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BIOMOLEKUL

BIOCHEMISTRY
Definition:
the study of the chemistry of life

The basic goal of the science of biochemistry is to


determine how the collections of inanimate
molecules that constitute living organisms interact
with each other to maintain and perpetuate life.
Lenhinger, Principles of Biochemistry

BIOCHEMISTRY
Focus:
1. Biological Structures
Interaction, organization and coordination of biomolecules
Chemical and 3D structures of biomolecules
Synthesis and degradation of biomolecules
2. Metabolism
Energy production, utilization and conservation

anabolism vs catabolism
3. Genetic Information
Transmission, expression and storage of genetic information

Biology and Chemistry


Background
Biology
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
Organelle Functions

Chemistry
Bonds

Biomolekul :
Senyawa2 kimia yg secara alami hanya dite-

mukan dlm tubuh organisme atau sisa organisme setelah mati

Atom penyusun biomolekul : C,H,O,N,S,P

Pembagian Biomolekul :
1. Biomolekul sederhana

* Monosakarida
* Asam amino
* Asam lemak
* Asam Nukleat

2. Makromolekul :
* Polisakarida
* Polipeptida
* Lemak/ Lipid

* Polinukleotida

ORGANISME : tersusun dr senyawa organik &


inorganik

ORGANIK : - protein
- karbohidrat
- lipid
- asam nukleat : DNA, RNA
INORGANIK : * asam
* basa
* garam

* H2O

MAKROMOLEKUL KEBANYAKAN MERUPAKAN


POLIMER
Contoh : Protein

rangkaian asam amino

Polisakarida

rangkaian monosakarida

monomer
hidrolisis

sintesis

H2O
H2O

polimer

SINTESIS :
ikatan yg menghubungkan 2 unit molekul
terbentuk dgn. lepasnya H+ dr 1 molekul
penyusun dan OH- dr molekul berikutnya
terbentuk H2O

HIDROLISIS :
putusnya ikatan antar unit molekul
molekul H2O

masuknya

BIOMOLEKUL dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu :


1. STRUKTURAL : penyusun jaringan/tubuh
organisme
Contoh : kolagen, keratin

2. FUNGSIONAL : untuk melaksanakan fungsi

fungsi kehidupan
Contoh : enzim, hormon, DNA, RNA, ATP

KARBOHIDRAT
1. Monosakarida = gula sederhana
CnH2nOn
ALDOSA

KETOSA

C3 Triosa

Gliserosa

Dihidroksiaseton

C4 Tetrosa

Eritrosa

Eritrolusa

C5 Pentosa

Ribosa

Ribulosa

C6 Heksosa

Glukosa

Fruktosa

Monosakarida

Disakarida

2. Disakarida ( Cn(H2O)n-1
* Sukrosa : Glukosa + Fruktosa

* Laktosa : Glukosa + Galaktosa


* Maltosa : Glukosa + Glukosa
3. Oligosakarida : 2-6 monosakarida
4. Polisakarida : >> monosakarida
Contoh : tepung
dekstrin
glikogen

selulosa

polimer glukosa

Tepung ( Amilum )
* rantai lurus : ikatan (1-4) glikosidik

* sedikit rantai cabang : ikatan (1-6) gliko


sidik
Glikogen : - strukturnya sama dgn amilum
- rantai cabang lebih banyak
Sellulosa :
* tidak dapat dicerna (pd mamalia, manusia)
* tidak bercabang

* ikatan (1-4) glikosidik

Amilosa

Amilopektin
Struktur Amilum

Ikatan 1,6 Glikosidik


Struktur Glikogen

Sellulosa

Perbedaan Ik. 1,4 dgn Ik. 1,4 Glikosidik

PROTEIN
* tersusun dari asam amino

asam amino dasar

untuk menyusun protein : 20


* dari 20 asam amino dasar, separuhnya tidak

dapat disintesis di dalam tubuh hewan & manusia


shg. hrs diperoleh dr makanan
essensial
H
R-C-COONH3+

asam amino

ASAM AMINO PENYUSUN PROTEIN


Essensial

Non essensial

Arginin

Alanin

Histidin

Aspartat

Isoleusin

Asparagin

Leusin

Sistein

Metionin

Glutamat

Fenilalanin

Glutamin

Threonin

Serin

Triptofan

Tirosin

Valin

Prolin

LIPID
* sekelompok senyawa heterogen yg berhubungan dgn asam lemak, sifatnya :

1. relatif tidak larut dlm air


2. larut dlm pelarut non polar : eter, kloroform,
benzen
Macam2 lipid :
1. Lemak netral : TG = Triasilgliserol

