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Geology
Re-Os isotope studies of Mindanao adakites: Implications for sources of metals
and melts
Scott T. Dreher, Colin G. Macpherson, D. Graham Pearson and Jon P. Davidson
Geology 2005;33;957-960
doi: 10.1130/G21755.1

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Re-Os isotope studies of Mindanao adakites: Implications for


sources of metals and melts
Scott T. Dreher
Colin G. Macpherson
D. Graham Pearson
Jon P. Davidson

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK

ABSTRACT
Whether the downgoing slab in modern subduction zones is able to melt is an important
unresolved aspect of plate tectonics. Rare arc lavas with high Sr/Y ratios and low Y and
heavy rare earth element concentrations, called adakites, are often attributed to melting
of young subducted crust in subduction zones. Osmium isotopic data obtained for 13
adakite samples from Mindanao, Philippines, conflict with the slab-melting model. Ten of
the samples have unradiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios inconsistent with partial melting of the
ca. 50 Ma Philippine Sea lithosphere subducting beneath Mindanao. The Os isotope signatures are similar to those of young mid-oceanic-ridge basalts and normal arc rocks,
consistent with a mantle source. In addition to implications for mass transfer in subduction
zones, the apparent association of adakites with Cu-Au deposits makes understanding
their origin, and that of the associated metals, economically interesting. This study suggests
that a reevaluation is required of the slab-melting hypothesis in general, and that the
metals associated with the Mindanao adakites come from the mantle.

et al., 1984) and is, therefore, too old to melt


under a normal subduction-zone geothermal
gradient (Defant and Drummond, 1990; Peacock, 1990). Sajona et al. (1993) hypothesized
that the leading edge of the Philippine Sea
plate was ablated as it entered the mantle in
the nascent subduction zone. The association
of adakitic magmatism with porphyry and
epithermal-style mineralization has also been
advocated as evidence for a causal link between slab melting and mineralization both for
the Surigao Peninsula specifically (Sajona and
Maury, 1998) and for adakites in general
(Thieblemont et al., 1997).

Keywords: adakites, osmium, Philippines, subduction.

RESULTS
Os isotopes were analyzed on a ThermoFinnigan Triton mass spectrometer at the University of Durham, following methods modified from Pearson and Woodland (2000). A
mixed Re-Os spike was added to all samples.
Seven analyses of the University of Maryland,
College Park, Os standard give a mean 187Os/
188Os value of 0.11394 6 0.00029. Total procedural blanks were 0.5 6 0.2 picograms of
Os with an 187Os/188Os value of 0.221 6
0.051. Data were corrected for fractionation,
oxide heterogeneity, and blank contribution.

INTRODUCTION
While most arc magmatism results from
melting of peridotite, a small class of magmas,
termed adakites (Drummond and Defant,
1990), has been widely attributed to melting
of subducted metabasalt (Kay, 1978). The
geochemical definition of adakitese.g., high
Sr/Y ratio, low Y and heavy rare earth element
(HREE) concentrationsrequires residual
garnet in the magma source. Garrison and Davidson (2003) noted that this geochemical
characteristic does not imply a particular tectonic constraint, but is merely the product of
hydrous basalt melting at deep crustal or upper mantle pressures.
Adakites are also associated with a majority
of Cu-Au deposits worldwide (Thieblemont et
al., 1997), including those in Mindanao (Sajona and Maury, 1998). The reason for this
association is unclear; however, Sajona and
Maury (1998) suggested four possibilities: (1)
Cu-Au mineralization results from recycling
of Au and Cu sulfides from the downgoing
slab; (2) the high viscosity of adakite magmas
leads to longer crustal residence, hence more
efficient development of a hydrothermal system within the country rocks; (3) high water
contents of adakite magmas may also foster
development of hydrothermal systems in the
host rocks; and (4) because adakites are often
generated at the beginning or end stages of
subduction, they may have greater opportunity
to interact with older crustal rocks. All of
these possibilities imply a crustal source, either in the overriding or subducted crust, for
the metals associated with adakites. In con-

