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Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1

MB0022-Management Process and Organizational Behavior

Assignment Set - 1

Q.1 “Today managers need to perform various functions”: Elaborate the


statement
Answer: Managers create and maintain an internal environment, commonly called the
organization, so that others can work efficiently in it. A manager’s job consists of
planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the resources of the organization. These
resources include people, jobs or positions, technology, facilities and equipment,
materials and supplies, information, and money. Managers work in a dynamic
environment and must anticipate and adapt to challenges.
The manager looks after more than one function. Therefore, managerial practices used
successfully in big firms cannot be blindly used in small-scale units. Basic managerial
functions in large and small business are the same. But the manner in which these
functions should be carried out can be different.

Managing starts with planning. A manager with a definite and well defined plan has
more chances of success than another who tries to start an enterprise without planning.
According to Killen” planning is the process of deciding in advance what is to be
done‚who is to do it‚how it is to be done and when it is to be done’’. Planning involves
thinking and decision and is, therefore, called a logical process. Planning is a
continuous process, as changes in plans have to be made from time to time to take care
of changing environment. Many a times, a vague approach is adapted to planning in a
small firm. There is a false impression that small firms are uncomplicated and do not
require planning. The small-scale manager does not want to engage his employees in
the planning process due to the desire to keep the secrets with him. Personal
accountability for results, lack of expert staff and not having planning skills are other
major obstacles to planning in small firms. The owner or manager of a small enterprise
is too involved in day-to-day operation to try planning before com ending actual
operation. But they need pre-planning most because small firms have limited resources
to conquer their upcoming problem and cannot afford to finance losses that can take
place while adjusting to unanticipated happenings/changes.
A manager needs an enterprise, which can achieve the business objectives. During the
function of organizing he leads human resources to successful completion of the
project, arranging the functions and activities into different levels in the organization
structure, thus facilitating the assignments of personnel according to their capabilities,
skills and motivation.
According to Peter F. Drucker the process of organizing consists of three steps -
activities analysis, decisions analysis and relation analysis.

(i). Activities Analysis: It consists of the following:


a) Determining the main functions for achieving the objectives of the firm.
b) Various sub-functions in each major function.
c) Amount of work in each major function and its sub-function.
d) The position required performing the activities.
(ii) Decisions Analysis: It consists of the following:
a) Choosing the basis of departmentalization so that functions could be grouped into
specialized units. Generally, functional departmentation is appropriate for small-scale
units. Customers, Products and territories are other important base of
departmentalization.
b) Choosing the type of organization structure so that departments are incorporated into
a formal structure.
(iii) Relations Analysis: The authority, responsibility and accountability of every position
and its relationship with other positions are clearly defined. Various positions are
manned with persons having the necessary education, training, experience and other
qualifications.
To obtain best possible benefit from each employee it is necessary to delegate
functions as far down in the organization as possible. Owners of small firms are often

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reluctant to delegating authority to their employees even though they expect them to do
all functions allocated to them that require authority. For effective completion of tasks, it
is necessary that responsibility accompany the necessary authority.

DIRECTING
In directing a manager has to supervise, guide, lead and motivate people so that they
can achieve set targets of performance. In the process of directing his subordinates, a
manager ensures that the employees fulfill their tasks according to the set plans.
Directing is the executive function of management because it is concerned with the
execution of plan and policies. Directing commences organized action and sets the
whole organizational machinery into action. It is, therefore, the life giving function of an
organization. This is the area where the mastery of the art and science of management
is put to test. A manager’s leadership style determines the work atmosphere and culture
of the organization. Above all, he must motivate employees by setting a good example,
setting practical targets of performance and providing satisfactory monetary and non-
monetary benefits.

In directing a manager has to perform the following tasks:


(a) Issuing orders and instructions
(b) Supervising workers
(c) Motivating i.e. inspiring to work efficiently for set objectives
(d) Communicating with employees regarding plans and their implementation.
(e) Leadership or influencing the actions or employees

CONTROLLING
Controlling is the process of ensuring that the organization is moving in the desired
direction and that progress is being made to wards the achievement of goals.
The answer to a profitable organization is the skill of the owner or manager to control
operations. He has to establish standards of performance, procedures, goals and
budgets. With these guides, he supervises job progress, workers performance and the
financial condition of the business. The controlling function of the owner manager

