5a.

'^^i^'in-'S

'ithqattir:

6)

"'in^jri'^S

consonant, inan-'i* O.

'ithqatal:

c)

'ithqutal:

e)

''53i^ri''X

30a;

^"'ibrb Sabb.

Sabb. 1136; with loss of last stem-

ibid.j

^r^r^mb TF. Ker. 26 a.

Yeb. 76;' S^rnn^J^VEn Y. Ned. 50a.


^'^'irniJK Ned. iOa.

iinniT^i*

d) 'ithqataluth

436;

MS.

B. B.

:'

706; ^"'m^K F. MS. B. Q.

^^ai-in-^y A. Z.

5ull. 12 a; by analogy with strong verbs.'

Participle.
583. Sing, masc: ^'ipt^a Tarn. 32a; "'Tliria
Ned. 77 a; ^nMa Sabb. 109 a; "'552^X3 Pes. 606; ^1^2 M. Q.7a;
^Sya Ned. 656; ''Wa B. Q. 1196; iXH'B^'a Sabb. 161 a6; Kb'^"'a
is

raised, Sabb. 996.

Sing,

fem.:

i<;:Dnna Yeb.

S;"})?''^

Ned. 55a, Ber. 15a; Hn^nz Ber. 596;


Yeb. 32a; ln"'::'1I5lna H6r.'56 (2326)^

WhTO

13aJ

MS. B. Q.'436.
^Plur. masc: ^^FiTlJa 'Er. 86;

Wn-^a

F.

89 a; "^bn^aa Ber. 23 a;

^"^^^12

"^aripa B.

m!

Plur. fern.: 7;ba^5J Sabb.' 796;


ibid.

11a;

p;;b'^^a

^Bekh. 556;

Sanh. 656; "'Dmj Pes.

1076.'

ppna

B. B. 616;

-("^a Men.

I^^IIS^a Ker.l5a;'l''''b|3''a3.M.856; "j^^aT.:

j;3]3^a

376, Tern. 22 a;

Ber.56a;

e.

Sn^lEia

Ber.' 446.'
1

in

"liimBS* HG.

JQB.

^I'a'in'a
3

275; "liba"'Stb Alf. B.

M.

102 6,

Tya^ig

Jud. b. BarzUlal al-BarcelOnl

IX. 695.

bg. m-, i^jpi'a

IS'inrtt'O HG. ed.

pr. 576.

disdh loini

1*

(532).

152

morphology

iii.

[5^4

with Enclitic Subject - Pronoun.


I am afraid, G. MS. Meg. 136 (voc);

Paetioiple
a) S5"'Sripa

g:ag.Yby

584.

W^ara

Sanh. 98 a.

'S3^?|ia

b)

fl"''}S13

thou art created, 'En Y. Taan. 25 a.

c)

]5''bt3'J3

we are burned, B. B. 73 o.

d) ^VfSriCt! ye are afraid, Ber. 62a; ]n"'SriM

MM.

ibid.

EXAMPLES FOR ITHPA"aL.

Perfect.
585. 3d sing, masc.: a) ''3rn2Ji< Ber. 356, Sanh.
96 a; ^PTa^K B. M. 856; "'QrX Taan. 25a; ''^'1^5* Sanh. 64a;
''SrSi

B.K

156;

Sebu. 186, Zeb. 206.

^XJE)^X

6)

.m^^

3d

sing, fern.: a)

Yeb. 42a.'

Sebti. 186;'nrin;2"'i<

K^yrniJ^V B.

M. 846.
Bega 306; "'Xann^X

6) ^iXSmiJ^X Men.43a/-'X2ipn"'X
1st sing, com.:

3d plur. masc.

^a^K H. MS.

'J5-S"ill''X
:

!l5!3El^i<

B. B. 15 6;

Gitt.776.''

I agreed, B. B. 26.

Pes. 33

6,

Zeb. 23;a;

Ned. 22a;

^l^lbn^X

Be^a 11 a;
'En Y. ibid.;

^I'^'^X

l^^bn^i*

Men. 936;'''!Qri< B. B. 166 (532); ^X^a^X


M. MS. ibid.'; iN-^nDn^i^ Hag. Hatt. ibid.; ^H^nPl'^!!* Sanh. 94;6;
^X-'SFnaS C. MS. M. Q.'256 (eds. WnTB")^).!
Imperfect.
586. 3d sing, masc: '3rnB''b Sanh. 406, 446;
^S'^n'X, "n'^n-'X,

Qidd. 706.

^nilj-'b

3d sing, fern.: "'SSriri Keth. 65a.


2d sing, masc: "'Sncri Sanh. 976; n^ann A. Z. lOo.
3d plur. masc: ^liVW'^'b Sanh. 446, 46'6;' ^Tj&'b ibid. 107a;
^ntasD A. Z. 656.
T

2d plur. masc: Wmcri A.

Z. 11a.

587. 'Smgr.

masc:

Imperative.

^Q3-'S K.

H. 25a;

^"IB'^K

Gitt. 566.'

^SnON Sanh. 976; ^J^DS'^S Keth. 63a.


Infinitive. 588. a) 'ithqattfil6: "inS'^K 'Er. 26a, Succ37 6; ^^yBX^''^ Mace. 2o; ^"^iT^K Bfega 11a; '^:'iS3|3b Ber. 28a;
Sing, fern.:

'^^i3|3"'Nb

ed.

Yen.

ibid.

6)''ithqattial:

^iSS-'ift

B. B. 156>;

^inmiJ''N Alf. Yeb. 806.


'

c)

'mithqattala:

^-^SS^jb
~
TT

'

'lyiBrTiN HG.

TNiyniBK
*

''yintJ'lJSb

od. pr. 135 d.

SM. No. xcv;

"^STllBS HG.

Sabb. 1406.*^

od. pr. 101

HQ.

KanplX

TQ.

ed.

Harkavy,

b,

ed. pr. 2 6,

Seier R. 'Amram,

p. ^.

228.

591]

VERB

153

Pabtioiple. 589. Sing, masc: ^53^22 Ned. 496; "'SSna


Sabb.lla; ^nraa Y6m.96; ^nn^ti 'Er.856;^-i"l-'a, "'2152, Taan.
236; ^ariTCr B.'Q. 246; ^^^^2 ibid. 606; Xaiia''Eii Y.76id.
Sing, fern.:
Jt^nnria Yeb.

UtTBT^ Ned. 496, Ber. 256; K''5'rnDt3 'Er. 536;


87a} X;:a3WJ v. L. Sanh. 96a; Jll^Sra B.M. 84;
^''

'

108a ('224).
^Plur.masc: 'f^Spna Pes. 113 a; ^m^lZ Zeb.36; VS^-D Sanh.
107a; '^XriFl-'a B. Q'. 80a (nominal ending).

'XriFl^a Pes.

Plur.fem.: p;&3''a Sabb. 796.


Participle with Enclitic Subject - Pronouns.
a) W^rnca B.M. 356; W^'HriTDa Gitt. 766.
6)

rrara

446; nyrnzia

M. 856;' M'SJ'a Sanh. 107 a;

B.

ed. Ven. ibid.; nSS'^a Keth.

590.

rT-yniBa Ber.

1036; MS3a

ed.

Ven.

'

Ber. 566."

DOUBLY WEAK VERBS.


The Vebbs

A.

Qal.

and

tTlTl to be

tl"'?!

to live.

Perfect. 591.

^iX]n ibid.

3d sing, masc: niH Ned. 7a, 86;


486, 50a, 0. MS. M. Q. 186; ^IH Ber'5'8a, Y5ma 18a;

n^'n^^uii. 76.'
'

H^l

'3d sing, fern.:

B&q. 23a; "Kin Mace. 10a;

tW]

Ber.

M. Q. 16 a, 27 6/ nin R. H. 266, Sanh. 82 a; n^^O ^Lull. 76.'


2d sing, com.: in^in^Ber. 11a, B. M. 106a; ri"'.';n Taan. 25a;
niirt gull. 95a, M.MS. B. M. 106a; niH Sanh. 1026, Ned. 216.
206,

ist sing, com.:

nin B.M. 636;


"-l^n

''t^'''T\

"'In

'Taan. 25a.

Tarn. 32a, Succ. 446;

A.'z.

55a;

"'

tlliri

Taan. 9a;

Sabb. 156a, Sanh. 1096;

-JJIfl

]m

'En Y. Sanh. 37a; ''in"


Ned. 59a;
3dplur. masc:
36.'
Zeb. 216; Tt V. L. Sanh. 39 a, Bekh.
3d plur.fem.: -p^in O. MS. 'Er. 626; ^iCitl AE. Meg. 136.

2d plur. masc.
1st plur. com.:
'Er. 896, ed. Sal.;
]"'::ir!

cles

or

1ln

]TTl Ber. 21a, B. Q. 926, ^ull. 76a; Sj"'in


B. 256, 98a; -jlin C.MS. M. Q. 2^5 a;

-sWb.

laa- Serlra, ed. Goldberg, p. 2;

^r\'2'\T\

6.

Sabb. 156 a.

-p-lir;

in''S and in"'tt

'^tryi Sanh. 8

in SM.

No. xxv.

Of.

the same form in the parti-

182.

Hff. 250.

nT\ HG.

301

"j^ln Iga- Serlra, ed. Goldberg, p.

lin

ibid. 12.

154

III.

Imperfect.'

52a;

592.

3d

MORPHOLOGY

masc:

sing,

Y6ma 18a; ^^^3 'En

"-Iffi

[592

M. Q. 17a, Ber.

^'ttl^b

Y. S6t. 46'6;

Ber. 556;

^)tl2

SaiDk 156a; 'TO A. Z.'65a, passim; ^TO3 eds.""B. M. 126;

"rr;

Tern. 66, B. M. 620.'


3d sing, fern.: "'inn Mace. 11a, M. Q. la; ^Ij^n 5ull. 386.
2d sing. masc. ""inFl Nidd. 33 6.
2d sing, fern.: i''"'^'iri^n Gitt. 856 (legal style; the three
ySdhs are to prevent the reading "p'''in"'ri)-'
1st sing, com.: ^ITOS B. M. 8o/'"'ri''X Hull. 446; ''';riX 3 R.
'^n-'D

MS.'z"6fd.

Sdplur. masc: ^^trb M. Q. 276; ^lITO Pes. 38a; ^^T B. B.


Alf. ibid.;'Ti''^ Mace. 46; fjrT B. B. 131 o' (legal

1426; ^ITO
style).*

3dplur.fem.: ]''1)>l''b 'Er. 4a; ^Tin^b Alf. Sabb. 65a.


2dplur. masc: i^lTOn M. MS. Sanh.'39a.
2dplur.fem.: ^inPl Sabb. 1406.
1st plur. com.: JflTOb Sanh.

Imperative.

be ye, Sanh. 39 a.

593.

^ISl

39a;

^ITl^b

M. MS.

ibid.

(232a).

be thou, Mace. 11a, Ber. 63 a;

'^

Infinitive. 594. ^)TOa Mace. 126; 1in^53 read "'irp'^ 0.


''En Y. YQmk 216; !!<'';ri-53 Yeb?'l206.''
Active Participle! 595. 'ItlNed. 36; ''"I'n B. M. 107 6.

MS. Sabb. 145 6; Hin^a

5*;;in

Zeb!

49o. -p^^in ibid. 96; "f^l-ir! Ker. 5aJ ]iit.yi C.MS.


58 a. KS^in M! Q. 25 a; KD^"])! Taan. 25 a; i<DS^in Alf. B.
Ber.

B. 406; ^tV)tj Ber. 48

Aph'bl. 596.

he makes alive, Pes. 68

Aph'el.
ibid.; ^ITO

he resurrected, Sanh. 47a;

Verbs

^"^i^

he sprinkled, Zeh.4t2b;

^tOM R.

On Xn"] and Snri cf. 8, n. 4.


llln'^b HG. 44 lnl? ibid. 71.

According to Hal. Pes.

i<1D

'''^^

he sprinkles,

H. 12 a.

ed. Schlossberg, p. 102, the Palestineans write 'Iiri^''"nnn

233.
*']in''? -ffG. 415; 'i'nnib

stW. see;

'J^"in''5 -&<? ed. pr. 102 o.

ili^'in HG.396C/.).

"ninigb re.
'

''^'p^

and KM.'

B.

Yoma 19a;

^'^tl'a

a.

c/.

597.

a.

Kl^niS;

Of verbs

'^"S

ed.

Harkavy, 69; Hin'i'ab

ibid. 74.

and I"? only these two assimilate the

first

stem-consonant.

VEEB

602]
Vebbs

C.

Qal. 598.
Aph'el.

"Cl^a^

599.

155

NT, Na\ HT."

ihey swear, 'Arftkh Pes. 1136.

^''I'lN

he confessed, Sanh.30fe;

^"lijst

he taught,

Ber. 11 6; ^"fwH I taught, ^EuU. 52 a; ^nix they confessed, Ned. 81 a;


^"fh ebu. 426; ''liH cow/ess thou, Sabb. 125 a; ^^illH Yeb. 62 a;
''"iliN

Taan. 2Qh;'

^-"l^VZ

Keth. 85a; J<;iia 5ulL 66; flia Ned.


MS. Pes. 1136; -j^aia 'En Y. iUd.;

46a;

"];!!? ^Ae?/

-^iT-pZ

2 M.'mS. iUd.; -pia C.

nWia

Yeb. 62 a;
D.

swear, O.

^in^l'i?:)'

MS.

Pes. 102;

^Vm

B. B. 76a;

Sabb. 576.'

Veebs xnX, t5DH, NSK,

b^'^i^,

and lnX.

600. These verbs combine the peculiarities of verbs K"S


(409sg.) and of verbs ^'b (581sg). Only the Aph'el of i^nx
differs from that of other i!<"S verbs by passing into the ''"B class
instead of into that of VS.

times contracted to

6,

The

resulting diphthong ai

is at

at other times to d.

EXAMPLES FOR QAL.

Peefeot.
601. 3d sing, masc: KtlX Ned. 76."
Alf. Keth.
3d sing, fern.: N^nX Ned. 506, Taan." 24 o;
65 a; ''Xni^ M. Q. 16 a^ B. M. 65 a; nri;^ Ned. 50 a', 51a, 666;
S^n-'ln^X 'En Y. Succ. 516 (!); n^m MM. Qidd. 816.
"
Keth. 65a.''
2d sing, com.: n^ns Ber. 15a, Mace. 136;
Sabb.
Tam.
Succ.
1166,
com.:
^tTt)i<
32o6,
446,
1st sing,
Pes. 1106; Pl^m M. MS/Pes. 1106; ^KIHS Sabb. 140 a.

n^m

Pm

3d plur. masc: ^IHH Ned. 96, Sanh. 96a.


3dplur.fem.: ]-''Ti Meg. 276, Taan. 246; ^Kriii! Qidd. 81a.'
2d plur. masc: ^tl^nx Mace. 6a; "j^m^nX M. MS. Sanh. 95a.
1st plur. com.: "ja^lnis!' M. Q. 25a; l^^'yf. 'Arukh B. Q. 306;
jflK C. MS. M. Q. 25a;"f^riX or -jt^riil! M^MS. Ber. 6 a, ibid. 39 a.
Imperfect. 602. 3d sing, masc: ^iTi^b Taan. 246; ^fl"'!;

Gitt. 296."

3d

sing, fern.:

^TyT} Keth. 85a.

'C/. 427s8., 531sg.

2l1"lii? or

liniS

to confess,

HG.

SflX SM. No. Lxxii. (toc).


itniriX SM. No. V. a (toc).
' 'SnSJ they came, HG. ed. pr.

ed. pr. 40 a.

'"ifT'D

SM. No. xxvni. (toc).

118 a, 130 c.

156

MORPHOLOGY

in.

[608

^Ttp)^ Keth. 65a (232 a); ''n"'i|t Sabb. 41a.


3d plur. masc:
Ber. 28 ay ^fT"!) ibid. 53 o.
adplur.masc: ytT^'T} B. B. 1306.
Isi sing, com.:

wb

1st plur. com.:

Imperative.
KIT'St

final

Taan. 25a;

^in^D

603.

M. Q. 28 a;
S '

Sing,

^irT^J

ibid.

(233).

masc: ^Z^ bake

thou,

B.M. 81a

itn Ned. 116, 51a, with retention of original

Sing, fern.: "'Hn or

masc-

Flur.

^S^Fl

'Er. 536.

25 a;

!inx Ber.

M. MS. B. B. 29 a;

!in''!!;

!in

B. B. 216.

Infinitive. 604.
B. B. 1456;
to

( Jl'^.^aiab

"t^^ldb

bake

miqtai:

a)

Ber. 286,

'it,

Pes. 486;

iHB^'ab

Y6ma 776;

^^a

ifTT'-n))

Yeb. 115 a (80)

Alfasl A. Z. 65 6)

6) qutulg: ^^iSNb Alf.B.B.136; "l-ilji! B.Q.22a,B65a39a.'


Active Participle. 605. Sing.m.asc.: "'SS Men. 94a; ^"IX
Keth. 16 o; ^ns Ned. 96, 25 o; 'Pliit C. MS. Meg! 126 (voc.).

Sing,

fem. .-^^'t}^

Plur.

masc:

Plur.

fem.:

TF.

jlnK

Ned. 46, 506.


113a, Ker. 236;

^Jl^ B. Q.
-j-^^nS

-jriiS!

Ned. 36; -^y^. Ber. 58 6;

TF. Ker. 24a.


Ker. 26a;

^"JXIHIS:

ibid.

with Enclitic Subject - Pronouns.


606.
M. 81a; 5<2''ns Ber. 20a, Qidd. 966; -jD-^ns Ber. 166;
M. 109 a.

Participles
S^D-'SK

B.

^ri-riN B.

examples for pa"el.


Infinitive. 607. nxSSb Sabb. 67 a, Ned.49a; 'I'laxB.Q.
86a; (fiirSiSlb Ned. 49a; "^T'^^Hb eds. ibid.).
Participles. 608. ''Da Sanh. 107 6, Sabb. Ill a; ^tsa Sabb.
78a; r-'Sa Gitt. 566. rS)J I heal, B. Q. 85 o.

EXAMPLES FOR APh'eL.


Perfect.
''^ri''5<

3d

C.

609.

MS.

sing, fern.:

916, M.

3d

sing,

masc:

Hn'^'liS;,

MS. Sabb. 64 a;

XJl"'T2

TG.

Ber. 86, Ned.

25a;

Nidd. 206; nr^^^X Alf. Ned.


Ned. 91a, Keth!" 67 6; riSl''n''^S
Ned. 916; n^ri^X MM. Taan. 246.'

Nn''''i);,
K;;ln5)!

'En Y. Ned. 666; nS-'n'^iS! Allf.^


2d sing, com.: T\''T\^^)^ A. Z. 146;
ed.

21SniS BQ.

^t\''^)^

Pes. 886, 89 a.

Harkavy,

nn'^'^X Gitt.

234.

300; nS<iriS<

BG.

ed. pr. 63a;

nini"'S

ibid. 69a.

526.

613]

VERB

1st sing, com.:

'Nm

157

Qidd. 726; ^IT'nx 'En Y. Meg. 276;

'n^lrr"'J^

Meg. 276, Me'ila 206, Ker. 206.

Mplur. masc:
Ned. 506;
'f?^'!^;

ilPl^^N;

!lK''ri''':i);

Ned.

T"!*!!

Istplur. com.:

Taan. 25a, Ned. 496;

M. MS.
26.'

Keth. 1036, Pes. 1076;

^T)rr<''l^

1076; S<rni< Taan. 24 a;


B. Q. 16a,

M. MS.

]TT)''^ii<
^

'

'lT'i''^iH
^

''

sing,

fem.:

"''

Pes. 886;

Sabb. 134a;

"'^"'''3

M. MS. B. Q. 1136.
Ned. 546, B. M. 676, Sanh. 96 o.

^tr-'Tl

1st sing, com.:

"^n'^'^b

Taan. 25a.

''t\''T\

sing, com.:

3dplur.masc.:
!in-'-]D

XS'-fl^K Pes.

Pes. 1076;'

'3b6.'''

Impeefect.
610. 3d sing, masc:
Ker. 5a; ^fl'^a TF. ibid.; 'JTl-'b Pes. 886.

3d
2d

'En Y.

!lS"'n''K

Ber. 316, 'En Y. Sanh. 101 a, eds.

't^^^lA

W^b,

iltY'D

^in^b, Sabb. 134 a; ^n'^"'b Gitt. 676;


Yeb. 9a," M. MS. Pes. 27a; '-JWT 0. MS.

Pes. 886.

3dplur.fem.: T\'^''b
'En Y. Taan. 246; lIT'D
It;It" Pes. 27 a.
2dplur. masc: ^IT^Fl Sabb. 966.
Imperative. 611: Sing. masc. ]''ri^';X Ber.;226, 446, B. Q.
1136, Sanh. 96 a; "Pi"-]!)! TF. Ker. 18 a.'
Sing, fem.: ''TT''^ Ned. 666.
Plur. masc: ^tl^K Bekh. 86;
Ned. 50 o.
Infinitive. 612. a) 'aqtul6: '^;'W';S M.Q.I la; ^T^TT^^b
Ned. 486, 506, 89 a; ^^^m) Ned. 48 6, 55 a.*
6) 'aqtala: n''''K S5ta 336.
.

'

''n''';!!?;

maqtul:

o)

ItT'lHI^

'En Y. Taan. 246, with omission

of last

stem-consonant.
d)

maqtal:

^n^^a Keth. 65a.'

Active Participle. 613. Sing, masc: )Xrp''12 Sabb. 666;


^TTQ TF. Ker. 5 a, 24 a; "'in^^a Ned. 646, Ker. 5 a.
Sing, fern.: m-'^IZ Gitt. 5 6; ^"TpZ Ned. 81

Plur.
Gitt.
1

masc:

56 a;

iin-'M

1'^ri"')?? S'G'-

a."

M. MS. H6r."3a; ^in^a Yeb. 9a;


X^'''%
ri'.

^n''';^

Ker. 23 a.'

*05; ^III^IIJ* ibid. 541.

2]^rinii(l ye brought, BG. 464 (232 a).

Vh

bring not, B. Q. 1136.

'

Of. "^Xy^'^'A

The traditional pronunciation

Ilni"'s!3

BG.

102.

is

Cf. 30, u.

"'"'inSb

ijita'a

<= sjirra) bo.

219.

'

iin'a bg.

m.

158

MORPHOLOGY

III.

Plur.fem.:

j-'^lna

B.

M. 106a, Ker.

[614

76.

with Enclitic Subject -Pbonouns.


Qidd. 606.' 5) TrT)^''12 Ber. 446; T\rr''T?

Pabticiple
a)

iXj''rr''12

iUd.^ Mk.

B. M. 846.

c)

614.
Ven.

ed.

Nidd. 206.'

'^Ttp^lZ

EXAMPLES FOB ITHPA"aL.


615. Pebfect.

3d

3d

masc:

sing,

''5Fl''ij5

Sabb. 33a.

it^Sn^K Gitt. 696; MH^tpn-'X Keth. 626.

sing, fern.:

^XSn^K Yama84a; 'i^SPK B.M. 856;

1st sing, com.:

M. MS. ibid.
3d plur. masc.

%Fl''K

Infinitive. 'I'iSn^K

"Bp-'lSt

5ag. 8 a.

Gitt. 126.

Pabticiple. ^Sna Ned. 506. "jD-'Sna A.

Z. 27a.

rake conjugations.
616. These conjugations contain rare forms of the tri-coneonantal verb and quadri-consonantals.

groups:

The

latter fall into three

a formative

a) Tri-consonantal stems with

element;

6) tri-consonantal stems with duplication of third consonant, or

bi-consonantal stems with duplication of entire stem; c) denominative

and foreign quadri-consonantal verbs. The formative


first group may be either prefixed in front of the

element of the

stem, or infixed after the

first

or the second stem-consonant.

Some stems are prefixed by H, TO,


617. Prefixed Stems.
The
three
are old causative forms; the last
or
n.
first
D, 5,
two, although having an active force, are derived from reflexive
stems.

618. Infixed Stems.


is

The

infix after the first

stem-consonant

The

infix after the

either 3, ^, or TB, about which see 45.

second stem-consonant

is

H, which

619. Duplicated Stems.

is

probably of reflexive origin.

About the formation

duplicated third stem-consonant,

c/.

of stems with

Barth, Nominalbildung, ^14:1.

Duplicated bi-consonantal stems appear sometimes also in a sim-

form as TV as DS^JS, bnbn, riUJSTi: or as y? as babn,


bnbl and others. Parpel forms are sometimes dissimilated
Palpel stems (53).
Once we find a tri-consonantal stem with

pler

b!jb3

duplication of the
1

SDnitt BG.

473.

first

stem-consonant (637).
2

;:nin'a bg.

526, 527.

619]

VERB
Rare Conjugations.

159

160
Po'El.

620.

variant

ical

MOKPHOLOGY

III.

"ijio

Here belong three verbs ^310 with its graphto cup, V^^iS to cry, and ^tsil to he small

^Dio appears in Syriac as

(51, 56).

"iSp {cf. 'Arftkh

s. v.

''lij"'pb

and has

a variant

636

j^o]

Per/ec/. y;iSNidd.426;

^'^.^

^piT belongs originally to

"I3C iv).

and appears in Syriac as

Infinitive.

L ^^^

Y^';i:2

B.M.296;

first

vowel;

it

may be

This form

or ^"liS'^cb A. Z. 29 a.

Po'el with dissimilation of

nnt:iT Qidd.126.

may be

Pai'el or Pa"el

Participle. ^pit'D Ned. 546; ("S'^ljiCa Yeb. 72a; ]T'-p'il


H. MS. B. Q. 92a).'
Ithpo'bl.
621. Perfect.
ItairS^ it seemed of little value,
Sanh. 95 a; npim 'En Y. ibid. (51)'.

XipiiW^ Ned. 506.


622. Perfect.
MS. A.
705.
Imperfect. "3Si;nri
shakest
Participle.

Ithpolel.^

I was

^:iji7::n^!{

M,

languid,

Z.

thoti

thyself,

'Arukh Yeb. 63 a,

Participle. "jS-2T\-2 M. MS. A. Z. 706.

Haph'el. 623. Perfect. (I^^J'^^n he believed him, B. Q.


115 a) '353^" I believed, B. B. 73 6; (iinp^riynin I informed them,
Sanh. 107a; ^n^lJTO^n Pes. 46; ^nriip^H"'? M. MS. ibid.).
Imperfect. {^r^TViTrb Pes. 46;' ^nS^pp^ri^? M. MS. ihid.).
;

Active Participle.

(J!<373-'n7J

trust, B.

llQb/ '^jO^TpZ

'^iTTpZ B. B.

Alf&si ibid.;

M. 86a; NrDM-na B. B. 170 o;

"|r3a-'na

B. Q. 1,126).

Passive Participle. '\)T'rpZ B.M. 366, B.B. 159 a. Keth. 276,


^-^IZ^roZ Gitt. 3o; Va^Ha B. B. 159a; (Wri^na B.M.

A. Z. 176;
366).*

Infinitive. ^VVT'n Gitt. 296, B. Q. 115 o, A. Z. 176.'


1

For participles of passive stems

cf.

189. b'^5''P12 bears, TG. ed. Harkavy, 550.

On

cf.

Earth

the formation of the form

in Semitic Studies in

honor of Dr. Kohxd,

pp. 83-B3.
3

The a

is

due to the influence of the following nasal.

TQ^n an old loan-word found also in Arabic and in the other Aramaic dialects.
Lagardp, Uebersicht, p. 121, note.
*

is

'linnSln

Hal. Pes. 73;

NDXJ^inU HG.

frequently found in later literature

THJIBJnb Igg.Serlrd,
TO.

''\!y^f)r[

ed. (ioldberg, p.

liV;

^IffiBDnU

ed. O'assel, 91.

410;

pBDH

denominative of

JJB.ll; "i^yofrh 'bid.61;


.

Tff.'ed!

Cf.

pBDH,

"hi^pTib

is

ibid.153;

Harkavy, 186; 'l^lilpBinia


r-

-.

VERB

627]

Ithhaph'al. 624. Imperfect.

625.

Ittaph'al.''

remained, Pes. 836;

'yrf\W')^

was

T2J"')3ri^H

'^''t\T\'h

was added, Qidd. llhj


was compared. Pes.
50a;
Sabb. 836, Qidd. 34a; 12Ji|3n^K

ibid.,

T23'j3F)''!!J!

Sanh. 63a; bsn^'S was saved, Ber. 54a;


KSDin-^l!)!

''pTn''K

S8ta 2&.'

C|pin^!Si

40 a,

refuted, Sabb.

61a, Sebu. 136;

became composed, Sabb. 52 o;

niniri?K

"ilnin"'})!

161

S6ta

b'-SFl'^ilt

Yeb. 57 a. nbsri"!!)! A. Z. 186; niptn-'X Ber.

i6td. !|Spin^X

(sic)

466.
96.

iUd. 28 a; T2:!l|5n^il<"'ebu.86. ^'^Fl'^S

546. '^tpipn'^S Sanh. 63a',


ebu.
ri^. Ker. 186, 226; yina t6id. 256;' qpipi^a
Ned. 17 a; naina is /itVed, M. MS. B. M. 65 a; DJ^ina Yom. 26;
b^ana Gitt. 706. XSpin-'a Yeb. 57a; Xapin^a Nidd. 18a,
B. B. 82a "p-Tri-^a Qidd. 296. nbssn'^a A.z. i8o; jS'^ban'^a
Ker. 25a.' ^Spin^b M.

Ti?'.

MS.

'Er.

86. y-jirr^a

V. L. Sanh. 93a.*

Saph'bl. 626. Perfect. ^^I-HD he rescued,Bei.QOaj

"i-iniE

he manumitted, ibid. 47 6; T3Sir B. M. 13 a, B. B. 176 a; (W'^aFlpTH


enclosed him, 'Arukh

/ie

Gitt.

136;

^SiayiZJ

Gitt.'

A. Z. 26;

68 a); nnriC Yeb. 1146; ^jniS'lB

-jniiyTi:

M'.

MS.

ibid.

Imperfect. {TlT^irib^Si^'b Sabb. 986.)


Infinitive. ^SinhiL B. M. 25 a, B. B. 99 a;

""liS^^TIJ Gitt.

496,

Sanh. 106 a; nnSyilJ 'Ar. 236; (n'^arirb to rescue him, B. M.

866; n^nttrisb^P. MS.

t6td.).'

Active Participle. "-W-pn Gitt. 496; i^iayiSS; Qidd. 7 a;

106 a.

"y^S^D-O Sanh.

Passive Participle. iXlSSim-a B. M. 786;

'

^anbllia B. B. 99 a, B.
'

Istaph'al.

M. 25 a;

627.

''tlbTlJ

Perfect.

'''Ili^tlZ

Ber. 6 6; '^nbTfla

^naynffiX

"
.

B. B. 696;

M. MS.
Z.

6,

ibid.

8 6;

JlTayrnr'^X "En Y. a. Z. 26;

'nayrnCH' Bekh. 486;

-liiayniB^j^

'Ar. 206;
'En Y. A.

ll^iyrnijij!

Bekh. 48 a;

'jS^'liyri'TriS!

-|!l^nrnpi<
'

Yeb. 976;

''

Z. 26.
Harkavy, 64.

'

pSDnJT'S TG.

Here belong the foUowing verbs

mp,
3

'

ed.

nin.
By analogy with T'B
'IDbSri''')?

^{3T1lBb

SM. No.
rff- ed.

XXVIII.

Harkavy,

388.

1JS, 711, nD^, SDI,

in"', pTI, bSS, ICD:

162

MORPHOLOGY

III.

Imperfect T^Pji^^b

M. 736; TaJniBn

B.

Gitt.

Infinitive. '-n^rnn-'iit.

Gitt.

496; Taynioa B. B.

'layriTD^J ibid.;

X'13yrni!7J ibid.' 4:4: b;

Gitt. 39b.

38 a.

ParfetpZe. layntpa b. q. 20 6,
157 a;

[628

Bekh.

^ija'sypiXDIZ

486 (with nominal ending). W"iaynB7J B. Q. 206, Pes. 31a.


Note. Here belongs the denominative y^iiariTBij! to identify.
Only in legal style.
SOy'li'anwS Keth. 1046.

Saph'el.

628.

Participle.

(staawDr) guU. 76).


Taph'el.

M. Q.

Perfect.

ibid, id.);

explained
explained

B. B. 1076;

Imperfect. tiyTfri

61a;

Ber. 47 a;

hastens,

he chopped
it,

off,

'Arukh

Ber. 196; Wjia"in

^IT^'Tl Ned. 386, Pes. 426; (KH^anrf they

B. B. 69 a);

it,
it,

Infinitive.

'Er.

-nTOSri

106, B. B.'54a; (K^JaiP he explained

Yen.

ed.

-629.

3n^p53

KSa^ain Qidd. 486;

Gitt.'

-(ffia''a'in

we

Sanh. 86).

i^3a"'a"iri id.

41 a; Uyp^T} B. B. 776, 786.

"'SiS^flb to sprinkle,

M. Q. 66;

''jiiltiti

to molest,

by assimilation).

(for "'^i'lpFl

Active Participle. at^yr)^ Pes. 68a; "^jltlJatt 'Er. 61a;


^rpta M. MS. ibid.; {\Tm'^'r\'n Nidd. 316, Sabb. '106).

Naph'el.' 630. Imperfect.

j''ri;Bil''b

makes water, Sabb

134 a.
Active Participle. [t^^F\mi^ Sabb. 134a (58)]; 'pnioaa

M. MS.

DMSa

ibid.;

Par'el.

'Artikh ibid. (35).

631. 'Per/ec/.

l-'Sn^B

(PT'pnn he

1026;

'Er.

locked him, up, 'Ariikh B. Q. 856).

Imperfect. b^.'lT^
Sabb. 666).
Imperative.

Gitt.

^l^'Il'lTfl

69 a; baiJD ^Artikh

{6i(i.;

(?:i^binab

Sabb. 1476.

Active Participle. "'pS'iaa Sabb. 94a.


Passive Participle.
'Arukh Ned. 916.
pT"llril3

C/.

Assyrian

Arabic Nt>-o

IV.,

nabuta, napraSu, *aaplau

= Ot>-?

jl^ = Jiff

-AAA-gJ

= (J**^

^"

H-. iJy^i

II.,

'^''-

^
*^^

^yi>- !

^Xff

(Delitzsch, Assyr. Gram., p. 234),

H-. jjw.***:^

III. IV.,

JvAJU and the noun

= u**i-

^;-4-i =
JtjLi

IV.,

^^

i^Jli

I- II-.

and
lijj"

(jl-i-^,

VERB

640]

163

Ithpab'al. 632. Per/eo^. a^l_ri< was lopped off, Men.


386; nainipi< Sanh. 24 a; DWja^ijt Men. 39 a; ^W'lT^. Alfftsl
'En Y. Qidd. 496.

ibid.; Silsiinffl^K

Infinitive. ^:2i'TT\iS^^ Sanh. 24a;


''S]'5-!a''H

Alfftsl

Men.

^12i^"ia"'K

Men. 386, 89a;

'390.

Participle. p-'J'ym Ned. 916.

Pan'el. 688. Imperfect. '^^2Ti


(f^I^'n'lSrS

let

him

A. Z. 28a;

roll,

Gitt. 696).