trast, Mungall (2002) concluded that the mantle wedge is the likely origin for Cu-Au mineralization in adakites.
We present Os isotopic data for 13 adakites
from northern Mindanao, Philippines, that require that the Os and, by analogy, other chalcophile metal enrichments be derived from the
convecting mantle or young plutons in the arc
lithosphere.
GEOLOGIC BACKGROUND
The Philippines are in a zone of convergence between the Eurasian and Philippine
Sea plates, characterized by east- and westdirected subduction beneath the archipelago.
Subduction and sinistral strike-slip motion
along the Philippine fault accommodate much
of the lateral displacement between the opposing subduction systems (Fig. 1). The Surigao Peninsula is in northern Mindanao, the
southernmost of the Philippine Islands.
The basement beneath the Surigao Peninsula comprises pre-Tertiary ophiolitic and
metamorphic rocks (Quebral et al., 1996). Sajona et al. (1993) estimated a crustal thickness
of 1622 km beneath the peninsula. Pubellier
et al. (1999) cited crustal thicknesses of slightly ,15 km in the Sangihe arc, 200 km south
of Mindanao.
Westward subduction of the Philippine Sea
plate beneath the Surigao Peninsula began 3
4 Ma (Pubellier et al., 1999) as the Philippine
trench propagated southward. Early magmatism in the arc comprises adakitic hypabyssal
stocks (Table 1). The crust of the subducted
Philippine Sea plate formed ca. 50 Ma (Hilde

Figure 1. Map of Philippines (inset) and locations of samples used in this study. Tectonic boundaries after Castillo and Newhall
(2004).

q 2005 Geological Society of America. For permission to copy, contact Copyright Permissions, GSA, or editing@geosociety.org.
Geology; December 2005; v. 33; no. 12; p. 957960; doi: 10.1130/G21755.1; 3 figures; 1 table.

957

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TABLE 1. GEOCHEMICAL DATA FOR MINDANAO ADAKITES
Sample ID
Os (ppt, blank corrected)
2 s (blank corrected)
187
Os/188Os (blank corrected)
2SE (in-run error)
2 s (blank corrected)
Relative 2 s
Re (ppt)
187
Re/188Os
2s
187
Os/188Osi
2s
SiO2 (wt. %)
MgO (wt. %)
Ni (ppm)
Sr (ppm)
La (ppm)
Y (ppm)
Yb (ppm)
Sr/Y
La/Y

357402

357403

357404

357417

357426

357427

357432

357434

8.5
0.4347
0.4086
0.0037
0.224
54.7
37
21.8
1.197
0.4079
0.0224
64.95
2.23
49
1002
20
9.5

11
0.4136
0.1695
0.0008
0.0149
88.0
4
1.84
0.081
0.1695
0.0149
59.21
3.45
29
447
5
15.5
1.18
28.8
0.3

3.3
0.4014
0.2269
0.0093
0.0642
283
13
19.2
2.366
0.2262
0.0642
62.15
1.52
9
513
6
14.5
1.34
35.4
0.4

16
0.5192
0.1678
0.0009
0.0048
28.3
19
5.59
0.209
0.1676
0.0048
63.29
2.21
45
957
14
9.2

4.5
0.4025
1.6912
0.0060
0.3466
205
22
28.3
2.806
1.6902
0.3466
61.29
2.55
14
578
7
13.0
0.88
44.5
0.5

2.7
0.4009
0.2213
0.0011
0.0773
349
19
34.9
5.338
0.2201
0.0773
62.17
1.68
7
606
20
21.2
1.65
28.6
0.9

5.0
0.4031
0.1536
0.0005
0.0283
185
49
47.3
3.929
0.1520
0.0284
58.99
3.13
27
849
14
13.9
1.26
61.1
1.0

5.8
0.4169
0.2018
0.0011
0.0160
79.3
29
24.3
1.815
0.2010
0.0160
57.80
3.66
33
860
13
13.5