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includes:
Setting of standards: - Control presumes the existence of standards against which
actual results are to be evaluated. Standards can not control on their own but they are
the targets against which actual performance can be measured. Therefore they should
be set clearly and accurately. They should be precise, adequate, and feasible.
Measurement of actual performance: - The actual performance is measured and
evaluated in comparison with the set standards. Preferably measurement should be
such that variation may be identified in advance of occurrence and prevented by
suitable action. Where work involved is of quantitative nature measurement of
performance is not difficult. But when the work is not quantifiable measurement
becomes difficult. Periodical reports test checks and audits are helpful in precise
measurement of performance Analysis of variances: - Comparison of actual
performance with standards will reveal variation. Variations are analysed to identify their
cause and their impact on the organization. Corrective action can be possible only
where the causes of the problem spots have been identified. Clarification may be called
for sudden variation. Taking corrective action: - Control means action on the basis of
measurement and evaluation of results. Wherever possible self- determining device
should be used for bringing back actual results in line with the standards. Standards
should be revised wherever necessary. Other steps to prevent deviations can be re-
organization, improvements in staffing and directions etc. The real meaning of control
lies in the commencement and follow-up of remedial action. At this stages control unites
with planning.

TIME MANAGEMENT
In managing an enterprise time is of essence especially for a small scale manager who
has to perform the dual role of an manager as well as of a manager in his business. The
manager can bring substantial changes in his firm’s performance by managing time
more efficiently. Management of time involves the following steps.
(i) Time Analysis: First of all a systematic study is made to find out the proportion of total
time spent by the manager and his workers on different activities.
(ii) Finding Critical Activities: Critical or vital activities should receive greater time.

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Activities taking more than the justified time need to be identified. Irrelevant or time
wasting activities should be eliminated.
(iii) Time Allocation: A time schedule should be prepared. Proper time should be
allocated to each activity. The tasks one wants to do but for which he does not have
time should be noted.
(iv) Stick to Time Schedule: The most difficult step in time management is to complete
each activity within the schedule time period. For this purpose, it is necessary to
delegate task to subordinates, to organize every workday and to continuously evaluate
the time management system.
Essentially, management implies distinct processes of Planning, Organizing, Directing,
and Controlling resources both human and material, to achieve an identified objective.

Q.2 “Skills are the tool for performance”-Explain various management skills.

Answer: Management in all business and human organization activity is simply the act
of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Management
comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an
organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of
accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of
human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.
Basic Skills of management
The main functions of the management are: planning, organizing, controlling, leading.
Planning:
Specifying goals to be achieved and preparing how to meet them
Analyzing current situation, gathering and analyzing information’s
Organizing:
Devising and allocating roles for respective position within the manager’s scope of work
Obtaining and allocating resources
Delegation assigning duties and responsibility to subordinates for results
Defining the roles and authority of personnel
Leading:

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Motivating people to high performance, directing and communicating with people
Assisting and inspire then toward achieving team and organizational goals
Controlling:
Set and monitor performance the standard of progress toward goals
Identifying performance problems by comparing data against standards
Control tools such as scheduling, charting techniques, standard operating procedures
(SOP), budgeting, disciplinary actions etc.
Then besides those functions are important there have three management skills are
important also which are technical, human, and conceptual skills.
Technical skills:
Ability to understand and use the techniques, knowledge and tools to equipment of a
specific discipline or department
Human skills:
Interpersonal enable a manager to work effectively through people
Conceptual skills:
Important for top-level managers who must develop long range plans for future
Gave a direction to a managers to determine the organization as unified whole and
understand each part of the overall organization interacts wither other department or
parts.

Q.3 What is negotiation? Explain the process of negotiation.


Answer: Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an
agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, or
to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary method of alternative
dispute resolution.
Negotiation occurs in business, non-profit organizations, government branches, legal
proceedings, among nations and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce,
parenting, and everyday life. The study of the subject is called negotiation theory.
Professional negotiators are often specialized, such as union negotiators, leverage
buyout negotiators, peace negotiators, hostage negotiators, or may work under other
titles, such as diplomats, legislators or brokers. Negotiation typically manifests itself with