Ithpan'al. 634. Per/ecf. TTlSrjS 'Arflkh


Infinitive. ^'^TiH B. Q. 85 a; ""il^ia^K

Gitt. 776.

M. MS.

Participle. fi'^^'a B. Q. 35 a; iHyn^a she lords


Pas'el.

635.

Perfect.

120a).
Passive Participle.-

ibid.
it,

Taan. 236.

(ffllpioa they discovered

^IplZJua 'Er.

Yeb.

it,

19a.

SSniZJaa 'ArGkh

Pa'tel and Ithpa'tal. 636. Participle.


B. M. 23 a; Kanipra eds. ibid.'

Pa'pel. 637. Perfect. Tr^;^_ he dripped, Keth. 176.


Infinitive.

^3'i''I1'^

Pa'lel.^638.

ibid.

Perfect.

t3t:"lir

Par/ictpie. tianto Yeb. 1066;

he drew

lines, Gitt.

'Oti'V^'D

^ull. 926.

7 a.

Ithpa'lal. 639. Perfect. 'a'O'pTk was depilated, A.


69a, Nidd. 566; an'1S'"'i< became confused, R. H. 166.
Imperfect. 3.'3.'\Tb R. H. 27 a, 28a; inanj-^b A. Z. 26.
'

Z.

Infinitive. 'oixirpTii. A. Z. 69 a.

Participle. :i.'3.'-'T'n R. H. 28a; tianS^a 'Arftkh Nidd. 566.

Palpel. 640.'Per/ec/. bvbT Keth. 48a;


exception, B. B. 296;

46, Qidd. 316;

Zeb. 94a;

iri'iri

Bei*.

^y-i?

56 a;

he took

D!35J''5

A. Z.

rinsed,

Sanh. 37a; V2pT:i Yeb. 46a (with

loss of

T]TflD''T2J

^lIH'iri

he meditated,

he rinsed, A. Z. 576;

"'i''^5T2

stem -vowel).

Jmper/ed. btlba^b,
A. Z. 596;

brbTFl

Imperative.

bpbtJ-'D, 'Er. 246, Succa 246; t^TliS^'b


^ag. 5 6; ^blbrb Yoma 26; nynyj Gitt. 46'.
^t3!j{t5

sweep, Meg. 18

13 a;
1

""JiipiIJp.b

a,

R. H. 26a.

MS. Meg. (voc);

Infinitive. a) "birbrb 0.

""lilTirib

Nidd.

Succ. 446; ^oiSCSb Sabb. 140 a; ''bitlbpb ibid.

Here belonged originaUy also lulT

Cf. 620.

164

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

45 o;

[641

5un. 1196; ''piapa lUd. 4 a;

''binbri

^-liyny

4 a;

Gitt.

"piSpe Sabb. 155 a.


6) ^b'i^yp 'Er. 246.
c)

JSbiT^'^Tb

A. Z. 35 a.

d) ^imi'^Tr A. Z. 576 (used as finite verb).'

Active 'Participle. a) bllibira

bsbna

4 a;

i6td.

69 a;

D353ja Meg. 316; l^l^a B.

ma? Pes.
6) KOapaa

566;

OMpaS

Sabb. 110a;

5ull.

Sabb. 154 &; ysySt) ^ull. 97 a;

qiflSTBa"
JB.

DSMa

436;

Pes. 1206, Sabb.


'

'

1206.

'

Yeb. 426;

N^aS^a

XTjiairaa Hull. 9 a;

ibid.

Yeb. 120a; i^bllbna Zeb. 94 a; tliaSa


Keth. 17 6.=^
466; Kbp^pa
t;~:
t'::'-;
t-::~:
'TrplBp7J Succ.

c)

Men.' 52 a;

'bTbia

446; "'asaDa

"d)

"jbTlib^ZJa

536; ^nbnba A.

Z.

386;

^bpbpa Sabb. 128 a;

^laauJaa K.'h. 15 a;

A. Z. 36 a; ^^tinn2 Alf. B.

JlbjbTa

ibid.

M.

act as laxative, Gitt. 70 a, Keth. 106;

"|'Jp1pa

53a6.

5:ull.

Passive

Participle.

a)

oapaa

28 a,

IJull.

536;

S'p'lpa

e. Kbtlbpa ibid.; K^p'lpa ibid. 150 a.


^bnbna Ber! 59a; ^p-ipa'/^bt^bt^a, B. B. 446.

B. B. 68 a;'
c)

d) ibsb^a are mixed up, Bekh. 44 a.

Participle with Enclitic Subject-Pronouns.O.

MS.

106;

Pes. 1206;* nblbTa

Sabb.
"i^btibtia
~
't

M.

^asasa
B.M.

Q. 18a; jS'bibTa

47 a, 49 a, 124 o; {TtBtSa
it

doze,

526, A. Z.

155 a.

ibid.

Ithpalpal. 641. Perfect. %bT^ B.M. 40a,


44a (Tos. i6id.' b^l'^bTN).

Gitt.

73a;

b^b-n^X 'Ariikh, Hull.

Imperfect. bwbT]^^) Sabb. 108a; bsbnb M.Q. 96/ bpbpTl


K. H. 196.
Infinitive. ^biibTiiUnll.U a; ^bipbiS^t^b 'Er.49a; ^bipbpb

M. MS.

ibid.

iTiyiyb rlow.hqi.
2

This

is

shortened from n'aS'aS'Q.

5yp"lp (=
*

Shortened form (or

sessive
5

/J'\i') '^ "

pronoun

nipT5'a

for n'^jrnCJt! (58).

dissimilated form of *"lp1p

"'5)35''3?''3

for the enclitic

^5^3^ SM. No.

Cf.

I* '^'

cf. 327, u. 3,

CXLIII. (voc).

= Assyr. kakkaru.

however, possible that we have here the pos-

and

714.

;
.

645]

VERB

165

Participle. 'b\h^''1Z R. H. 196; bnbn-p P. MS. Ber. 596;


^^P^P/'^ 'Er. 886; "'baba^a 5ull. 266; ^^pbtJ^a B. B. 69 a.'

Paepbl. 642. Per/ec/. Tli'^S^S


143 a,

he nodded assent, B. B.

'Er. 656.

Imperfect -d^ppli A.
Imperative.

'ffl"'3"l3

Z. 126, 'Arukh Pes. 112a.


Nidda 42 a.

Infinitive. ^ir'i5']i Sabb, 796; ^^ip'1p_ Ber. 296.


Active Partieiple. Vip'-fiyn A. Z. 60a, Keth. 86a;
Ber. 62a;

"'TTp'^iJ^J

--:

iT2:p^p53

B. B. 156a.

Denominative and Foreign Pluriconsonantal Verbs.

Active. 643. Perfect. t^^VQ he twitched, Gitt. 706; D''3'1B


'Ar. 7a; j''3T2Ja B. M. 72a; 1312353 B. M. 68a, 786.
Imperfect.
(il!l3"'53nSK I will press it out, 'Arukh Gitt. 69a)
Infinitive. a) ^biD"iB 'Ar. 29 a, Ber. 14 a, Pes. 112 a; ^llpS
Men. 966; ^pi3T2:a M. MS. B. M. 113a.

6)

"pi3TB

'Ar. 7a.

Active Participle. ya-iX^IZ Nidd. 14 a; bS'lM

sifts,

B.

M.

266; bS^Xt! 'Arukh i6id.; JJtbp'^Sr Men. 40a; '^D^ana B.B.896;


l^ti^pbria Skbb. 156 a.
Passive Participle.
X53p'nS53 HOr. 4a.

Passive. 644. Perfect'. b^yi'^'] Hull. 49 a, for *b^3l^!!^J<[1]


H. 24 a, HSr. 46.'
Imperfect. nO'^B'^b Yeb. 1016.
Infinitive. b^y-D i= *b:2.'}r'a) ^ull. 43 a.
Participle. briB^'a Gitt. 686; i^lp^B'^a Men. 966; "pT'lSn^n

Stap'ir!!* R"

^ull. 43a.

VERBS WITH OBJECTIVE SUFFIXES.


A.

Vebbs not

645. Owing

"""b

WITH Objective Suffixes.

to the lack of vocalization, the

changes which

the verbal forms undergo before suffixes cannot be exactly deter-

mined.

'Nor

is

tradition of

much

help here.

The

digms subjoined here (pp. 166, 167)


some help to the student, but cannot do justice
variety of forms, both in the body of the verb, as

tables of para-

are calculated to afford

suffixes.
'

'IB'^TOT'I? moving,

2'j'l?ni!S

HG.

SM. No.

ed. pr. 127 c, for

Liii.

inDniSi.

to

the great

well as in the

166

III.

MOKPHOLOGY

Strong Verb with Suffixes.


QAL.

[645

645]

VEKB
Strong Verb with Suffixes.

QAL.

167

;
,

168

MORPHOLOGY

III.

[646

646. The following can be stated with certainty:


1. Verbs I"? and $'"$ frequently pass before suffixes into

"^"b

forms.
2.

Forms

ending in h]^" frequently substitute

of the plural

form the corresponding form of the


not only before suffixes beginning with a

before suffixes for that

singular

and

this

vowel, but also, although less frequently, before suffixes begin-

ning with a consonant.

Such
the

phenomenon

probably due to various causes.

is

place to a promiscuous

first

use of the genders.

In

Thus,

^n3"^ribt3p

ye have killed them and ^HSbpp they have killed them

may come

not from the masculine forms iWbtip and ^bt3p, but

from the obsolete feminine forms 1''ribpp and ibtip ^PlS'^btip they
killed them, not from ibpp, but from its by-form ''bpp (232 a)
Pl''bppl!|; they had him killed, from b^t:pi< (231) with vowelsyncope, as in the infinitive; in a form like ]3n''S"'Q3 you have
put us to shame, the syncope of m may be due to the accent, just
as i^'Pi^'pT Ni^nC^rt '3t:3!ll2: are traditionally pronounced Kllpr
;

3.

SJDSlZJ^rt,

with the accent on the antepenultima.

"'DtiS^TIJ,

Short vowels are sometimes retained in the verb under the

influence of an adjoining 1, guttural, or emphatic consonant; e.g.,


i^IT'l^aS
4.

said

The

suffixes.

it,

]D^pi"i3''b

infinitives

In the

he redeems us.

ending in

''~

or 1S~ lose this ending before

infinitives of the derived conjugations the

the second stem-consonant

is at

times omitted.

This

is

i~ of

especially

the case in the Aph'el before plural suffixes.

647. The
let

list

of objective suffixes given above

here follow in augmented and improved form:

(112) we

VERB

650]

169

Plural.
Ist com.

i3(7)'i*r'ir'it'ir'rT'iT

2d masc.
2d fem.

[jiir7] ,^S27 .ttS-'T A'2^- A'D-

W2-

.iinsT .iins'^T ,'iin2''- ,!in-

n3"'7 ,5^r- ,^137

3d masc.

[]- ,1^-

3d fem.

,']^2''-]

,i''27

NoTE.

Instead

,13^7

,-|!l27 ,-|^2''-

,]riT~] ,]-

,-j^3- ,sin"27 ,^n''2^7

[j"?-

,!12''7

,^n7 ,iin-

,]''-

."TO- ,^n27 ,^nr- ,^ri-

we find sometimes posand the reverse with the noun. Cf.

of objective sufl&xes

sessive suffixes with the verb,


also 113.'

Bracketed forms occur only in Gaonic literature.


The traditional pronunciation of the pronominal suffix of the
third feminine singular is W"", the correctness of which is confirmed by

the occurrence of the spelling >^~ for

tV

vocalization 1^7 found in two or three examples in the C.

be judged in the same manner as

is to

""SSO

The

MSS.

(558 a) and similar

examples.

perfect with suffixes.


3d Sing. Masc.

648. 1st sing,

IM

ibid.;

''^'2'n

Pa"el:

Pes.

masc gaL1106

''32n"lp Pes.

]y2p_

R.H. 266;

1133 Ned. 506;

(in an old charm-formula).

1106

(in an old charm-formula).

Aph'el: "^^Tki^^ Keth. 104a; '\:itm Pes. 110a, B. B. 316;


ISjSK A. Z. 58 a.
'

'

Ithp^'el: 1''tpanTIJ"'S B. Q.

649. 2DSING.

12a;

MASC QaZ.-

jnt:''arn2J''lSt

T]!:!

eds. ibid.

Ned. 50a;

^nti;:

Ber.546;

Keth. 1046.

Tji^

^^Pa"el:
Aph'el:

89a;

t]5"ia

M. Q.

l}5aTi|;

96.

Sanh. 1096; r\bm Qidd. 526; 'q^'lDBK B. Q.

t^J^TK ibid.' 36 a; Tji^aTit

'En Y. Sanh. 1096.

650. 2d sing, fem. QaL1

The

5ull. 127a.

pronoun with a verb is probably found in IfT^niOri I astonFor other explanations of this word see the dictionaries.

enclitic personal

ished at you, Sanh. 95a.

Tj^pTBD

170

MORPHOLOGY

III.

[651

651. 3d sing, masc gaZ.- n^?n]? Ber. 20a; f^'^pn^fl Ned.


62a; ^^^;ip_ B. B. 606; PJ-S^pnn Gitt. 46 a; n^S?"!]? B. B. 169 a;
4 a (p-'IID).
n-^-^Ta Sanh.'96a; PITO M. MS.' ibid.; t^'^^lD K. H.
Pa'eZ;

52a;

Pes.

Ned. 316; t^^wm


Keth. 91a.'

iinrSlT

Aph'el:

Pl"'-i:!2aS

Ned. 41a;

676; fl-S^^ra 'Ariikh

Gitt.

f^"3"*;ri

Pl"'3''n''S|;

Ned. 35a;

n^rTOfflSl;

Sanh. 1186; H^rariii^ 'Er. 30a; n^^iins; Sanh. 64a.


Saph'el: Y'J.T^ Sanh. 66a.

652. 3d sing. fem.

Qal:

t^bti]?

Mace. 16a.

Pa"el: riTSTD B. B. 36; nbn]^ ibid. 626; I^^Tp Qidd. 59a,


Pes. 1106; Jj^THnffi Yeb. 108 6.

i^Tp-ia
"

i_p/i'eZ.-

ni^ppSJtM.Q. 5 a;

Keth. 60a; PTn'^i?;Ned.50a;

PI=inii^

S^BC;^ Meg. 286; iJ^ncrK Ned. 23 a.


'

653. 1st PLUR. COM. goL- ^rnTSriPes.506; 3''nM::M.Q.6a.


"
Pa'el: ]Ty*y Taan. 236.
'

Aph'el: ji^iaTTNl Ned.


Ber. 36a.

654. 2d plur. pem.

786;

Qal:

"yaiCi!<

Taan. 24a;

"jS^aTrX

^pSSH Pes. 1106 (in an old magic

formula).
>

Aph'el: ^iprapiX Qidd. 58a.

655. 3d plur. MASC gaL- !in3"'an3 M.Q. 3a; !in3"'|i)'^ B. Q.


101a; ^np^ap Gitt. 68 a; ^^J^S Keth. 85 a; ^n3b-'S?a''Er. 536;
Ber. 546; j^S-'Tj^Jtp Ned. 916; linrTpyb AifasI
]^rp^n Me'ila 2o6; -jTaS M. MS. Zeb. 186.'
)^3''bpp

ibid.;

'

Pa"el: Ti^b^V Mace. 20 a;

^HS'^tS^^'b

Sebu. 36 a;

^ri3?"in

Ber. 616.^

Aph'el: ^HS^^'^tpiX Sanh. 266;

Mace. 206,

Gitt.

47 o; ^nr^pSX B.

^nrpBX
m'.

Pes.

110a; ^HS^^iniX

306; ^HSriSuiS

ibid.

22a;

^npTllDS Yeb. 35a; Xr43pii)i Sanh. 72a.'

656. 3d plur. FEM. QaZ.Pa" el: ^nS^BTZJ Meg. 4 a.


Aph'el:

^n2T2J'-'"1BH

C.

MS.

rr^ynu sm. no. vm.

'

rri^jD

inaipaiD SM. No. Lxxu.

(Voc.)

iriDin'aiB sm. No. xlvi. (voc.)

^iir"ll2y! ed, pr. "Er.

Zeb. 66.

(voc).

'j^SnOD ho. ed.

pr. 15

6,'

'jlSiy'in Igg- Senra,

455; j1S"'?'''0'^ri

ro.

ed.

J3">nD3

^e'el. 73.

ed. Goldberg, p. 2; 'jDI'lSn

ibid. 9.

*^n">3in3lBN HCi.

43 a, 56a.

Harkavy, 214.

664]

VEKB

171

3d Sing. Fem.

657. 1st

sing,

com.. Qal:

"jln^'ip 'Er.

658. 2d sing. M.ASC.Aph'el:


659. 3d sing. UASG. Qal:
ibid. 13a; t^^ni^T Sanh. 108 &.
Pa'^el:

rtWaT Meg.156;
'

62b.'

'^iKp'^'T^

nWnn

65a.
B. Q, 47a.

Qicld.39?),40a;

f^^tlbp_Tfl

n''nt:ra Ned. 326; n^nn^TT


''" Keth.
"

'

''

"

'

Aph'el: n^nnSTTi? B. M. 59?); Pl^nnniX Sabb. 1096.


Ithp^'el:

nwarnp^N

5ull. 7a, Qidd. 716.

660. 3d sing, fem. gaZ.- t^nXi^ Sabb. 816; itnbi^Ti: Ifag.


5a; itnaa Sanh. 826; S^nii'^ Sabb.'i5'66.
Pa"^i: nn-inp Sanh.Ylba; nnS^Sy 'En Y. ibid. 826.
Aph'el: nV\n^ii! Ned. 216, 22ayJinp^EiJ! Sanh. 39a; Snri3^
5ag. 5 a.
661. 3d PLUE. MASO. gaZ.-

B.B. 123 a;

^fi^^t^VO-'^)

Keth.Ua;
Meg.

I^SflbS^ Ned. 68 a; nS^rCipa 'AE.

Tl^^tyipl^

136.''

Pa"el: ^insri'T^d Sanh. 93a; '^nS'^n'^'llTlJ Alfftsl B. B. 106;


iinWST F. MS! B.M. 38 a.
'ApKel: ^r^Tt)'$':-l)^ C. MS. Meg. 16a (voc.).'

662. 3d plue. 'fem. gaL- "'n3n^;2n Keth. 366; "nsniijns


60a; (nrnu533 Alfasii6id.)>'

i62d.

2d Sing Com.

663. 1st sing,


118a.

Pa" el:
ApKel:

com. gaL-

'^T^m B. B. 84a;
-rinS'lS Ber.

'^VOra

-jn"!?^ Ber.

31a;

^''m

^ag.

6;

'\^'p^

Pes.

56 a; -iFl&ap Sanh. 55a.

Keth. 60

6;

I'nn'niX B.B.
'

316; "n-nSIX M. MS. ^ag. 226; "innipK Qidd. 40 a.'


664'. 3d sing, masc gaZ.- PrTS^B Ned. 25 a; 1TT\TJ: Ber.
58 a;

f^^nn'^n';

Y6ma

696.

Pa''el: H^n^"!?)! Ber. 18 6; ^I^FlB'^M

96

a; t^'^nT'ia

M. MS.

5ag. 5a; n^nT"]? Sanh.

ibid.

Aph'el: ri"'P5''baS Ber. 13a; n'^nMbirSl Ber. 566.

nnaiJiians sg.
3'i1snb^^i:sGed.

ed. pr.

na,

pr. 73 c.

*insn'p>"inns-ff.453.

isc.

172

III.

3d sing. fem.

665.
ibid.

MORPHOLOGY

Qal:

[665
Ned. 41a; Kn^lSX

Pir\^"iai);

41a.

Aph'el:

Ned. 19a; ^T]y\^

H'FilT'piii^

666. Ist'^pluk. com. QaLPa"el: 5/nS^&3 Qidd. 81a.


Aph'el:

|5^ri'"iaj5<

ibid.

"(D'^Fl'l^cn

22a, 23a.

Taan. 22 a.

teach us, 'En Y. ^ag. 13a.

667. 3d"plue.' MASG. Qal: ^firnbpp Ber. 48a, Sanh. 956.


Pa''el:

iinS'^nn'^Tp

^nrniB'np Meg.' 276;


'

53 o;' ilTO^nr^b^

Succ.

1216;

Sabb.

l^lS^ri'l^S Ber. 56 a'.

Aph'el: ilHS'^mpSN; B. Q. 101a.'


1st Sing. Com.

masc Po"eZ.-

668. 2d sing,
Aph'el:

Ned. 51a;

t]riinTiS!

M. MS. B. M. 84a.

'qri'^j''"]!:

Sebu. 41a.

t]Fl3''7i4<

669. 2d sing, pbm. goL- l^^mriS! Bekh. 61a.


Pa'^el:

1126;

!^"'nSin^Ti:''Er.

670.
Gitt.

Bekh. 61a;

t^'^nn^TIJ

686;

Pa"el:

756.

MASO. Qal:

sing.

'3d

Ber. 496;

tl^nb-'iStTfl

Yeb. 65a; ^j^nDSp Pes.

ti'-nTli'^a

t^'^rim-'^y

Aph'el: tl^nipsnx B. Q. 45 a; n^Fl5j''pix


Gitt.

686;

Wrem

r^I-^M^'ailSt

Sanh. 1096;

MS. Sanh. 110 a.'

F.

f^^ny-'^JTi:

B. B. 216; S^W^'Hp B.

rT^fi'^'^^b

B. B. 216; f^^n^ElD

M. 426.
B. M. 426;

^iT'ri'1^rii|!

fl'^np'^DS

'En Y. B. B. 7'4a;

Sabb. 67 a, ed. pr.

'671. 3d sing,

fem. QaL- nnDlT

B. B. 31 a; Wn-'ias Sabb.

22 o; nn^;??'^ B. B. 74a; IS^n-'bpTi: i'6{d.


Aph'ei: 'i^n^rairK B. B. 74a'; nnn^ljX B. M. 8a; rinffiS 'En
Y. B. B. I'ia/'nTTiim 'En Y.

'
'

ibid.''

672. 2d plue. 'masc QaL- ^iS-'mipn Ber. 586.


Pa'el: ^SS^nn'^in Taan. 36; ilS-'S'iSS'B. Q. 113a.
Ajjh'el: '^6^F\y^m Taan. 24a; ^SS-^nMii^ Gitt. 47a; ^Mn^pBS
-

:-

''

,M.

MS.

''

Ber. 35fl?

'
'

673. 3d plur. UASG.Qal: ^nrnbKTfl Sabb. 206; iinSWttlB


gull. 96 a; iinS-^nb^p^ Yeb. 1166;
Saadia, TO. ed. Harkavy, 554.

'JS'^ri'liriiBS

nriD"'ain TG.

'

IDrnblSp

ed.

TG.

Harkavy, 1.

ed.

Harkavy,

214.

'l^r'nis'lSp

Me'ila 76.

'

679]

VERB

173

Pd'el: !in2"'n5'''^SLBer.576; iinma^'^O


Sabb. 121

i&id.

33 &; iinma^^JTa
=:-

'

6.

Aph'el: 'T^TTin'zm M. Q. 196; 1^3^nn3-S C. MS. Pes. 1176;


!!<friri3TflXeds.' Pes. 1176.'

674. 8d plus. Y^m.

'

'

ApJCel:

M.

42a;

com. gaZ.- '^l'^t\ M. Q. 186.


M. MS. M. Q. 96} yn$;i ibid.; -jIVS
Sanh. 70a (646, 2)."

ibid.f

^nS'^aWx
"'

^nrri^nSllBX ed. Ven. Ber. 24 a.

B.

''

'

3d Plur. Maso.

675. 1st
Pa'' el:

sing,

-lilSTS

ji^^a ibid. J -pnjsS


'Aph'el:

'Er. 56a.

"ji)3pfj>5

676. 2d sing,

masc gaL-

1\'^pzp2

Succ. 486; t]^np3 'Er. 536.

Pa^'el: 1]!n]3B Y5ma 66a; 1\'^)2'^p_'B.B. 167a; t^^ba^p Sanh. 5a.


677. 3d SING. MASO. gaL- WSpTB.M. 836; ^hwaH YSma
696; !iri!lbpj5 Sanh. 96a; ^in^D'^T Be55'326.'

Pa"el:' Wbaj: B.
M. 108 a; '^tlt^^^^
103a (646, 2).

B.

B. 906; fflbs^p Sanh. 6a;


Ber. 11a;

M.

^T]^b'^:>

F.

rt!|2f!;p

MS.

Q. 17a; rt^D^T B. Q.

Aph'el: WDajlS; K. H. 316; ^U'^pBi^ Gitt. 57a; illl^mni^ Ned.

55 a;

^nn^aS

B.M.

26,

106 (646, 2); ^ffimtiS Ber. 21a; Pl'^na3X

'Er.

3a; W^FiriK Sanh. 93a (l/nra); PlTmijSi Pes. l62a

(646,2).'
678. 3d sing,

fem. gaL- W^SX

Sabb. 74a;

WauJ

B. B.

1336.

Pa"eLAph'el:

B.M. 846;

ll^btaa Ber.

WiniK

22a;

ffll'^^

Sabb. 816;

TO-'MpiX Alf.

MM.

inrni^nis ua.

This

l^pllB SM. No. xov.

is

Taan. 23

Qidd. 446.

Sanh. 1096;

Pl^nSlCS

2).'

'Tpuifi Gitt.

566 (646,

2).

6^^

ed. pr., 936.

either the sing. TiyjJ or the plural with


;

llpb^

*imy3TlJ, PlWaiBS. BG.


iJiOTF. 101.

llttElS!,

MS. BSga (646,

679. 1st PLUK. COM. gaLPa"el: '^r^T^

WHpiH

ibid.

thrown back vowel l^yjj

No. ocxni.

ed. pr. 116 c;

1!lt3J5D!!?

SJlf.

No. ccxx.

''nip"'TnX

'

i?ni1'1ia SM. XXV.

Pl^lla^ann TG. ed. Harkavy, 238;

SnipDB

Sp. IV.

3,

48.

174

III.

MORPHOLOGY

[680

680. 3d plue. viASC. Qal: ^TO^btip M. MS. Taan.


^nSilbpTlJ 'ArUkh B. Q. 86 a; inS^bpffi'Taan. 22 a; ^nS-'btip
21a; l^irbtip Ber. 545 (646, 2).'
Pa"ei: Tlti-'^'np Ber. 49a; iiriS^^pn ibid. 33b.'
ApKel: ^nSiipQiil C. MS. M. Q. 25a; ilTOWpSJtJ! C. MS.
^inrpSS; B. M.'846V ^nrpBi^; 5ull. llOa; 'iinrm B. Q.
^nrSaCX Ber. 26a; ^nrb^K 'Er. 446; iinrainp^ Tern.

21a;
ibid.

'

^nS^psk B.M. 306 (646,'2).'


681. 3d plue. fem. gaZ.- "tlS^I^ A.
cut them off, 'Arukh Sanh. 106 a.*

Pes.;

73a;
15b;

30a; 'HTO they

Z.

2d Plub. Maso.

682. 1st sing, com. Pa"eZ.- pnr3p Qidd. 296; "Wa'DS

En

"^nVap Pes. 896; ,nb'^np C. MS. ibid.


683. 3d sing, pem. gaZ.- WnbcB Zeb. 101a; Wn"'psn,
Y. H6r. 136;

Keth. 846.

Aph'el: n^inS^lpSl: Zeb. 101a;

com. gaZ;

684. 1st plue!

-rnT^?

Pa'eZ.-

n^inn^'iriN;

E.

"|3!n'''l5is;

Keth. 112a.

MS.

B. Q. 62a.

H5r. 136.'

masc gaZ.-

685. 3d PLUE.

^riS^ninj B. B. 126a.

ApKel: iinS^n^an Keth. 60a.


1st Plde. Com.

686. 2d sing,

masc Pa"eZ;

Aph'el: T^S^n-^pK B. M. 54a;

t^i^blap Pes. 896.'

Yomft 78o.
687. 3d' sing, masc QaZ.-'pl'-Sy^^-ii; Gitt. 546; 'TOiyip
Keth. 896 (legal style) Pl^DnnS sin^lIariS, B. B. 1716.
;

tjSn^V'ii*

Pd'el: n-'Sb^ap Sanh. 386;' "mS'll^X,'


;

"m;5:-.']p

Keth. 21a

'^nwnsit B. B. 1716.

(legal style)

ApKel:

Pl^Sb-^SSl
HT^ir''!^ Sanh. 20 a.
3d sing.'fem. ^aZ.- t^Dnns B. B. 746.
,

jlSltJIpb Igg. Ser%r&,

^V^^yp. TO.

ed.

inSI^TiSJ

'Sitf.

iniD^laTii!

RG.

>

ed. Goldberg, p. 10.

Harkavy,

214

l^lS^lDl^n ibid. 217

'J'lS^bl*^

HG.

ed. pr. 50d,

No. XXVIII.

227

inSTOjP'ilS

BG.

ed. pr. 70c

pJIplEJS

^'ilSTOy'aiB y<ni heard them, TG. ed. Harkavy, 217.

SQ. IY.

4,

24.

694]

or

VERB

689. 3d plur. M.ASC. Qal:


Sanh. 29 &.

175

iinrDnSTlJ Pes. 106?);

^nib^^Tp

iiriDb-'NTB

ApVei: iinDTiJ'npii;, ^ns-^batais;, A. z. 526; ^n3DTiJ-''^px, iinsrbntost,


M. MS. ibid.' ^
690. 3d plur. fem. gaZ.- ^prpniE C. MS. Meg. 106.
'

'

IMPERFECT WITH SUFFIXES.

POBMS WITHOUT AfFOEM ATI VES.


691. 1st sing, com. gaL- pp"? Sanh. 22a.'
Pa''el: l^yz) M. Q. 28o; 1^3)2b Keth. 1056; -jSna^b Taan. 56.
Aph'el: yraT) M.MS. Hag. 13a; ]birb Taan. 96; -|inib
Gitt. 606; "jri'ndFl Ned. 51a; ))j"'pn i6id. 506, with retention of
stem-vowel.
Itlipci^al: I^StaSP thou bearest resentment against me, Yeb.
'"''

'

'

1176.

692. 2d

masc gaZ.-

sing,

25 6; t^^^T^K Sanh. 1086;

Pa"W:

M. Q.

t|5^n^b

t]bppp

YOma 826; ^hpp^b

t]S''p"}3s( Gitt.

Pes.

46a.

96;''r|ny^K Sanh. 108a; T]2bnj?3 C.

MS.

Pes. 896.

Aph'el:
?|3''S50T2:2

'

tj^ntpi Pes.

'693. 2d sing,

Aph'el:

Yeb. 63a; ^1^3^161^.466;

B.

M. 836;

K. MS. Sanh. 25 a.

1]"'5p^)5ri

t]"bpi>{'

'Er. 536.

masc gaL-

>^ybw^b Sabb. 1096; ^bpTIJ-'b,


666; n^Min3''b ibid. ilQa; TH^y]Tb 5uli. '836;

sing,

^anrr'b, ibid.

B.B. 4a (i/t^ib)

n^iib Keth. 50 o
ibid.;

tibs-'b

fem. Pa"eZ.-

T^'^'^p'^

694. 3d

n^.':t:b5

89 6;

Ber. 416.'

ri-^rrit:?

^^''rn'b

(I'^fTi);

n^yxo^ B. B. 46

Gitt.

69 6

(i/rrit:')

A.z. 126;

(i/yyTc)';' n'^rsain'^b

ji-^nM 26td.;

f^"i?n''b

M. Ms:

Yeb. 426; n^nsaai?

M. MS. Sanh. 95 a.
Pa"el: W^pn^b C. MS. Meg. 126 (voc); n^nT^liJ^b
tr^a'^pn'^Sanh. 25a; W'S-^^jab Sabb. i34a;

(voc);

Alfasi B. B."98a; fi^rbtal^! Gitt.


1

'jlSjnS'Tii! Tff ed.

IXnTlb

Harkavy,

366/ n^rpbp\^

ibid.

4a

^tlDarb

ibid. 526.*

77.

-H'G. ed. pr. 106 o.

3 Levy takes this form to be Qal but the Hebrew equivalent lyiMlBH Sanh. 82a, 93a,
shows that this is Aph'el.
;

* n"'"l'T'115D

SM. No. XXV.

(voc).

176

"

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

[695

Aph'el: m^?^^'b Ber, lb; tl^bsib Sabb. 1096;

^TlCiX

A. Z.

57a.'

n^npa^^b

Ithp^'el:

"Er. 1006.

695. 3d sing. FEM. Qal: ^tl^t)^, >'^:apn, S'lM^n, ^'2')^^,


passim; Xpil'12J''b Sanh. 826; SSb^b Ber. 63 a; W3p^b ?ie anoints
/ler, Sabb. 116
b'.

Pa"eZ.- nj3"S^b B. B. 746.'

Aph'el: TOpib Ned. 56; Hn'^N'-b Gitt. 35a;' TO^bspD Nidd

69 a; t^bsp'^b

?ei i<s aZZoio

her to take a ritual bath, ibid. 30a.*

com. gaL-

696.' 1st plue.

]Tp'i'-iZ^b

Sanh. 105 a.

Nidd. 61a; "^S'laV? M. MS. Sag. 13a;


Pes. 1146; "|"!1p^b B. B. 56; 'ir3>7J123''b Ber. 36a.

Aph'el: "ji/napb
|j^y52irb

4 697. 2d plur. MASC. Qal: ^Srp'^V^ Sanh. 93a.


Pa"el: ^'DTti'B]M Gitt. 47a.
Aph'el: !l5rnrpk Nidd. 61a; iirrsnlX Gitt. 47a.
698. 3d plue.'masc aL- sinS'-pibTlJ^b Gitt. 68 6; ^inrpiTD
ibid. 706; ^inS^pSTIJ^iS; ibid. 57a; ^nS^niTrnS A. Z. 96; (^rbpp3
Ber. 546; ^Snipa^n B. M. 1076; ^TB^iS'j Pes. 836; ^iT'^Bi-'b Yeb.

39a6 (l/qM);' ^n3W:\3 Sanh. 136; ^n^S^rb


-3^'^T2'^b

Pa 'el:
iinS-'nTb

ir-jSCD ed. pr. Sabb. 1096;

55

130o;

786;

"i^S-'IS!::

later eds. ibid.;

46'6.''

Pes.

sinrninx Keth. 60a; :inrr\^:ri ibid.; ^ns'^nnnn


M. 39 6; !ir5:'in''V'Ar.28a; ^inS^nSiS Sabb

'Aph'el:
ibid.

^ull'.

Sabb. 117a.'

iiriSripi] B.

a.

Haph'el:

'^rr;^)2X}^'^

B.

Yeb. 47a.

Forms with Affoematives.

699. 1st sing. co^. Qal: inpSS Ber. 236.


Aph'el: I^ITlpn M. MS. Sanh. 97a; l^Tlpn F. MS.
700. 2d sing, com. gaZ; t]ilbt:p''b Pes. 256.
Pa"eZ.-

t^il3"ia^b

ni^lbBS re.

niaa^: ho. 2u.

ed. Coronel, 87;

CA Additions and

Jastrow

'

in:"ip5it)S!

(s. v.

M.Q.

906."
ni?''5S:X TQ. ed. WUna,

Corrections to

1885, 44.

222.

bSID) explains this erroneously as 3d person.

SM. No. Lxxu.

(voc.)

"^^IDiab SM. No. OXLiu. (voc).

