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Name: ____________________________

Math 251 - LaRue Spring 2014

Course Outline & Final Exam Guide


1.
DISCLAIMER
The final exam may include things not specifically listed in this document.
The final exam will not include everything in this document.
This document is intended to remind you of topics that have been covered in class to
guide you in studying for the exam.
As a general rule, I am more interested in testing whether you understand concepts and
ideas than whether you can memorize a long list of formulas and equations, so be sure to
focus on understanding, not strictly memorizing.
Topics
1. Linear Algebra
2. Chapter 10 - Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
3. Chapter 11 - Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
4. Chapter 12 - Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Material
1. YOU ABSOLUTELY MUST KNOW THE VALUES OF THE TRIG FUNCTIONS FOR ANY

ANGLE THAT IS A MULTIPLE OF THE FOLLOWING ANGLES: = 0, , , , ,
6 4 3 2
2. Linear Algebra
Be able to add, substract and multiply matrices
Know the following definitions and how to find them: transpose, determinant,
cofactor matrix, adjoint matrix
Be able to find the inverse of a matrix (both ways)
Be able to use the inverse of a matrix A to solve the equation AX = B
Know how to set up and solve systems of equations using matrices
Know what it means for vectors to be linearly independent and linearly dependent
Be able to determine if a set of vectors is linearly independent or linearly dependent
If a set of vectors is linearly dependent, be able to express one vector in terms of the others
Know the following definitions: span, linear combination, basis
Be able to determine if one vector is in the span of a set of other vectors
2
3
4
5
Know the standard basis vectors for , , , , etc
*Although you should have some basic understanding of what a vector space is, you do not need to
know the precise definition of a vector space. You also do not need to know the definition of a group or
a field.*

Name: ________________________

3. 3D Graphing
Plot points
Label axes
Find the distance between two points
Find the equation of a sphere
4. Vectors
Use the endpoints of a vector to give the vector in terms of its components
Vector addition - geometrically and algebraically
Sketch a given vector
Calculate the magnitude of a vector
Unit Vectors
Multiply a scalar by a vector
Standard basis vectors
Find the components of a vector that is given in terms of an angle and vice versa
5. Dot Product
Calculate the dot product using componenets (standard definition)
Know the following equation and where it comes from: a b = |a| || b|| cos
Calculate the dot product using the above equation
Use the above equation to find the angle between two vectors
Know how to use the dot product to determine whether two vectors are orthogonal (and why this
works)
Know what comp a
b and proj a
b represent, how to calculate them, and how to derive the
equations used for the calculation
6. Cross Product
Calculate the cross product using components (standard definition)
Be able to determine the direction of the cross product of two vectors that are drawn on a
page (into or out of the page)
Know the geometrical definition of the cross product and the connection between the cross
product and the parallelogram formed by the two vectors
Know the following equation and where it comes from: || a
b || = |a| ||
b || sin
Calculate the cross product using the above equation
Use the above equation to calculate the angle betwen two vectors
Know how to use the cross product to determine whether two vectors are parallel (and why this
works)
Use the cross product to find a vector that is orthogonal to two other vectors

Name: ________________________

7. Equations of Lines and Planes


Be able the give the equation of a line in any of the three forms (vector, parametric, symmetric)
Know how to extract important information from the equation of a line (find a point on the
line, find a vector parallel to the line)
Determine if two lines are parallel, intersecting, or skew
Be able to give the equation of a plane in any of the three forms (vector, scalar, linear)
Be able to extract important information from the equation of a line (find a point in the plane,
find a vector that is perpendicular to the plane, find a vector that is in the plane)
Be able to get a general idea of where/how a plane is oriented by considering intercepts
Determine if two planes are parallel, perpendicular, or neither
Determine the angle between two planes (if they are not parallel)
If two planes intersect, be able to find the equation of the line of intersection
Find equations of lines and planes given all sorts of information (see homework)
8. Cylinders & Quadric Surfaces
Be able to use traces to determine the shape, orientation and name of a surface given the
equation
Be able to give the equation of a surface given a description of it (ex: give the equation of a
cylinder of radius 2 that extends infinitely along the y-axis)
9. Vector Functions
Be able to take the limit, derivative or integral of a given vector function
For simple vector functions, be able to sketch a space curve using the parametric equations
(see examples 3 & 4 on pg. 560)
Given a vector function
r ( t) , be able to sketch
r ( a ) and
r ( a ) when t = a

Name: ________________________

10. Arc Length and Curvature


b

Understand where the arc length formula comes from (no need to memorize): L =

|| r (t) || dt
a

Understand how the arc length function comes from the above equation: s ( t) =

|| r (u) || du
a

ds | |
=
r ( t) |
dt |
Be able to use the above facts to reparametrize a curve so that it is given with respect to arc
length instead of with respect to time (example 2 pg. 571 - see my notes about this too
as the book doesnt have many details - pg. 11 & 12 in Notes 10-7 & 10-8)
Understand why we need to do this in order to discuss curvature. In other words, why do we want

dT
dT
to think of
for curvature instead of
?
ds
dt
Know the following equations and what they represent geometrically. These are the only
equations you need to have memorized from this section.
Be able to use the above to see that

| T ( t) |
| | |
|
dT
|=
(t) = |
| ds | |
|
| | r ( t) ||

r ' ( t)
( t) =
T
|
|
| r ( t) |

( t)
T

N ( t) =
|
|
| T ( t) |

B ( t) =
T ( t)
N ( t)

Given appropriate information, be able to sketch the unit tangent and normal vectors at a given
time and describe the direction of the unit binormal vector
Know why the unit tangent, normal and binormal vectors are unit vectors
11. Motion in Space: Velocity and Acceleration
Given appropriate information, be able to find the position, velocity and acceleration vector
functions either by taking the derivative or the antiderivative
Be able to use these vector functions to answer questions about the motion of an object
12. Functions of Several Variables
Give the domain and/or range of a function of multiple variables
Sketch/describe the level curves or level surfaces of a function of multiple variables
Show that the limit of a function of multiple variables does not exist
Show that a function of multiple variables is discontinuous at a point
Find the partial derivatives of functions (with and without chain rule)
Find the equation of a tangent plane to a function at a given point
Use this tangent plane for linear approximation
13. Directional Derivatives and the Gradient Vector
Know what the directional derivative is and what information it gives us
Be able to calculate the directional derivative
Know what the gradient vector is and what information it gives us
Know how the find the maximum rate of change of a function at a given point
Know all of the notation that is associated with the above information

Name: ________________________

14. Maximum and Minimum Values


Find critical points of a function with multiple variables
Use the second derivative test to determine if there is a max, min or saddle point
at a critical point
Find absolute maximum and minimums of functions of multiple variables
Be able to solve word problems that ask for the absolute maximum or minimum value(s)
15. Double and Triple Integrals
Understand the double Riemann Sum and be able to use it to approximate a double integral
Be able to set up and evaluate double integrals in both rectangular and polar coordinates with
bounds that are constants and/or functions
Be able to set up and evaluate triple integrals in rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinates
with bounds that are constants and functions
Be able to recognize what a given double or triple integral is calculating
(volume of a cone, sphere, etc.)
Be able to convert from rectangular to polar coordinates and vice versa
Be able to convert between rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinates
16. I will give you the equations for spherical coordinates and the double angle formulas
sin ( 2 ) = 2 sin cos
2
1 1
cos = + cos ( 2 )
2 2
2
1 1
sin = cos ( 2 )
2 2