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trained negotiator acting on behalf of a particular organization or position. It can be
compared to mediation where a disinterested third party listens to each sides'
arguments and attempts to help craft an agreement between the parties. It is also
related to arbitration, which, as with a legal proceeding, both sides make an argument
as to the merits of their “case”, and then the arbitrator decides the outcome for both
parties.
There are many different ways to segment negotiation to gain a greater understanding
of the essential parts. One view of negotiation involves three basic elements: process,
behavior and substance. The process refers to how the parties negotiate: the context of
the negotiations, the parties to the negotiations, the tactics used by the parties, and the
sequence and stages in which all of these play out. Behavior refers to the relationships
among these parties, the communication between them and the styles they adopt. The
substance refers to what the parties negotiate over: the agenda, the issues (positions
and - more helpfully - interests), the options, and the agreement(s) reached at the end.
Another view of negotiation comprises 4 elements: strategy, process and tools, and
tactics. Strategy comprises the top-level goals - typically including relationship and the
final outcome. Processes and tools include the steps that will be followed and the roles
taken in both preparing for and negotiating with the other parties. Tactics include more
detailed statements and actions and responses to others' statements and actions. Some
add to this persuasion and influence, asserting that these have become integral to
modern day negotiation success, and so should not be omitted.
Skilled negotiators may use a variety of tactics ranging from negotiation hypnosis, to a
straightforward presentation of demands or setting of preconditions to more deceptive
approaches such as cherry picking. Intimidation and salami tactics may also play a part
in swaying the outcome of negotiations.
Another negotiation tactic is bad guy/good guy. Bad guy/good guy tactic is when one
negotiator acts as a bad guy by using anger and threats. The other negotiator acts as a
good guy by being considerate and understanding. The good guy blames the bad guy
for all the difficulties while trying to get concessions and agreement from the opponent
This is a unique combination framework that puts together the best of many other
approaches to negotiation. It is particularly suited to more complex, higher-value and

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slower negotiations.
Prepare: Know what you want. Understand them.
Open: Put your case. Hear theirs.
Argue: Support your case. Expose theirs.
Explore: Seek understanding and possibility.
Signal: Indicate your readiness to work together.
Package: Assemble potential trades.
Close: Reach final agreement.
Sustain: Make sure what is agreed happens.
There are deliberately a larger number of stages in this process as it is designed to
break down important activities during negotiation, particularly towards the end. It is an
easy trap to try to jump to the end with a solution that is inadequate and unacceptable.
Note also that in practice, you may find variations on these, for example there may be
loops back to previous stages, stages overlapping, stages running parallel and even out
of order.
The bottom line is to use what works. This process is intended to help you negotiate,
but do not use it blindly. It is not magic and is not a substitute for thinking. If something
does not seem to be working, try to figure out why and either fix the problem or try
something else. Although there are commonalities across negotiations, each one is
different and the greatest skill is to be able to read the situation in the moment and
adapt as appropriate.

Q.4 Explain Classical Conditioning Theory?

Answer: Classical conditioning is a form of associative learning that was first


demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning
involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance.
The neutral stimulus could be any event that does not result in an overt behavioral
response from the organism under investigation. Pavlov referred to this as a conditioned
stimulus (CS). Conversely, presentation of the significant stimulus necessarily evokes
an innate, often reflexive, response. Pavlov called these the unconditioned stimulus

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(US) and unconditioned response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are
repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism
begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. Pavlov called this the conditioned
response (CR).
Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and
functions that underlie learning and memory include fear conditioning, eye blink
conditioning, and the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis.
Types
Forward conditioning
Diagram representing forward conditioning…

Diagram representing forward conditioning.

The time interval increases from left to right. During forward conditioning the onset of
the CS precedes the onset of the US. Two common forms of forward conditioning are
delay and trace conditioning.
Delay Conditioning
In delay conditioning the CS is presented and is overlapped by the presentation of the
US
Trace conditioning
During trace conditioning the CS and US do not overlap. Instead, the CS is presented, a
period of time is allowed to elapse during which no stimuli are presented, and then the
US is presented. The stimulus free period is called the trace interval. It may also be
called the "conditioning interval"
Simultaneous conditioning
During simultaneous conditioning, the CS and US are presented and terminate at the
same time.

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Backward conditioning
Backward conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus immediately follows an
unconditioned stimulus. Unlike traditional conditioning models, in which the conditioned
stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response tends to be
inhibitory. This is because the conditioned stimulus serves as a signal that the
unconditioned stimulus has ended, rather than a reliable method of predicting the future
occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus.
The onset of the US precedes the onset of the CS. Rather than being a reliable
predictor of an impending US (such as in Forward Conditioning), the CS actually serves
as a signal that the US has ended. As a result, the CR is said to be inhibitory.
Temporal conditioning
The US is presented at regularly timed intervals, and CR acquisition is dependent upon
correct timing of the interval between US presentations. The background, or context,
can serve as the CS in this example.
Unpaired conditioning
The CS and US are not presented together. Usually they are presented as independent
trials that are separated by a variable, or pseudo-random, interval. This procedure is
used to study non-associative behavioral responses, such as sensitization.
CS-alone extinction
The CS is presented in the absence of the US. This procedure is usually done after the
CR has been acquired through Forward conditioning training. Eventually, the CR
frequency is reduced to pre-training levels.