'i'ins"'"i'aib

tb.

ii. 22.

ibid.

707]

VBEB

701. 3d

8Uj

SING.

177

MASO. gaL- mCSp'-b Sabb.

3 6;

WTTJ^b Succ. 30 a; ^n^lTb B'.'M. 1126;

1306; t^^SJnpn R. MS.

B. B.

ibid.'

mpriin Sanh. 97a;

Pa"il:

fflpmb B.M.

tl"2^5>"1pri

n^S^bbUn

186;

Ber.

n^b''''3>D
''

"

''

Sabb. 1196.

''

'

702. 3d sing. F-ETH. Qal: msarr^b Yeb.65a; rnTp^b Sabb.

546 (i/ysa).
Pa"eL-

mi3^ST23b B. B.

1336;

M. MS. Sabb. 1196

nSilbnpl

Aph'el: Wnnb (l^an^) Sabb. 110a; WC^b i6id.


703. 3d plue. maso. QaZ; iinrbpTCD '^hrbi''3 Taan. 25 a;
"
^nr'ia''D Pes. 1026; ]Tbp^T\ ibid. 876.'
,

'

'Pa"eZ.- ^nrpriT?? Gitt. 45 a; ^TO^bSp/b Sabb. 34a.

Aph'el: ^tlTy^T) 'Er. 546;

^rnn-'b V. L. Taan. 86.

impeeative with suffixes.


Singular Masculine.

704. 1st sing. co^. Qal:


Sebu. 416;

I?-]

-ppii^ Ber.

J.p/i'eZ.-

p-JJiSt

M. MS.

Gitt.

"ipair

ibid.; "IpTS Pes.

30a;

ibipiSl'

556;

876;

pIS,'

']3n''T

B.

]?'y\B,

M. 606.

B.M. 103 a; "siiX Sabb. 66,6;

Sanh. 1026; ""TCj^ S5ta'366.

705. 3d

sing.

JiASCQal:

ri^bpTB

M. Q. 17a; n^biS

ibid.

11a.'

Pa"el: WT^^_ Sanh. 8 a;

Pl^b^^ffl

n^nsriX Gltt. 24a;

^p/i'eZ.-

i6id.

H^bm

98 a.

Ber. 35a.

706. 3d sing, fem. QaZ; Picics Ned. 58a; npia Keth.


60 a; t^bpp Meg. 126.*
Pd''ei:

nnyn

Nldd. 66 a.

Sabb. 140a.
4707.
1st plue. com. Pa"eZ.- ^rb^''?
O
:T

'

""ilSlprnS

W^ej/

press him,

SM. No. xcv.

This word has been differently explained in 217. The explanation given here
In our texts we have "ip 'l''J'1B where the ending 11" must

according to AlfSsl's text.

be

= him.
3

WynSB

Hb''pffi TG. ed.

TG.

ed.

Harkavy, 183; ibjj TG.

WUna,

1885,

ed. Coronal, 87.

213; flI'jn'DD ibid.

178

III.

MOEPHOLOGY

[ '708

708. 3d plur. UASC. Qal: ^ns^bpia Ber. 186;


B.

^iHS'^pna

M. 85a.'

Pa 'el:

466; ^TO^^D Sabb. 21a.

TlT'/2^TL B. B.

26a;

A2Jh'el: iinrn'iriS; Sanh.

B. B. 466;

!l!-!3^u:p

iinS^ttpiJi ibid.

39a; ^nrpSS

Yeb. 8 a.
Singular Feminine.

709. 1st

com. Aph'el: "ppSX H. MS.

sing,

masc Pa'eZ.-

710. 3d plub.

^nS^"!^^

B.

M. 846.

VL. Sanh. 93a.'

Plubal Masculine.

711. 1st
gull. 105

6,

sing. com.

B.M.

Apliel:

'^'rOj>'&

Hag. 13a;

pPiiji

816.

712. 3d sing, masc goZ.- '^tV^irr Gitt. 566; ^TODSn B.M.


836; mpn^Ti: Naz. 59 o; W^T^l A.Z/596.
Pa'el: W^')':! Meg. 126; ^iniD^^S Hor. 136.

ApKel: ^raisnSK Yeb. 97a (23,

c).'

713. 3d sing.'fem. gaL- Pl^psd Keth. 63a; mnn'^p Bekh.


86; WCrn B. B. 34 a.
Pa"eL-'winS! Sabb. 119 a.
AioKel: rn^a'npK Sabb. 119a.*

Plural Feminine.

masc QaZ.-

714. 3d plub.

Ven. ihid.j ^T[T)p'p_ O. MS.

ihid.

Sabb. 12a; jb^t:p ed.

"^bilt:p

(258).

infinitive with suffixes.

715. 1st

com. QaZ.-

sing,

^bttpSpb

Meg. 16a.

PcC'el: 'yf\^'lb Gitt. 68 a.

ApKel:

]-li7i:iNb

716. 2d

sing,

Ber. 24 a;

Qidd. 86; "STixb B.M. 696.

"ibmb

masc ^25/i'eL-

!]3^niNb Gitt.'566; T|ninisb


^

Yeb. 906.

iTiran
1885,8214.'
2

give them,

HG.

501;

l^rbrTO BG.

"

''

''

ed. pr. 24 d;

"ilSIIDD TG. ed.

WQna,

""

""

^lalplllD leave thou them alone, SM. No. xcv.

iriDlliniD send thou them, SM. No.

XXVIII. (toc).
^

Tljlp^pib} piace ye him, SM. No. xxvi. (voc),

TISIplDX

take them out,

HG.

501

'Jl3TO''5S TG. ed. Harkavy, 210.

720]
717. 3d

VERB

masc gaZ;

sing,

179

n^bpp-'ab Gitt. 576; H^ybS'^b

Sabb. 30 a; N-^yan^ab Alf. Yeb. 65 o;' rt"'bppsb ed. Yen. Sanh".

M.

Q.'l2b, B. Q. 26a; Tl^^phTzb Ber. 7a; n^^SSSb

Yeb. 89a;

W.';Tj7ob

Succ. 37 6; t^^'^iarT'ab Bekh. 29 a (by analogy

with '"b);

'r\^y,T^'>2b

109a;

rt''.';:p53b

Fa"el:

16a;

M. Q. 106;

n'^iiSTb'

MS. Meg. 126;


Aph'el:

'En Y. Succ. 516; n^^S^pXDb B. Q. 916.'

fT^a'^^^^ab 'Er.

426

B.'m'.

-jyiniif^b

Sabb. 116a;

97a (v^Oat:)

(c/.

t^l^oin^b C.

PlT^'ob K. H. 16a.'

186, 456; fnrjpiiib

fl'^'liS-Iiflb' Ber'.

Haph'el:

t^-'ilScb

Sabb.'

146a, B. M.

437)."

t^^iia^llb B. B. 1846.

P.M.

Saph'el: tl^^T^^b B. M. 866; t^^mariljb

718. 3d

fem. QaZ;

sing,

PlTliai^ab Taan.

ibid.

21a; f^Safl^ab

Qidd. 606.

Pa"el: t^ninsb Sabb. 52 o;

rtnte

Gitt.

736; nsiin Ned.

16 a; minillb" Sabb. 119 a.


Keth. 116.*
Aph'ei: TOpixb Ned. 56, 61a; mibiitb
T
T
';

719. 1st plue. com.Aph'el: \Ty'V2mb Ned. 526; iry^JTSSlb


Sebu. 23 a, Qidd. 266.'
720. 3d plue. MASG. Qal: -jiribcipab C. MS. Pes. 50a;
^n^iS^'^a

11

'6;

M.Q. 106 (T/yW); TiTrip^lZ Li. 65 6;

^nsin-'a Bekh.

^H^brab

^n37np7pb Ber. 12 a; ^Hrp^'liab Yeb. 108 a;

Alf. Ber.'386}

Pd'el:

."j'''".?"a:ab

^nrW

Succ. 516 (l/yyiT).'

'Er.

446; ^Hr^T'^^b M. MS. R. H. 16 a;

nriiSTb 2 M.'MS'. Pes. 406.'


"

iPIIWir^b

TG.

Harkavy, 388; ni'lpl'ab SM. No. Lxx.

ed.

XXIV.' (misprinted xxvi.) (too.)

iftjd.

n'^'^.TaTB^^ *o "*

'^

n''p1''yb TG. ed. Harkavy, 332.

n^iaipSb TG.

ed.

*n'alp.ii5b 1G. ed.


5

2dplur. masc:

6in3pn'n

WUna,

pSpp'^i^b
;

'

'inaCiS'ib

HG. lU;

fflllbS'ab

6id. 247.

SJf- No. xxviii. (voc).

jirianD'ab blow, gioi; inDp^b hg.

"ilSXDiaiTOb Tff.ed. Harkavy, 218; j^l31p'''1.5'')3b 10?. ^erlrd 26

BLOW. %i2;

(voc.)

ed. pr. 91a.

1885, 52.

Harkavy,42; PlbSblSb

-^g. 91

*< -ff*?-

JlSllpl'aib JSid. 177

finfllBailb

HG.

ed.

pr.

esd,-

I^JiyiSpUb J6.

ed. pr. 21

llJSiaiblgb TG.ed. Harkavy, 71; IISSniTlb i6!d.210.

(J;

JISIlTI'STBb

180

III.

MOKPHOLOGY

Aph'el: ^nr-linxb B. Q. 118a;

^nS^tlpJilb

^nrai'^pNlb Ber. 86;'!in2"aibiaSlb iMd'.;

['^21

M.MS.

!in2''biS:Slb

Ber, 236;

Sabb. 61&;

jyi'pSNb'B'. Q. 112&.'

Palpel: ^inrbitibtpb Sabb. 143a.

721. 3d pluk." fem. gaLC. MS. Alf. Beca 4a.'

O.MS. M,

''TO'^anSttb

Q. 3o;

"flS'^bS'^ab

Pa"il: "nrr^Tpb Yeb. 65a.'

'

PARTICIPLE WITH SUFFIXES.

Babe Pakticiple. 722. Sing.masc:


Pl^pp"'

'y^^%)2

Sabb. 108 a;

1116 (80, 6); Vl^niliDa Sabb.


M. 74 a; ^irtpa)?)^ 'Arukh Gitt.'47a.

Sanh. 776;

^^3^''':^ Pes.

134a (58); tlSSba b'.


Plur. masc: WbCSa Yeb. 416; iinrrSa^J 'En Y. Pes. Ilia.*
With Subject-Pronouns. 723. 'ITiy'lS thou pay est me,
Sebu. 416; 'qS'^pbca I (we) remove thee, B. M. 156; fn'^Db'^Sia
we give him to eat, K. MS. Sanh. 20a; "iDtT^^aX you tell us, K.
MS. B. Q. 62a.'

Verbs

B.

''"b

with Objective Suffixes.

724. Verbs """b take the same suffixes as other verbs, and
what has been stated in 646 applies also here. The chief points
to be noticed in connection with these verbs is that the 3d masc.
of the singular and the plural perfect and the entire imperfect
and imperative, when before suifixes beginning with a vowel,
restore frequently their third stem-consonant

29 d

113Xn1'inXb r(?.ed.HarkaTy,232: irninl'sb


insyi3TD)a

2ins5DD'''a"?

(v/pS)

ibid.

to cause

se-

ed.
*

to swear,

BG.m; IHrnlpl'Sb

S-ff.ed.pr.

BLOW. 42.

iniyani'sab

265;

'jisi'ariD'a

'Pa. insBibn 3G.


TO.

them

("').

ibid,

m-,

insinB bg.

ed. pr.

na; inr^-iitt

RLow.m.

228;

Harkavy, 1. .gapA.

inMiST

ibid.-Aph. "inrsTis ibid.-Haph. I'lasDi'a'inb

iri3']'i"iniD

HG.

442. Poip. "itnabitDbab ibid.

I^S'^iai BO. 642; 'JS'^npS ibid.; jn3''P'l'a they pound them, TB.

97.

II. 17.

D. Hoffmann, in his otherwise just strictures on Goldschmidt's translation of the


Talmud, makes the unsupportable statement (Zeitschr, filr hebr. Bibliogr., I., 182) that
participles with enclitic subject-pronouns cannot take objective snfSxes. The examples
given here and in 780 and by Dalman, op, cit., pp. 318 and 328, prove the untenabUity of his
5

statement.

VERB

732]

181

peefeot with suffixes.


3d Sing. Maso.

725. 1st

com. goL-

sing,

Taan. 29a.'

']'''r^)2

M. 67a; -jnTn R.MS, ibid.; j''^S3 Ber. 56a.


Aph'el: ]-'-pm 8sihh.U5h/]iX:])m or ^S-pW Keth. 1046;
Pa"el:

936."

Yeb.

j^^'^pi^;

726. 2d
PcC'el:

sing,

com. Qal:

'q'^^'IpK

':\''^'p_

Sabb. 1526; ^"'^Dm Yeb. 40 a;

ot' t]K^TBIp5t

'qSj^-'TIJpi^

B. Q. 92&;

T|5y

ibid.'

5ull. 127a.

'q^lilb

Apel:
356;

B.

'^""^^tl

M. MS.

'Er.

3a;

?|^n>5

t^-^I^JS

F.

S5ta

MS. Sanh.

1096.

727. 3d
Ned. 23a;

sing,

masc gaZ.Ber. 58a;

rt"'.'^na

t^'^Tn

Qidd. 816;

M. Q. 106;

^'.:nTa

n"'"lB,

rr'-;'\XD,

nWH

V.'l.

Taan. 9a.
Pa''el:

Pl''.';n''Fi

Ber. 56;

P>'"^^'^

Ber. 606;

T\^y)2

Qidd. 456;

H-'-lTB

rt^.':33 M. MS.
^uU. 3 a; W^^Biibid. 91a;

Sabb. 154a;

r^^ri'^Stt

Zeb. 19 a.

ApK-el:

H'-'^lbx

Ber. 31a;

456; W^)t\t^ Zeb. 306;

n;';pT2:^

r^^l?-]!;?

Sabb. 108 a;

Pl''.':^'iy;

Pes. 106.

fem. goZ.- J^I-^^jri Sanh.95a; ^'^''^6


plur. com. Pa"eZ;' ^^f'l B. B. 73 aV

728.' '3d sing,

729. 1st
Aph'el:

730.

]T'-(pi^

2d"pl'ue.

Pa''el:

ilSS^'lilffl

731. 3d
6 a, 186;
sinS"-)]
'

"plur.

ilHS'^ri

Qidd.

Ber. 606.

Ber. 56 a.

masc gaL-

^33"!p V. L. Ber. 58a.

Pes. 51a.

masc gaZ.-

^tl^ys B. B. 24a; ^InSbn R. H.

B. Q. 101a; ^inSTn Ber. 28 a;

TiT^p

ibid.

58 a;

Pes. 51 "a.'

ApWel: ^nS^bjS Yoma 696;


732. 3d PLUR. FEM. gaZ.'IXri"'!?

MV.

-J^l^. 28.

^f'^na

28;

!ir!3"Tr7jy!

'^nSJa

B. B. 153a.''

Meg. 4a;

''TOSn 'Er. 60a.'

ISna BG. ed, pr. Uc.

s'jISSSfJ rff. ed. Harkavy, 75; 'jIDI'^n'n or 'jlSl'ini Igg- Serlra, ed. Goldberg, p.

*in|ni';i?H(?-2oi.
5

"TlSllti -ffG. ed. pr. 32 a.

12.

182

III.

Verbs
QAL.

MOEPHOLOGY
''"b

with Suffixes.

[724

VERB

724]
Verbs
QAL.

''"b

with Suffixes.

183

184

III.

MORPHOLOGY

[733

3d Sing. Pem.

WWH

Sanh. 95a, 101a; W'^ri^'lffl


738. 3d sing. MASG.Qal:
Meg. 16a; PlWlB Sanh. 95a; tn^n^UJp B. B. 986.
Pa'el: S^ri^a^ C. MS. Meg. 13a (voc); flWTB Mace. 16a;
n-'rin-'a

Sabb.866.'

ApJiel:
Sabb.

Ber. 48a;
rt^mSiX B. M.

rt^n"'pTD5J;

i^^n^tT'-^i^

1096;

Pl^mjit ibid.
"734. 1st plur.

846?'

com. gaL- |3Wr! Keth.

masc QaL-

735. 3d plur.

Taan. 29a; n^ln^pTB^X

^'r^TJ^

Sanh. "l096;

726.

^nS'-n^iip Qidd. 86.

Ithpa"al: ^Il1i''tm^^ Keth. 54a.'

736. 3d
ApJCel:

sing,

fem. gaZ.-

i^MpX

Gitt. 206.

f^n'^TH
"'

Sanh. 104a;

W^bp

ibid.

"

2d Sing. Com.

787. 1st sing, com. Apli el: '^''^\i)k B. B. 216;


84 a.
Qal: WP:c:^ir^^ g.ag. 15 a.
738. 8d sing. masc.
Pa'^el: ^-^n^'^a M.MS. B. M. 105 a."
ApJiel: P,'^t\^Tr'^;^ ^ag. 46.

t6icZ.

]ri''j'i

739. 1st plur. com. QaL- "SWri B. B. 1106.


Pd'el: -iW.!!? Pes. 36.
740. 3d plur. masc gaL- W3ln'']p 5ull. 110a;
Sabb. 148 a; WS'-ri'-lja Pes. 42 a; ilHs'^rina Ber. 24 a.

iinsri'na

Apli'el: iira^b'^V^k Sanh. 956.


1st Sing. Com.

741. 2d
Apiiel:

sing,

masc QaL-

?ir}''3nK

t]mri ^ull. 96 a.

Zeb. 306.

742. 2d sing, fem. gaZ.' ^Wll Sanh. 1086.


743. 8d sing, masc gaZ; t^Wri M.Q. 25a; n''n''5a B. B.
746; t^^n^^TT Taan. 24 a.
Pd'el: n-^ri^SS B. Q. 56 a.

ApKel:

nwriX

744. 2d plur.

Zeb. 306;

f^Wm

masc gaL- ^Smn

inin''lBS HCf. ed. pr. lOlc.


2

Cf. 768, note.

IDS^ril^lB TO. ed, Harkavy, 2U.

B.

M. 996.

Ber. 586.'

;;

VERB

752]

185

745. 3d plue. UASc. Qal: ^tlTtrp B. B. 736.


Pd'el: T\Tt\^W Keth. 50a.;
746. 3d sing'. VEU. Qal: ttln-'Ja 'En Y. B. B. 74a.'
3d Pldb. Masc.

747. 1st sing. GOTH. Aph'el: ir*!]?!!?! B. B. 21b;


5ull. 133a; T'^^nj?!^ 1 K. MS. ibid. ( 532).
748. 2d sing, com. Pa"el: 'q^'^ilffi Suco. 486.
Aph'el:

j'^'^'liPS

Yeb. 936.

t]il"'"lpX

masc gai;

749. 3d sing,

V]^n2 Ber. 56a; tnTys Ned.

23 a; W"!): B. B. 58 a.
Fa''el': W^Sffi Ber.

596.

Aph'el: "fflniNl B. B. 736; Tl^'om B. M. 85a; iinW-^K Ber.

316; f|lWS;i6id.5"6a; 'JirpaX Keth. 103 6; m^n'^'.i?; Sabb.'l216;


nrpTfllS! Gitt. 566; Pl^ll^pTZJK B. M. 836 (532).^'
7'50. 3d sing, fem. gaL- WTJ3 B. M. 1126; XnrmiJ 0.
MS. Sabb. 816.

Fa"el: f^I^^^SS Tarn. 326 (532).


Aph'el: ffl-'DniS; Men. 17a; n'^ilTBiS

Alf.

^uU. 936; n^;^t:aS

M. MS. Sabb. 129a (532).


751. 3d plue.
^n3''Tr! Sabb. 206;
Sin^:'3ilh)J

masc gaZ;
iinSTn

MM. ibid.;

'Fa"el:

^nS^lTIJ Ber.

M. MS.'

Sanh.' 110a;

^nr^TlJ
''

t6rd.;

TlfilZ Sanh. 109 a;

23 a; ^nriTB ibid.;

^nS^lffiJ

]^''^yQ

VlTIZTD

'B.

57a;

Gitt.

'En Y. Taan. 25 a.*

M. 856;

HS^^TD

Nidd. 576.'
J.j3/i'eL-

^nrf^"":^!!

M. Q. 11a;

,^S"'n"'"X

Ned. 506;

TiT^m

Pes. 89a.'

2d Pldb. Maso.

752. 3d
i6td!.

sing,

fem. gaL-

Wln"'"lTr

Sabb. 1366;

lilW^pn

91a.

'jlJinirilSI HO.
' 'IiniDplS J pJaced them in possession, TG. ed. Harkavy, 214
in511nl"T I threw them, SM. No. xxvra. (too.) I^SfTl^lD Sg. IV. 4, 55.
;

231

2
3
*

niT'Tn Ba. ed. pr. 37a.


nS^riS they brought him, SM. No. xxvm.
inpibtt

SSiniD Sal.
I

SJlf.

No. XXV. (too.)

Pes., p. 80;

ini'lltn iMd. No.

ibid.

MJI^lJJ

ewjpX

IIJIITB

Lm.

'JISIBS ibid. No. coxin.

IISilTn Igg- SeHrd, ed. Goldberg, p. 12; jinS'^DJ?

TG. ed. Harkavy,

Tff. ed. Mussafia, 99.

214.

*'<*'

P- 16;

186

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

[ '^^3

1st Pldh. Com.

753. 2d sing. GOM. Qal: 1\TTi Ber. 586.


Pa'el: ^T^'^ H6r. 136.
754. 3d siSG. MASC. Qal: fn-'D^Tri Bekh. ^nym/Ev. 4:1a.'
Aph'el: r^TV^^ ^^- Q- ^^a; ^''^P'?, ^n^5''T?iS! Yeb. 1066
;

(legal style).

755. 3d sing. -FBM. Qal: W^iri C. MS. Zeb. 276.'


756. 3d pluk. MASO. Qal: \ilT:r\ Seb. 18a; ^inDTn B. B.
746; ^npim M. MS. ibid.'
757. '3d pluk. Y-ETA. Qal: "nSSn Bekh. 386.
IMPERFECT WITH SUFFIXES.

Poems without Affokmatives.


758. 1st
759. 2d

COM. gaL-

SING.

SING. COM.

p;:p'J2"'b

Qal:

Sanh. 76.

T^Tjn

RasI in

ed.

Cracow

Sanh. 256.

Pa"el:

t^^lTO"'?

Qidd. 706; t^l^^^D 'En Y.

ibid.

Aph'el: T^^^DlnX Yeb. 40 o;


1\f'>2y\
760. 3d "^siNG. UASG. Qcif: fn^.":pn''b Qidd. 65 a;
Sabb. 110 a; Pl"'.:DaX Gitt. 686; tT'bpb' Ber. 6 a.
A. Z. 346.'

Pa'el:

1096;

Meg. 16a;

H^.^^Tljb

t^'^n^n'^b ibid.

67a;

Pes.

20a

(=

(voc.)

3a; r^^^b^S^b Sabb.


M. MS. Meg. 16 a; ^I^n^Vi]

Pl^y^'c) 5ull.

K^^I'l^'b

Qidd. 81a; tl^nib Ber. 62 a;

t^''.":bp''b

tl^^TlJ^i);

Yeb. 496; n^HtJ^ni C. MS.

n.';52t2m).

Aph'el: >^^P2^) Sabb.' 104a; rT'ptD^b i6id. 110a.'


761. 3d sing, fem. QaZ.- fT^^lipTn M. Q. 26.

Pa"el:

H-'^lSCX

Aph'el:
"'^5ri"'n

Yeb. 40a;

tl^^^t^k G.

rT^;;?^^]

MS. Megy4a'

'762. 1st plus. Gou.Aph'el:


in

Q^s{:n

TG.

ed.

n'^3''l5D11S

SmSI-lpX BG.

^T^ann

t^^":?

Qidd. 616;

32 a.'

ibid.

iiniDin-i

Sabb. 119a.
(voc.)

iDin\

"|3"'pU!ri

p. i6.

Harkavy, 181.

315.

J?o;. pes. 132; ';'i:i?nN: las. Seru-a, pp. 13,

Luzzatto's hebr. Briefe,

Cf.

in''3f5"'?

'

W^nip"in TG.

-HG.

p.

10^.

406.

od.

Harkavy, 359

(86).

u.

Qidd. 70a.

VERB

773]

763. 3d plue. HASG. Qal:


69 ay ^nS^TJlK Keth. 63 a;

187
Yeb. 79 a;

Tl'Z^'}])^

Gitt.

ilHSln''?'

^Tl^bp^

Ker. 3 a; sinSSn^V 'Er.

16 a; SinS'^tp-'b gull. 906; S3''Tn5 Rail Sanh. 25 &; "p'^^flb Sabb.


666; ^n-'-'Bpb Yeb. 39 ab.'
Pa"ei: '^hrSpb Gitt. 686; ^n2''i>3''3 let us destroy them, Meg.

136; ^n2''^5 "b G. MS. ibid. (voc. and in two words


and Corrections").

see "Addi-

tions

FOEMS WITH AfFOEMATIVES.

764. 2d
765. 3d

sing,

com. gaL-

sing.

MASG. Qal: t^Tipb

566; ^rirr^b gull. 78 a;

'Tj^^^pi

M. MS. B. M. 105a.
B. M. 16a; tiirVr" G^itt.

Sabb. 67a.

n^.-;TrT'b
'

ApWki:

5ull. 133a.
Y':'^P^

766. Qaiihyg-b Succa306 (532).'


767. 3d plue.maso. ^p/i'eZ.- ^inrTO-'b Sanli.27a;
iinrntsb eds. Pes. 30 a.'

^S^nuJb,

IMPEEATIVB WITH SUFFIXES.


SlNGDLAB.

768. 1st sing. Gon.Apliel: "j^^pm B. M. 606, Qidd. 9a,


316; 'pWiK or \Tm B. M. 846;* p^Dil^ or (';Dji< g. MS. ihid.
SanliV676.

(f.); -ppVJSl

769! 3d

Pa" el:

sing.

^"'.^^'1

770. 3d
^p/i'eL-

^kSG. Qal:

Ber. 18a;

SING.

H-'llDri^i*

H'^^Tj:

R-'^S"'?

B. B. 63a.

A. Z. 15 a.

FEM. gaZ; K^yS

'Er. 80a.

Qidd. 32 a.

771. 1st PLUK. Gou.Apli'el: '^y^^ A. Z. 58a6.


772. 3d plue. masc QaL- ^ri3"'Db Sanh. 39 a;
Y6ma 84 a.
Pa"eL- ^nS-^ST Bekh. 86; sinS'^SS Sanh. 110 a.
ApKel: iin3"''n^':i< Bekh. 86.

^TO'^bp

'

Plueal.

773. 3d
Pa'' el:

sing,

WSn

ApJCel:

masc QaZ." WITH YOma

Y6ma

nilln''';^

696.

696.

eds. Ber.

56 a;

^nmaX

Sabb. 119 a;

!inil'"]aS

Yeb. 97a.
1

!ini3n'a"'b

bg.

J{f^^|1^p1b

Se'el. 154.

sgo.

inrniBib hg.

Passing into T'B or obscuring the vowel.

ed. pr. 29 c.
i

188

MOKPHOLOGY

III.

774. 3d plue. maso. Pa"eZ.-

['^'7^

B. B. 172a.

tinr^lTIJ

Aph'el: iiro^irjiX A. Z. 71a.

775. 3d plue. fem. Pa"eZ.-

172 a.

^TO^inp B. B.

INFINITIVE WITH SUFFIXES.

776. 3d
Ber. 56 a;

Y.

masc gaZ.-

sing,

E. H. 17a;

"'I'jrT'ab

Sabb. 62 a;

ri^S'iab

1136;

fT'DCab' Pes.

t^^'liriab

'En

n^Sic^jb

t"6{d.'

MS. Meg.

Pa"eZ.- n-'ll'inb C.

Aph'el:

Sabb. 62a; t^^y^'li^ Pes. 106.'

^-'.-^in-'Xb

777. 3d
A.Z. 536.

end.'

fem. gaZ.-

sing."

Ithp^'el: t^-'^inn-iJ-'Kb

n"';bri''ab

'En Y. Yeb. 1026.

masc Pa"eZ;

778. 2d plue.

Meg. 4a;

t^'^'ip'^b

M. MS. Sanh. 1016;

^^^^itSib

ilSrsr'?'? V. L. ibid.
''

maso. QaZ.-

'779. 3d plue.

^r!^':'lir-'ab 'Ar. 166; ^n^Dn^pb


TiTZ^g to'bake them, A. Z. 656.'*
Tern. 326; '^nsVoib Rail Sanb. 1016;

B. B. 736; ns^pn^b 'En Y.


Pa"eZ.-

ilhs-^^innb

i6icZ.;

^TO-^Sr^pb Sank.' 10l'6; ^inSSr^pb i6tcZ.''EnY.

ApKk:

'

!in2''^iln"'i?b

Sabb. '57a;

^HS'^'liiib

Zeb.ll6a; Jiro^llpKb

B&ga 4a.'
PAETICIPLE WITH SUFFIXES.

780. n^nn"P Ber. 62a. n^rpra7J we give him

to drink,

K.

'

MS. Sanh.

2()a.

THE NOUN.
781. Under this head are included substantives and adjecThe difficulties which present themselves to us in the
classification of nouns even in Syriac are infinitely augmented in
tives.

Babylonian Aramaic, both on account of the uncertainty of the


from the lack of a dictionary answering

vocalization, as well as

The

modern requirements.
be only tentative.

attempt will result in


uncertainties,

classification can, therefore, at best,

Still it is

much

hoped that even such a

that

is

positive

it

will clear

tentative

up many

and furnish points for further research in many

directions.
'

n"'2iri''1a'3 '0 <''

ai1.innb no.

nnrlnix
Harkavy,' 237.

m.

bq.

91

it,

TO.
3

ed.

Harkavy, 1

n^ni'JXb TG.

^inrnxb

(86).

ed. Coronel, 87.

ihia. 449;

ininij?

ibid. 91;

insiffitt!:

BG.

i!i35?^i:]?sb

141.

tg.

ed.

,
,
;

NOUN

784]

189

782. It has been the author's endeavor in this chapter, as


throughout this entire work, to give a complete enumeration of
existing forms, as far as such a thing is at present possible.
Illustrative examples have been selected with the following points
of view to present such words, where possible,
:

and morphologically, are more

(1) which, etymologically


certain

(2) which illustrate phonetic laws not mentioned in the

part of this work

first

(3) which give occasion for etymological remarks

(4) for which there are examples with matres lectionis, so

form can be established beyond a doubt.


Among the many difficulties exhibited by the talmudic

the multiplicity of
noun, one phenomenon is especially marked
forms of one and the same word. Cf., for instance, xbiDD !!^b!D*lD
that their

783.

J*bl!tip,

xbSp,

at^iXui, time;

VL.,B.B.12Qb; iH^Q

fool,

heap;

K'trxna,

JstTB^I^ia,

;"

XOtV, ^DK^j, mrmw/(s)

nbn
-f

iH'-^iA)^]

K'ntitnC,

^'t^i^T)

,'

fish; iX:^"]

kjo^iL

document;

thirty ; i^'^Q

""IMB,

S'^JSJ, X'li^k, employer; XnillSt', S^riinK,


i<nrn ^ KWO'^n mother-in-law; ^\'2p ^yXi
Ky^P fixing, and many others. Now, some of these forms are
undoubtedly original and legitimate by-forms as, e. g., the last
example cited. Others are, no doubt, reduced forms as, e. g.,

handle{s)-/i/rfi:^^,

inn^i5, sister;

'

',

itnn^i*

Arab.

broken plurals

i.

iiAi.|
;

as

i^Fia'^ri

Again, others are probably

the forms from which

does not explain

Still this

derived.'

and

satisfactory explanation is afforded only

bpp

or btlip

by the recognition

of the

forms of the types jJii and JJii appear not only as

fact that
j^bt?!?

all

and ''Ci^'^a are


the phenomena.^ A

^^tXiB

or bt)p

J^bp^p

but also as i^bop

and sbitip,

i^biicip,

bitip',

b^tip

btpp

';

or bta^p

and 5<boip

bit:p

i^b^pp, J^b^tJp, b'^pp, b^pp

b^itip.

knowledge of Semitic phomakes


the task of proving such a
formation
nominal
and
netics
only limit myself to state
would
I
one.
proposition a hopeless
that the current belief that Aramaic qameg always represents an

784.

The present

state of our

Brockelmann, ZDMG., LI.,

Cf.

Cf. also

KOnig, Hebr. Gramm.,

p. 659.
II., 1,

pp. ilOsqq., for additional explanations.

190

MOBPHOLOGY

III.

original

qameg

d does no

In many cases Aramaic

justice to the facts.

Hebrew

like the

is,

[785

qftmeQ, merely a

produced

The

a.

only difference between Aramaic and Hebrew, with regard to the

production of d to

full life, while in the

Av

is

in

still

former we hare only petrified remnants of

Everybody

this process.

the latter the process

d, is that in

admit that in the Syriac equivalents

will

Hebrew

the

^1?, ip")
"i^"]
^J,
qameg represents d; but nobody seems willing to do the same
itJS^ll
WD? S^Hp the equivalents of
in the case of T112
.^^<^

of

ffli,

Hebrew ^na
785. From

btlp^.

the above quoted examples of

also learn that qftmeg

may

This form

^-"^

etc.,

the diphthongized form of the

is later easily

Hebrew form CS^a


The recognition that

explains the

we

This

stand for a helping vowel.

explains the targumic form lia

Persian gun.

y^n', "jjyyand

T^TJp'p

mistaken for

qattcil

and

the production of d to d is still


786.
more or less living process in Aramaic throws light on the
numerous cases mentioned in the preceding pages of this work,
where we found unexpected qftmeg, and proves the correctness
and reliability, in the majority of cases, of living tradition. I
For I am not blind to the fact
say "in the majority of cases."
but the more I have
that in some cases tradition may be wrong
worked in this field, the more my conviction has grown that mere
a priori theories are worthless in this field, and then the more
a

so

when they

are in opposition to authenticated tradition, even

that tradition be only oral.

am

if

conscious to be in this regard

in opposition to preconceived notions, but doubt not that those

who

will give the subject

will finally

come around

an unbiased and earnest investigation

to

my way

of looking at

it.

787. In the light of the above I want to point out that I do

not consider forms like

^3?Jri

mni5

and the

like, as

false,

because the superlinear vocalization of the Targlimlm shows


a long vowel under the second stem-consonant.

It is

still

perhaps not

superfluous to call attention to the fact that even as near a dialect


as Palestinean

Aramaic need not in every case agree with our

Babylonian Aramaic, and that Babylonian Aramaic continued


live

and develop for many centuries

died out.

Many

after Palestinean

to

Aramaic had

of the corruptions of the current vocalization

NOUN

789]

191

Targtimlm are probably due to the influence of Babylonian


Aramaic, with which the naqdanim were more familiar.
of the

Note. The

limited space at

my

disposal, as well as the

be concise in my etymoSometimes I have limited myself to a mere


suggestion.
It is, therefore, hoped that students will examine
the respective dictionaries before passing judgment on the proposed etymologies.

nature of footnotes, have induced

me

to

logical explanations.

I.

SUMMARY OF NOMINAL FORMS.


INTERNAL VOWEL CHANGE ONLY.
1.