105
2.1

104
1.5

Sample ID

357439

357440

357446

357450

357461

357461 (rpt 1)*

357461 (rpt 2)*

Os (ppt, blank corrected)


2 s (blank corrected)
187
Os/188Os (blank corrected)
2SE (in-run error)
2 s (blank corrected)
Relative 2 s
Re (ppt)
187
Re/188Os
2s
187
Os/188Osi
2s
SiO2 (wt. %)
MgO (wt. %)
Ni (ppm)
Sr (ppm)
La (ppm)
Y (ppm)
Yb (ppm)
Sr/Y
La/Y

4.4
0.4024
0.1589
0.0010
0.0333
209
5
5.46
0.508
0.1587
0.0333
63.96
2.2
28
965
8
8.5
0.47
114
0.9

8.2
0.4328
0.2197
0.0010
0.0123
56.1
33
19.5
1.100
0.2190
0.0123
60.37
2.54
48
875
12
11.2

16
0.5131
0.1418
0.0002
0.0041
29.2
137
41.2
1.556
0.1405
0.0042
59.34
5.34
103
887
14
9.6

6.3
0.4196
0.1613
0.0008
0.0118
73.1
149
114
7.869
0.1575
0.0119
63.32
1.9
45
907
12
8.6

71
1.4816
0.1357
0.0002
0.0011
8.20
20
1.36
0.039
0.1357
0.0011
58.02
5.29
124
969
15
11.3

40
0.8959
0.1394
0.0008
0.00175
12.6
61
7.39
0.222
0.1392
0.0018

40
0.8964
0.1395
0.0004
0.00175
12.6

78.0
1.1

92.2
1.5

106
1.4

63.7
1.0

85.7
1.3

Note: Initial Os isotopic compositions were calculated assuming an age of 2 Ma for all samples.

Propagated uncertainty includes blank osmium of 0.5 6 0.2 pg and blank 187Os/188Os of 0.221 6 0.051.
*A duplicate preparation of sample 357461 was made for negative ion thermal ionization mass spectrometric analysis. The duplicate was analyzed twice with filament
currents of 965 mA and 995 mA for repeats 1 and 2, respectively.

The samples analyzed are intermediate


rocks with Sr/Y between 28.6 and 114 (Table
1) and La concentrations of 520 ppm. Os
concentrations range from 2.7 to 71 ppt (Table
1; Figs. 2A, 2B). Re concentrations range
from 4 to 149 ppt. Of the samples, 11 have
187Os/188Os ratios between 0.136 and 0.25,
within the range of present-day mid-oceanicridge basalts (MORBs), oceanic-island basalts
(OIBs), and island-arc lavas. Two samples
have significantly elevated 187Os/188Os ratios
(0.41 and 1.69) (Fig. 2C).
DISCUSSION
The hypothesis that adakites form by slab
melting is based on an apparent association of
adakites with young (,25 Ma), and therefore
hot, oceanic crust (Defant and Drummond,
1990). Although the Eocene Philippine Sea
crust is in theory not conducive to melting,
Sajona et al. (1993) suggested that during the
initiation of subduction the leading slab edge,
owing to its greater surface area, is more efficiently heated to its solidus (Peacock, 1990)
and mechanically ablated by the surrounding
958

mantle. This hypothesis assumes that the geochemical characteristics require slab melting
rather than relying upon any definitive analysis of the thermal-tectonic situation.
Osmium concentrations in the Mindanao
adakites are similar to those reported in eclogites (Fig. 2A) (Alves et al., 1999, 2002;
Woodland et al., 2002; Becker, 2000; Borg et
al., 2000; Ruiz et al., 1999; Pearson et al.,
1995). Because of the compatibility of Os during partial melting, lower Os concentrations
are expected in the partial melts of eclogites
than in the eclogites, especially at low degrees
of melting when sulfides are residual phases.
The correspondence between Os concentrations of adakites and those of other mantlederived melts of similar MgO contents obviates the need for a major crustal source.
Moreover, the lack of correlation between Sr/
Y and 187Os/188Os (Fig. 2B) indicates that the
Os is dominated by a peridotite source
component.
Submarine lavas typically have higher Re/
Os ratios in comparison to subaerial lavas,
probably due to Re loss during syneruptive

degassing (Sun et al., 2003; Lassiter, 2003;