Q.5 How is culture and society responsible to built value system?


Answer: A value system is a set of consistent ethic values (more specifically the
personal and cultural values) and measures used for the purpose of ethical or
ideological integrity. A well-defined value system is a moral code. The values identify
those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider
important; that is, valuable. One or more people can hold a value system. Likewise, a
value system can apply to either one person or many. Groups, societies, or cultures
have values that are largely shared by their members. The values identify those objects,

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conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is,
valuable.
A personal value system is held by and applied to one individual only.
A communal or cultural value system is held by and applied to a
community/group/society. Some communal value systems are reflected in the form of
legal codes or law.
Noting which people receive honor or respect can often identify the values of a society.
Values are related to the norms of a culture, but they are more general and abstract
than norms. Norms are rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify
what should be judged as good or evil. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm,
but it reflects the value of patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are
normative behaviors at a funeral. They reflect the values of respect and support of
friends and family. Different cultures reflect different values. "Over the last three
decades, traditional-age college students have shown an increased interest in personal
well-being and a decreased interest in the welfare of others. Values seemed to have
changed, affecting the beliefs, and attitudes of college students. Members take part in a
culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the
normative values sanctioned in the culture. This reflects an individual's ability to
synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they
belong to. If a group member expresses a value that is in serious conflict with the
group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging
conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of its members. For example,
imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that have been established as
law.

Q.6 Write short notes on


o Locus of control
o Machiavellianism

Answer:
Locus of Control: It is a term in psychology, which refers to a person's belief about

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what causes the good or bad results in his or her life, either in general or in a specific
area such as health or academics. Locus of control refers to the extent to which
individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. Individuals with a high
internal locus of control believe that events result primarily from their own behavior and
actions. Those with a high external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, or
chance primarily determine events. Those with a high internal locus of control have
better control of their behavior, tend to exhibit more political behaviors, and are more
likely to attempt to influence other people than those with a high external locus of
control; they are more likely to assume that their efforts will be successful. They are
more active in seeking information and knowledge concerning their situation.
One's "locus" (Latin for "place" or "location") can either be internal (meaning the person
believes that they control their life) or external (meaning they believe that their
environment, some higher power, or other people control their decisions and their life).
Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism has tremendous influence on modern business
communities, especially in the U.S.A. and European countries. Businessmen today, it is
said, prefer to follow the directions of pragmatism and expediency rather than the
dictates of individual conscience. In principles and practices, Indian management by
and large follows the Western line. Therefore, the question arises whether
Machiavellian influences are perceptibly high on Indian managers. This question is
more relevant in the light of a few surveys conducted on the ethical attitudes of Indian
managers. These identified a clear contrast between their expressed behaviors and
wanted attitudes. The present study on the attitudes of managers from the major cities
of India concludes that Niccolo Machiavelli inspires and influences Indian managers, but
has not become the final determinant in their decision-making.
Machiavellianism is also a term that some social and personality psychologists use to
describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain.
Machiavellianism is one of the three personality traits referred to as the dark triad, along
with narcissism and psychopath. Some psychologists consider Machiavellianism to be
essentially a sub clinical form of psychopath.

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Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1