Jou
added

788.

To

One Short Vowel.

the regular forms given below

must be

it

under the influence of adjacent consonants, qatl may

that,

pass into qitl or qutlj qitl into qutl or qatl; qutl into
qatl f)

qitl (or

Thereby the original vowel may be kept under the

first

consonant in one form, and the derived vowel under the second

Thus we have

consonant in another form, and vice versa.


Xn-'Jn"'

cord; ^121^

lUTSHatl,

,'

heap;
XSa^T
*
t:'

i^SXBT

,'

!!^"lJn|]

time.

tt;
tt:
T":
t;
789. The laws under which these vowel changes take place
.

cannot yet be stated with accuracy


rules
1.

may

2.

but the following general

already be given

qatl passes into qitl mostly in stems having a guttural as

its last

when

consonant, under the influence of

the sharpened consonant

is

TD,

and in

5*

"J

forms,

followed by a vowel.

qatl passes into qutl under the influence of labials, liquids,

emphatic consonants, j and i

when

these sounds directly follow

the vowel.
3.

qitl

passes into qutl under the same conditions as qatl does,

but less frequently.

when

its vowel is in a closed syllable


and
happens only in a few cases
frequency
as
qutl
the
same
and
with
under the same conditions

4.

qitl passes into qatl

before a guttural

but

this

passes into qatl.


5.

qutl

and

qitl

frequently interchange for other than phonetic

reasons, and, according to some, through


nJlBian 326 = Sabb.

E. Nisslm,

TG. ed. Harkavy, 74.

35 a.

ii.

For qutl passing

'

192

MORPHOLOGY

III.

into qatl
Kbr;&<

aa^l

for X-^SIK / ^^b^1K

XblCX cord

iClJ^li^b

very

is,

a)

C|bys

^Bbt^

nmsan 596 = nS^nn

Nissim

= i}3l,

i^bOD

"^D

means:

like

1!^"^jX

thousand;

KbpS; grain,

(X^-

aeries

lN^

i\^

The

may be

we

^/ .j^*

get

a loan-word

around the if-^

^j^tS husk

like the

first

KHb^^DID

^^5,

date, ot kernel;

The ultimate root

lancet.

is

Jo

consonant of the triconsonantal stem appears in four

and

labials, gutturals, dentals,

R.

Ned. 55 a/ byS, Xbyn, husband,

This word belongs to a widely ramified group, going back to a changeable root,

(j<Sj

are to be pronounced

impossible to decide.

Assyr. 'asli; Juil

From the same

close.

K3Sn

first syllable, is

qatl.%190.

[ 790

Whether forms

Earth, NB., p. xxx.

cf.

with a or o in the

that

The primitive meaning of the root

sibilants.

is

break through, come forth, hence produce. Then it was specialized to various kinds of
plants and young animals. For the connection between plant and animal cf. n"^S H1S&C
nn"lS. Latin pullus and pullulare,
>

a) Labial series:

buqlu

vegetables,

(jjij

baq^ala, grow, produce, and

Ethiop.

baqlum

derivatives; Assyr.

nJLs grow luxuriantly, and derivatives; JlS?

sprout;
9

puglu and puqlu

J*j'i

form points

to its being a contraction of

>- C5

Guttural series

b)

bunch of herbs ;

)Loa^

hut the grammatical

By way

Gegen-

of

JJLic

ifi^^'n

JkisLc

J<-^=\

a kind of

xi

leek;

^^

barren.

series are
-^

planted field

etc.

J^JUutfr a certain plant

Jkiui/0

JiJLc

^0^9

high palm; y -^^^

2LAj>\

*^

j^'"**^

>

(jJis produce grapes ; iAjji. unripe fruit;

Leading over to the sibilant


O

bpyiG =

thorn; (jJi^. seed-producing leaves,

Theban palvi;

the

b.

tree not bearing fruit.

(j<^ be unfruitful ; Jk^o,AX

fruH of

Here might belong according to sound and sense btP'Q

bdellium.

sinn

radish; (jJijO

biSTlJi^)

XbsriK^ Eth. 'askal

cluster;

(1

JlSot

palm branch with unripe fruit ;

Qtc,

all

with

inserted sibilants (46, note).


c)

Sibilant series

Eth.

= jCj^, bra. young


]LZ, garden-cress;
bDt?

bDH

<i)

dove;

iCbnin.

VaZ Jjo

Kbp'^'l

sakala = Jjt^
i^bSlBtt,

{J^

II.

IJQ^-Si?

Kb^H^,

inferior

cluster; ^uli\ cudgel;

cMXo

kind of date.

basket;

By way

DlbnTZ?

of "Gegensinn'^:

be bereft of children.

palm; SCb'^p^l basket made of palm

leaves;

kJL^aO =

o >

iftbmiJ

'%.^^'\

= ibni?

Nbrr^Ti?! date-basket

made

of

verdure, beget children, and derivatives.

palm

leaves;

(jJl> dried fruit;

Uj*05
^ ^;-

A^

pL*oZ
produce

793]

NOUN

193

K'laa, man, plur. "'^33;' ObS young man, Sanh. 95 a


DbjJ

or

|.iU

K^nn

levity J

?)

d^ni

Xans

pSX,

Plur.:

/a^.'

6read;

(=Hebr.

respect, solicitude

X^|'"lSi*,

for one's honor, j"'"'TBK our respect, with helping vowel

"b

j"'"l3X

= J

r*/'

''1'r^5[^]

b) !!<ri3b turnip; l"' seven ( 50, 4)

]bS,'N3yS,'spmdZe;

demon;' K^j^n

i<S"a-'1

MS. Meg. lb (voc);

^nirp C.

%"lbTr

KiSia wne; KS^.^p

c)

791.

"""IS

assembly;

i^'^yi

V|TE'D ,

aJLI

""OlZt^

gimru.^

entirely, AsajT.

'*

HtXrm

killing/

I^bt2j5

J^STD'"']

|^I

dawn;

staff;' plur.

rose; Xn"l^ month; iOtT.

S'^"i1

Xrn^ (788).
792.

KS3

^Tr^'}^,

793.

WK?

The

With

plur.

a)

*-]nS)

smaZZ cattle;

NS^S,

atTjtXB ^rib-

S<SD5);

XSi?

face;

treasure; plur.

i<ja

''n?

goat.'
111315 which occurs but a few times,

is

>

prothesis
is

3"11n

"{riK

o/.

^T$

b)

(i/n[Sn

JtmX'n, head.

-,"?

side

//le

laughter

T. F., Ker. 6 a) stoiie; NDy,

bon;

o^

Min

5^"y:

probably of Palestiaean origin.

SblSDIX SM. No. ccxx.

v/m

a secondary stem of

ruba

i_ t fruit-juice; Tigr6

found in D''3''D"1 rain;

revrevS

river; Tfla.

331

sprinkle with water.

greasy spot;

Galla

w&raba

draw water., Amh, wadab river, Egypt, warem inundation; Bilin wfirfiba, Chamir
wirba, river; Saho rOb rain, r b a b raiTiaiorm, rObta raindrop; Somali rOb river,

warabi

to water.

it is

It is at least not certain that, as Gesenius' Diet., 12th ed., asserts,

connected with
connected with Hi"! grow.

IH31 6e large

is

it.

The same applies

to P. Smith's Thesaurus Syr.,

Samar. I^Si? thanks, Heidenheim's Bibl. Samarit.,

Of.

ii

The form

is like

Targumic 'j'l^npb

prepositional expressions. S{"15?)335 (=

the plural

is

^' SM.

"^

5-6,

where

index.

frequently used in adverbial and

No. xxvin.

and the constr. states are very rare. But, from the few cases that do occur,
the conclusion seems justified that qatl gives less frequently a form b'^tpp than the cognate
6

The

abs.

languages.

Whether a form like 01233 is to be pronounced DTD3 or OU33 cannot be decided


Such forms are therefore left unvocalized.

by the material at hand.


^

Of.

Z\'tCr\

13n

is

demon

in the

Hebrew

text of Tobit published by Dr. Gaster.

a secondary stem of 135?

fSZ

of ,jii,

tX^I =

tXiift

v'ty = l/iy with

primitive meaning be rough to the senses,


then strong in a physiological as well as psychological sense from the latter the idea of
9

The word goes back

to

fruitfulness is derived.

Here belong

'wLft,

VIW

r*^

>

r^'ii

/*:'.)

f^\i

z-**^

:;
;:

194

MORPHOLOGY

III.

794.

3>"3>

Nouns

['^9^

of these stems appear

a) regular, with sharpened syllable, and

Forms

doubling compensated by long vowel.

two forms

in

b) with resolution of

like Kb3"'53

probably go back to longer forms.


a) iX^^ gnat; 13 iX^^ inside; i^'s^ Nb5''X

jJu*

live coals

^np, 'ii, K'lD^X (91) prince. PlvLTry^ri

13,

b)

KD awn, VL.,

Wl

outside;

X"t2l,

5^11. 176

wine-jug, Syr.

cLJui

The usual form

to radiating rays.

gate;

jj,

on account of
is

XDSi^O

sea;

X!a|]

life.

Neo-Syr.

jj?

resemblance

its

with reduplication

XriNS
C. MS. Meg.
^ 4a
TT snare; N3XS
TT
TT basket, VL., Ber. 586, K5S
(voc), traditional pronunciation SS^.'
c)

my

luck, ^"13

X'^l^a

(Eth. gatata

= t:Tan);

old; XFT-B 6read; niS

795.

Nouns

''"'13'
:

= *iyiS (but not


= (jn.i^

Ql^iyiB

'^

(jMrfLC

and

mentioned the names

plumage.

On

for goat

S^T'H

interchange of

-'

CI

8>.J^

_aA

iy, Nliy,

S-TO

JJUw

b)

monophthongized

= SlX:^

itgA* rain),

TiyHJ

= yLC = 'JW

c/.

980, u.

Assyr.

\^
"1

yc

to

and

hair, Targ.

ITyO

sibilants, cf.

JwJ

eagle,

the spelling 5530 TiJ.

c/.

nnrn

*JyJ

C/.

Wellhausen, Reste arab. Heid., 2d

Cf. Marti,

II., 13.

t:i3-na niabiB

-i

d. bibl.-aram.

p. 22.
od., p. 110, n. 1.

Sprache, 836.

JlC
u

S; or

be scurvy,

Here be
,

all

Ji-,

specially

except the last

anzft

on account of their rough

and many more.

C/.

6,

iwAA.a = (JiOaA = Assyr.

n^JTr

1.

aru, era, kinds of

Oram.

-*J
a

Hjm,^P

document,

SS-'D, ^B'^pyt, ttres/t-

their equivalents in the cognate languages.

On

sAaffgj/.

S''Tiy> and

XtO''il

side.

meaning

133

of these stems are of threefold formation

showing a diphthong;
monophthongized to S.*

c)

;'

= i<3n

d) xa^n

o)

(=K3n)
"

J^Si^n

NT^iii

Sabb. 676/

luck,

?~-

t"-^

-^

796]

NOUN

195

a) XTlim^ habit, VL., B. B. 22b; X-IIS


fish/

ram;

Hb''"'N;

b)

^T^

strength;

KSiS

deatt;

Xfl'i^J

arms;

S5"'';T

eye

("j"?^^?

JtTfl"'';'

i<y^^

i^niS, or

5*T2:"'ir

marmor.

fasting, fast-day; IXTT'I olive; ndTi


our eyes, Sota 6 a); qiO, St^D, end.^

oM

Hl'^ generation; i^lla aood; S30


man; 5^13
door.'
TT
TT*'
TT
TT
796. '"li
Nouns of these steins appear in a fourfold form

c)

a) with retention of last stem-consonant, b) with assimilation of


last stem-consonant to the second and sharpening of the latter,
c)

with resolved doubling and consequent compensatory lengthfirst vowel, d) with entire loss of last stem-consonant.

ening of

Note.

Stems

K"b in

and y"b when passing into

cases

all

are included under this head.

''"b

a)

Sfip

lion;

5^^")^!

'''13,

a being engulfed

i^7jyp), literally,

in,

overwhelmed

sea [of trouble), only in the expression S'^Mtp


mourning;* i<1C]3 bowl, plur. ''10)5
S'^'in serpent;
.

l/

''lIL

by,

house of
thorn;

i^lb''p

rainy season, winter.

Sir\''P
'

(by-forms

i^^na, kid; S^St: deer; UtTISO

TIS

= Assyr.

1TG3 (Delitzsch, Assyr. HWb.,

THD

aj abundance of riches, large troop of wild animals.

(Guidi, De;Za scde, p. 591)

posed in Assyrian to

and

DID

(y^viJLfjyu

\iLi.,

II-)

grow in abundance.

The same idea

= Assyr.

niflTB)-

underlies

Just as "ITOD

W,

Cf.

S313
trans-

I- is

H- appears in the cognate languages as D13 in


Assyrian as "lIS (961, u. 2), whence n"l3 and blaiS
From the same stem is derived the
proper name "^^DB "113^ Machaerus. The form TliJD'O to which the classical name
goes back, may be a broken plural but is more likely due to a process the reverse of that
described sub 81. This would also explain traditional SJIiaia = SDiClia VL., B. M.
so TfflD

>

636,666.

Fortheform S-IIS
T T

see 81, 783; for

DiO is used
Syr.-SEioa

Pal.

The word

with

3!1D

is

it is

only adverbially.
Sg.,

I.,

l/Dt3 (=

be full

Assyr.

|p

Dn

| t/i r-

overflow ;

Jk^-Is

"jn

also in

>

']"S

JLc

Cf.

door-lock

and jyj

Tjjy

lugJU

ijmU>

HJDIpn and Op3 HTITIQ and Assyr. nazazu.


,

Iti

bn

^^JO sea;

iooL^'

-..IU,t/i

^Ur'

(coast-land);

mass of water ;

= JuLtis

Here belong

btS) contains the idea of moisture.

surge, heave, rush (water)

abyss;

^^1 vr rushing

word appears

of this

(Aph'el),

ti'amat

The same double form

"

'

perhaps a reduplication of ^^ come, enter ; but, even if it be connected


not necessary to assume with Hoffmann that it stand for *SCnn5 since

and overflow,

open sea;

785.""

37; II 39.

IT'y stems interchange with

compare = ltOp^

S1X13,
T
T -

^^

.,U|Ur- high sea; ^


^/^

^ -sA.

lU^Ur- uproar

ti

Jti

of sea;

*Js

swim in

QiMn =

rushinmassandwith force (water)

chaos; JLt.^ phlegm; ^..sSuO sad;

dirty water ;

soil (with liquid)

i t/i

rise,

k.^JO be filled with

,;;

196

MOKPHOLOGY

III.

b) M^j5

(voc).

['79'^

pumpkin, C. MS. Meg. 4a (voc),

XS^p,

= L^

I^D^p, iXoy^

The form 'g^

village.

But

probably an Aramaic loan-word.

plur. ^^^]) ibid.

cf.

is

kiso small

Bega,

village.

^5bp

c)

d) *1S,
qatlat.

Irob-Saho kala clay; plur. ^irn thyme.

by-form l^n-^DiS^

lobe,

1^5^&<

~ \kL^ =

797.

^jjl

side.

a) KtlSb^^ queen; KR'IIL'^


,"

KlTlS^p!)

son; K5T /cmd.

!!<*l^,

cattle;' fi<n3C3

\lk

mone?/

capture of

600/1/,

^^^^^"1

c/ies/;

fc^n/J'^M")

XriW^, K)nrii<, woman; Ktl?"!^ wound.


798Vr3?: aV l!<n^S: cwbiY;' KHBH pilgrims' fair;

Zoue.

b)

window; ^T\pB
dirty flux

Arab.

dragon

= Assyr.

ti'fimat

vamp, uppers, ^jjl

foe

A^

mud;

bt3 de?; &^3*^p

for whiskey, golden ^rtid for wine)

= XJJ> =

jJaJ misfortune

'^^ X\ri death, burial;

orphan;

J^t = ^t

{i.e.,

TigrS

^^

t^

Jo

orespumans;

IStO

costly

menstruation;

lose his

moisten; K]'^t? =

= J^

wine

JLoLis

{cf.

our m<mntain-dew

= Alg. Arab. ^^L^UC


lo misfortune, death;

'atlm

parents through death;

pour out, drip with perspiration;

Jo
o

bn

Arab, a t^t i^

'

overwhelming of troubles); yj-

iateme

= Alg.
'f'

= &JL^ =- ^JV^

'i:^vt

*Jii(5

*3'Lc mourning, funeral, assembly of the rii-3ip''3

for various liquids

Alg.

^ci^ = yOtD =

snake; Pal. Syr.

overwhelmed by water^ he drowned;

properly moisfen loiYTisaiiva; jiv^i

lo

wA^* waterspout;

= Eth. taman = Tfia, temen = ^juj' = D'^SH = ^^?!n

O
;fasfe,

Alg. Arab, kli

haptize^rain uninterruptedly ;

(as personification of the sea)

smfc, properly

ynt3

temmeqe

{eye)', Tfia.

JlJ^

JS<t^3?&iS

KW3

heap of ruins, properly a place ruined by inundation;

IHIfl

foe

IV. liquefy
^

A3*

hill,

loef

,'

= D"irT^

Jufl name

RA3* moisture

properly high wave;

Kafa tabye mourning. To the same root seems p.lso to belong 551313, Assyr. tamfl
unclean and Assyr. tem(m)enCn)u clay -cylinder. The connection of the idea of wetness
and of that of sinfulness occurs also in other languages. Cf. Quara hiiet ivet, sinful.
1

Not

pestilence, as in dictionaries; cf. Reifmann, B&th

Talmud,

V., 80.

This word belongs to a semasiologicaUy very interesting group, starting with the
meaning ivomb (no matter what the primitive meaning of the stem might have been), and
developing, on the one hand, into that of woman, m,other, hence into that of motherly feeling,
love, pity, kindness, etc., or into that of kindr.ed a.nd pi'ogeny, hence fruitfulness and plenty
on the other hand, into that of receptacle, vessel, measure of capacity, i:h.Qn of length, or into
that of midst, middle, inside. In the following enumeration some of the links are missing:
Mishnic Hebrew D&j! Assyr. ummu, tvomb, 'Qt^ mother, n'E'lK people, nation, Assyr.
2

iimmftnu

people,

ummfltu army, umftmu

animal,

emftmatu

kinship,

ammamum

NOUN

800]
branch

branch and

cti

[of.

197
uppers);

i!i

S<n]3'l,

sripll"!,

shore, VL., Succa 26 a.'

^^ma

b) S^nia or
c)

^XVn

Eg. Arab.

gnat; i^T\T^ garden;

i<fl'j3''l|l

799. '""V
b)

]o)l

a)

a kind of owl.

sufficiency.

^T\'0')2

fear; m2'\'h debt,

Hi.'n'a^Vt,

guilt,

residence; UTipy trouble.

800. '"lb ^TIJ"! iitman debt, permission; XlnVri animal;


iXrS^ rag; ^iH^b^ 'fat-tail ^XTT'p city.
:

immu

certain vessel,

treasure C=*13t*li<), Dij!*

|V*I

Xjo| favor, MlSi? cubit.

t^iidst,

The original meaning, measwre o/ capacity, is still retained in TTJPSS tl'^GX Jer. 51:13: 5^22
is not measured by the cubit
It is a well-known phenomenon that words retain in certain
constructions and phrases a meaning which has otherwise become obsolete. Assyr. ipu
wombflove, HS'^i^ measure of capacity, Assyr. aptu dwelling, man, i^RSi^ balcony, tuber,
T
T
1 P t u abundance. The idea of dwelling, balcony, seems to go back to that of receptacle ; while
the meanings man, tuber, to that of progeny and fruitfulness. The relationship between
!

both ideas

ia,

from that found in JiJOI

therefore, difEerent

The Egyptian ip,

JHS- SIS = JUJ. =Vulg.

denominative of rise's measure. iy>a\

Arab. 2Ua|

womb, good

will, favor, grace, IJili? treasury, store, properly receptacle

count,

cuir,

is

is
"ffiS
-

denom-

inative. '[p2l wortib, belly, midst, inside, ..wfflj clan, kindred,

\^

boton

metten measure

fruit, produce, Tulg. Arab. .,*Jaj distiller^s vessel, Tlla.


^
p
]5Q.

generosity.

womb, ST13 leather

has this double sense.

it

mother, wormM,n, x i,-^ motherly love,

,_>^

'>

cXji^ womb, (l^n ^ve has probably


Assyr.

ummatu

army, (^^n

= Assyr. umamu

ctom,

of all

society.

i^jLw^

111311,

'

"

'

'

^ ^

kirummu
etc.

2wLil

Jw-O

^ ^^ ^

2jU|

^ILl^.^).

drinking-Jar,

3"lp womb, midst,

bility.

karamu
)

vessel,

leather bottle, Assyr.


g

"^

\s^Z
1

leather bottle,

This

may

Somali

deh

middle,

*"

be explained either by

non, or by diphthongization

( 80)

cf.

clan,

n.),

SSpl"!, JUj',

'<'.

dub

Vpp'\

^amtu,

kirimmu womb, kiremu

Jl^n =

DriT

vagina,

sign of

pi*2/i

deb

a^S

be kind, generous,

31p

fie

i^Ja

affa-

near (^Hp

fcjndred. ^Ilpl mWsi,

*^-

^/

generosity.

passing into V^pl"!

]a5nT = *']ib']] = 'jabT

leather bag,

leather bottle,

from

p p

cav^e to love (in the pregnant

relative, usually derived

3p"\). Dn"l womb, dn"! woman, DH"!

a*

-T"

and derivatives (795a,

Here may also belong S{31"1p

in

animal, Irob-Saho hiiftu people, Tfla.

"^

Assyr.

^" womb,

= \_*^).

wii-J3 (i_jL2

TI bS DS probably means moHier o/ ewrj/

the feminine, must mean womb, woman, or both, '^'


expression:

..'
^ys^
'

leather bottle.

belly,

the meaning of mother,

mild, affable, humane, SCrT^^n 6o9.


TIT-I

human

Whether this word be Semitic

'

^^.

'

heianai
""
i. e.,

love,

'

(with

(>:& the same, liberality,

bottle,

"

..

or Iranian, in both

terebinth, Mal'tese

pp
^Si-^.
womb, measure of capacity and of length.
^^

interchange of labials).

a frequent phenome-

198

MORPHOLOGY

III.

[801

b) t/^Tn^daughter^iitrnp^city.iXaC^'p

(=t<nD1p) village

(7966):'^
qitl.

801.

K5tS
''

boundary/

iXl'2,^2

objection/ UrO^if.,

'802. "y

opposite/ ti^GyZ study/ ^iltp,


"IH"'^
yonder side/
J^"'!"'?'

i55S''X reverse,

S^iT'ti clearing;

fruit, plur. ''TS C.

i*'^^''*!!

'xfn

a)

MS.

wVll;

Zm&.' J^n^T']

wolfJ

n"":i

104a (voc);

Pes.

painj i^TB

'iin^S

iiC2'''}\

= Kn'"n.

b) iini'^

803. Y^
% 804. yy

plur.

a)

cavity of the mouth.

"'Sj'''^

5*D''b

miracle;

Sa-'UJ

S^B'^^N

c^iip;

KB^X

matting.^
b) Sn^'tp nature, character;

K5"'p

mots/

cZa?/y

i51''3

S5T3

roast, VL., Sanh. 70a.


Xii^ti s/iade.

c)

805.

W^'^ Zato; X^^IT

--"ly:

\1^

XTli^m,

siuui, aZa-

baster jug.

806. '"lb: a) ;;n''tp glazing; ^iXTTW HCVT^ warp;


^ns Meg. 136 = 'H'S ^Sl-'B C. MS. ibid. "(voc!^)>
,

'&)

m^^

c)

Some

fire/ yy, i^b^y, a6ot;e.


of the following forms

may belong

bir'l) my

funeral repast (109);'


mountain path, defile, Sanh. 966."
(^=btrt

For

'aj:\T of

cf.

KOnig, HO.,

i<b^B

T3.

b:

split;

WlIJ

II., 1, 172, 2 sg.

Hebr. iDjllJ, Targ. SDaiS (Merx, Chr. Targ., Glossary,


ditional pronunciation of i^nSID
Cf. KOnig, op. cit., II., 1, p. 471.
2

to

"ilTB,

Cf.

s. v.

S32), and the

tra-

'

Cf.

IDSjna TB.,

*Assyr.
!>

C/.

II., 50.

ma5ftru = bagftru

KOnig,

cut,

loc. cit.

sms,
Tl- sisis,
TTl
connected with Hebr. HSSSSS (966,

'Cf. SD'aiT, SDS'aT,


t
T
tl
X

'

etc.

The word

In Aramaic, as in later Hebrew, nouns

is

like those of *|"b

OC/. 864, u.
iti

Hebr.
p. 12,
^^

Of.

igT

*^xy^lt for

l^l

n^n^.-iCrn,

their first vowel

inttj

loc.

This

is

Plur. -iSSpr^t,

usually translated son. Cf. iC*l3 eaf, 5ull. 87a, and

"^rrn

C=i5ri'i?n'Q), Igg- SeAra,

from which a secondary form KS'^ln'Q occurs,


&52TU

JoL5 retain

2.

marginal note ad

AJ

elevation, slope,
2L\aJ'

Cf.

u. 2).

of the form

*l"5

The word

literally

means

ed.

Neubauer,

ibid.^ p. 44.

fold^ ivi'inkle.

Since a wrinkle consists of

and depression, the word may denote any one of these configurations. Hence

mountain

slope, difficult

mountain path,

sloping shore, KP^SlTtJ embankment, Assy r.

defile,

mountain

rauSannItu =

ridge, tAT\'^i^'S^ strand,

i{n*^2'?ni)^i for

*muganiltu.

NOUN

816]

199

qiflat.% 807. XWJ'^. tear; XrifpO^S plot,

808.

6)'

wheat.

809. y"$

a)

iXr\T'3.

= ]Lr^

hair,

worm, fruit-stone, grain/

word, thing.

iXrO''T2
^

Hribj? calf;

coral

i<Fl''D3
"

(= *NMp3).'
yy plurV ^XSt}

lot;

5<b^5J[a],

810.
811.

'"ly

''"lb

cf 77, 90.
iXrrp^ palace; KnT'^l
a)

restde?ice.

Hebr.^h-^blfl

'i^r^'^bD,

xrib^p or xrib''p=(i) i^ri^bp, (2) xibp.

c)

ear/ li'^liX,

gM^( J)'Z. 812.' Xjn^K

JO) 3\, Assyr. zumur, body;


spike, B&qa 30 a;^ KIS^S

TflaiH,

i4T2J53!lrt

i^^flW hand-

ransom.

i<"li33,

b) Xtttp'^p asAes, iCxS,

wa^/; ^ni'l 6ac/c,

b^n-lifx

x^" (50,

gf);

if^Flb-'n

= KFlb^n

813^ ''"IS X'iri!!'' arrogance; Hrf^T dearth.


% 814. 'y KTiD leather bottle.'
815. yj a) !!<1B!l>^ foundation; J^'^^ia ii)aZZ, Eth. gadgad;
:

!!<'n^a

shore;

6a/<;,

^isli"

cf.

!]W place; iX^Vi

b)

smn^B (230,155).'

c)

J^n^a '(=!!ffla)

6mm,

"1153

"I7J

myrrh.

Fi., Sanh. 95a; XTS? (=X'l!|a),

Fi., Meg."i06. kn-'nifl (=Kmm2J).

816.

""ly

Yia", 'yilj

or

yib

K^13

short in stature, Alf. B. M. 816 ( 785)


^re; XIITZJ waZZ; Sain garlic'
NOldeke,

O/.

l/WS = 135?

ZDMG.,

worm;

cf.

Eg. Arab.

abanu= SjLLs

BrttU,

This

be wet;

cf.

is

or

Jf^SI^S

mwc/j, wr?/; X^l]

BSth Talmud,

yJiser.

The stem shows the same double

S{ln3^5 ^'""^thing finger-shaped, long and thin; hence,

(1)

_aJ

best Nile fish;

fruit-stone, grain, seed ; cf, S5313 grain,


3 Cf.

Wto

L., 309.

C/. Assyr.

development as in Assyrian:
hair,

!(<211B

^J

(2)

something protruding, hard; hence,

coffee-berries,

I., 13.

probably connected wit

Eth. retflb.

^/^i{D

= V ii^

)_>,ii^A.^, with quSiaifl, Audo, Diet, de la langue chald,. Preface,

Cf.

'

r*j means not only garlic, but a

number

of other plants.

p. o.

This shows that the word

does not contain a characteristic of garlic, but goes back to the general idea of fruitfulness.
It

is,

therefore, not improbable that the

word go back

to

_tj"

and the

line of

development

200

MORPHOLOGY

in.

817.
b)

'"lb: a)

load;

i!t.yn

forehead/

whelp;

atryi^

mb^m, mb^m,

as.Fhx^'s shoulder; 'itn^s^ia

t:"

t;:

5>"y

820.

Xna^S* nation;

later;
c)

.'

Sf^rQ^^y

t;-:

iOnb^ia cloak, I&^cl^'

xli

^"lb

iXrryi^ cub; pluT.^iXrrjb'^'Z^ kidneys.

821.

Two Short Vowels.

a) xb^^^ camel;

KS'ltJK

jJll

sli

XriniS evening; J^TOa, Hny^S, abscess.

tax;' q-ntiX

b)

Nribnw
t::

'"15':

2.

qcdal.

Ti^naDn
t:;t

txrnm-t;

web;

traditional pronunciation K^PS^''! f Ktl^B

SlnSW place,

'819.

putu,

Assyr.

plur. ''S^^ twigs.

qut{u)iat.ixrbm

818.

iX^TAB width,

likeness;

^'pZ'^l

SM5, SWSS,

patch;

^b^ltl

[817

new;

Nln'irt

capitation

i^ji'^'D

leaf.

b^y, iibj?, haste; XpTtj presumption;^ ^nMLb] tomorrow,

Kbnp

assembly;^

mustache.

i<7J3i23

lira', J^niC'^a, ^es/i,

meaf;

XSyn

Assyr. elapu;

!>5ntl''a

ram.
d) i^bSia oniow; itbSIO /ooZ.

822.
% 823.
might

still

*jjfcj

The

'"15

yy

be traced out.

The

last

newborn

S^lbl

young;

child,

goes back to *i.)*-5

fj

stem comes through

latter appears also as

aJs

JuO

(Jj meant not only beans, but also spices

= (J>j3

if

WD?

cZottd.

which we find in "j^SX 6ean=

from Jk^j*

which

is

(J*.AJ yd be

But perhaps shortened from J^A-LftJ wis

C^.

the

compound

(LflJLi*it>

stirn, Arab. iLgx:^

V.

JOOk

2O0k

connected with

Eth.

phegem,

Hebr. n?)?

Xlil^

"^DT has the sense of i,j Y"^

i^nSIT
is

= i^j

Assyr.

-.

So vocalized

in

SM. No. xxv.

ed.

Harkavy, 79; 1p5S?Tn

Pal. Syr. jloijj; probably

= qihl a.

tfttcJ.

yi

"

madaktu

village.
*

must be

= nri')3)

Cf.

The

Kluge,

niSlS-

Is

647.

although on a different line of development,

5X)?STn TG.

p. 130.

Q"^*! ?

YalqGt, Lev.

an Arabic, or Aramaic,

Luzzatto identifies it with Hebr. tlB


Cf. my note in AJSL., Vol. XIV.,
underlying idea for forehead in many languages is that of eztent (width or height)
ts.

-^j

has not been found for the word), properly

origin

Jj =

but a by-form of

It is not impossible that

(Guidi, Delia sede, p. 583).

compound (and an Indo-Germanic


spice-horn.

i^bl^ cynodon.

i^nia c/ioj, stubble; xbb3> (^aiw;

546.

Etymologically connected,

camp.

Cf.

Irob-Saho, dik

832]

NOUN

824.

Uj

''"lb

a)

it^bti

Kiy^ goodwill.

^)

KB.'

c)

xnNi

prothesis

d)

= jlii = 111 = TOD

Xlnib"'?!

amartu and

a) SFlflllj

XflpTtt

K^'SFl

B.B. 134ay

howl, Fi., B. B. 1266; with


.

Plur.

'^'ijri

breasts.

father; KriS brother; ^'C'H father-in-law;

gafoZa/. 825.
barren; ^T&T'
ft)

(=f^'i^5L!), o'-S'Mmenfe, FI/.,

my father; ^yA = '&'m

xnS

reed; "SFl

N^DJ? cane,

Plur.: J^^by leaves; ^^12'^ heaven.

P^^^' ^"^n

J^SCX

young;

201

Xmn,

presumption;

sll^ turban,

^jl^

'Flirj,

border;

X"l53''N

Aand.

XI';

new; "

cf.

J^Pinpy

Assyr.

both ends of the sleeves.'

826. S"y Xribb? produce; Xnna"1 myriad.


827. '"lb: ci) Xn-^an bene/?/; xnibs
( = 5alautft) pmt/er-;
'
xn-'icx, xrip-'cx or xrirpk = K3CX
:

6)
S^riTIJ

KWJK,

i^tinaSl, maid-servant; XFlSTB

828. a) KbSSl dark;


aan^ Uver; i(353T2J/af.

gafo7.

ion;

b)
doMfe/;

Sb"!^;

i^TCB

!^T';i3

mere?3/;

Zoss; ^'Ip C.

pot; Kb^n^ e^ue;


c)

SPSp,

Zip;

JiiDTIJ,

?/ear.

l!<3''S]T2J

iJtabx

X'^^nn

strong/ iO^'H compan-

dowfeZe;

5$j5Sp

MS. Meg. lb (voc), N^Tp,

XT'lp',

J^VsSl

/a/.

WU''b brick, VL., B. M. 1166; !!i)lM dimension; ^'ob^W

grandee.
'"13

829.
830.

bpVi^a']

J?"?:

881. '"ly

orphan.

STTn;; dr?/; J^ari;;

Klnt3

S'W;

dead;

J^^jn aZtt;e; NIB]? oZd.

witness;

iXl$

KT'S awake, living,

Sanh. 296.

832.

''"lb

those of qatal:

llin

Here the forms cannot be distinguished from


S'^j?

poor;

hard.

^^^TSJ?

l99- Serlra, ed. Neubauer, p.

atlfn

For another etymology

Adjectives of this form interchange with those of qattll,

cf.

ZA., XI.,

i.

212.
n,

Sffip, are used promiscuously with SBI^N;, Sffli^l, Sbl^]?,

g.:

SBpS

SlBlffip.'.

'

S51B3''

'S^p

;.

202

MORPHOLOGY

III.

qaUlat.%
thing/
ion;

833. a) ^PlTaiS!

Kfi'T?^ {VL.,B.M..

assembly;

K^niTlJri

compan-

darkness; Kt^3Tlb concubine!'

b) xririira dimension; HlTlbSri

834^

2,3b), lost

stolen thing; Srib^!''! jig-cake; ifXTp^n

!!<nl"'5ii

!!^rraj''33

[833

^"'13

J^nb^iFl

purple-blue.

a) SPTr?'; dry; SnS^.^ Zoan.

6) KPS'n opinion; Xm^i'^ri wrath;

sZeep.

!!<ln2''tp

835Vy"y: a) "'nnn'^rea^.' 6) SHT'ia


836. "'"lb plur. Xn"';T2J)5 date-stones.

yaZZ.

qatul{at).% 831. aYx'sX (=*JiySNl) %ena;

!!^'2"15, i^ln52"7)?,

early.