Contoh : mentega/margarin, minyak goreng


Jaringan lemak terutama t.d. : T.G.
2. Fosfolipid
3. Kolesterol & steroid

Lipid individual

tidak termasuk makromolekul

1. Triasilgliserol (TG)

2. Kolesterol
3. Fosfolipid
Kandungan energi : tinggi

Sumber asam lemak essensial

Sumber vitamin yg larut dlm lemak : A,D,E,K

ASAM LEMAK : asam monokarboksilat


* rantai pendek ( atom C < 6 )
* rantai medium ( atom C 8 14 )

* rantai panjang ( atom C > 14 )


Secara biologis yg banyak biasanya : asam lemak
rantai lurus, jumlah atom C genap ( 16-20)
Pemberian nama :
* gugus COOH diberi nomor 1

atau

* gugus COOH tanpa simbol, atom C disebelahnya :

, dstnya

Berdasarkan ikatan rangkap, asam lemak :


1. Asam lemak jenuh ( saturated )
- tidak ada ikatan rangkap
- mis. Asam palmitat
Asam stearat

C16
C18

- akhiran : + anoat (-anoic)


- jika rantainya panjang, p.u. bersifat padat pd suhu

kamar
- Asam palmitat

C16 (C15H31COOH) /

CH3(CH2)14COOH = asam heksadekanoat =


hexadecanoic acid

ASAM LEMAK TAK JENUH ( UNSATURATED )


* 1 ikatan rangkap

* akhiran : -enoat ( enoic )


* yg alami : umumnya berbentuk Cis (sis)
cair pd suhu kamar
* asam lemak tak jenuh banyak terdapat pd
minyak tumbuhan ( kec. Minyak kelapa yg
banyak mengandung asam lemak jenuh )

TG ( TRIASILGLISEROL )
* t.d Gliserol dan asam lemak

dalam sel

p.u. jumlah atom C : 16/18 per molekul


asam lemak
O
O

CH2-O-C-R1

R2-C-O-C

CH2-O-C-R3
* Sifat T.G. t.u. ditentukan oleh asam lemak yg

dikandungnya

PURIN & PIRIMIDIN


* Senyawa heterosiklik yg mengandung N atau

disebut BASA N : Basa purin : Adenin (A)


Guanin (G)
Basa pirimidin : Timin (T)
Sitosin (C)
Urasil (U)
* Nukleosida = Basa N + gula
* Nukleotida = Basa N + gula + fosfat

= nukleosida + fosfat

Basa

Ribonukleosida

RiboNukleotida

A=Adenin

Adenosin

Adenilat = AMP

G=Guanin

Guanosin

Guanilat = GMP

U=Urasil

Uridin

Uridilat = UMP

C=Sitosin

Sitidin

Sitidilat = CMP

Basa

Deoksiribonukleosida

Deoksiribonukleotida

Deoksiadenosin

Deoksiadenilat

Deoksiguanosin

Deoksiguanilat

T=timin

Deoksitimidin

Deoksitimidilat

Deoksisitidin

Deoksisitidilat

A----T

G-----C

PERANAN NUKLEOTIDA :

1. Bahan baku DNA & RNA (polinukleotida)


2. ATP

bentuk energi yg utama

3. Nukleotida adenin merupakan komponen 3


koenzim utama : NAD , FAD , KoA
4. Nukleotida sbg regulator metabolik
Mis. cAMP ( mediator kerja bbrp hormon )
ATP ( mengubah aktivitas sejumlah enzim dgn

modifikasi kovalen )

Coenzymes (vitamines)

Amino acids
carbohydrate

hormones
nucleotides

Amino acids
lipids

22nd edition designed by Dr. Donald E. Nicholson

metabolism is categorized into


two types
Catabolism (biodegradation): larger
molecules (nutrients and cell
constituents) are broken down (often via
exergonic reactions) to salvage (reuse)
their components or/and to generate
energy.
Anabolism (biosynthesis): The generation
of biomolecules from simpler components
(often via endergonic reactions).

(Fuels)

Exergonic Oxidation
Biodegradation

Output of energy

Simpler
Metabolites

Complex
Metabolites

Input of energy

Endergonic Reduction
Biosynthesis

Major Roles of Metabolism


Extract energy and reducing power from the
environment (photosynthesis and oxidative
degradation of nutrients).
Generation (interconversion) of all the
biomolecules for a living organism.