MB0022-Management Process and Organizational Behavior

Assignment Set - 2

Q.1 “Halo effect and selective perception are the shortcuts in judging others”
Explain.
Answer: The halo effect refers to a cognitive bias whereby the perception of a
particular trait is influenced by the perception of the former traits in a sequence of
interpretations. Edward L. Thorndike was the first to support the halo effect with
empirical research. In a psychology study published in 1920, Thorndike asked
commanding officers to rate their soldiers; Thorndike found high cross-correlation
between all positive and all negative traits. People seem not to think of other individuals
in mixed terms; instead we seem to see each person as roughly good or roughly bad
across all categories of measurement. A study by Solomon Asch suggests that
attractiveness is a central trait, so we presume all the other traits of an attractive person
are just as attractive and sought after. The halo effect is involved in Harold Kelley's
implicit personality theory, where the first traits we recognize in other people influence
our interpretation and perception of later ones because of our expectations. Attractive
people are often judged as having a more desirable personality and more skills than
someone of average appearance. Thus, we see that celebrities are used to endorse
products that they have no actual expertise in evaluating, and with which they may not
even have any prior affiliation. The term is commonly used in human resources
recruitment. It refers to the risk of an interviewer noticing a positive trait in an
interviewee and as a result, paying less attention to their negative traits (or vice versa).
The halo effect has to do with judging or evaluating a person, place, or event by a single
trait or experience. This overall impression can be good or bad but will prejudice our
further involvement with the stimulus. Each of us can remember making a snap

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judgment about someone based on a first impression. Often we try to perceive further
interaction with the individual based on this first impression, regardless of whether it
was positive or negative. If this impression is incorrect, it often takes considerable
pressure to concede this fact and break the halo effect. Examples are plentiful in
business. A plush office convinces us someone is an important person in the
organization and must be taken seriously. A sloppily typed letter by our new secretary
proves to us the individual is going to be an unsatisfactory employee. The halo effect
often shows up most conspicuously on performance appraisals where our overall good
or bad opinion of the workers interferes with our ability to evaluate weaknesses or
strengths accurately on individual job functions.
Selective Perception: Selective perception may refer to any number of cognitive
biases in psychology related to the way expectations affect perception. For instance,
several studies have shown that students who were told they were consuming alcoholic
beverages (which in fact were non-alcoholic) perceived themselves as being "drunk",
exhibited fewer physiological symptoms of social stress, and drove a simulated car
similarly to other subjects who had actually consumed alcohol. The result is somewhat
similar to the placebo effect. In one classic study on this subject related to the hostile
media effect (which is itself an excellent example of selective perception), viewers
watched a filmstrip of a particularly violent Princeton-Dartmouth American football
game. Princeton viewers reported seeing nearly twice as many rule infractions
committed by the Dartmouth team than did Dartmouth viewers. One Dartmouth alumnus
did not see any infractions committed by the Dartmouth side and erroneously assumed
he had been sent only part of the film, sending word requesting the rest. Selective
perception is also an issue for advertisers, as consumers may engage with some ads
and not others based on their pre-existing beliefs about the brand. Seymour Smith, a
prominent advertising researcher, found evidence for selective perception in advertising
research in the early 1960s, and he defined it to be “a procedure by which people let in,
or screen out, advertising material they have an opportunity to see or hear. They do so
because of their attitudes, beliefs, usage preferences and habits, conditioning, etc.”
People who like, buy, or are considering buying a brand are more likely to notice
advertising than are those who are neutral toward the brand. This fact has

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repercussions within the field of advertising research because any post-advertising
analysis that examines the differences in attitudes or buying behavior among those
aware versus those unaware of advertising is flawed unless pre-existing differences are
controlled for. Advertising research methods that utilize a longitudinal design are
arguably better equipped to control for selective perception.
Selective perception is the personal filtering of what we see and hear so as to suit our
own needs. Much of this process is psychological and often unconscious. Have you
ever been accused of only hearing what you want to hear. In fact, that is quite true. We
simply are bombarded with too much stimuli every day to pay equal attention to
everything so we pick and choose according to our own need

Q.2 Explain “Emotional Intelligence”.

Answer: Emotional Intelligence (EI) describes the ability, capacity, skill or, in the case
of the trait EI model, a self-perceived ability, to identify, assesses, and manage the
emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. Different models have been
proposed for the definition of EI and disagreement exists as to how the term should
be used. Despite these disagreements, which are often highly technical, the ability
EI and trait EI models enjoy support in the literature and have successful
applications in different domains. Substantial disagreement exists regarding the
definition of EI, with respect to both terminology and operationalizations. There has
been much confusion regarding the exact meaning of this construct. The definitions
are so varied, and the field is growing so rapidly, that researchers are constantly
amending even their own definitions of the construct.

At the present time, there are three main models of EI:

Ability EI models
Mixed models of EI
Trait EI model

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The ability-based model

Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the
standard criteria for a new intelligence. Following their continuing research, their
initial definition of EI was revised to: "The ability to perceive emotion, integrate
emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions and to regulate emotions to
promote personal growth."
The ability based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one
to make sense have and navigate the social environment. The model proposes that
individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in
their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. This ability is seen to
manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviors. The model proposes that EI includes 4
types of abilities:
Perceiving emotions — the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces, pictures,
voices, and cultural artifacts- including the ability to identify one’s own emotions.
Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it
makes all other processing of emotional information possible.