^inj (sic), H'lin?

b) b^jiuJn late at night;

VL., Pes. 8&.

early,

i^roipn spotted."

Plur.:

behind;

''IlinX

Zig-W;

perhaps

^\ital{at).% 838. ^02"$ berry; Sfinry, i^mj?,


mead.
Plur. ""Dpi property.

839.
840.

3.

^"lb

q&tal.

/seor^.'
K^jn-'l

mz7Z. Plur.: X^ya entrails.


hundred; sn13 0%;"

^7:3

D!11ZJ(7J),

in

the Piest Syllable and Short Vowel in the Second.

841.

Jil^rin seal;

db^

Jiiabj

world; and perhaps

threshing -sledge, Yalqtit Le-^. 459, Rasi Tern. 18 a, and

Sj'152

axe, perhaps etymologically connected with

The vowel

a)

id.; itT^D'^W

name.

Long Vowel

i^j'yi

Xab

nSD measwrey

b)
}553Ti3

5>"y

{|<ai"ip
"'riinri

On

after

"1

is

TXJ^b^'S:

word

cf.

Fleischer

apud Levy,

fgnoftZfiiiJiVe,

J^xi' X. (Eg. Arab.

5346 sq.

A similar develop-

which appears in Eg. Arab, as v^LaAam

maXS

XjLftS Aead.about which soe966,n.l),

is

From

Lane's Diet.,

the meaning of the last word

II.,

Cf. also

^0

iMJjuLi miserly,

parasite and goes back to

a helping vowel and not the afformative ending.

the etymology of this


^ ^

ment shows

i^j'15J

lower the head

the etymon of iDJibiB

C/.

is

denominative of

jujJLJLs

= TSrib^SJ

]3

from the use of Hebr. tJjb'^B for


both sexes, and from the contrast of DliP^blB {D'''lp3) with ITTW DIlBD (IKgs. 11:3),
the development is not difficult to trace. The ignoble, vile, in a primitive community, where
all members of the clan are equal, could only be applied to foreign slaves. TiJ^kb'^S then,
means slave, male or female, married to a free person, or to another slave. As those used as
concubines were mostly, or altogether, slaves, slave and concubine became synonymous.
(cf.

s.

v.),

>

This

is

usually confounded with Hebr. "'IlS'l

<C/. Earth, iVB., p. 13 89.

5]inab, pniab,

ninX^

C.

Igg. Senra, ea. Ooldberg, p.

MS. Meg. 12a (voc).

8.

NOUN

845]
qatiV

842.

203

Wn3 priest;

a) U^blK weaver;

K'lilD witness;

H15T2: deceased; S5ST2J gutter.

With

ft)

= SiQidn

t't
t
With change

t;t
c)

to

d to

seeds;

i: ^brifi

't

i^n-^r

t't

= Xbrn

SiSb-'l!<

deceased;

KlJ-'S; = i^JJ^

t*t

t:t

of first vowel

Xpl'^TlJ testator,

probably

i51S''ffl
T ;

i^TTflS

t:t
after shortening

^yti

ship;'

5{t3''tir!

.vLl

= XnSTT
T
T

bran; ''^n

"
.

With change oi d {= 6) toU (m) Klj^l!!* employer, Sanh,


XnjX Yalqlit Kings 222 = J^nijS Se'm. % 54 NlSa^i* =

d)

29 a

retention and lengthening of second vowel

digger; X'l^in tenant;

:'

oa^T,

o^U

i^l"112

young scholar;*

Sbni)''

bni''

workman.
843. '"lb a)

J^a'lSl?

nniy

aribu

Assyr.

ifOp^l pedlar.

Hebrew loan-words

e)

guest;

J^n'liK

publican;

i^Cpi^

t^byiS
''

KiiriD

sician;

Alf.M.Q.
T- T
SnSV^pO a blind
and Rail ibid.^
!!<"'*'T!Ji5,

1267'!!*n'"^T5

b) ^5J
qdtilat.

swimmer, VL., Y6mft lib; 1X"C^ phy-

blind; iiCpVD butler.

!>i''52D

(=

t:

const,

109),

a) Is^npHS

b) J^nmiri step-daughter.

Kffp

a)

,"

Sm^JD
TT IT

''['T3

i^nK^ao,
T

rK(aWi,

weepers;

S^'^^SS

one, properly one of the blind, Alf B. Q. 316

844.

845? ''"lb

Plur.

seeds; b^n^SD
TT

st.

woman

Hebrew

foundation;

iXn'^^i^

large vat; xj\li, Jo-J

tHyo

l^p,

'''yn

master, lord.

of priestly family.
loan-word.

i^ri'^'lT

liJp

corner; iXTTSn keg;

(= waswdwaM)

XlTl^IlC

KlHi^IlD
bar-maid, plur.
^
T
T
T
:

The forms q&til^ q&tul, and qatfdl are used promiscuously and interchangeably.
2Assyr. elippu = *alipu as lippu = aipu.
1

3 Of.

M\w

5517^1 S'^Tiy
TIT

TI

= K-SS*-ft
"y

(Merx, Chrest. Targ. Glossary) and Eg. Arab.

1*1^^

W^ J

Persia.
DP 7

i/D"1S = '122 4?3"nS = )'^ attendant, follower


German Jilnger. Small as opposed to ^^1 great, master, teacher. (Of. also Eth.

*Phenioian a"1JJ
disciple,

daqlq.)

j^owregr

(of stag)

Then, modestly, scAoIar ; as

DDH

TiUbri

for

DSH

The proper name usually pronounced S^nSbn SM. vocalizes as plural KHSbH the
correctness of which is borne out by the spelling t^flSsTI M. MS. Taan. 15 6, 16 aft. This is
On the meaning of this name
probably a participle and ought to be pronounced KnB5n
Cf. also SlTlS^blb Lilith, U. MS. B. B. 73a;
cf. D. Kaufmann, MOWJ., XLI., 337 sg.
StlSlin = i.<:Of^ SM. No. cxrtr = Gitt. 68 6 ; SHStpJ? (sing.) ibid. Cf. Hoffmann, Ueber
5

ein.phOn. Inschriften, pp. 17

sq.

204

III.

MORPHOLOGY

b)

a.'rn'n

lady, Gitt. 12a.

o)

Plur.

!!<n"'''1IJ^S

qdtul.

846.

fluous to say that


to have

64)

[846

foundations.

In assuming a form qdtul,

Hebr. qdtdl and Arab.

any connection with

it.

it is

Jjjls are

perhaps supernot considered

Konig's arguments [HO.,

II., 1,

The
our current Targumic

are not convincing for the following reasons:

sional dropping of the first vowel in

occatexts

prove the original shortness of the


(and nowhere
vowel. It is due to Babylonian- Aramaic influence ( 787). That
else) does not

language drops long vowels as easily as short ones c/., e. g.,


if the second vowel be
XD"'70X, for Hla^iy, Kra5<.
b^laW,
t'-t
tt
t"t
t;
originally d, no explanation is offered why, against all analogy,
;

Aramaic languages, but also the Arabic, have 6,


While, moreover, in Aramaic a sometimes becomes o that

not only

all

becomes , in Arabic cannot be shown, even


~,Lo should be

if

U.
it

the foreign

an uninfluenced transliteration.

But

see on

word 933, n. 1. The question why the form i^bitip should


occur only in Aramaic is easily answered by pointing to the prominent part the w-vowel plays in the Aramaic verb (228). Furthat

thermore, the lengthening of the second vowel in qdtil ( 8426)


makes such a process in q&tul not exceptional. That such length-

ening should take place mostly in qdtul is easily explained by


Lastly, the existence of
the special development in its meaning.
a form qdtul can
ijs.C, J.ir,

58);

actually be shown.

perhaps also

Persian

1\^

OjliS

= ]i^

iin^^n^ninO Se'elt. 55.

(but

cf.

(Noldeke,

^jUijLj

Cf.

iiIjL\L^

Fleischer, Kl. 8chr.,

Pers.

Cf. also Schwally's

Stud.,

II.,

remark on

I.,

42);

Pal. Syr.

That the it-vowel in forms with


PcLsi_- [Idioticon, s. v. Va^).
active force is secondary has so far not been demonstrated.
847. Nouns of this form, when the second vowel is omitted,
It is only when that vowel
are not distinguishable from qdtil.
has been retained and, of course, lengthened, that we can recognize

it.

The majority

of the

nouns of

this

form are nomina

agentis; but some, as in qdtil, are concrete substantives.


of

this

formation frequently take the ending

Nouns

HK", without

NOUN

855]
change in meaning.

This accounts for their taking frequently

in the plural the termination

''!!^~

{^p& = ^Vip as p^ = ^'yp); K'^iS'S torch;


= .L-O M. Q. 11a.' Plur.: KJ'lipK^

848. KTIJipX hard

S^irri runner;

205

X'liSn

VL., IJuU. 4a; '^Sl"i'i^2> dealers in wool.'


Not here belong the Assyrian loan-words

baskets,

Note.

gasuru,

!!<"liT23!3

passuru. The desire to preserve the foreign vowel ( 84) and the popularity of the form
K3i33 kiniinu,

i^"liriD

An

i^bitJp are responsible for this form.

this connection is

849.

"^"IS)

^,.\^ =

D''3^'l3

journer; ^iXTp

^^"ify

{Audo,

]iafl

]iOfl,

.^

Cf. also

933,

S|5iT yellow, green;

Spi3^ child;

instructive example in
n. 1.

S^lin^ so-

The

v.), ferule.

s.

Is it Saho auraur ?
]iofS suggests Egyptian origin.
850. y'$ Xtjian digger; i<T2JiT2:3
851. '"U &^"lV^ inn-keeper; iJ^p'lll strainer.
S852. ""lb: i^'^iok = i<"D!>( Fi., B. Q. 84 a; Jt^tS builder;

by-form

collector.

!!t''i3!l

qatulat.%Sh^.

854.

"-"lb

Slnpt;; child.

a) ^DS

',

SlnilDN;

XWba

remedy;

JSitViaD

if

correct,

XWa

exile;'

tmi (160)^^9'^ HWtia request Vlu^.:


bar-maids. This may be a corruption for i^ln1"3D but,
error;'

would show the persistence of the typical vowel


b) S^MTTS repast.^

it

it

be

of the

masculine form.'
4.

Short Vowel
jL*i

the Fibst Syllable and Long Vowel in the Second.

855.

with those of

Under the
1

in

Nouns

J^AJii

;'

less frequently

influence of an initial

On

smDn

the more usual form of a

Cf. liilTila^S l9S. Serlrd, ed.


3

with those of Jyxi and J^xi


5<

or y

Plur.

iPlur.:

SrnibH

nomen

Neubauer,

agentis derived from an

(^_L:^ ami]

EaSI in

cf.

951.

"

''

p. 21.

read:

SniySp.

TG.

ed.

Harkavy, 436.

On Sn^:n /

Change

This explains the difficulty Blau finds in the forms

84, note.

of vowel

12,

Cf,

IqQ- ^erlra, ed. Neubauer, p. 27.

SniKytS,

HeiZ. ScAri/t, p.

or of an adjoining

This word has not been recognized by commentators and lexicographers.


ibx
: niDjin Taiffi

Aifass, loc. cit.


2

of these forms frequently interchange

due to 1

n.l).

C/. 68, 273.


niS'^'IpJ

i^1')p.

(^''

''"''

*'

,;;
,

206

MOKPHOLOGY

III.

[856

emphatic consonant, the vowel of the

labial, or

Some

frequently retained.

syllable is

first

of these forms, as well as other forms

with long vowel in the second syllable, are frequently reduced to

Jja -forms (92,783).'


856. a)
1X$'\'^

iJW^S)

tt: MM.

reliance/

plur.

''bS^D

S3>13

tt;

1116

Pes.

n^KffiD

man;^

(=12J'^5''!!|S)

arm;
Sy^lX
tt;v

tt:

-^T^k

IX^IlTBD
t t

jl!LL

Kpna
'tt:

leg/
"

t:~

i^pna
't:~

kernels;

= "11233;

document,

XitlD,

'barley;^

KinW

'''nJO

plur.

c.

of

Hebr.

Of.

TBS'^S

iiSriB

'

^i

saddle; ob't

!!t33*lit

Nlirri

c)

S^'I'BTB'

fonowe.

i<5TB''b,

from

{cf. n'':SX5TlJ
"

T T

t:-

Lo^

MS. M. Q. 13 ay ii^Jffl
VL., B. M. 26a).'

C.

"'"li^tlTr

With secondary doubling ( 44)

WIB'^b,

cf.

tibriS^S wicked, perverse, VL., Taan. 25 a;

purse-string, shoe laichei


6)

erasure/

S5M0,
'tt:

deed; lUSSSi perhaps, properly hypothetically ;


jjOyi

Mhj

><ll"'1X)

sClii (81);
^^
j

'

(=

)Xny._

nns

aod

HHinri
'lans

Hebrew

thtb

'''itstp

loan-words.

With aphaeresis
niBSS til? (Tff. ed. Harkayy, 71), IT'Sn Ti^iL (.BG. 405),
The development of meaning from man to parent is as follows
child ; grown man, adult, having right to self-representation and

occur in the singular only in the absolute state.

IB'^S"'^

only La the expression

her {his) parental house.

man as opposed to

T352*iJ5

irCdependence, as opposed to minors, dependent on their parents; hence, parents.


* i]

*^

ooffl?

.001.^.0)]

^^ A*^^

^ooi^

.d^i-iuaJ?

ilnN

sfliyS'lS

JCiJ., IX., 702.

45f55?TO

6id. 701.

XDS'aD

61-iyDI

/ffS-

^erJra, ed. Goldberg, pp. 11,

(;Sp.,

in Pal.

moSnet

*'"

the other hand

liliLt

Syr. as

= (uaiLc

it

cf.

All these forms

npB = ntlB

jji

Cf. also

'Omanee Arab,

-A-Jfi

o Jcw ^ O

JkS

' ^.

in Babyl.

(jji
I

Aram,

inTigrSas ennete tiethe

HpiB = HtllB

becomes a sibilant (through

edibles,

..

go back to p21D

''"''
..

SipDT

purse-string.

changes on the one hand to a dental

crooked,

Aram, as V31B in Pal.

VI., 22), in Hebr. as D31B> in Arab, as JaJUCO

purse-strings; cf.

kum&l; on

12.

3i9.

The stem VJIB occurs

as T"J31B

J3

ibid.%25.

.^9

v^l jjuoloJ

No. lxi(toc.).

SJlf.

'SltJITp HG.
8

}]

Cf.

Bruns-Sachau, S2/r.-r6m. Kechtsbuch,Ij.,%S; v^Sol*

c).

Cf.

= ^^-O
"."T

'_'rfi^iw

siUR = Irob-Saho

= (L^.
liLo. =

Julft

be

yifljC.

* '

."-

864]

NOUN

857.
N"TD''!!<,'

'"IS

)^|, i>Ll^

858. yy:
vulgar Arab,

l/n^lfl

day, daytime, plur. ''Ba^ VL., B. M. 28 ay

xaSl';

207

Eth. uaseid, head-rest;

i^^^'^H presswre;

.li JL,^

^^t2W:a

nm

spar/c,

D^TTTaB reality; SnSTfl

honor.

i*"lp';

Snn'^Tfl

^jJLi 6e wear; ^^^'^^l sniveling brat, chit

'!ia

neighbor,

(i/J);

S^^^'^j

eventual loss (i/li)

859.
caravan;

''"ly

-jTS

860.

'"lb

XCllb curse;

;^^;

Tioise,

>51I311N!

threshing; HCT'y

i^Tji'^^'n

Fi., Ber. 58a (^/jbU).^

a) ^nd'^ goods;

"J^DFl

nXSFl

condition;

^Htn'^li^.

perchance.
b)

-Scripture;

riS'np,

J^'np),

retention of

plur.

(and

''Jji'lp

iUlii. 861. Xri'^an she-ass; nnb^,


plur.
U^Sb"!
"

megrim;

!!<r\)jb"'^,

KflS^H properly fingers, Assyr. ubftnu, only in S^WIX


pericardium.^

862.

(=

with

''^'^p),

yy

^riS'^nTfl

" 863.
864.
b)

jpresswrey

i^flSa^JS!

Fi.,

J^rQlUJ

iJ^n^n'^lfl

neighbor

Sank 82a).

'"U

SSmtJlb CMr-se; xm^'^'^Ta caravan.

^'i^

a)

:t:

snnyt szsfer/

deduction, discount.

!!<tT''^i2

^re, Assyr. isatu;=

i*ri^"j<

i!*inar!

Nniasi,

it

incorrectly

mother-in-law; iXn^lZ share.^


c)^
1

mother-in-law,

i^n!!3'^h
T : V

The spelling with

proves the word to be a loan-word.

Wli5 occurs only in perfect and participle Qal. The dictionaries


Pa"el. For the etymology c/. also TfLa. 'auoge proclaim, publish.
^

SEagI explains

this correctly

HDSn ySSf^ = German

by 1t53B^T3.
Tt-

"Daumel."

Cf.

Now

meant pericardium. Then,

like

^bl

fi^naD^I
TI-I i5t3B^t2
TX(-

Kohut, 'Ar. Compl.,^.

singular had the feminine ending is at least doubtful.


originally

make

i^Lx-w

'TTTO'Ii

-v.

],

'f

]j^
<>

^"^
-

'

&C^2H. Whether the

suggests that Hebr. D^STtCl

thoughts.
a

*fi^Fin^X
5

H'ff. 454.

On the tt-vowel,

Fleischer, Kl. Schr.^

Hebr. ttJK comes from the same stem ^'W^

have any connection with XwhAJf


6

cf.

Plur.

KnXIS'Q
TT
T
I

r(?. ed.

it is

B,nd is

I.,

index,

a form like

only indirectly, (wjj! and

Harkavy, 343 KlnaCnS'a


TT
T
;

ibid, 546.

v.

i-

c>-S^!

b'^JTCb) above.

'I'flSi^

If it

being parallel

208

;,;

MOEPHOLOGY

III.

[865

J^._|865. W'^nX, i<5''pi!t, an inferior kind of date =


lAAk = sL&ft sLLc H^'^'^ pricking pain in the eyes 1/ ySI)
;'

Zoad, Sanh.

57p

I^p-'TD

866.

but

yy

manana,

867.

^"lb

also be

^1''T"A

had (i/TTSa)

Xli:"'^!

may

it

crown; ND"'Cy

^h-'b^

Eth.

1056;

86 &;

feOTg-, B. B.
cf.

"i<Cl''t:^3

^jLk

perhaps Xl^^pN!

OTywri/',

Stit:^a

NT-'ia

be disgusted with.

N^np prophet; "2 chirping (i/^to).

jlLuJ. 868. Snir^n em7, bad (7/trNl); K^nrSD


869.

"''"'lb

Jy^ .%

HHT??

d/q^''^), bread;

Xna"^-! rri3"!

!!irii|i^n3

a)

870.

dress;

i^TlJ^ab

6)

With secondary doubling

c)

iCrm
.,yjuU^

spoon (for

r^<MiL&

with a changeable root


ing

=
,

'<*??''!?^

Hp^lDS t;erse;

."

"81)'.'
,

These words belong to a nmnerons group

dry up.

uj^

mes-

itriilbllj

plur. i^''5^mj

;'^

SIS^Ip

*ii'l!nri

(?^

uxS

'7

>

s/iip;

prophetess.

senger; ^^7^3 perfect, thorough; ^^ID

c?m6;

flower-pot/ X5''5X sensitive,

uonne, fanfane,

TigrS

y-^ap

S|D"-Tri

XlSS^i^

5*l"'^y

6eer/ i^TW 6Zmd/

q-'iy, JJ^S^ny,

jiw-C

>**

jaii

^^c,

whose primitive mean-

This shows the following development

is cover.

comprimere feminam
dip into water
vail,

faint

wash

((Joww-fc)

<
[_

drown-, ruin

dry up
be discolored
.

obscure,

grow dark

u*<"""
>-

\
.

fcCD'^n^j therefore,

-{

need not mean dried up, but

may mean

discolored, corrupt

Hebr. D'''lB5{3
On interchange of gutturals and sibilants
Corrections " to that section.
Cf.

'

Ointjy JQB;

IX., 694, 697.

"ny = Assyr.

"1135{

corrupt

cheat, wrong, oppress (887, u. 1).

cf. 26

= ..wjuwl

and "Additions and

up ; ST^iy

l/(j.ft coer(865, n. 4)like

basfcet,

close

as opposed to

Sn"'pS

SfllSn, itAjLa^, from

50n

IIBB

L)-&-

open,.eyed

hide;

SnSI?

..\S cover.

113S5D

Hebr. niyiatB.
T

/Sfif.

SerlrO,, ed.

Goldberg, p.

18.

Alg. Arab.

^^yAX) porringer

QD V

'jjoJZ spoon, howl;


mafrad earthen dish.

'

cf.

,
^

(^yJuJo small dish, Maltese

NOUN

881]

yy

871.

Sb^lbp, S^b^bpS, sport.

JLJ^JLJ

209

a) Sna^Da stolen goods;

872.

KfiyttTIJ

oath;

at.Wra^ tradition.

With secondary doubling

b)

difference of opinion; J^niB^lp

yy

873.
874.
875.

Plur. NlTl^k^lSp

XnSiCri

Xrin^lfli)

and perhaps J^riS^pCS

^t)ybp

'

"'"ly

'"lb

xnarri7

Kmili

plur. i^m^^n?^ protests; '^Tp^'ZVD cap-

tives.

INTERNAL VOWEL CHANGE WITH SHARPENING OF SECOND


STEM-CONSONANT.

II.

Two Short

1.

Jkli.

876.

xl^'._

S^naTB Sabbath,

*Jui) t

ban

MS.
:

Pes.

complement.

879. ^7:]^^^,

881.'

quttul{at).%
X'^B^^S,

'

SHlB

like

iibn^TB

or

i<ri'^S"'2

Js^biS'^TIJ

15 and Targumic

^I'l'^Sl

iiTTSti

'

Miasi?; 5in''3,

if^mnS,

i5n'1^S'':sI

plur. ^iB^i,

lower part; plur.

''bSnr, "bi^TS,

Sri'lS'^lSi,

a and VL., ad

Pes. 35

i<^a^n Zame;

dwrnft;

Sa-'b-'X,

!!<'lia''T,' J^Fl'l^a-'T

^niS"::, Vt., B. B."7'4a;


''b^'nir

chapter,

1126 (voc).

Kln"'ba

gwttaL 880. xbffln

''5ima,

!!<rn2:"|S

(voc.y*

/boz. Kb-'bn

Zmew;

danger; SriD|3n

ZeWer; Stnaili consolation; ^TS^'^t help; )!<nBatD

'"lb

iii._8

threshing-floor^

(c>^ =

Xnna^!!)!

878.

'y'^^

XMSD

O.MS. Meg. 4a
mistake, c!

week ;'^

877. a) i^rnaa;: dry land;

institution, statute; Sin^ia

b)

Vowels.

Pl"r. of

loc'

Sri'13

= tiinS

are due to the

being mistaken for the feminine ending.

On

"172^

Of.

SniTaiB ^rc,

Some

For ^^

6 Cf.

XriTSiJ

ed.

of these forms

=^

cf.

c/.

Sohwally, Idioticon, p.

Harkavy,

may be
zXl*3

114.

1.

originally qatt&lat.

= jXLm =

Earth, NB., pp. xxix, xxx,

24.

TP

'

i:yy

= l/'t*

^""^

"^"y others.

210
2.

MORPHOLOGY

III.

Shobt Vowel

in

qattal, qitt&l.

abaku

Assyr.

[ 882

the Fiest Syllable and Long Vowel in the Second.

882.

a) K53SI game-cock, fighting-cock;

conquer; 4431?,

ordained

scholar;''' N3'52T23

h)

S"i3S^

farmer;

c)

!!<Dil33

cumin;

T T

!>53"iy

cf.

surety;^ *^'^^P /^Z^er, not

servant, valet.

"

hero; K"ipy root.

iJ<"iS"'a

5<"li3!

Both loan-words.

Dn^3 =

Both
d)
5<^2p, SM". No. xov (voc); H^iS^D feZmd.
words are Aramaic transformations of Hebr. D3l13 and HiSlD.
883.

^'^% tanner

2>"3>:

oY
Arab, oU^

884.

"-"ly

[=^-S\%).'-

iwd^e;

!!^D"'^^

^"tm jumper;

servant;

5<yfl"n

'

iHT^X:)

885.

a)

''"lb:

student of scripture;

^'^p_

Formed

dent or teacher of tradition.


h)

^X33l

!!5;iDa

"KST

qattalat.%8m. ''"isi
Arab woman. Gf. 884,

5^3

H HMn,

stu-

as S"b forms.

"5^52^ c/iea^.

a)\t\'r^;^_

female proselyte; ^T^^^^

n. 5.

b) "^m^^n white.

quttal.% 887.
red chalk;

!!^13S^!lp

XaS^lS^ darfc, black;'


,

Xa"ip

^'^'B'^ti

red;

cf.

oLJwo

fennel flower (?);' XSS^'n softening;

TT
1

S?3S?"iy Tie.,

II., 50.

Gaster'a note to SM., p. 43: " "iSp tyro, young scholar not yet admitted to ttdl
honors, who has still to wash and cleanse and do preparatory work."
2

C/.

'

'

Bacher iZAW., XV., 301), who knew only of XTSID explained it to be a form like
If the M-vowel be due to the
Q315? ( 887) but this becomes untenable in yiew of 0313
influence of the labial, why only in these two words 1 To presuppose a form qut&l is equally
impossible. It will, therefore, be best to consider it as a conflation of Hebr. btpip and
Aram. XblOp the i necessarily becoming before a sharpened consonant.
3

'^

SybS

is

not the same as

DX^S

and -/bbS are parallel stems.

The

which the learned editors could not explain,

?=

The verb

cut.
6

The word
^

Cf.

-|/

tuuO

the last qatl&i.

l/ybS

126, n. 10),

\t<J9 picfcpoctei, "Bentelschneider," from

name and Aramaic S^tS wander, with perhaps

6e darfc (night)

bsSs, tstox, DS2-I,


Cf. n'l'P'lp

ybS

(Saadla, Traiti de Succ, p.

ift;,4.Xr

oppression and darkness

'

is

qattM of

STlU
T T -

(ibid.), cut, deduct.

a conflation of the Arabic

is

a reminiscence of

first is

Cf. 978, n. 1.

cf.

Assyr.

and

ekkimu

oppressor.

865, n, 4; also

pi, pins.

TQ., ed. Harkavy, 352 (voc).

On the connection between

DeUtzsoh, Assyr. Bwb.,

s. v.

VyiH

NOUN

902J

qumiat.% 888.
qatttl.

a)

a) xn^S^lX, ''naS^i*, dark, black; '^np^SlD;

889. These are

wise;

i<'0'''2r\

i53"'")n

{=

b) m-Q-'y^ strong

890.
891.

yy

superfluous;

qattalat.

a)

strong; KHJ"*^)? old.

much.

KnTFl^

dissolute;

S^H^-'-lB

894.

a kind of

iiTIJiari

column;

mSn;

^\'^T\

K-iia''t3

apple

NTilbn

896.
897.
898.

"'"13

yS

ni:nt3; ss^iisa.

witchcraft.

!!<rnsinin

txy;!i)\

it'llT'a

''"15>

'"lb

xJyli.% 900.
'"ly

s/eep embankment;

!!ri31ta'5

902.

X^lla'l

drop;

The

XHrs'p

S;;l3Tr

c^an^e.

b^

may

PEEFOEMATIVES.
represent merely a prothetic vowel, as

may

be a formative element.

are concerned here only with the latter.

aqtal(at):
hare; SRSniNi

i^'^Spi?

(i/^Sui);

NPi^DlSl

The

S'S'IJ'!

last

four; SiS'lS

examples

Harkavy,

'ini^aiSII TG.,

Eg. Arab. plur. ^_/j|jl and t_}jlj|

fright

and run

off,

ed.

be timid, shy.

XFinD'li);,'

may have originally

been ag/VZ-forms. !!m3S (v/ia3). ^nplIX

tofte

J^niJlta^D seal.

in SnySllSi^ finger, yS'-S midst, or

We

eccac/wessy iifflsp

Xnnis'a proselyte.

III.

i<.

KJ^W

Hbl^H wedding feast.

116 a.

S;iD3 cover;

K-ISQS

suffering; I551W; superfluity.

i^bir? ugliness;

tartness, VL., Pes.

smtts;

broach.

J^IIBIIJ

J^ii. 895. XniSX; 5<b!im; KSWB blaspheming;

901.

iXJ2'')ii^)

!!*ri52^bH

^I^W

carob;

899.

qatil,

i5p"''^2

basket.

'"IS certain; "'Sp great,

'qattia.% 893.

b)

iTpPi"^

confused.

Mrnp''a'!2J

KS1"iri

sharpened forms of qatU and

warm; iiVV

iX^^'an

'"15

qattllat.% 892.
"

all

sharp;

^^yr\ powerful a^Y^J

iX$''^^;

211

(l/"l'l&^);

^MSIX

377.

t/(.JJ

v>j)

= * /-*^ = )*J = /^

,,.

212

MORPHOLOGY

III.

86. sri^iii*

Fi., B. B.

(=i!<riW9''n)

903. With long vowel


of dresses;

lit.'2'^'3.'^

^^Qm

"

scrip-

iiri'^^'lii^

21b.

ii"D"'FlB6t

906.

907.

S^yjpSn

sig7i

i!<"l"'3n

^TBCfl funeral oration; XTpsn

gain.

KIT^'l'ltl

y'El

gain; iXTO^ri invitation.

!!<Ml1"in

of recognition;

inference from analogy;

STIJ"''j3n

scourer

XIT^^lnK

lawlessness;
908.

(i/itS").

i^'l^S'^S

S^ln^^la^l^

haqtal.

haqtil.

J^n^STSS

uJi^i'^iK

flute {1/3.2':).'

ture; 5^n^Dp!!<

n.^

(i/"Ti);

funeral repast;
904.
warning, VL., B.B.
giving possession;
superintendent,
steward.'
905.

aqt&lat.

itqdtal.

[ 903

X'^^'ritj

KWa;; mandrake;'

''.iaqt'al{at).%d09.

enclosure;

5<S'']3r!

fallow-

^'rr\y)2'n''_

deer.

:2.maqtal.%

910.

j^1"TtJ,

iI?T.na,

tXD1^b)2;

jugular

^'\ril'!3

Mi.

vein,

i^Tra

'

J^^^l'^a

QSh;'

^b'2Wl2

teaching.

1^)2

^nVL.

^ibrip'-a, basket.^

"'911. N"S

Kbi'^a food;

HTfa^lJ

word,

vessel (t/^jX).
"^"13

912.

i^'^pia crystal,

by-form

IJ:';

;'

Xlflia session;

i^lp""^ best part.

913. 1"S: ^byn


914.

"-"ly

X33"a fan;

N1"aJ7J

The Assyr. musaru, musftru


112352) is

probably a loan-word.

S
^ 915.
1

an

'"lb

n3D).

>(l;ij-'a

garden-bed, y.Liui

(Delitzsoh, Assyr. Wb.,

s.

v.

J(t3n53 needle.

alum; KT1UJ7J- drink.


T

iJ^^Sjia

sickle (i/bj3

Hence denominated *^llji{ to vise, believe^ i. e., take as authentic, as if provided with
stamp 1&51tJi<D on belief, on credit. By-form of J^"liaX is &5"lNti

official

ma

From

All these forms are

But according to Brun,

This

Hence Greek

Tigr

is

ai

set over,

charge with,

Diet, syr.-lat.,

connected with fc^plD^T


fiafrx'^^V

of.

amphora, ]udqJ massa argenti


glass, in apposition to

explains

moqar

assume authority.

differently.

s. v.,

this is a

compound

of i^^jjuk

)-m09

( 979).

Lewy, Semit. FrenidwOrt. im Griech.,

js

mined

taSaiama

Hebrew loan-words.

crystal, glass,

vel auri.

p. 21.

5^Li>, (ioi.^, glassbottle, jji.a^

l/Hpl = Ip*^ = ^"^p = ^pD

Tnanufactured glass. Reinisch, Bilin Wb.,


SM, No. olxix has i^^pSlQ
.

Properly dug,
.

v.

kagana,

NOUN

937]

maqtalat.% 916. b^nbSTpa

213

Jf^nVSTIJa

^nriD-'TJ east, Pes. 1116;' &^nD?l5a

Arab.

Ji^J&.

Slnbi""ia

African kelal, a wooden peg

basket;

Eth. kanba'l6, that

wMch

to fix the hair,

hair-pin.

% 917.
% 918.
b)

""S

lXripQ)2 discharge;

y$

a)

>5n!pt2t:,

atrb'^'Q'a

,'

Snin^J

booth; }Xrnyi2 cave.

919^

'^"iy

iAtr\ya' candlestich

920.

^"lb

S*ri-''"nr7j

muqtal.

921.

camp;

!!<''''1'1^53
,

maqtil.% 922. a)

gift.

Xnbbtia

strigil;

'iS^Fin'nja

,i>>.>

HS^lbt!

drink; sn^pntl

iitrrP\Til)2

pole

to

propel a boat.

HOQC'Ti scissors;

i<nna

gutter.

'

b)

comb;

it.'p^'}&?

923^
% 924.

'"IS

%
927.

K'l)"^7bir52

sneak-thief.'

atny^'C

i xjpia fire-place.

iiS-'bj

fan.

''

'"'13?

maqtilat.

926.

iitr\''J^'Q

925.

yy

XniSD'J

Xnb-'jri

^"iy:

scissors.

knboa

treatise.

J^nrTj; xni'^np college (iin

= nn^).

mag<itZ(ai). 928. K'nilTO jpeddZer; Xtjiaira sneak-thief;


iit0F\'4'2
"

silence.' lLTi^)2 ^pain; HTrfni2

magML 929.
930.
%
O 931.

^"13

932.

^ 933.

y$

T's

!!<bni7J

^Tp2

Kbra
T T

-"

^it^^l^

ferry (j/niy); il^?t) wesi;

declaration.

DiTa
food;
T
T

iJ^TiOa
T

c%.'

quarrelsome person.^

"""lb

i^npa
T It -

934. """lb IX^^'^2


maqtalat.% 935. i<ribn570
936. 1'a plur. smnXG)7^
937.

i<ri3^i70

iX\EWZ reality.

''"1:?

i^riis^riiaa

safes.

\ip, loin;

HH^pa

part, some; i^flSia

oath.
C/. the interesting

I.,

No.

2C/.
3

SDSnU'Sa

The form

< 846)

remarks of Eabbinowioz in VL Meg.

18a, n.

1.

Cf. also

riDTnCiSn

930.

is

r<?., ed.

due to the influence of Sbilip^.

On the "tyranny "

Does

Harkavy, 330; SbSpnia, JMd.,

of this form in

this stand for S{'^S3

To the same

modem Arabic

cf.

with interchange of labials 1

74.

influence

is

due

y:>\X

Tollers, ZDMGf., L., 627.

214

MORPHOLOGY

III.

[938

miqtcil.^ 938. Slflll^ study; J^jili^ custom.^

939. XSCi^i
A Hebrew loan-word.
maqtil.% 910. D'^Xa Mars; i15"'"lia crocus;
muqtdl.

tXp^^^l^

evil

spirit.

maqattalat.%Ml. my\T,p
maqattil.