Norman et al., 2004). Consequently, MORBs
rapidly evolve to highly radiogenic Os isotope
ratios (Fig. 3). A typical 50 Ma MORB
(equivalent to the slab age beneath eastern
Mindanao), and any melts derived from it,
have age-projected Os isotope ratios in the
range 0.2363.05 (Fig. 2C). All but two of the
Mindanao adakites analyzed in this study are
below this range.
It might be expected that the 187Os/188Os of
adakitic melt migrating through the mantle
wedge would reequilibrate with mantle peridotite. However, several recent studies of pyroxenite veins in orogenic peridotite massifs
(Becker et al., 2004; Dreher and Pearson,
2004; Pearson et al., 2004) have found that
even veins ,1 cm wide maintain a more radiogenic Os isotopic signature than the surrounding peridotite. Pyroxenites in the Beni
Bousera peridotite massif of Morocco, which
demonstrably are cumulates from melts derived from recycled oceanic crust (Pearson et
al., 1993), contain remarkably radiogenic
187Os/188Os ratios (Dreher and Pearson, 2004;
GEOLOGY, December 2005

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Figure 3. Illustration of
Os isotopic evolution
with time. Curves correspond to minimum, average, and maximum 187Re/
188
Os in mid-oceanic-ridge
basalts (MORBs) reported by (Schiano et al.,
1997). If age of subducted
slab is known, and 187Re/
188
Os constrained, 187Os/
188
Os in slab melts can
be predicted. Majority of
Mindanao data are below minimum 187Re/188Os
curve at 50 Ma, as shown
in inset of 187Os/188Os vs.
187
Re/188Os (which excludes one sample with
187
Os/188Os > 1; cf. Fig.
2B). Shaded box in inset represents range of expected 187Os/188Os values for melts derived
from 50 Ma MORBs with 187Re/188Os values equal to or greater than minimum of 125 reported
by Schiano et al. (1997).

Figure 2. A: Os vs. Re in Mindanao adakites.


B: 187Os/188Os vs. Sr/Y. Values for crust and
mantle are from Rollinson (1993) and Shirey
and Walker (1998). Values for eclogite and
pluton melt fields from batch melting calculations using partition coefficients (Rollinson, 1993) and average 187Os/188Os (Shirey and Walker, 1998). Phase assemblages
used in calculations were eclogites: 70% clinopyroxene (cpx), 30% garnet (grt); pluton:
40% plagioclase 37% cpx, 19% grt, 4% magnesium (mag). MORBmid-oceanic-ridge
basalt. OIBoceanic-island basalt. C: 187Os/
188
Os vs. 1/188Os. Data for fields in A and C
are from Alves et al. (2002), Becker (2000),
Pearson et al. (1995), Ruiz et al. (1999), Schiano et al. (1997, 2001), and Woodland et al.
(2002).

Pearson et al., 2004), in spite of subchondritic


Os isotopic signatures in the peridotite host.
Becker et al. (2004) found similar results in
the Bohemian massif of southern Austria.
These observations highlight the ability of
slab-derived radiogenic Os isotopic signatures
to traverse the mantle wedge without being
entirely reset by mantle buffering. Thus, if the
Mindanao adakites were formed predominantGEOLOGY, December 2005