Thus comes the term


Dynamic Biochemistry

(Fuels)

The role of Metabolism


Extract energy and reducing power

ATP: Energy currency


Also for mobility,
transport of nutrients
and so on.

Generate all biomolecules

Classification of organisms based


on trophic (feed) strategies
Autotrophssynthesize all cellular
components from simple inorganic
molecules (e.g, H2O, CO2, NH3, H2S).
HeterotrophsDerive energy from
oxidation of organic compounds (made by
autotrophs).

Metabolism in various living


organisms allow carbon, oxygen
and nitrogen to be cycled in the
biosphere.
The cycling of matter is driven by
the flow of energy in one direction
through the biosphere!

Metabolism allows the cycling of C/O


and the flow of energy in the biosphere

glucose

Producers

Consumers

H2O

Metabolism also
allows the cycling
of N in the biosphere

(NH4+)

NO3NO2-

General Features of Metabolism


Occurs in specific cellular (tissue and organ) locations as a
series of enzyme-catalyzed linear, branched or circular
reactions, or pathways.
Highly coupled and interconnected (Every road leads to
Rome).
Highly regulated (often reciprocally) to achieve the best
economy (Balanced supply and demand).
The number of reactions is large (over 1000), however, the
number of types of reactions is relatively small (what
happens in animal respiration happens in plant
photosynthesis).
Well conserved during evolution: reflecting the unity of the
life phenomena (what happens in bacteria happens in

General approaches for


studying metabolism
Purification and Chemical characterization of
metabolites;
Tracing the fates of certain biomolecules in
living subjects (via such chemical labels as
isotopes).
Isolation of genetic mutants having genetic
defects.
Identification and characterization of enzymes.

Issues for current and future


investigation on metabolism
Continue to unveil new pathways and new regulation strategies of
metabolism.
Studies on enzymes.
Observation of metabolic processes in intact living organisms (e.g., in
the brains under various states)
Metabolism differences among various organisms or various states of
the same organism (for diagnosing and treating such diseases as
cancer, infections of bacteria or viruses, obesity, etc; to understand
aging).
Appropriate and inappropriate nutrition.
Biotechnological application of knowledge learned from metabolic
studies in medicine, agriculture and industry.

Nobel Prizes in revealing the


Metabolism of living matter (1)
1907, Eduard Buchner: cell-free fermentation.
1922, Archibald B. Hill: production of heat in the muscle?; Otto
Meyerhof: fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen
and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle.
1923, Frederick Grant Banting, John James Richard Macleod:
discovery of insulin.
1929, Arthur Harden, Hand von Euler-Chelpin: fermentation of
sugar and fermentative enzymes.
1929, Christiaan Eijkman: antineuritic vitamin; Sir Frederick
Gowland Hopkins: growth-stimulating vitamins.
1931, Otto Heinrich Warburg: nature and mode of action of the
respiratory enzyme.

Nobel Prizes in revealing the


Metabolism of living matter (2)
1934, George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot, William Parry
Murphy: liver therapy in cases of anaemia.
1937, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi: biological combustion, vitamin C and
the catalysis of fumaric acid.
1943, Henrik Carl Peter Dam: discovery of vitamin K; Edward
Adelbert Doisy: chemical nature of vitamin K.
1947, Carl Cori and Gerty Cori: catalytic conversion of glycogen;
Bernardo Houssay: hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the
metabolism of sugar.
1950, Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein,Philip Showalter
Hench: hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and
biological effects.
1953, Hans Krebs: citric acid cycle; Fritz Lipmann: role of coenzyme A in metabolism.

1955, Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell: nature and mode of action of


oxidation enzymes.

Nobel Prizes in revealing the


Metabolism of living matter (3)
1961, Melvin Calvin: carbon dioxide assimilation in plants.
1964, Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen: cholesterol and fatty acid
metabolism.
1971, Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.: mechanisms of the action of
hormones.
1978, Peter Mitchell: chemiosmotic theory of biological energy
transfer.
1982, Sune K. Bergstrm, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane:
prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.
1985. Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein: regulation of
cholesterol metabolism.

Nobel Prizes in revealing the


Metabolism of living matter (4)
1988, Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, George H.
Hitchings: principles for drug treatment.
1988, Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut
Michel: photosynthetic reaction centre.
1992, Edmond H. FischerEdwin G. Krebs: reversible
protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory
mechanism.
1994, Alfred G. GilmanMartin Rodbell: G-proteins and
the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells.

1997, Paul D. Boyer, John E .Walker: synthesis of ATP.


1998, Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid
Murad: nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the
cardiovascular system.