942.

maqattul.% 943. Xnis'ia

man ( =

J^baio^p

. 945^.

maqatil{at)

Kohut,

of.

XnDpna KFUfina.
;

rowr.'

k'l'l^iz:"^

s.

v.;

iCfi'Z'D

ferry-

947.

load.

'

itrib^5in5J

cover;

K'JSnipD

S^blNCa

t^nsiia"; xn^hiO)^ bar-maid.

'

mattaqtalat.% 946.
.

XriB3Tfl50

*l!^'lin?7p )

magdtof. 944.

K5^nni; /rVend;

iitrh-'^'r02

5<T2Jpil5

eatables (i/bSK).

spoiled leavened substance.

''

^.948.
ir . 949.

N2-^bib^ (77).^
!!<riarT2

delivery; Kn^SbllJ bladder;

'jj^linyifl

sub-

jection, slavery; plur. ''T'lmiJ rays.


T\.

950.

taqtilat: SnSDin addition.

tiqtil(at):

S5a.

iX-i^tT'Ti)

Fi.,Meii.

^''

^S.

Cf.

fig-tree. ^"TTTri {=

iHKiiXr\
'

taqtul(at):

i<ri"l^SCri

S^rTlBpri or !!^n"lSpri

hair-cutting;

'

Xn^n^Fl bridge (44).


"
taqtal ISanin dress; H'lan merchant ( 50)
tarbagu yard.
'

taqtii(at)

ijiymn dish; sT53bn

pupil;''

i5:2n"in, Assyr.

^rrmT\

t^ri^nsn

sn^rp^cri use.
"

taqtui: ^i^abri;
j^a^a^n
T
T
:

IV.

^"1

951.

JooLs* J1m\

it

When

AFFORMATIVES.

nomen

may be formed

agentis

as

is

to be derived

from an

any similar noun of the form

XDiSD skipper; X"ii3n


t't^tt-*--*TT stove-maker; "TT dealers

i^bitJp

e. g.,

If the JuoLs.

in wool.
'

SSSHD'a

8. V.

..

T^nSD

^\

TO., ed. Harkavy,

is itself

of that form, an adjective

67.

^)frf\lZ'$

c/.

Hoffmann, LOB.^

1882, p. 320.

But

see Gesenius'

HandwOrterbuch,

ed. 12,

nBTXi
8

C/,

..

on this word, Meissner, ZA,^


/ pudibundtis.

IX., 2728g.

Qf, also

the proper

name

fc^S^ipnn*

NOUN

953]
ending is added, e,
changer ~ 'Snb^TlJ

g.,

215

K"liln5 table gives a

form nj^liriS moneyis added

But, in most cases, to the given form

which

the ending

''i

of Kbitap

leaving the original form of the word as

''

final syllable of

forms

"b

much

as pos-

Thus, ^"^7}^ dealer in Jibni); Kali; i<;ibT><l "'it,


spun yarn; K''i"i5a''!S! dealer in '''^JT'^ lambs,

sible'unaltered.

dealer in

nothing but the

is

SbflS!, "'i<,

VL., B. B. 22ay X^tiSS dealer in ittiSi naphtha; ^fn'Uy dealer


in asTi'ay wool, AIL B.'JB. 22a; aCi-n^ dealer in "nys, (Assyr.
guduru) fine garments; Jt'^iFl'lB'p archer, one that handles a

The same principle is applied to H"l!jl53 ferry, giving


ferryman, A. Z. 656 (Rail, ibid. K^i'lisj'), for *S^i:sy
would mean something else.^
''~, ai.
952. The ending ai occurs in a limited number
of nouns whose gender can rarely be determined from present
data i^'^l^lH Assyr. amurru, west; l^"'3"i^3 crane, Assyr. kurkft
bow.

!!tmi3p

fcifiSa^g

doiort/,

it'^S^IS

inference;

K'^jb^'^J

nudunnu

Assyr.

lUnm

and

K'^S^jS or it^S^3''3

assembly;

few other nouns occur with or

and

it^'IppX

swelling;

K;;:n!lSH

tubalu;

aC'DyrJ^ pestle; X"'D"iD servant.


:

!(t''b3W rope, Assyr.

interest;

ii'^b^ari

without this ending

JiFTIppii

iO'^y^_

and

''^^^

''S?"!?

chance,

is

KTS and

bee;

!!<;'lia'n

hair; iXTXp'U and iXTiUD sufficiency; ^i^B"'^ and

iX^J'D

repairing.

|j^

sail-yard,

yri^S''T2

Palestinean.*

953.

This ending serves to derive relative adjectives,


appellative nouns, and gentilio adjectives from substantives,
The masculine has mostly the
adjectives, and proper nouns.
di.

forms

nS-

''X",

feminine, IT'bt",

^Cf.

inilbtS
2

llTBnTQ =

(at times contracted to


>5ln^''~,

Assyr.

Fi.', Pes. 40o; "jJS

Xri^^~.

i^-),' "j^X^, ^i^~;

The masculine

arahsamnu; DTiJ =
= Eth. manana (866).

marzi

Tfla.

lit''-

the

is rare.

poison;

irP'^sTIS

In later literature we find an afEormative IT attached to proper names, as lipD"^!!?


which is of Persian origin. Cf. about this termination NOldeke, Pers.
"lllBlQ
,

'''itibB

atudien,l.,isq.; Poznanski, BSJ., XXXIV., 161 sg.; Steinschneider's Beftr.

Bifeiioffr., IV.,

20, 153.
3

For S1"lpDS we find also the form SOS"!]?

Serlra, ed. Neubauer, p. U.


ii.

be slender,

'JSn. IWI^i
6C/.83.

oLw

This

is

vibrate,

i5D"np_

E. Nisslm,

the Hebr. ffi^p^ (Ez. 27:6).

with various transpositions.

TG.,0&. Harkavy, index.

nHBian

3a, Igg.

The word goes back to

216

Prom
is

MOEPHOLOGT

III.

[954

i^lS outside, comitry, the adjective "'i^lS, hH'J|1,

!!^ri"'^'nS,

Prom KHS'^a garden, tl^S^B gardener; from

formed.

iS^bpn

countryman; from !!ib^3N gate,'^ nsb^nsj! g-afekeeper; from i5ln";"!)5 ctY^/, H^I'lp townsman; from i^b? a6ore, HtjbS
(='iliaia) upper; from *liTnv i^70^3n, the forms HSTrr; soZe,
Held,

iliibpri

a scholar; from bllllL, X^^l'"!,


tl^b^l Babylonian, niji^il
In a few oases this ending
Pumhedithean.
Roman, riJ^Pfn^'J^S
is used interchangeably with an; as mSl'^D = i<3^0 maker of stocks;
But more frequently both endings
n!!<ri'l55> == i<j!n153' modest man.
one pretending

nS52"'3ri

i^ln^'TS'a^B

tt::*

tt::-

are combined.

"-,

"1-,

he

to

the gentilic adjectives

Cf.

I.

962.''

954.

This afformative occurs only before the

feminine ending.
a) qatl: i^WIS;

5<n''-;5);

VL., Men. 11a; iXn^^y

bottom,

hornet.

qitl:

b)
of boat

i<n''C:S

^T\''b'S

qutl:

c)

caper; Xn^SS hair (809); Sn"'2"'n a kind

upper chamber (='iliiiiata);

at.'tVIl^^

fencing in;

!>5n^D2"'lI3

/emate.^

glass vessel; KH^^IR

i^ln'^a^T

form (55).
d) q^tal

S<n^7J?D ostrich; KtT'SSi

crimson;

q^'ttil: !Sn"'"linT

e)

f) quttul:
g) qattal:

winnowing -fan;

^XH'^'p'yiC

^T\'^S^12i^

caravan of Saracenes.

wasp.

Kn''niia''T

sulphur.

^t\'^^^'Z

h) quttal: J^rcnvn ivhite flour; Kfl^D'l^n cypress.


i)

qittul:

j)

maqtal:

k)

maqtul:

scarabee;

l^Jn^^iS"')!

sn-=liJ5J

iin^iiiis^a

!!iln^'linp73

reel

Xri^SiS"')! scurf.
.*

'iyLLa skein;

cf.

VII.*

1 This word seems to be of Kushitic origin and identical with 5555


Cf. Nuba
SbS'^i?
agil mouth, entrance I Kulfan ogul, awol, aul,mow</i,' Kafa kello door^gate; Chamir
bila, mira, gate, door; Amh. barr principal entrance; Galla kella principal exit,
balbata door. gate. From the last form may come ^{^3.
.

Notice here SCtl'ilSS'a,

XtT^SIS'O

stewardess, 'Afar-Saho

manaboyta,

Tigr6

manabbet.
3Assyr. siniStu.

On the etymology

SFT'ljTB cf- Parisot in JA., IX=


*i12l!i
'

t.,

c/. S.

frinisle.

JiMj as |V)

With

iJQJilAio

(vS
,

jj.

and as

Arab. VJlt)

Hebr.

3p3

On its synonym

132 p.

D^D = Quara jab branch of tree,

"lUD =

b'QbO

XIIs

s.,

border of garment ; Amh. taf idem.

bnbn

jjiL/O (LOw,

(in

the

^ram.

Hebrew D'^bplbn)

Pif., 56), it

J^i-O

has nothing to do.

NOUN

956]
saqtll

I)

XnWjyTT

m) saqtul:

217

tdioc?/.

xri^'ai^yilJ id.

n) qatlul: StT'ai/Jpy perverseness;

qalqal:

0)

Venus (planet),

b^fl^nSi^

confusion.

HXV^JXli.']'^^

XPl'^'IS'lS

i<n"'3"ia,

p) maqalqal: ^Tf^p^b^^^ mixture of white and black.


!1, 2. 955.
o) q'atl':' ^inrs^ wifehood; HnW3 youth; J^Wn
livelihood.

qitl:

b)

KWir'a death;

fright;

i!trfitr\T:iL

Sini.

myriad;

iXC^'O^^ limpidness.

qatal:

c)

^H/JSl condition of being

XWinn

a maid-servant;

intermarriage.
a) XTOIlll companionship; ^D^p old age.

d) qatil:

b)

J^n^b^l'?!'.

mourning;

iXn'^iWhiS perfection.

qatil: S^WpS^ youth; i^Wl'no testimony;


ness; NnVpTIJ drink; n^52"i arrogance.
e)

q^tal:

f)

iiri^lXTlin

dignity;

iXTAn-'ri''^

^'^\^^''^

badness;

iXri^D,'''2'n

repulsiveness;
h) qattal:

^T\T'3.1i!

arrogance; iitW^iXU
love.

collector's office.

qattll: 5<WTriy riches

i)

blind-

dominion; Sn^SDllJ neighborhood.

>5ri^"l"lp

g) qatil:

i^T\''\'''D'D

is

(t/;j

connected with

it);

SWllJ-'^P old age^

j)

'aqtal: Ss^WinCJSl testifying,

k)

haqtal: XW57i''n

trust, faith.

1)

maqtal: b^Wnca

bath.

m)

inaqattal:"5<lnTb3':a;

n) maqattil: KfflT'pS/J

NWpS3:a
,

SffilpDlJ

mitqattal: XWaFl^^jp M.

o)

q'.

delicacy.
cleanliness.

2a.

p) qatUl: SWrsi^ZJ fat.


3 ._S 956. aCi^rMii mushroom, plur. S^^V^^K

X^'^'^l^X

5b^T"|!)3

shepherd's assistance, properly carrier of the

pouch;

HbnS

Slbb^'^p

iron;

JU-ci

i(^^Ci-p_,

^'

JuoLi

;'

t/ Ujai

i^rS'^?, 'W, drizzling rain;

--

'

STaO

shepherd's

S^^^"lp, knee-joint.''

f
'

left,

\S

6e Uind, hidden;

cf.

Hebr. "jIBS

Cf. also

.y.

^
t' <
= ^yXi
= JU-i
\

bad omen.
2

C/.

qiltim.

Hebrew

dictionaries.

BUin kirSim, TigrS qiljem,

Tfla.

kilgim, Amh,

218

morphology'

III,

a. 957.

ladder.

^5a!^ilD

&n, Qn {Un), In {6n), an[?).

7.

[ 957

958.

These afformatives

are used

To form from

1.

verbal stems infinitives; as NSlTll^ to cry,

VL., Ber. 20a; iinrr;;SDb

From

Sanh. 1016.

to

prove them, Yalq. Kings 199

this develop the following classes:

a)^ Abstract nouns

as

number; ^0351*15
T T

iiD"'D53

tt:

retribution,

punishment.
b) Adjectives

Nomina

c)

WSb'^ blear-eyed.

as

agentis with the sense of habitual action, occu-

pation, etc.; as 5^5373 robber.

d) Concrete nouns

To change

2.

action

This class

HS^'^pTIJ

is

the most common.

liquid.

participles into appellatives, denoting habitual

as i4D"i3,TO leader.
T T

To change

3.

as

concrete nouns into

a) adjectives and appellative nouns denoting the possessor of


that which

Wr^i

is

denoted by the noun, with a magnifying sense

having large teeth;

X5'lifl"'S

noun

adjectives possessing the quality of the

b)

as

fleshy;
as i^DSbifl

crimson;
another noun with a metaphorical expression

c)

as XD'^^a

body, properly containing bowels.

To change

a proper noun into an adjective denoting relanoun as i<D^D''p CcBsarean.


To change an adjective into a noun as XStTlll some-

4.

tion to that
5.

thing new.
6.

To strengthen adverbs and demonstr. pronouns

dn.

959.

l^my'^a

= iT^p

exact, Fi.,

pestilence;

a) qatl:

!!t3TO2

iXy^^

i<3n'''1

XSW

fragrant;

station {^^\

Sil?']'^

scale, KStjn

6) qatlat:
c)

Wp';'^

XiJ^'l

large-eyed; SDni52

iX2T''y

^ ^y)

rebellion, with prothetic vowel, or Aph'el ?

UL

as l/Spb

goring; tiiT^^^^ transgressor;

arrogant, passing into ^"b

Men. 296;

i^Dinx

X;'170"'!!|t

W3iSl potsherd,

c/.

and i<n^5SCn (963, note).

^'iV\'n^'^

fragrant.

qitl: "inOS north;

HGyHi tree; itiVpi second.

K30Ta

acquisition; KD"iSX3 boundary;

959]

NOUN

d) qutl:

KDabW

T T

T T

qutlat:

e)

insult;

219

pomegranate; "pB

i^'SSTi

S<3''Sto

tijJT'j^D twig.

f) qatal: i*Dmn something new, VL., B. B. 906; XSblS^S


^^
XiDp-^ bearded.
'

g) qatalat:
h) qatil:

5i5ni5"'3J
T T ;:

i^D^jbli:'

modest.

virtuous;

i^}'2.'};

N3]5^'1

emp^?/;

X5'15'

time

(= ua'idana)/
qital: iHTTg body.

t)

qatil: i^Dna master, lord.


T T T

j)'

-^

q^tal:

A;)

"p^i^ a

kind of sword, properly something made

of metal.'

qnil:

I)

"jT-lSJ!

id'

By-form

(36)

yv'iiA

Kafa arijo

sword, dirk.

m) qattil:

)X^'2.'\>

n) 'aqtal:

"j^"'"l'il!*

possessor of tradition; )i&2Ty\ merciful.


teaching, knowledge.

tuqtul: S353a'l^n interpreter.


p) maqattil: HD3ii53 teacher; ND'^S^ti
o)

s)

maqtal:
^
maqtil:
maqtul:

t)

mataqtil:

q)^
r)

leader.

XDby7J entrance; S2pSt3 exit.


tt:t't:teacher.

]^'^i53

i^j^iS^ quarrelsome man.


K3'J3"l^ri53 interpreter.'^

u) qautal: i^DS'bin crimson,

qalqal:

v)

!SD3p'1jD

big-head,

w) qalqil: NDblbl intemperate.


x) qulqul:
5<5t!UJ^T2J
t t

"jIlpH^p,

Assyr.

quqqubanu,

craio;^ K513T2J^1ffl

ant.

Intervocalic

J? is

weakened to

in

i^J^ISn now.

2Eth. 'arar lead, fin; Tigrg'aror lead,

\\y^ point of lance, edge of sword,


3

All

before

tin,

metal

'arar

bell,

steel,

'arer

ftwHef (leader iron),

^"^A pen, OTiginaUY stylus, TB.,1. ,Z1.

words of this form in the emphatic state are traditionally pronounced with ^^ITJ?
This is evidently due to the retroas SDUJlDb? XSbina SSTJJllBS i^DTiSS
,

>

gression of the accent.


*

The M-vowel is due to the following consonants


Aram. i?21ljail'a

Cf. Pal.

n?i?T. HG.

522.

as well as to the infinitive form sub

o.

220

MOKPHOLOGY

III.

;.

[^60

960.

a) qat(i)l: i!(.V\Tr:i'. parched corn (i/TTZlS


thumb;
UUn"')
J^iTbK
)XiT^^, Assyr. barftnu, outlaw, rebel
{\/)Xy2^V)Xra); ^fr\y^_ ^current j"^ ^'i^'2r% defective sight.
671,1171.

qit(ta)l:

b)

disgrace;

itjVjn

blindness;

KDiTliy

I'Siyaa

colored garments.

qutl:

c)

goad-bearers; but more correctly

''Di^T'l

"'iJ^iia'T'I

d) qattal: SiiT^n snail.'

m.
Kn*''inK

961.

swollen; plur.
!!{3''irilS;

'2"'22i!Il

karftnu, wine.^

qutl:

h)

W''1^'1^T23,

Assjs:.

(Vnni23

K3i'i^5

acquisition;

5tn5^2l"i53

^''J.'^S'Xi

susabinu;

^^,

1. 962.
^

^^yf?-

bi3"'3!lt3

ififff.

to

rose-bush;

Assyr.

pargintft).*
S3"'S^p hole;

surmenu,

cypress.

educator.

bridegroom' s friend,
cf.

JLjCs-

>

happy;

.11, 1^, Alg. Arab. Jllw, Assyr.

d) qalqal:

maid,

XJ^'^jP

(= parglnda

K'^''^"|&

KD'^p'l^a

maqattil:

c)

contracted

N3"''^"11

S<i"''^Ss7oott-ac/ie. S^rSD^ fcm/e. SrpIT


young pumpkins, C. MS., Meg. 12ab (voc.)

kindUng-wood;

IS^JiriS);

ISnrnniS!

/ another; iXr\T~nT] swindler;

horse-bean;

j^r^ffi-ib?

HrnnNl

qatl:

o)

"^ri^iriS

^^sm^ god-father,

^T\T'2'Si*[^ bridesijuuuii

god-mother

858).

xnnSJ' mouse.'

Sertrd, ed. Neubauer, p.

25, u. 10

-->>v^

Pal. Syr.

'arab blind.
3 This word denotes five different species.
Cf. Epstein, B^th TalmUd, V., 299 sq.
* This must not be confounded with Hebr. ^"'^1165
which is of a different formation.
For TU^n after i confer N3''K
2BiIiii

VT^D = QnD. whence also kir6, qir6, groves. For a similar phenomenon, where
retained in the cognate languages, while having become 1 in Assyrian, cf. T^'ZHlTl =

^
53

is

du^uzu.

the

1/ ijO yi kernel, fruit-stone,

in

Hebr. "IS^lp and

ably correctly, with

rames

owO

is

that which

niniOD^
.

for interchange of "Q

is

cut out.

cf.

is

probably

The last word Gesenius' Thesaurus connects, prob-

For the variety of sibilants

and S

Of the same origin

||iD.

ii-Si

cf.

Yemen Arab. i}0^\

yujOyJ^

jaOvJC

Eth.

Butthese

words may be loan-words from Kushitic, where the feminine ending ad instead of at

is

common,
'

1/ v.^A^-. be thick-set. The mouse

is

frequently called by a

name denoting this quality


^

and is,

therefore, frequently

mouse; y,l,v^

^30y

e*

m/uscle,

synonymous with mwscie.

(J^^v^^ field-mQv^e,

Cf.

,,wL^3*

..wA^Dk

^Ls mwscZe, mouse; hence medieval Hebr.

The same connection between muscle and mouse


European languages. Cf. Kluge, 8. v. M a u s
mttscie.

firm, solid,

is

found in some Indo-

965]

NOUN

221

Double Affobmatives.

963. With the exception of the few examples given below,


double afformatives occur only with the feminine ending.
a) ani: ;;5bB; i<Mbaa large-sized J ^^^^'2'^'^ honey-likej
appearance of the

Kt)''3Bpri scurf, scaly

b)

Inl:

skin.'

= HiT'Sb^S anemone;
Harkavy, 352 (voc).
modesty, meekness; Ji^tlilDD^l'1 greatness.

Kn-^rina indication;

!!^n''D"'V3

plur. itlnX^Db^ V(?.,'ed.


c)

a nil:

e)

anai:

J>5fl^5ri1DJ>

plur. ''XinT'T qoad-bearers.

f) Inai Jl^^S'^n^'' skilled in calendation.


g) aiu: HM'^a'IK pag-aTOsm; JtW'^abri somettmgf/Mrr-oz-KA;e.
h) A few words are pronounced with !!51"i2 before 5, e. g'.,
nSl3Tin53 one from MahSza.
Whether originally so ?
:

diphthongized fokms.

v.

1.

Diphthong

the First Syllable and Short Vowel

in

964. a) qautal

mule; J^RSbiFl

S^FlpliS

b)

2.

J^j'l'ia

qaital:

Diphthong

X'l'ia'''^

qaitll:

[b'"'b''';3

d) qaitul:

Don =

XIT'SSDn
II.nap

is

Clffin

scale,

scratched

threshing-sledge; HbfflD

X^^^'"'!?

'

"

"

and Long Vowel

SiSFliniJ
"

ii^^'iia

Assyr.

in

the Second.

(23c).

"

Zeb. 1186; proper noun ?]'

cupping; Xn^iriT

scratch, peel, etc.

feaehu

is

loan-word.

= X'^SilD'

Hence

t_fl,

>. ~

= Sir'SO'in =

'_" ' I'v -^ worn-out garment, whose

^
^ ^
Similar development: icclj , '-'^ i

potsherd; teirii DIH. scurf, potsherd,


58332
VI
V V
III
gone. Cf. also Hebr. diet. s. v. nffiplBp

scale,

properly chipping,
SSOn
II- potsherd,
off.

xXL.ij

JL^S

K'naiu:
;

worm,

in the First Syllable

965. a) qautal:
i^T^ya
6) qautll
c)

Jjij

the Second.

in

^e
JUuJ>^
"J
"

!imcn,

whose nap

ia

,
;

222

MOBPHOLOGY

III.

Diphthong

3.

qutail.

966.

plur. "'^'b^y

the Second Syllable.

xytlb* gazelle;

ad

There are

man;

youth, young

iX>2''b'^

and with disregard of grammatical form,

Zeb. 116b and Rasi

Note.

in

[ 966

"'^b^S

loc.

some words which are spelled

above, but probably do not belong here

e.

g.,

like those

t<T"'"11!!<

5iT"i^i<

The'second vowel
rice; i<m:2Ti
iii.'nm'i speer; K^''C2^a ( 866)
in the first two is probably a helping vowel to ease the collocation
.

of difficult sounds.

Cf. a

similar

helping vowel in

Similar formations in
Xn'^l^^y ( 833, n. 1).
tinean Aramaic, belonging to various forms, are

^^i'nn

Xn^SlI

H^H^iyD

Pal. Syr. -^z^^

and similar forms.

huharu;^

967.

V^q-.

gflaggWeg and Maltese grix;

= X_Aj

JL.lLli

'Knir'^S^?,

young children,

aCQ^

^^^^...A^

I^b^^Vi;

^I^^PT'

2C/.
)

Amharic dag,

door, gate,

5<ri^tJ!!<t2

SM. No. xxv

(voc.)

^^^l^r'T'

^}T^

^'^i^

^/

^'g'm

broom; 5<^pi3 star;

!!^n;3

(794o); X-'MD

^^^^^^

&?nD"lSDS (LOW, Aram. PN.,

'li'QTS

Egyptian

Eth.

article

makes sense

mint

'i^efuse,

= X3''jyD)

Eg. Arab.

horse,

^'^)^^^

and dropped

in Persian

the same aa Hebr.

p. 96).

The S became

uaz6ma hymnyTigrQ uonne = f anf ane),


(cf.

Vollers,

need not prove more

English origin of "asparagus."

may

Eth.

turtle-dove;

Tna.

qulqulet

through

1 (cf.

Cf. % 77.

I!^t2!!<t2

awn=Axl

pony;

bp^p,

iii

otXJ'ij

talent; s;;b^b night,

XDb50, TKT,

!i''1

cf.

'r\, H'nyi^'H^ ,^fly ; i^Pp^p'n tow; plur.

etc.

Assyr.

7iet,

N"iriil!<

XmiJ^aia, clod, shortened to Xn''a"i3 VL., Succa 26a;

dedS; XnT-^

XtlSCK {VL., Sanh.

SiriDSDH lucern, shortened to

746, 93a, Yalqut Dan. 1060)

Eth.

Pales-

n^"'/3'n2

EEDDPLIOATED POEMS.

VI.

qalqal

m^nim

_Jl^cld

i<r\"'Tai<

Hebrew and

ZDMG., L,
its

617, 654).

X
or

it

The

j'

was mistaken for the


fact that

o-A*AJUt

Persian origin than our "sparrow-grass " the

JL^A-OJ is a transposition of aLft,dA*0 Ptymologically


HSSiDS whose verbal stem is found in Eth. safafa abound. Cl'^ID I'eed

also belong here.

NOUN

974]

^yp^ {^

declivity;' S3f55]? jar;


Nbifl'''^

5*nbTa!ii2J

xnb^ta^izj",

223

crocus;

elevation;

1^1'plp

J^nb^iabiia

J^nbab^ia, skull;

raven;

^ip'llp

i{53T2;7J^T2J

sesame.

i<52TIJ^T23,

qalqal, qalqtl, qalqUl.

969.

hriar;

i^'I'^^'H

and similar forms.

qatalial
KFl"ipi:ip!!|;

Xnp^lpilK

liojinl

J) JA

>

Hn'^pilpX

frog

and similar forms.


ni^^3 = u^nDns

bazuga

qutaltil

trumpet;

!!^ri"l!Sisri

J^np^-ipil;

,'

i^np^-lpX

= rV)
XTlJ^iainS = 5iffia^"i3

'f

971.

XanT

qatqtl.% 972.

qatqal,

970.

'i*lb^b,

''

and shortened

had

^'^TT^'n

thoughts (i/xUo); i^aiWT, J^b^ub^t?, and similar forms

piur.

head;'

^FlSp.'i;?

chain.

'qulqufand similar forms. %m8.


?i<7^3"i^3

throat;

'SXS'p'S'p)

lizard,

'^'f

t\\^

bogaraves, zibbtigi olive-colored.

Maltese

Cf.

Kr\S''T"IT

5{3''T'1T,

squirting.

qatlal.% 973. itbbl'^ clue, skein, plur. ''bbi^l'l Yalq'tit Ps.


= g:ull. 60 o (8Y)';' ^lyV} rich landlord;^ k-npT^ infer-

862
nal

liar.

qatlil.

974.

in the egg-shell;^

sb'^bDH stomach of an animal;*

1 Halfivy compares Sbp'ip with Assyr. kigallu lowland


Dictionary of the Assyrian Language^ s. v.).

l/

(JJ>

J*-S

KlS'^^'Tl

For interchange

iiS

of i^

and

(cf.

the derivatives of the root. The first meaning appears in

^^'o

cf.

stony

hole of the axe


hill.

Lis

occiput,

Tip

m'^p'JO

>

head,

^p^p

^(iJi =:

(Jl

Assyr.

whence the denominative

This word

*This

is

= S^

Cf.

" '-

^ ^^^

Jo ^=

^'^pl'p, elevation,

basTcet

SJISIp

s^\ii^ hightop;

JliJ hang down

*^"'

foetus.

Bilin

i^^S^p cupola,

Tfia.

Jojo

qerqerti occiput

^5

but

The

This explains

Loj" be behind, follow, JuLfti)


^ ^ O ^

given by the Syriac dictionaries sub.

TigrS e3bil6

is

V KJ^

qaqqadu

jo = Sbnp

by-form of '^j

and

pot^ bowl ; the second, in

w^

HSlp XaS

Concise

'

". ?.

'_o 1

Muss-Amolt,

primitive meaning was evidently hollow out; hence the correlative be convex.
all

pullet

^"'"'"!!!!

- V
\_h l^

= lbSp"1p

ascend a mountain

= *qedqedti

it

belongs to

(36).,

^09

loosely.

gbilo small

^^^ "with one push.

Cf.

intestines.

__f

^.

to bring forth

a child with one

effort

224

MOKPHOLOGY

III.

qatUl.%

975.

scare-crow;

J^b^lbfT^

i^tltoyT,

UJTBilTlJrTI

emotion; iO^BbllJ Assyr.

qutulal.% 976.

shortened to

chum, crony;'

suluppu.

^SNSib^

'Plur.

XS^lSII

man/ ^yndn

S^CI^Wt, young

KS^lI'l;

"

[975

INFIXES.

VII.

977. The infixed elements are n 7J D D S 1 W, n


Some of these infixes have arisen from syllabic metathesis, others
:

from resolution
retaining

Every case has


3,

of doubling

"'pDSln

'D7J''D

K^^p^y

i^ji'yft

i^nnb^, i^nsibis,

v/ -Isf\

Cf. Alg.
2

-!sJ\

Arab.

l^

liks "lyD

n^V

'^

-n

Jli

f&fnal.

I.,

eel,

673);' XjiarX

ybO

^m^^^t

t^HSibt^, lentils."

denotes varioua animal sounds.

1311357

is

not i{ri1"lDn. hut

rocfc,

H:&LfiJLo

i/

Jco means
JLo

hide,

rocfc,

^JLo

smooth, hence hard, bald, without

be smooth,

aJLoi snake, (JuLo smooth,

=^

&4JL0

shave the head,

'-''!

ismooth.

be red;

Oninterchangeof
^^JS! =^

= 173

rmg-tioue, properly the cooing bird.

to be Semitic.

Here belong ^52t tanned

c^^jiO :=

^_^, ^pL,

^l^^l,

companions.

The word seems

vegetation.

say.

mountain-path; SIO^S'IB wine made

li^lisbt:,

come from verbal forms

The variant t^nilDH, which has misled our lexicographers,

Ktn1*l3in
3

oCi

cf.

grape-stones;

"'52'lilS

itself.

Maltese sallur, trlXovpo^ (Dozy,

of

others

Hebrew grammarians would

be judged by

to

s. 978.

50,

still

as the

^g.M^

and

*! c/.

snorting,

Assyr.

labaru

(y. Berber,

07-owold :=

i.:iit:S!^.*JLAO

^^

...

-Rmi

...
^ j^Ami

*S1B'''!abl5 is connected with KJT''lDTffib5 and TDITabn. The explanation of these


words, being too long for a footnote, will be given elsewhere. Secondary la is also found in

Hebr. t3)2ln

in ^TflTlSn

which belongs to

uiJL^ cut with a sickle, going back ultimately to

X.wVl.'^ electron, alloy of four-fifths gold and one-fifth silver,

jjj"^

^ Somali asli

amber. Besides Eg. as em and Assyr. eSmard, quoted by the dictionaries, belong here
Galla

asamaru

abbelire

and Arab.

7>-wtf-'^

^^

a honey-colored substance, be

(>IAw

it

^d \jm.^ honey.

which denotes a certain stage in the growth of

.'nV-,*-,

E8., index.
^

For meaning

l/^JUb =

(J

-g^

^ fig-tree

and |j

saradd

cf.

Galla

'<'

= aJUo =

originally
p

North to the vine are given in the South to the palm.

,pp^..7pp.p
5n3
)ivJ^ai>S

means

51211571

*ni2D
-11']*.J ^^w
the palm. Names applied in the

metal or some other material.

Cf.

Finally in

blSIBS ill5ol

102

'

and wine.

For

"nO = 0>m/

c/.

-wj

tf*

Barth,

green.

V "' denotes the dirty brownish, greenish, livid,

or grayish color of animal and vegetable matter.

(1

Hence J\

'
.<\

t'

\ri

milt,

r'

(J^S\JO

coffee

980]
5

NOUN

979.

donj'

left-handed,

)n^p'^5>ia

Kaa'ia^wsna Wto;

hose/ i<^3T or

Sn^p'^'lO

the egg-breaking bird;

grounds,

^_^ -SV ip

something convex,

lX}n make

<

give

thin or fine

it

J.eJs

-A

the shape of

and itg

Juo

^nc^pbrj,

JinCiia-'bp hip-

^'),

service-tree.*

literally

^JoS fig-

Cf.

Mnium.
lentil,

stout, big.

DenominatiTe

^joXi
From

^JaJj

flatten like

the last

flatten

a cake; hence

we get the shortened

taflaht something round and

Eth.

{^j^Jii

^^'

KISDTD'D

Lemnacaea,

i. e.,

^Jai JoXs

verbs

? HTpa*113

but Dozy has u^Jojf

Xnpilp^blj

= ^n^p^X comb;

bone; StSSUJN (46); ^li^m she-raven

tree,

ix^vn^

i<i:!i3-iT,

X2J5p12:W=
^''

(= WCN)

i<5D^C5)!

= ><ln^p"'bD

ambidexterous, bustrophe-

hard clodj

(i/Oy-i);

''iD^l^D
''
'

(980).
D, 123.' 980.

5<'^3!ina

wine flavored with herbs; ^bM^aO load,

i]?3T

burden, Fi., R. H. "266;

XnO^p'^bo

225

flat, a silver coin;

hence shortened tahala flatten.


,

'S^p'lDia left-handed
ambidexterous;
(,=

cf.

Eth.

On

and

jj

{842ri) left-handed,

defectu laborans.

and

Hence 3T3
^

hands, be generous.
Cf. Assyr.

to

Ipbt^Ci?

ZATW., XVII.,

Italian, VL., 'Er. 646,

~^

r^

...

cf.

giue with both

351.

XpflDS (= J^pHS)

strong, passionate, hence fruitful.


kid,

The

to cut; (^.Italian

ZoTi^-riecfced t^afer-feoWZe.

From

Igg.

SeHrd, ed. Neubauer,


Here probably

istaph'al form).
-XS-

'yS-

( 793, n. 1)

the idea of fruitfnlness and plenty

wilt, Eth. and dialects 'atar beans, peas, grain, Hebi.

abundance, increase.

0/ irrigaiicm, 2(J*t>S
sKv watering-pot, \^j**\
\^^^\ rivulet,

iJIBPCN = "iSriS ibid., p. 44 (but this may be an


belongs mnffly litar, -j/ JCft goddess of sexual lust.
p. 31

y'J'^^^

Jo\

zuriqati impicmenfs

C/. Z.4., VII., 179 sg.

* Cf.

stands for Jr

grab with both hands, rob, and J'

^I3j>'>
tl^'a.j^v watering-machine, 'Eg.
Eg. Aiah. v^kt>
0c
3

JOsI

are transposed.

ambidexterous

the connection between left-handedness and ambidexterity

which means both.

^o*

>

t.

Vy^, ^\-^

g^adalaul

dz) loses its I before \

mancino.

-Aft kid and capers

may

~[T\!S

rough,

we have

JTiny,

JCfc

mjlOy,

contain the idea of sexual passion

cf.