ly by slab melting, a slab Os isotopic signatures should be evident in the lavas, in the
same way that the signature of recycled oceanic crust is evident in OIB lavas (e.g., Hauri,
2002).
The unradiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios place
important constraints on adakite petrogenesis
in Mindanao. If a basaltic source is involved
in magma genesis, the Os isotopic signatures
require that the source be either very young
or strongly depleted in Re, so that little radiogenic Os forms over time. The slab beneath
Mindanao is unlikely to have either of these
characteristics (ca. 50 Ma; Re/Os 263244).
Dehydration and metamorphism might reduce
the Re concentration and thus the Re/Os ratio
in a subducted slab (e.g., Becker, 2000). However, such processes would occur only a short
time before adakite genesis, by which time a
radiogenic 187Os/188Os signature should already have been established in the downgoing
slab.
That the 187Os/188Os of the Mindanao adakites are both low and uncorrelated with either
lithophile elements or Sr/Y indicates that the
Os was extracted from the mantle recently. If
Os is a proxy for other chalcophile metals
(e.g., Mathur et al., 2000; McInnes et al.,
1999), our data are inconsistent with the recycling of hydrothermal Au and Cu sulfides
from the subducted slab as a source of Cu-Au
mineralization in the Surigao Peninsula. However, because Au is likely to be more mobile
in hydrothermal fluids than Os (e.g., McInnes
et al., 1999), it is possible that the Cu and Au
in the mineral deposits in the Surigao Peninsula are derived from the Philippine crust,
rather than the magma. In this case the hydrothermal system would only have to concentrate metals already dispersed in the crustal
rock. Hydrothermal systems are not unique to
adakites, however, and given the apparent association of large Cu-Au porphyry deposits

with adakitic rocks worldwide (Thieblemont


et al., 1997), this possibility is unlikely. If the
metals originated in the magma rather than the
surrounding crust, it appears they are mantle
derived (e.g., McInnes et al., 1999).
The Mindanao adakites bear the hallmarks
of typical subduction-related andesites, including enrichments of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) relative to high field strength
elements and light rare earth elements and
negative Nb and Ta anomalies (Sajona et al.,
1993). The likelihood of a peridotite source
component thus requires explanation of the
anomalous Sr/Y and HREE characteristics.
One possibility is fractional crystallization of
a mantle-derived magma within the garnet stability field. Calculations made using the thermodynamic modeling program MELTS (Ghiroso and Sack, 1995) indicate minimum
pressures of 56 kbar (;1518 km depth) for
garnet stability in a crystallizing basalt. These
pressures correspond to estimates of crustal
thickness in the Mindanao area (Pubellier et
al., 1999; Sajona et al., 1993). Crystallization
of mantle-derived basalts emplaced in the
crust at this or greater pressure should generate residual liquids depleted in Y and HREEs.
Mixing between residual liquids and basalt
more recently derived from the mantle could
generate elemental and isotopic characteristics
of the adakitic magmas. The high Sr/Y signature could also result from interaction of
new peridotite-derived basalt with recently underplated, garnet-bearing mafic plutons in the
lower crust (Fig. 2B) (Atherton and Petford,
1993). However, mixing of slab-derived and
mantle-derived melts in proportions necessary
to satisfy the isotopic and lithophile element
compositions of the Mindanao adakites would
lead to Os concentrations that are higher than
observed in the samples.
Because adakitic magmas are not ubiquitous in subduction zones, basalt crystallization
959

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in a garnet stability field at select places and
for a finite period requires explanation. One
possibility arises from the association of adakite magmatism with the onset of subduction at
Mindanao: Early magma batches would be
forging new, relatively cool pathways to the
surface and thus would be more susceptible to
freezing en route because of the large temperature contrast between magma and wall rock,
as well as the longer time probably required
to forge new melt channels. A similar argument could be applied in arcs with low melt
production rates, such as the Austral volcanic
zone of southern Chile and the western Aleutians. Although nothing constrains these processes to operate only in arc settings, the presence of adakitic rocks in Tibet (Chung et al.,
2003; Wang et al., 2005) indicates that such a
constraint may be unnecessary.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was supported by a Royal Society
USA Research Fellowship to Dreher. We thank
James Day for Os blank determination.
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Manuscript received 31 March 2005
Revised manuscript received 15 August 2005
Manuscript accepted 17 August 2005
Printed in USA
GEOLOGY, December 2005