Hebr. riDT^SS the goat being known for lustfulness, and the capers may have been used as
may be identical with
V^ kid, Cf. also
an aphrodisiac. rmniCy in ISS
1

rmmDy

Skipwith, JQB., XI, 256. From such a form as


Syriac independent suffix ^jco

SnOlC^bO

has probably developed the

226

MORPHOLOGY

III.

^. 981.

stump;

"Tll^

Kn^sis-in scobs;

hammock (/bw)

KbniS!, X^"'ni|;,

i^X3W"i3

? T2Jsnti

similation of last stem-consonant

pearl

i^rT'Da"17J

'Eth.

;'

sb^n.^lX gazelle;

medqas;

cubit; i^ili^l^ couch, bed, 'Eih.

1X1'''}S~^^

[ 981

;'

mSgart

Hnb^-iS

;'

= ipS

with dis-

arm-chair (quttal);

i<"'p'1^3

precious stone; xbl^T'l^J

Juv

palm-mat; XCliltl"iap, JoU^, rag; tl^Y^^ naked; WS^.^lp


^
= liEp
n. 982. KbsniS! c^Msfer (790, n. 1); J^np^T (56);*
'

'

''-IW^, 'in^lS, sawr^/, Fi., Sabb. 128 a.'

PLUEIOONSONANTAL.

VIII.

983.

i43TBnilK

JtrTlJniX,

JtbDl^S*, Assyr.

abkallu

great lion; Nbi""^'lX

armali widow;^

T^VISt

mustard; NDB'13

^b'^"])!

KPbirO'^ri

a
.

^IJ*, lilS^

Nnb?^"!^ Somali
HT^ltiS lean

fjJi'S;

i<bijD"in
SibjWn Assyr. tarracompound of tarra /len and nugallu king;^
Here belongs also JJ^ni'^'^S; lioness, from a stem
i<70inn3 fcafcer = Assyr. nu-batimmu."*

lamb; S331T23, SOplTIJ, nest;

nugallu,

or

Assyr. urma^bu = urvftbu),

dimgallu (50);

Assyr.

ahursanu;" xbS^HN

Assyr.

;"

,'

For the double treatment of the last stem-vowel c/. Hebr. tl"'b')0"l3 with 13)3^3
2 The etymology of this word is not certain.
It has two series of synonyms. On the one
hand, y^^K, ^51211, iCnDHK on the other, n"imi and Si^Lss
It may go back to
1

IDStD as well as to '_y-.l^


3

however, not impossible that the stem

It is,

k^orebta

But

Tti/L

is

^^D

since ^"ID

= *^^p

Gf, TjSa

the spelling of *i&linbSl*^p cresfed in Jellineck's liJllTOn fT^Di

c/.

VI, 109.
4

The Ma'lala

dialect

^|/iy3^.

Cf.

some ; also c Jo

retains the

still

in fcCTDlTT

"

'^
JiXjua ^V^'
'

^ yJ

(^^Mct^lt'tes,

-Xjt*0 and

c l)o

unpleasant things, Maltese

= ^7^

a.

at T a

trouble-

offend with words.

6 The word seems to be a compound.


The first half seems to contain Eth. ahUr ram^
Amh. aijra male, aurfi wild beast ~ Eth.. arij, our i^'^n&C and i5*iT^3 In the Kushitic
languages the word, under various forms, means son, daughter^ child, youth, husband, man.
.

What is the other element?


7armali is a compound

of (w)

ar + ma + li husband + not + having. The

Kunama

drops

the last element and says ermata no + husband. To the Somali form go back kJLo^f
^
to the Kunama form, Phenician r02b^
i^rib'Qnil? n2'ab^
y

..'if-'

Cf.

Oppert, ZA., VII,

K^^'lIK stable
the animals.
"

10 Cf.

is

339.

Is

modern Arab. lLK.Ji

turtle-dove connected with this?

probably connected with this stem, meaning originally the place for

Zimmern, ZDIJG.,

LIII.. 115

Hal6vy, Rev. Sem,,

1899, pp. 278 sq.

APPENDIX.
HYPOCOEISTIO ENDINGS.
984. Proper nouns end in
-E.g., s^Tc'nii??;, ^t7^^n-!,

iWn

794).

Most

maic dialects and


ings

S,

"'X

or^^m,

or i ,

''

i[

or

and

"],

Jj^

^i^s, ^nns, ndh

sis^t^,

(for

or all of these endings occur also in the other Ara-

in

In Amharic we find the end-

Hebrew-Phenician.'

The

and 6}

^m

J^i

origin of these endings

is still

unknown.

GENDEK, NUMBER, AND STATE.


985. There are two genders, masculine and feminine

and plural ;' and three

bers, singular

two num-

states, absolute, construct,

and

definite.

986.
at, if in

The feminine ending,

a vowel t;

e. g.,

if

flliJ^S (

the word-stem end in a consonant,

m^SbS

798 &),

has sometimes the force of a diminutive

^Til'yTiB small table.*

e. g.,

987.

The absolute and

definite state,

having

is

The feminine ending

construct states occur but seldom, the

determining

lost largely its original

force,

being

used instead.
988.

n^

The termination

of the definite state is usually J<

rarely

in a few cases, with 'imal6, ^~ ( 69).^

only in the following adjectives:

'ri''"irii)t

^niW- TP^^^,

^mn and ^rnn,

Tlp^"lS cataract of the

Some

eye.''

The ending

''inttS^S,

and

^nil"!,

"'

"'ITllt^iT

m the noun

,'

occurs
''piT,

^np13

or

of these words occur also with the

regular ending >^


T

Hoffmann, Ueber einige phOniz. Inschriften, p. 34; Benan,


D'Abbadie, Diet. Amar., s. v. gabrft (col. 847).

Cf.

Cf.

For remnant

* Cf.

of dual cf. 1^"1P

'j^riit'O

BJ&J., V, 161 eg.

and Guidl, Gram. eXem. della lingua amarifia, 16c.


the ending S"~ cf. Barth, AJSL., XII, and Lindberg, Vergl. Gram

also T(?., ed. Harkavy,

34,

5 On the nature of
der Semit. Sprachen, I, 96 sg.
6

Cf.

ipiti'^T

Ba.

526.

Cf. irtia = Srtl'a TR., II, 23,


= myiC wai, TB., II'SS; irtn three
'

stam,
44.

p. 46;

The

1133 some, Igg. Serlrd,

ed.

1'ai"'

^^IS

(p'.'43, n.'l),

Goldberg,

tli-e

p. 33,

shows that the pronunciation was 1"1S


227

whole day, HO.

l^gll hight,

221.

miUICn

Cf

also liyiB

"D ed. Halber-

n"''H3 ibid., ed. Neubauer, pp.

Cf. 989 a.

23,

APPENDIX

228

[ 989

PLURAL TEEMINATIONS.
Masculine Endings.

1.

The usual endings

989. a)
[j]^T, est.
-riffl

'- is

diphthongized

In some other cases

14:8 a.'

E.

is 6,

not

Not infrequently the ending


VL., Sabb. 110a,

plural

it

is

G-itt.

being added

fl

quite

is

common in later
109a.

6<i-

E.

M. MS. Meg.

"rHO^'Tl''

g.,

146,

Keth. 91a, ""J^bn Sabb. 110a.

In

T T

to read "i^ or ''X"-

we have

'

For

M.

The following

find the

ending

*^^

92

= Hull.

176;^ 'Ji^ap

'DQ-'a Se'el.

Pes. 28a; 'D^SD B.

98 a; '3"iSS

"'HiJL'i

the

few cases

VL.,Satib.

iJ^bitip cf. 847.

Very seldom we

that occur:

T T

doubtful whether

is

it

nouns of the form

all

''S^DIB^b

some cases
c)

This

t.

st.

of the definite state of the singular

retained before the plural ending.

"'iX^i^'n
T T
-:

"<

Cf. n"'miJ''S Sanh. la, Jl"'miX, (1^333,

literature.
b)

ibid. 29b. "^In a

''TilT

written for

is

abs.

I^nn^ia, 1''3bT3 Sanh. 26 a;

g.,

VL.,Zeh.ll2b,

'''T2J3

n^

show that the pronunciation

to

of the masculine plural are

J^s-, n-.

st.

sixty ( 136); X"?"''"! Sanh. 466;

the ending

is

^-, defin.

St.

856, "'KD^aO

VL.,

^&^D~

= l^

are

"'D'^O

stocks,

ibid.;'' '^'iapD 'Arftkh,

Sanh.

In words with this ending occurring only in the

70 a.*

sometimes doubtful whether the singular ended in 55j~ or

not; e.g., ^"JVB'W, ^31112.


2.

a)

990.

tl~, defin.

Feminine Endings.

The usual endings

st.

)HT\

E.

"1-

st.

est. st.

liS daughters; t^iy^ tears, Sabb. 336;

g.,

T T

't

Not infrequently we

find the double plural

E.g., -iWa Meg. 146; ^$''^2. Sabb. 1406;


Tl"!^"')!
- TT

c)

a6s.

places.

^t\1i^''\
T T

6)

of the feminine are

'X^~

"I'^lnTTi:"

V^"'

''^~-

^i-, Pes. 1116;

Vi., Sabb. 110a;'^flS'^32 Meg. 146.

In a few cases the plural ending

is

attached to the ending of the

singular; e.g., KriDyQlB traditions, 5<r\iri3TC Ups.^


T T

Notice Ti*>bb5
-

SDDia

p.

IDSSnilB
' T
T

""

T T

Serird, ed. Neubauer, p.

Jfffi''

28.

'JS'ia, 'S.nan,

ai.SS^'ap JQB; IX,


*

TO., ed.

MWJ.,

1893, p. 226.

701.

Harkavy,

650,

IJ^nblFl
"
T
I

ibid.

Man
It

is

Paleatinean.

'SnnniSC BG. ho-, SnriDD'a !6id.265j -jlnnSriDbin Igg. Senra, ed. Neubauer,
Prom these forms we get a singular with two In 'a: icnniPBTB. SFUIWS &'eJ., 8;
19.

StinCS

Sabb.,134a.

..

APPENDIX

992]

bT

The endings

J^lTl J^ln'^" (XlHl''), which are regular in feminine


T
TT
TT
-stems, are also taken by the following nouns

d)

Nouns ending

a)

in J^n^-,

J^tYi-,

i^Jn";-;

TT

Masculine participial nouns from

/3)

i^niTflJ, from
t

S^CX,
T
T

J^-'S'I,

T-;

A number

y)

snT^nn
^nD
V
T -:"
T
,

''"lb;

as

t :t

Kniiyi,

>{!n11CS,

*iH^'-\'^.
t
t
:

of other nouns, with or without feminine

the singular, which cannot be classified

as Xln1"l!3ri ,

ending in

StlTl'l'inD

from

>

cf. 992.

-:

8)

i^mnTT

few nouns ending in a labial show in the plural the ending

instead of

Ktll-, t^Pl"
TT
TT
mothers, SlnrR25* maid-servants,
tt;,
Hanks, H^t^nW^ names,
T T T

l^nraS
TTT-:

fathers, parents,

HfXytTBiif, cubits,

TTT"

IXTirtBH^

TTT"
tt:"

KSnnat:K, Xfl^JtiX,

tt:;-

In a few cases

e)

is

as jj^tTlinni^ localities,

capers, ^'^^^JZIp^ first, from JimnflS^, !!5Jn''T23,'sri"'anp.


:':'-

i^n''''t3Sl
T T

229

xni-, Kinr-

it is

impossible to decide whether the plural ending

or jj^rii-,

A.Z.29a, qS-^'TiranSS or

sni^7, ii^-mss^x or fJi-niyass, e.

^S^-JtVi-^dnB

y.,

Ber. 86,'sniS!lpri or xniSilpP,

Hull. 606.'

Formation or the Plural.

991.

Nouns with long

vowels, with

formative elements, or with sharpened second stem-consonant, undergo

Nouns

no change in the plural.

of the forms

9>

Joii

JJti

times in the plural a full vowel, or a trace of a vowel.

"aa?

^-IHiS

992.

( Alf .

The

E.

g.,

show some"'SbK

'^5b)p

B. Q. 276).^

following

several plural forms.

are not included here

is

The

qatul-forms ending in

!!<31^-

list

list is

"li^ (

of

nouns having an irregular

not exhaustive, though nearly

847) and the nouns ending

plural, or
so.

in ''3 (

The

230

APPENDIX

[992

i^nna..

'mn (m/ms.

..

b/m.
T

39bp

-xn-,
xniT T
T T

XTzJet:-

'li^^

"TT'

XTn';T
T T

-'^bp'^'n baskets
-"I, 5<ri~;
T

T T

palms
xnsibsxniij-'is-

-xn-,
T T

"^n-

'

"

xnc^3- -xn-,
xn^-,
xnnD3
T T
TX
T T
T

" T

"

XD13-

xriinnn

T T

-"-,

-xninnn

xnrn
TT "

-xn-,
T T
TT

x^b-'b- ib-'b at night, Xlnl",

83 ^

T T

xnT X

-'^Dn-'b

M. MS. B. M.

-^rr"')!'
T

xn-*
X X

"^n" T

XX
"X
^-xm-,
T X

"

xnbsna-CT2J72!in,

xn'^^iaa^n,

xn^^^^aiin Aif.'B.M.

" X

' xn-,
XT
xr\-'3wa xn-'^snr),
T

x^n^'swo

-xn-,"
xniXX
XX

n^bpn-xn^^bpn
TT
':

-xjninn,
tt:t

xnv-in,
tt:;t

xn^X X

xbre--xn-

T T T

X X

-l-'Xp, ^IXD

l^riS'n IgQ' Serlr&,

ed.

3TinnNnD5ini6t'i.,p.
*sri"i''bib

p. 15.

19.

SM. No. cLxxviii.

''Slni?3Q'a,
p. 37

Neubauer,

Sni;i3S^,

SSnnDDa HG.

265.'

Jff3.^erra,6d. Neubauer, p. 10;

jinDB'Q

tftid.,

ed. Goldberg,

992]

APPENDIX

231

[ 99a

APPENDIX

232

NOUNS WITH POSSESSIVE SUFFIXES.


993. 1st person sing. com.
head, Ned. 50a;
''iJ^b'^n

With

b)

Tiri!!*

my power,

my

a)

With singular nouns:

wife, ibid.;

"'^"Ijl^

my

plural nouns:

my

my

"^sn

life,

relatives, B.

'^^aj my wifes,.
my fingers. Bar.

Yoma 13a/

M. 87a; Tl^Si^b*

56a; ^KlnllDT w?/ documents, Ned. 27a; ^"I'lnii? ibid. 50a.


994. lstpersonplur.com. a) With singular nouns

Ned. 25 a;

my

Meg. ]6a.

Sanh. 38 ft; 'X3"'~lp

soul,

''T23^"l

wages, B. M. 70a,-

p^

oot towd, Pes. 50 a;

5<jy"lS

l''T23S3

OMr

M. MS.

our land,

Ber. 586.

With

b)

us,

plural nouns

lllW upon

us.

Men. 40 a;

"jD'^l^ri

both of

Sebu. 376.

2d person sing. masc.

995.

a)

With singular nouns

tl^S thy

Ned. 28 b ; tlSb ^''2/ heart, ibid. 21 6.


With plural nouns '^1^33^ TlJS. thy sons and thy daughters, Ber.

son,

6)

56 a; TjVsFl thy phylacteries, ibid.

2d person

996.
soul, M.. Q.

24 a;

"'in^S'^l

With

b)

sing. fern.

irWb

IQb ;

plural nouns
i/i2/

'n'"a333

thy

T?13

thy

legs, 'Na.z.24:b; '^'"liaS

female neighbors, Ned. 21a;'

thy joists,

^^"'1)1

thy

life,

'5"'33 thy sons, VL., Sabb. 1515.

997. 2d person plur. masc.

your land, Keth. 112a;


to

With singular nouns

thy wife, ibid. 13 a.

Taan. 25a; Tn"l^j70

Yoma 13a;

a)

thy bread, Taan. 25 a; 'n''MWD thy meal, 'Sed.

liiJlblJ!;

a)

With singular nouns: "pSJIH

your God, M. MS. Sanh. 89a; ^5n''ib

your house, C. MS. Pes. 101 a ; ^sb^S all of you.'


b) With plural nouns :^ ^i"'^rt>^ Sanh. 39 a; ^^''in'ia'l

j/owr <eac?i-

686; "pS"'ni your teacher, Ker. 6a (= -pbaii"! TF. ibid.);


^i''ln''1"'^y your doings, Meg. 16a ( 833, note); "i"'7pV your days, M.

ers, Gitt.

MSf Sabb.'
998.
6)

1366.

2d person plur. fem.

With

crumbs,

plural nouns:

ibid.

110a;

a)

'3"'133

''lD''Tlp

With singular nouns

No

example.

your pots, Pes. 30a; "'STI^D your

your pots, C. MS. ibid.;

^^^''D'ib^ri

(= ''^''Sbsn C. MS.) your spices, ibid. 1106; "'^^''^ilS your mouths, C.


MS. Pes! ilOa; '^i-'^nb^a your clocks, Bfija 386.
:

tr"'~

~ T

From

the method of Talmudic spelling it does not seem likely that the ending could be
It is, however, possible that we have to read it ?T'^~ as with singular nouns.
i

KDnb^lD

Singular nouns with plural suffixes are classed here.

your question, TG. ed. Mussafla,

42.

fi^D

= "JD = ]'iD

as

fcCD

= 13 = liS

1001]

APPENDIX

233

999. 3d person sing, masc.a) With singular nouns:


i>i^3, all

of

it,

passim ;'^

his wife, Sota 22b,

Yoma

40a;

836, Sabb. 1516;

91a;

iinn"'a'^ id.

8a;

ri^33 his sons, Ber.

Tl^-'i^-'$

his

to

^iSE'TI

rt"'"!"'

Meg. 76;

not

"

his hands, ibid.


;

Ber. 56,0;

^lisX

6eadZes, Gitt. 84 a.

1000. 3d person sing. fern.


after her,

'

upon him { 80) ^{1^3


Us boundaries, B.B. 68"a;

M. MS. Sabb. 138a; "'rij'i^a


belly, Zeb. 6a; '^''isJH his}ace, M. MS.

Sabb.' 129 a;

'ItT^n^l'^ id. C.
'

his baldachins,
''tliy^^

M. Ms!

^tlln''n"'1 id.

to his house, VL., B. B. 10a.*

reasons, Ned.' 81 a;

n''7J3>t: /^*s

Ned. 23a;

'nn^aV*'^- ^L., B. M. 84a/

MS. M. Q. 96; ^n"'n"'3b


6) With plural nouns

J^'''i)^'2,

"l^ his grandson, Ned. 486;'' (T'tT'a'^

i"i2l

a)

With singular nouns:

X"'!riSS

B. B. 151a; tqlnS^lM B. M. 1046 (i^na^ns

(:ins>'q

^
'
^^yjiSun).
t)

ljLaJ

With

b)

plural nouns

J^riDISa

1Tj3. her sons, Ber.

nn^'lp her relatives, ibid.;

ibid.;

ters,

'82a;

C^- =

''-, cf.

nib? C.MS.

86

Pes.

of them, 'Er. 30a;

their lord, 'Ned.


j535j;

28a;

her, A. Z.

62a;

1436;

s2

xxiii (voc).

"li6.)'*

With singular nouns:

lin3p"''^ <fteV 6ear-d,

their mother, Sabb.

(= linmin)

a)

their head, C.

"jirniJ^"!

SM. No.

(voc.)yrj'''lb''S'

"Additions and Corrections" to

1001. 3d person plur. masc.


all

her daugh-

rt'^HDjl

upon

6oMwdartes, B.B. 128a; l!^nrii2"'T2 her woman-neighbors.

/ler

Sank

56a;

'^I^'^J

"liilii^S

MS. Meg. 11a;

Naz. 39a;

tl^^i'S

themselves. Pes. 1186;

their being scattered, VL., A. Z. 106;

ilMD'^ri'l^i^

"lin"l53

Ned. 2a;

liDTHS

their

way,

Alf. Ber. 386.


6)

With plural nouns:

Fi., 'Er. 686; tin%lbX C.


"
1

y^'^'2 is

conceiyable.
2 Cf.
3

"jirT'/J"!? M. Q. 46; lin^''52 their words,


MS. Meg. 146 (voc); ^fl^^y)2 their garments,

not a plural, as given by the dictionaries. A plural of all, totality,


For the use of the word before plural nouns cf. Hebr. ^^H^
.-^r,r,^

Pal. Syr.

as a euphemism.

This

is

(Schwally, Idioticon,

oi-LDqJ

The expression

hardly

it

his wife, TG., ed. Cassel, 86

-HG. 255

IHIlinb

niDS!

his physician,

by the Tahnudists

concerned.

is

must have meant originally

Sirilijnp; TG., ed. Lurla, 207;

inilnb

s. v.).

i^ri^Il'^ for wife is explained

probably correct as far as Jewish usage

expression be not of Jewish coinage,


*

is

With helping vowel.

imriD'^X

;-

S^^LjiiJ

But

"ij^'^'t^'^y ibid.

212

the

TO., ed. Mussafia, 89;

nS'inS^TB his neighbor, TG., ed. Harkavy,

t6id. 268

if

stay-at-home.

g 182.

'^r\^~l'^'shP\ Igg- Sertrd,

ed. Goldberg, p. 10.


*

in?n^?

to them,

in3^I?br\ they

HG. 108

three, ibid. 61

(lbn''5 shows that this preposition


]i3^D3i?

(= pHD^'Dy) Igg- Sertrd,

is

used in the singular)

ed. Goldberg, p. 13.

234

[ 1002

APPENDIX

Sabb. 1306/

VL., Sebu. 38b ;

^nir^-^D^'/a

1136; -p-sn vK'ibid.;

1616; ^HD'SIB their wings, Succa 56;


With'loss of final vowel

23 a.'

SlHlW

Ber. 50a,-

'{^fl^'^n

Pes.

M. MS. Sabb. 386; j^u^a^^p B, B.

'^tl^^T2

their captors, Keth.

!in3"'''i3123

n^^"iriaX VL., Sabb. 109 6.^

1002. 3d person plur. fern.

a)

With singular nouns:

"^ns^lS

Keth. 206.

With

6)

plural nouns

C.MS. M.Q.96; TT^a'ip

"Hiniia

Fi., Pes.

'

746; -^n^np Vi., Pes. 306.

ADJECTIVES WITH ENCLITIC PEONOUNS.

1003.
ciples

86;

few adjectives take

enclitic personal

rin^33 thou art high, Sabb. 67a;


thou art downcast, Beja 166;
'

VL.

86;

old,'

ivere small, B. B.

B. B. 1426;

]T^'p_ id.

'

ibid.''

!>5nn^, Hi2n,
Kni5, itnt*,
-:
-:
-:
T

1004.

-:

1st

T T

sing. com.

1386;* "J^nnx Meg. 136;

With

6)

we

,3''"it3'iT

we are

iDliJ^IDp

thou art wise, Bekh.

ri7;3"'3n

ri3"^223'

1426;' jr7J"'3n Bekh.

pronouns, like parti-

plural nouns

a)

With singular nouns:

^m'JZITl

VL.,'Ei.

'riH

Sabb. 1456.

Tind^

with suffixes.

i^5juj

Taan. 23a;

Ti., B. B. 86;

'^'r}nn!!<

^trunj?- Sabb. 57a.


T

1st plur.

a)

Keth. 856;

-[VaUi.

M.Q.

com.

Ber. 186, Keth. 92a;

"l^lSlii

Yeb. 376, 38 a, B. B. 135 a; Kjns,

StrHniit,

286.^

6)

With

xannns
T T T T

plural nouns

VflliaS^ Fi., B. B. 76;

"itira^ Pes. 506;

e. y. ibid.

-:

2d
'q'^n^

With singular nouns

l^^a^nj^

sing. masc.

a)

With singular nouns:

'n^3S4

Ned. 286, 506;

Sanh. 236.

2d plur. masc.

a)

With singular nouns

"iSlDtoX B.

M. 346; p^HK

VL., B. B. 58a; -jiD^nS Yeb. 376; jii'^n^ E. Y. ibid.

'in'^D'a

SM. No. XXV

70; 'jn^'^IIS TB., II, 14;

(voc.)

iplb ibid.;

'pTVW H6.

'JiniSS Sed. B. 'Amram,'p.

niinaibS

With adverb S^ISTJ ^Ipjia HG.

laa- Serlrd, ed. Neubauer, p. 44

411, for

n^inS

ISU

215;

"inXJI? TG.,

pHnSS'nSS
J/T.

t?2n"1p^Ta

31.

*iNnx BG.m.
5^{3ln^?&'e^.,14;

max

JWd., 23; ND'aiB re., ed. Harkavy, 1.

IffS-

ed.

Harkavy,

Sertrd, p.

24.

1005

APPENDIX

3d sing. masc.

Naz.30a;

wan
b)

IBla;

P,'T\)^

a)

With singular nouns: ffliK Ber. 18 &; "^flttK


Sanh. 5a; ^'fyA C. MS. Meg. ia, VL., B. Q. 886 (voc.)";

Sanh. 286; Wfinit ibid. 'da;

^"'53125

With

Naz. 5a, Hull. 60a; rtinsS B. B.

plural nouns:

'fliriS

3d sing. fern.

MS. Meg.
With

rtWnX
"^'''''

''

a)

With singular nouns: XfltoK her

16 a; i^H^IlS his father, ebu. ila;

in-law, eds. Qidd. 126;^


6)

Ber. IQa.'

VL.ibid.; Wiinx
Meg. 16 a; rt^nHK Sabb.lSa;
'
"^"'
~

rt-'lny!

Fi., B. M. 1046.

31a, C.

235

WriK Ned.

father, Succa

'j^ffl'ari

his father-

74a.

plural nouns: J^rini^ B. B. Mia.''


-:

3dplur.masc.

o)

^^

T T

With singular nouns

]ilnSl31St

B. M.34:6; iHttS^

VL., B. B. 76, B. Q. 1046, Sebu. 476.*

With

6)

plural nouns:

>in''';rinaT2J Gitt.

Meg. 15a; ]inini< Keth. 526;

^rT'^lTinai?;,

116; 'HtVI^'m ieh-ia) ^ir'auS C. MS. Meg. 146

(voc.).^

NOMINAL COMPOUNDS.
Nominal compounds

1005.

are of various kinds

enemy.

phonetic loss

!!{miJ''D3

Sy^ina,
b)

jS<3''3J{

as Jj^SriK paternal uncle, Tfia.

names

r\"'^a/O^D,

two nouns

Two nouns

hauebbo,

in apposition; as HSlI,

SD^3lI3np

Noun

T~

'3''T2J"|!l'!I

lisisb^fl =

ji*'':2

gums,

rrbt;

of cities.

Instead of a noun the

3"l)'

participle
c)

a)

"'is

''D^ira fish-brine {='tg^^y: 'a VL., satab. 1056),

"

synagogue, SHH''] b^S.


Sometimes both words are contracted into one, with occasional

standing in genitive relation; as

i^D^rbir

first

tinds of

Wll,
T-T S^mi^"!
T'T (= HISS
T
-

element

may be an

n"l,

adjective or

fish.'*

in apposition to participle or participial

'DS VL., Sanh. 109 a.


d) Noun and numeral in genitive relation

noun

!!^b''lna

13

''''il'n

"'"iriaO

>

IPtlp plaster
>

made from product of dragon-tree.


11138 HG.543; "^mn^

ibid. 2i8;

ISInS

JffS-

^ertrd, ed. Goldberg, p. 39

^IIQIB HG.,

ed. pr., 97c.


2

Of. % 105.

n'inS

iniaS

Se'el., % 21.

TG., ed. Harkavy,

S'lirT'la'lD l99-

Neubauer.p.i;
8

is

232.

SeHra, ed. Goldberg, p. 12; "jiniriTOtp


inDITqiB, ^iOTr.,42.

ibid., p. 2;

'jinrin'aiB ibid.,ed,

^nl^W,

The nature

of the first element in

probably v:yyil

^l>-

SDIDIIR

agtis, galeus.

^""^

i^J^S"!?

'^

uncertain.

SJIStiluJ

APPENDIX

236
e)

/)

Noun and attributive adjective


Two numerals: ''-nn (= KIH

g) Adjective

and noun

h) Preposition

H"'pT23

and noun:

[ 1006

^]?mzjS^;

(=

J5n''53'Ip i^DTO

'

5<in).

'

V^P
= Assyr.
~

rifi''K

*ina

mati,

b53rii<
T

Assyr. ina tim&li.


i)

Relative particle and noun

1006.

member

of the

word: "tW^}^ '^,

''T\'

XtT'Il'^

wife}

compound determines the gender and number, and

receives the endings

"^iil&ii

In the nominal compounds described above, the second

MM.

which would otherwise be attached to the

Win

"'S,

nSllipS

1113,

HKn-ia^JilS

Ber. 62 a.

For similar formations in Assyrian

cf.

Jensen, ZA.^ VII.,

174, n. 1.

first

But

cf.

ADDITIONS AND OORKECTIONS.


PAGE
1.

Add:

Note

3.

b"T1

lifflb

Aramaic
s. V.

is

-^yS

(IbnGanah,

Wffi''b

''SSl'll

(commentary "l^y-l

For

-iqnilD

we

Is. 422).

by Joseph Qimhi

called ''"i^yS D^ii"intl

p. 110).

Q-'ir'Tirn "0, s.v. 2^'i);

bS"'!! to Yalqflt

Biblical

("^ibjln

'0,

VL., Pes. 61a, and

find ''piD

IDI^D Tos. Bekh. 49b.


2.

2. Notel. Isaac Halevy (QiDllBS^n miTll HI-, 48 sg.) proposes


another explanation for the dialectical differences. The Talmud,
,

says he, has come to Europe by two ways


states
in

and through

Nedarlm,

etc.,

Palestine.

The

through the Berbery

dialectical expressions

Babylonian expressions.

must have been common

According to this theory, said expressions


in the Palestinean schools

words, be found in the Palestinean Talmud.


really

found there

is,

must, in other

Whether these

are

with the insufficiency of our dictionaries,

Zomber, who has gone over the Palestinean

difficult to ascertain.

Talmud

found

represent Palestinean substitutions for original

in search of the expression "'y^tl

has met with a negative

result.
2. 3.

Add to the expressions characteristic of Nedarlm


n^y^^K, and ^ZTtVO

for the usual X13-'H

riMin
3. 5.

ed.

Warsaw,

for

yauj

J^'Ji^n

J^pi

^bSK

V- mbnh

p. 39 a.

Dr. Schmiedel's statement

(niiaDn

"llSli^

V., 115, n.) that the

vernacular of the Babylonian Jews was the Persian language, has

no foundation.
3.

3. The excellent index of Dr. Im. Low to Krauss' Grieohische


und Lateinische LehnwOrter enables us to give an exact answer to

Note

this question.

According to that index there are the following

words occurring only in the Babylonian Talmud


etymological explanation
avOcvTiKrj,

/SarcK,

Kpd/iaTOi,

AaSavov,

LOw

^rjpvTTa,
p-appov,

assumes as certain

Sa<^i/);,

p-tTpa,

237

Si^vyia,

I.

Spo/jt-evs,

vt<j>e\rj,

Words whose

dySpa/^ts, aKaKia,

Spo/ios,

oprapiov,

l/Sevos,

ffep^tniXov,

ADDITIONS AND COERBOTIONS

238
PAOE

<7T0/xu)/xa,

CTKvTaX.i's,

carenum, gemoniae
doubtful
latura

Ttjyavov,

riypi'S,

<j>a.KeXog,

Words whose etymological explanation

II.

KOpTOi, KpOdCrOI, OpyaVOV, (TVpTW,

KoXaCTTT^p,

III.

ripOpa,

tr<^iyKa)/^a,
;

Words whose etymological explanation

is

(j>v\aKi^,

is

sig-

improbable

ayKvXri, avi, Spu^aKTOS, evreviii, OaXaivov, KaXv^ij, Kivaripva, Kvp,Prj,


vofiifTfiM,

word

fiAppov

6.

and the improbable

d/3pa/iis,

and

where we would use

7.

13.

8. 14.

trc^i^Kw/i^,

italics

cf.

The

gemoniae,

T^yavov,

KoXa(rTi^p,

or

or heavy-faced type.

-i is

also used

Cf. also Perles,

26.

8M. has frequently


But

IV.

go back to Palestinean sources.

6. In later literature the abbreviation sign

Analekten, p.

and the transcribed

in all probability themselves of Semitic

Spo/jievi,

<f>vXaKT^

a-irupa,

two groups have been examined by me.

first

and carenum are

origin.
KopTos,

TpCrri

The

Kao-ts.

claustrum, pulsus

Tpifiovvoi, <l>oK\.ip6v, area,

r^Cx^,

foreign words

a full vowel in place of

S^TllJ

Mueller, Die altsemit. Inschriften von Sendschirli,

pp. 41 sq.
10. 18.

The

verbal examples

and

J'lb^^n"'i<'7

and Corr.

t:1pD''XT

to 208

12. 26. Additional


sibilants:
14)

('Er.

are

to

be explained difPerently:

on ymzjb,

are perfects;

on 5<nsp"lp

etc.,

Add.

cf.

cf. 966, note.

examples for the interchange of gutturals and

msta {VL.,

Yoma

776)

riBM

"jsn (Tosiphta, B.

M.

ix,

3jin (Rasi, Zeb. 46 &, s. v. ^235 ''plBSb) = KDJiD


"iSD
296); K^li^lX (Targftm) = it-'-|X1"in (Add. to 'Ar. Compl.,
;

nn^i n =)2>

nn^j

*J

sleeve;

= Maltese he mm

p. 43);

)a

13.

Note

3.

Notice

X1XTN

15.

Note

3.

About

135^ cf. B. Gray, Studies in

>

4.

VL., Pes. 746.

Hebrew Proper Names,

pp. 23, 75, and Kerber, Die religionsgesch.

Eigennamen im AT.,

there.

Bedeutung der

hebr.

p. 63.

16. 46. Cf. % 980.


16. 47. Delete Tibvi

16. 48. Cf. against

NOldeke,

17. 50. 1. 1X553


17. 60. 6. blt352
its dialects.

it

cf.
is

cf.

7906.

ZDMG.,

L., 311.

Tunisian Arabic ^jjuuo

probably the same as

matan

in Ethiopic

and

ADDITIONS AND OOEEECTIONS


PAGE
18. 61a.

On

c/.

J^Ji'^-'t:

884, note

on

"^ybiS

239

883, note

on XS''i?,

883, note.
18. 51c. Delete

J^pllSti

19. 53. 1. Delete

i^l^bjlj

On paT'Xb

19. 53. 4.

19. 55.

On

^jLi,^5 cf.

20. 56.

For

( 56)

22.

Note

2.

and nn^t3

cf.

slice.

Add. and Corr. to

WZKM.,

read (

208.

X., 275.

51).

Cf. 987.

23. 71. Cf.

Grimme, Orundzuge,

p. 9.

27. 84. Cf. 531e, 784, 933, note.

But

29. 93.

in a

number

of cases the traditional accent rests

on the

antepenultima, with coincident syncopy of the vowel of the penul-

tima;
31.

Note
No.

cf.

231,

Add

2.

33. 107.
34.

B. B. 1426;

ed.

35.

454;

Goldberg,

Cf

35. 112.

in3''X ibid.

!||n''-

B.B. 149a; ^Hrri'^b

Alf. Qidd. 27a,

iO;

n''3n''K,

t^-TTii, it

^n^5>5 plural,' T6?., ed.

is,

ibid.;

ntV^

Note

Harkavy, 74; Igg. Sertrd,

ilSH Qidd. 32 &.

For "T^itn we frequently

2.

they

p. 5.

find ^IX^T}

Cf.

Nidda 3a, VL.,

Ber. 816, ebu. 306, 396, B. B. 176, 29 a, 1676, B. Q. 846,


36.

Alf.

647.

116. Add:

85. 117.

ibid., ibid.,

^iJT'IT'X they are, Igg. SertrQ, ed. Neubauer, p. 26;

id. ibid., p.

HG.

iplD''!!!;

208.

'iO"- (3d masc.) read

111. Add: iinSTl-K

are,

xxviii,

No. lxxxviii (all vocalized).

Add. and Corr. to

For

'Din"'!!*

646, 2.

^5S SM. No.

XXV, riX ibid.

32. 102. Cf.

and

5,

Add: J^^M

this,

HG.

452; ''SS, ^p^,

etc.

Jgrsf. -err-a,

ed.

Neu-

bauer, p. 17; l^f-'H ibid., p. 11; ''b'^K TG., ed. Harkavy, 385;
;'
^Ttl ibid. No. xxviii (voc.) 'q^n for
jibijt SM. No. XXVI (voc.)
;

t]|Vi in

37. 123.
1

= n

ni^cnun
Add:

'D, p. 28.

HS'^S they are,


T

( 998, note).

TF. Ker. 256.

240

ADDITIONS AND COKEEOTIONS

PAGE
38.

Note

Ehrlich

4.

compound

39. 128. Notice

39. 129.

bS (=

H6r. 136.

jb"'lb3) E. Y.

used also as Syriac

is

AZ.

TO

Gen. 38 24) explains irTl as a

+ + "'XH

j-'b'^

l^'^S

'TJ

Cf. B. B. 126,

S"ipa

(I'Ul'fflSi

of i^lJl

in the sense of as

.^j^as)

MV.

246, Pes. 20 a, 72 a, 85 a,

if.

42.

No. xxv (voc).

39.

Note

40.

130. Notice the forms t^Wbs, UiW^bS Fi., Ber. 186, Taan.25a.
T

40.

131. Add:

4.

Cf.

ijj|a

-Silf.

B.B. 87a,

^S^iX VL.,

VL., B. Q. 118a, 'S^Ji (plural) VL., Sanh. 966,

'?^^!}5

5^3-'i{

40. 133. Notice pb'^H

phrase pb'^m pb^tl

SM. No.

xxv' (voc).

In modern literature the

VL., Hull. 196.

and

also used in the sense of stuff, trash,

is

in

that of hotch-potch.
40. 135,

Add: NIH i<bV


T
T
-;

40.

Note

Add

1.

ibid., ed.

'

"

J^b Sanh. 416.


T

some, Igg. Sertrd, ed. Goldberg, p. 83

'g'2

Neubauer, pp.

23, 44,

as well as in other cases,

The

V^p

with imale of

marks the pronunciation i

=
pl

iT'aS
,

here

as against a

possible ^
41. 136.

Add: i5;an

Alf.

Men. 42a,

VL., Hag. 96,

"iC'^'in

Fi., B.B. 143a" -icaij VL., Meg. 2a, ip'


Ez. 380

Meg. 6a,

'Ar. 12 a, '^IC? IL'Un

Vn^i^J Fi., Pes. 646. For


43.

140. Add:

j''XiS"'n

Till;

rsbx

lay

VL., Sabb. 99 a,

'Ar. 12a,

yilJri

n"li2:3>

^-lifly

read

nySlli^l

-|TB3>

"'in

1252)1, ''^0 12211 Yalq-at

TITIJ

For

pin?

Xn"'12J

MM.,

twenty,

Gitt.

3 read

80.

Fi.,
56 a,
80.

g.

"240,000,000," Ned.

506; -lliai Xini 'SbX Ci^K "106,000^000,060,000," Fi., Sanh. 39a.


43.

141. Add:
counting

is

XIH

ZDMO., XLIX.,
43.

Note

1.

"'SD

"fy!il"iX

Cf. for the Arabic, Goldziher,

216sg.

Add: in

in SM. No. xxv

i3"(?.,ed.pr., 19fi;

")p Igg- Sertrd, ed.

Goldberg,

p.

37

TTW?

end of

t6id.;"x5'2ri

-ffG*-,

letter

"ICT23T1 *id.,

ed. pr., 306,

146. Add: iniSt:, Persian xLga.

45.

Note

3.

Cf.

Xiuan

-ffG.

end of

i056. For

44.

467 (voc).

/ow.

(voc); "^rnn

"'rnFl Sg., IV., 4, 23

"'"ICSIIX colophon to 'Ar. Compl., end of letter


""{CPJ,!^ ibid.,

This mode of

Fi., Sanh. 696.

probably good Semitic.

^^D'^lOd ibid.;

letter 22

S^J^HJri

<W2'n read:

^WZll-

ADDITIONS AND OOEEEOTIONS


PAGE
46. 166.
46.

Note

Add: HnTlT^ Ned. 51a;


Notice

2.

i5lnj<''ffliia^n Alf.

SM. No.

"''Tntli^

241

B.M.

64a.

^yir\'n ibid. No. lxxiii

xlviii,

(voc).

Add: nXFlFl^

46. 157.

~1

''i'^n

B. B. 7a;

"Fi.,

toward, VL., B.B. 736;

t\''^

where, ^abh. 30 a.

Add: S^^ai^lSa at the earlier time, Hag. 46;


28 a (a Hebraism).

47. 159.

47.

Note

Add:

1.

Cassel, 132;

-1

(voc);
47.

Note
fo7i

soon

Harkavy, 374 (voc); UTfn SM. No. x

ed.

li-in where, Hal. Pes., 123.

Add: i53TS now, TG.,

2.

wow, SM. No. Lxx

ed.

Harkavy, 235; X5T!lb IS

iribK TG., ed. Harkavy, 230

233, TG., ed. Cassel, |

ibid.,

7,

48; HG., ed.

pr.,

nribN;53

Bid; ^3

as

-152

as, Igg. Sertrd, ed. Groldberg, p. 37.

For

48. 159.
48.

supra, JQR., IX., 658; iirH where, TG.,ed.

"j'niniSsb

is'm,

then, Ber.

Tbt

-ilTJSb

160. Add:

read

^ntDb

'l^iln verily, forsooth,

quietly,

J55'5''iSa

secretly,

YOma

VL.,

586; J^nn quickly, VL., Sabb. 1246; l^

so, thus,

57a; D'^a B. B.

B.B. lOo;

''SiUJn^

X"'Dn"iSa publicly, tqiuJaS/j 0/

ifeeZ/,

spontaneously, VL., B. Q. 316; ^Sfl E. Nisslm, nriS53il 596


T

Ned. 55a;
Bilin

kando,

hate.

useless, in vain,

In the expression

On Kp

cf.

WZKM.,

48. i\rote 3. Notice

ed.

Add

ip.

Zeb. vocalizes

Anan in 'Fosfcftod, January, 1898, p. 17, n. 1,


^Dfl ibid. No. lxx
''Z)t\ SM. No. xxviii (voc.)

.SM. No. lii (voc.);'nsb


'nt^
-

Ti?., II.,4i';

TT

"'30

MS.

'

Harkavy, 413. For

49. 162.
49.

TOn
It

Jib ''laXI C.

"''li

arid

from wod, wot, be unwilling,

XIII., 245 sq.

^SXtl

quoted by Harkavy
(voc);

which have the same meaning,

G-alla tiki,

woddet

Barea

seems to be connected with Eth. kantii, TigrS-

"ilS

J^^b

= rfbx

cf-

Eg. Arab. JU)

"SbS
- -

^G^-,

iuJ[.

enough.

163. Add: n533 ^low maw?/? Pes. 88a; S^'ilill = !!<S"'nii; VL.
Zeb. 1116; ''>^"'n kow? FI,., Sabb. 23a. For" n^O'^Sl "'D^K read:
,

ri!a^K,

''S''K

153 i6id.

-Notice

No. OLxxvii

lb

''li
"^353

13

for ''1353 -SM. No. oxiv;

''J^a

for "h jj^ia t6id. No. olv (voc).

for

ADDITIONS AND OORREOTIONS

242
PAGE
50. 167.

Add: TT) Sanh. 101b and "X VL., B. B. 58a,

may be an apocopated

latter

Hebr.

=
50.

we

VL., Sanh. 656, where

H''!!*

eua and

Eth.

168. Notice:

Q!<

The

yes.

or the equivalent of Arab. ^\^

"1"'^^

find also the

synonyms

tl>(

imm.

Tigre-Bilin

VL., Sanh. 46b.

n""'b
T

61. 174.

On

52. 174.

y'-l's,

blt27JS cf. Add.

and Corr.

No. XXV,

Note

Add

rj IS

my

Cf. also Buhl,

Palmyrean.
53.

437

= Ber.

17a,

Hpl and
'yo'3,

t^^llTI

go back to

instead.

we may add

found."

attention to the use of this particle in

Kanon und

Text des Att.,

52, end.

174. by. Notice: 'by Fi., Ber. 36a.

On

53. 176.

franffais,
s. V.

the force of TO in (1^3133


^^yo

s. v.

Lo

Beaussier, Diet, arabe-

cf.

and Falzon, Dizion.

malt.-ital.-inglese,

min.

The form

54. 1776.

be assumed

"^btT'i

55. 182. Notice

56. 182.

hence

5<13b!!5
T

shows that a plural termination

Notice

here.

Add: FL., B.Q.

54. 177c.
,

except,

Delete the sentence, "and,

2.

Professor Noldeke calls

Is.

I'nnn SM. No. lxxiii, I^'^HS

iS'^'^ril ibid, (all voc).

the stem ItX^


52.

6.

occurs also VL., Bar. 56a, Yalqtit

TG., ed. Harkavy, 550. Notice


ibid.

to 50,

'H

if,

for jbi1"'D C.

jb'^i

is

not to

Pes. 13a.

156.

SM. No.

xxviii (voc).

probably

is

MS.

For

^Lot with vowel-syncope and


^

^ 23 b? S5< and "p

"ig
b? Si^
and
is
a
contraction
-p 'S b? r|>5- "jSbTl
23 by Ti^
of "131 b^Nin
of. Bacher, JQB., IX., 148. For a clearer trace of
1 consecutive cf. nnSI
pOS^3 TR., I., 26. For -|!|aD3 read:

subsequent transposition.
read: 1

"1^103; cf 870. On the postpositive particles 'S, ^s'

Grimme,
67.

op.

cit.,

182. For R. E. read R.


*li "'X

TR.,

J^Pniin VL., B.

II., 20.

p. 485),

H. Add:

^3''^

M. 786. Notice:

Noldeke connects

cf.

na and the

in Ethiopic as nl

et,

interrogative

etiam,

xmiJri Fi., B.B. Ilia;

^'B'i^TF., Ker.

this particle

suggesting a Persian origin.

the particle

X3

p. 73.

The word
mi, mu.

Amh. -na

id.,

276; "aW

with Syriac >q^ {MG.,


is

The

compound
first

of

appears

Kafa -na and, with,

ADDITIONS AND COEKEOTIONS

243

PAQE

Somali na

also, AsBjr.

It forsooth ; the second element

common

is

and Hamitic languages. Cf. also Galla lam6


ancora (Viterbo, Gram, e diz. della ling, orom.), Barea -nen also,
to the Semitic

Kungara nin

even,

In the expression

also.

seems to he forsooth; in the expression

''03

17J3

the sense of

'J^

not clear

it is

tj^

"'jaJ

whether qj^ mean also, or have the force of the particle of in


Galla. Add: ji'l ^3 (= Hebr. -jSTiJ bS) Ned. 49b; j]io pio
finally, after all.

57.

Note

3.

Notice: "iVS^aX since, TR.,

68. 185. Delete

"

0/

'ij!

Arab. Ij

II, 34.

The word has

."

also here the

sense of t/; Ip'^mU is perfect, third person for first. On llTUK cf.
Gunzbourg, i?iV., XXVIII, 191. For ^'^nb read isnb the word
;

is

Haggadah according to the Rite of Yemen,


Greenburg, p. 1, n. 6. The Hebrew equivalent, D'^^Hb (R- Tam.,

so vocalized in the

ed.

niSTl '0

>

ed. Rosenthal, p. 62),

+ b To -Tim
tation of

58.

"Illn cf.

'iisSj to simmer.

sound produced by

VL.,

Yoma

Note

3.

shows that

Add

noun

"'Sn life

p^^p'^lffi

birds, VL., Biull. 65a,-

an imi-

X^^H alas!

blDl Oh! woe! VL., Pes. 20 &.

696,-.

by

Perles' hypothesis suggested

the proper

the

it is

name Helene,

''3b''ln

>

Dozy's

untenable.

is

which looks

like

SuppUment aux

Diet, ardbes contains the following interesting Arabic equivalents

iL, Jyy,

t^,
63. 208.

The

(jiwv*,

JiA*^,

following examples are apt to shed more light on the

true nature of the prefix b

>

''b

It is

used not only with the

imperfect, but also with the perfect and the participle.

found in the form


763.

!lb

I^ln''3>"'31''b

participle;

)T1353b

and as a separate

{MM., Sabb. 140 &)


i-A-Z.

10a)

is

particle.

may be

It is

even

Cf. for the latter

perfect or passive

participle; perfects are:

^l5'b]3b

Fi., Sabb. 66b; "n^b^^b Fi., Ber. 286; t\t\Y)>, nsrisb B.B.

74 &;

J^''5S;^''b

116 a.
314:

note)

VL., JEuU. 286, and probably "jD^^nb Alf. Pes.

In Hebrew the perfect with b

inmn

-jiiinb

ima "|nniDb

we have b with

the

first

is

found in TO.,

o^nbi^n-

ed.

Harkavy,

in pm-^xb

( 208,

person imperfect; in the other

examples given there and in the footnote we have b with the perfect.
I3''yb ( 223) may also belong here, and would have to be
vocalized

l3''''3'''b

C/. also KOnig's excellent article,

"Das

1.

Jaqtul

ADDITIONS AND OOBKEGTIONS

244
PAGE

im Semitischen," ZDMG.,
and

207, note,

65.

223. For
with

66.

223.

'-^ibtJp,

Add

LI.,

XIV., 6

330 sq., and Littmann, ZA.,

''ibup,

to Pa"el:

^^ibtJpX,

67. 230. 3.

69.

is

KSbtSpJ to Aph'el: 'ibtipS, btiipit

here more probably

''"ini5<

similar transposition of the vowel

1. Cf. ^!120 SM. No. xxv (voc.) and


T
Aram. Dialektproben, p. 30, n. 8.

ta

is

found in Tigrfi;

li'Oii

quoted by Dalman,.

233. Add: ^T^T^it, I shall prove, Yalqut Sam. U8 ^Sanh. 101 a;


cf. the biblical hnt^isn and similar forms, and "^DniTiin Zeb. 1026.
T

-:;"

more probably

"fti"0''DT is

j5''bt:^Il"'b cf.

with pronominal

1''t37J"'DT

suffix.

On

Add. and Corr. to' 208.

269. Cf. -I-I7jab SM. No. lxxii (voc); 'qinrT'52 VL., Hull. 86;
nnS^Xb JQR^, IX., 698 DbuiTJ Sg., IV., 2, 48 '!!<Dni1^ Ber. 20a.
;

79.

bpipnplural of !!<nni|H
T

Note

76.

etc.,,

'^''ibpp.,

ZA., XII., 209.

cf.

68.

read:

etc.,

ithpa"ai: ^bBpHj^, ^bltspn^it, 'xbt:pris,


66. 226. ^-\'^^^

XII.,.

sq.

t:. Add toQal: bt2pb, SDbt:p

of

5^1125

ibid.,

Note

C/. the spelling

6.

i!!iD''Tn

niTDTTn

in

'0 ed.

Halberstamm,

p. 28.

81. 273.
b''tDp''b

For the imperfect forms with b


,

without

IDj"! in

the

first

as

b^tpp'^b

etc.,

>

read

stem-consonant.

83. 278. Notice: "'^^1^1, ^p^pPl, VL., Sabb. 246.

M. Q. 286 fin.; W'Spb


46a. For the forms sm6 Z and m

85-6. 292. Cf. S3'"ipb, reading of Tos. in

(^''SQiab Fi., Sabb.

Zeb. 94a,cf.

Add. and Corr. to

92-3. 321. Notice:

(=
p.

XUJinS^

VL., B. B. 276

23c);

VL., Hull. 27a,-

nil^ab Igg- Sertrd,


23. For the forms sub h cf. Adii. and Corr. to
^-l^TCSS*;'^)

97. 333.
99. 345gr.

101.

223.

Note

3.

For ''Xyn''X read

For

Add

'';'ia-|':iTii!b

''l!<3>Tn"'K

read

^"I'^ai^'Kb

add

'';'ia-|'^TKb

^!!i3>bS"'H

ed.

223.

VL., Ber. 546.

Igg- Serird, ed. Neubauer, p.

'^iffllFniJX read "'"'i^irnB'i*- ''i")rT'!!< belongs to 345.

108. 376. Cf.

p''B''3

^n"'T2J5n

Neubauer,

VL., Ber. 556.

25. For

ADDITIONS AND OOREECTIONS

245

PAGE
103. 378. Cf. p-'S''K VL., Ber. 246.
103. 379. Cf. iipS-'b Hag. la.
106. 394. Cf. TlJip^b Yalqlit Lev. 529

Read

105. 402c.
105.

Note

Read

4.

^'ilopNib

"'"'iptssb

Zeb. 18 a.

B.M.

108. 412. Notice: ^b^Sft Fi.,

846.

110. 417. Notice: biiFl'^D Fi., Zeb. 556.


112. 424.

For

M. MS., read

nbTZJilJ^

115. 434. Notice

fp-TNl

VL., B.

lie, 437. Cf. Wnistb VL., B.


IT T

M.

VL.

Flb'^JJUB^, nb^TIJIS;,

576.

M. 426.

lie. 438. Cf. 'i!CZirW2 VL., Sabb. 1486.


T

120. 452. Cf. )X^T12b ed. pr. Sabb. 1506.


T

121. 455. Cf. XD^-^by Fi.,

Y6ma86a;

lD''22''"'p

Fi.,

B.M.

69a.

For qittale read qittftlS.

122. 4596.

124. 467. Cf. )!t,)zrrQ Fi., Taan. 216; "jisa B.B. 1666.
125. 470. Cf. y-iriFi VL., B.B. 6a.

Cf

'p'''p^Va

F., ebu. 41a.

126. 474. t3njrip"'N or

t2'')lt:C''X {sic) is

126. 473.

asattata

131. 496. Cf. n^lS VL., B.Q. 746;


131. 498.

Add: ''iina MM.,

bauer, p.

probably connected with Amh.

sotata.

to glide out, slip, or Eth.

--nW (/) VL., Taan. 24a.

Gitt. 576;

SplM

Igg- Sertra, ed.

Neu-

8.

132. 501. Cf.


132. 506. Cf.

ilSi^TlJ
T

VL., Sabb. 666.

VL., B. M. 856;
Kr-IS
^

S5''T'''^

VL., B. B. 7a; UtT'^'n

VL., B. B. 29a.
133. 510. Cf.

MVnpb

VL., Pes. 116a, passing into

''"b

ff'Sp'^^TCpb

Fi., B.Q. 84a.^


134. 515. Cf. 'apis* VL.,

nnsan

466 {v-^^tz

B.M. 846; iinriH^an


i/Kica).

186. 518. Cf. ''IT'DK VL., Sabb. 186.

Hull. 76, quoted in

ADDITIONS AND OOEEEOTIONS

246

PA&E
135. 519. Cf. ^-'tra ed.pr.

Zeb. 62 a.

B.M.lOSa;

B.Q.62a; iisn^ VL.,

'^12

"

136. 622.

For Soncisso read Sonoino.

137. 625.

For b^lTO, Ti., B.B. 8a has V^yOZ,

i^D^FlD"'!!*

(=

l!<Dy''ri6x) ibid., ed.

Add: ^a^snij Fi.,

137. 527.

Igg- SertrA, ed. Goldberg, p. 9;

WTt))

137. 526. Notice: J^^^ynpSl

^''^^'0.

Neubauer,

p. 19.

Ber. 206; 'ITSJ-'] VL., Zeh.lSb; i[T^T1l

Easi, ibid.
139. Note 2.

On

the infinitive ending

K~T

in verbs

cf.

''"b

Wellhausen,

Skizzen u. Vorarbeiten, VI., 258.


141. 635.
for

i^DI!<ri is

more probably a contracted form

of the participle

n>53n-"

141. 638. Cf. ri^'^Tn VL., Ber. 30 &.


141.

Note

2.

Cf. S53F1 (voc.) Igg. Sertrd, ed. Neubauer, p. 44.


T

142. 638. Notice: ''in

I rejoiced, Succa

142. 542;. Notice: -lii^n C.

MS. M.

256.
All the examples given

Q. 36.

here are more probably participles.


143. 653. Notice:

146. 662d. Notice:

Neubauer,

Yalqtit

^^^''if.b

JiIT'lTIJ

Numb. 786 = Sanh.

VL., Taan. 25a;

106a.

Delete

'^''^21 Igg- Sertrd, ed.

p. 26.

146. 667. Cf. Dp""ab (for '"'iapb) Igg- Sertra, ed. Neubauer, p. 21,

passing into $"$


146. Note 2.
149. 675.

Add
Add:

Q'^^Q

D'^'^Stli^

"^''-liasb ed. pr.

Ber. 28a,

AZ.

'imSq

iw\^zl

506.

161. 682e. Notice: '''"I'imB^Hb ed. pr. ebu. 86.

152. 585. Notice:


162. 688.

Add:

''i^2l3''K

they prophesied, VL., Meg. 14a.

i''3>im2J^K FL., Ber.

466;

''''inaiisb

Yalq. Lev. 644

Men. 62 a.
164. 696. Cf.

rTin

Igg- Sertra, ed. Neubauer, p.

166. 601. Notice:

n"'''r\!!!;

166. 602. Notice:

''ri"'''X

7.

thou didst come, FL., Ber. 286.


I shall come, Yalqflt

Is.

419

Sanh. 966.

ADDITIONS AND OOEKEOTIONS


PAGE
156. 603. Notice: ''n^X VL., B. B. 1516, Yalqtit
167. 611. Notice:

!ini!>|;

158. 615. Notice

S4StsnD''X (p- 225, n. 4).

161. 626. Notice:

Neubauer,

FX., Pes. 30a;

yiii;.,^i<,

p. 4

161. 626. Notice:

W'iri''!>5

Is.

and

419?

Sanh. 966.

Igg. Sertrd, ed.

WTr!''!!*,

Pes. 876.

ed. Wilna, 1885, 45

TG.,
Harvib
T T '

FL., Ber.31&.

!|X'^n''-;5<

YalqUt Jud. 50

iin'^Zinin"'X

247

tt^nirilJb
.....

SM.

No. xcv.
169.

Note

From

1,

the peripkrasis found in YalqGt

that Kasl's explanation of 1ln''n52tl

is

416

it is

We

have here a

Is.

correct.

evident

secondary stem of the biblical Hebr. n^inO, Arab, itgjo, and


should vocalize ^ItT'il^sri partic. act. used as imperative.
>

170.

Notes. Notice:

171.

Note

2.

For

Silf.

read

iTlb^pTE

flb"'pT23

T TT

Note

For

1.

ms

it

is

^^99-

Note

To

2.

SHili

connects with tXJjs-

read \h^i^Z;

cf.

On

"i52iD

7.

stout,

It is

more

pinch;

Xln''113y,

TnS,

skin, hide,

which Keinisch

made of

For

iL^Z

skin.

Assyr. kftmiru; evidently a short-

now

J. F.

Weissenbach, Die arabi-

'T

likely that the

1899.

stem of S^nD?

is

/-*-^=

be big,

prefix.
The same prefix is found in ^^^"Ipy
karcabbb, Hausa kunama, from a stem *2"lp

and the y a

skorpion, Galla

*'ffl3S

wound.

Nominalform F&'Hl, Mtinchen,

220. Note

to

compare J-oJ (Dozy), Eth.


scar,

large hag

the form J^bit3p see


T

sche

No. oxiv (voc).

Sertra, ed. Neubauer, p. 46.

better to

203. 842d. C/. also Hebr. ^533

204. 846.

6id.

Hausa taiki

ening of an original

K'^bS (Barea Sprache, p. 124).

lOld.

14.

Qamamil gudi

of.

pi.,

qWasla be wounded, Avah. qsisil


196.

them, HG., ed.

No. xov. ni^"'?

188. 776-9. Notice: J^Dn^i^fflb


~
192.

pawned

Notice: linnri"' Sg., IV.,

173. 677. Notice: 'n-'^h^y


177. Note 4.

he

lilS^riDSTfla

cf. G-alla

T23"'33y

= D^lTBiy,

T/*na5

= *n^5 =

karaba, sm,all pincers, and

'^yi^^^, Nuba korabe,

*3'U3S to plait, twist, spin,

spider,

hence Hebr.

|ri"l33 sieve

Galla girbi, thread, and the verbs 'Cai, T231D,

and

to twist.

ADDITIONS AND OOBBECTIONS

248
PAGE

curl, crumple, press, fade, in the various Semitic languages.

the interchange of

Arab. ^i>

like

"i

and

sibilant cf. p. 193, n.

Also Syriac

v.v.ck,

German "Spinne," goes back

ZA., IX., 331,


217. 956.

and Hebr.

226. 983. 5<b5"l53it

is

c/.

to a verb to spin; cf.

Nuba koros

tTfflSl'n

Hoffmann,

shepherd.

more probably Twarig amenokal prince.

I gladly take

opportunity here to express

sincere thanks to Dr.

he rendered

W.
me

my

Muss-Arnolt for the kind


in

On

\oW female spider),

n. 1.

To iib'^mS

offices

(= Hausa

9,

connection with the

printing and proof-reading of this work.

LIST OF VERB-STEMS.'
A.

TBIOONSONANTAL.

287 (occur only in) Qal.

Pa

116

1 Qal,

Pa"el, Pa"el.

2 Qal, Aph'el, Ittaph'al.

"el.

56 Aph'el.

1 Qal, Saph'el, Istaph'al.

31 Itp'el.

Pa"el, Aph'el, Ittaph'al.

31 Itpa"al.

Pa " el, P6' el,

2 Saph'el.

Pa"el, Saph'el, Itpa"al.

1 Itpo'el.

2 Pa"el, Itpe'el, Itpa"al.

72 Qal,

Pa "el.

7 Pa"el, Aph'el, Itpa"al.

62 Qal, Aph'el.

Pa "el,

57

Itpe'el.

2 Pa"el, Aph'el,

Itpa"al.

Itpe'el.

8 Qal, Pa"el, Itpe'el, Itpa"al.

14 Qal, Pa"el, Aph'el, Itpe'el.

67 Qal, Itpe'el.
8 Aph'el, Itpe'el.

1 Qal,

9 Pa"el, Aph'el.

Aph'el, Itpe'el, Itpa"al.

10 Qal, Pa"el, Aph'el, Itpa"al.


1 Qal, Pa"el, Itpe'el, Ittaph'al.

7 Aph'el, Itpa"al.

2 Qal, Aph'el, Itpe'el, Ittaph'al.

11 Qal, Itpa"al.
1 Haph'el, Ithaph'al.

1 Qal, Saph'el, Itpe'el, Istaph'al.

2 Qal, Pai'el.

1 Qal, P6'el, Aph'el, Itpe'el.

1 Qal, P6'el.

1 Qal, Aph'el, Itpa'

2 Pa"el, Itpe'el.

2 Qal, Aph'el, Haph'el, Ithaph-

2 Aph'el, Ittaph'al.

'al.

It-

pa"al.

21 Qal, Aph'el, Itpa"al.

25 Qal, Pa"el, Aph'el.

1 Qal,

Pa"el, Aph'el, Itpa"al,

Ittaph'al.

19 Qal, Pa"el, Itpe'el.

1 Qal, P6'el, Pai'el, Aph'el, It-

2 Qal, Aph'el, Itpa"al.

pa"al.

1 Pa"el, Itpa"al, Istaph'al.


B.

PLUBIOONSONANTALS.

1 Saph'el.

1 Pa'lel.

4 Taph'el.

19 Palpel.

3 Itpalpal.

Naph'el.

3 Par'el.

2 Parpel.

1 Pas'el.

5 (denom.

1 Pa'pel.

Ittaph'al.

2 Qal, Pa"el, Aph'el, Itpe'el,

57 Qal, Aph'el, Itpe'el.

'al,

Cf. 188.

249

and

foreign) active.

(denom. and foreign) passive.

LIST OF VEEB-STEMS

250
3 Par'el, Itpar'al.

2 Pa'lel, Itpa'lal.

1 Pan'el, Itpan'al.

5 Palpel, Itpalpal.

[passive.

4 (denom. and foreign) active and

Pa'tel, Itpa'tal.

Summary. Of 1013 triconsonantal verbs, 524 occur only in one form;


675 stems occur in
301, in two; 143, in three; 41, in four; 4, in five.

Qal; 352, in Pa"el.; 296, in Aph''el; 268, in Itpe'el; 164, in Itpa"al;


5,

in Po'el; 3, in Pai'el;

3, in

Haph'el;

5,

in Saph'el;

in Ittaph'al; 3, in Ithaph'al; 2, in Istaph'al;

Of 58 pluriconsonantal
the passive

16, in both.

1,

1,

in ItpO'al; 10,

in Istaph'al.

verbs, 38 occur only in the active

4,

only in

INDEX COMPENDIOKUM.
AEV.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Preface,

V, VI

1-4

Introduction,

Script and Okthoqeaphy.

I.

Script, 1-6:

Letters, 1

Vowels,

Reading of Numerals, 4

Numerals, 3

Diacritical Signs,

5,

5, 6,

Orthography, 7-13,

6, 7

Phonology.

II.

A.

Consonants, 14^67: General Remarks, 14


Gutturals, 16, 17

ciation, 15

Linguals, 20

and Rdphh,

Pronun-

Palatals, 18, 19

Labials, 22
Daghes
Changes of Consonants, 24-43

Sibilants, 21

23

Doubling, 44

Resolution of Doubling, 45

Inser-

tion of Consonants, 46-48

Dissimilation, 53
66
B.

Assimilation, 49-52
Vanishing of Consonants, 54-

Transposition of Consonants, 61

Vowels, 68-93

Vocalic

ImdU,

68,

8-21

69 Obscuration of a, 70
Influence of Consonants

Epenthesis, 71

on Vowels, 72-74 Fluctuating Vocalization, 75


Compensatory Lengthening, 77 Heightening and
Depression of Vowels, 78

Diphthongs, 79-81
83
Retention of Disap-

Contraction of Vowels, 82,


pearing and Insertion of New Vowels, 84^88

Loss

of Vowels, 89-92 JLcceM^, 93,


III.

22-29

Morphology.
PRONOUNS.

A.

Personal Pronouns,

94-115:

Independent Personal

Enclitic Personal Pronouns,


Pronouns, 94r-97
Possesswe
98-106
Suffixes, 107-111 06iecfo'w

30-35

Suffixes, 112-115,

253

TABLE OF CONTENTS

254
B.

Demonstrative Pronouns, 116-122,

35-37

C.

Copulative Pronouns, 123-127,

87-39
39

D. Relative Pronoun, 128,


E.

Interrogative Pronouns, 129,

F.

Indefinite Pronouns, 130-135,

39,

40
40

NDMEEALS.

41^14

A.

Cardinals, 136-146,

B.

Ordinals, 147-151,

44,45

C.

Fractional Numbers, 152-155,

45, 46

D. Other Denumerative Nouns, 156,

46

ADVEEBS AND ADVERBIAL EXPEESSIONS.

Adverbs of Place, 157, 158 Adverbs of Time, 159


Adverbs of Manner, 160, 161 Adverbs of Quantity,
162

Interrogative Adverbs, 163-166

Affirmative

Negative Adverbs, 168

Adverbs of

Adverbs, 167

46-50

Doubt, 169,
PEEPOSITIONS.

Inseparable Prepositions, 170-173


Prepositions with
174^178

Separate Prepositions,

Pronominal

Suffixes,'

179-181,

50-55

Conjunctions, 182-184,

55-57

Interjections, 185-186,

58

THE VERB.

In

General, 187
Tenses,

In Particular, 188-198

l^^Afformatives of

Preformatives of the Imperfect,

Moods and
200-206

the Perfect,
^5

207-213

Afformatives

of the Imperfect, 214-216 Afformatives of the Imperative, 217-220


The ^J- prefix of Infinitive and Participle,

221 Afformatives

of the Infinitive, 222,

223

Afformatives of the Participle, 224-226


Structure of
Verb, 227-233 Gender, 234: Number, 235,

59-69

Strong Verb, 236-373 Ferbs V'S, 374-408 Ferfes J^"S,


409^20 Verbs N"y, 421^26 Verbs v'lg, 427-

44:1 Verbs

yy,

448^14 Verbs

Verbs X"b, T'b, and


Verbs,

''"b,

'"ly, 475-530
531-590 Dom&Zj/ Weak

591-615 JJare Conjugations,

616-644,

70-165

TABLE OP CONTENTS
Verbs with Objective

Suffixes,

255

Verbs not ^"b,

645-780:

64:5-123 Verbs v^, 724-780,

165-188

THE NOUN.

General Remarks, 781-787,

188-191

SUMMARY OF NOMINAL FOKMS.


I.

Internal

Vowel Change Only, 788-875: One Short


788-820 Ttyo Short Vowels, 821-840

vowel,

Long Vowel in

the First Syllable

in the Second, 841-854

and Short Vowel

Short Vowel in the First

and Long Vowel in the Second, 855-875, 191-208


Vowel Change with Sharpening of Second
Stem Consonant, 876-901: Two Short Vowels,
Short Vowel in the First Syllable and
876-881
209-211
Long Vowel in the Second, 882-901,
Syllable

II. Internal

III. Preformatives, 902-950,

211-214

IV. Afformatives, 951-963,

214-222
221, 222

V. Diphthongized Forms, 964-966,

222-224

VI. Reduplicated Forms, 967-976,

224-226

VII. Infixes, 977-982,

226

VIII. Pluriconsonantal, 983,


Appendix.

227

Hypocoristic Endings, 984,

Oender, Number, and State, 985-988 PiwraZ Terminations, 989,

990 Formattom of the

Nouns with

Possessive Suffixes, 993-1004

Compounds,

1005, 1006,

Plural, 991,

992

Nominal
227-236

Additions and Corrections,

287-248

List of Verb-stems,

249, 250

Index Compendiorum,

251

hil'i'

"^
)i

!'

ip"
'',

li'

/J'-i'ifH

1
1

ni

1541,'h,^'

,"']

ijl

,1 it'

'!i|i

I'll'

,''!.'

'H

.'
1,
,

'

'

!, Ill

r:i1

1,1"!

'I

i'

1.
I'M

'

'

'

'I

I'

11,1

>

i'!

riH'!

'

'

'

',;^i|)'ii'|

III
I

ill

'

'

!,''i

^r,;i;A

'
I

'II

rl

f;

i'-tMmi
:,f|ipu|

,;,>,',,;

'ill

i:iil:i! '"fill

:\*