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Using emotions — the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive
activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The emotionally intelligent person
can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at
hand.
Understanding emotions — the ability to comprehend emotion language and to
appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. For example, understanding
emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between
emotions, and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time.
Managing emotions — the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others.
Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative
ones, and manage them to achieve intended goals.
The ability-based model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and
predictive validity in the workplace. EI is too broadly defined and the definitions are
unstable
One of the arguments against the theoretical soundness of the concept suggests that
the constant changing and broadening of its definition- which has come to
encompass many unrelated elements — had rendered it an unintelligible concept.

Mixed models of EI

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The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of
competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. Goleman's model
outlines four main EI constructs:
Self-awareness — the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while
using gut feelings to guide decisions.
Self-management — involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to
changing circumstances.
Social awareness — the ability to sense, understand, and react to others' emotions
while comprehending social networks.
Relationship management — the ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while
managing conflict.

The Trait EI model

Petrides and colleagues proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based
model and a trait based model of EI. Trait EI is "a constellation of emotion-related
self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality". In lay terms, trait EI
refers to an individual's self-perceptions of their emotional abilities. This definition of
EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is
measured by self report, as opposed to the ability based model which refers to
actual abilities, which have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement. Trait
EI should be investigated within a personality framework. An alternative label for the
same construct is trait emotional self-efficacy.
The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman and Bar-On models discussed
above. The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that
lies outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability. This is an important distinction
in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the
theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it.

Q.3 “A group formation passes through various stages”: Explain the various
stages of group formation.

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Answer: The formation of some groups can be represented as a spiral; other groups
form with sudden movements forward and then have periods with no change. Whatever
variant of formation each group exhibits, they suggest that all groups pass through six
sequential stages of development. These stages may be longer or shorter for each
group, or for individual members of the group, but all groups will need to experience
them. They are forming, storming, norming, performing, mourning and retiring.
The terms are pretty self-explanatory. When a group is forming, participants can feel
anxious not knowing how the group will work or what exactly will be required of them.
Storming, as the word suggests, is when things may get stormy. Conflict can emerge,
individual differences are expressed and the leader's role may be challenged. The value
and the feasibility of the task may also be challenged. After the storm comes the calm of
norming, where the group starts to function harmoniously and where participants co-
operate and mutual support develops. This enables the performing stage to occur
where the work really takes off and the group accepts a structure and method for
achieving the common task. When the group retires or adjourns, much learning
happens through informal chat and feedback about the group performance. Tuckman
and Jenson recognize that when groups dismantle themselves and the loose ends are
all tied up, participants often go through a stage of mourning or grieving.
This model is useful to know, so that when your group appears to be going nowhere or
perhaps members are arguing so much that no work can be started, you understand
that this is normal! Most groups go through these phases. Understanding this pattern
empowers you to work towards moving the group onto the next phase

Activity for individual reflection or as a group discussion following any group activity.
May be used following W1 DGB (Developing Effective Group Behavior Exercise)
Think of a group that you have recently been involved with. Considering each stage of
its development, can you recall any evidence of these stages?
A Forming
· What was the task?
· Did you all share the same expectations of the task?
· Did you all have the same attitude to working in a group?

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· Did you feel any anxiety at the outset of the activity?
B Storming
· Was there any conflict in the group?
· Did you all agree on the means of carrying out the task?
· Did you have a leader and was his/her authority challenged?
· Did any group members withdraw from the group?
C Norming
· Did you move on to agree methods of working?
· Did you have a common goal?
· Did you cooperate with each other?
· Did you work out how to proceed at all? (If not, you were probably still storming.)
D Performing
· Did everyone take on a functional role to achieve the task?
· Did you work constructively and efficiently?
· Did the group's activity focus on fulfilling the task?
· Did you experience a sense of achievement?
E Retiring/Adjourning
· Did you stop abruptly and all go your separate ways or did you finish the task and then
go off together and socialize?
· Did you talk about the group and your experience of it?
· What sort of issues did you discuss or think about after the group activity?
· Was it more or less acceptable to give and receive feedback in a relaxed atmosphere
when adjourning?
F Mourning/Grieving
· Have you experienced the mourning stage following the completion of a show or
project?
· Have you ever felt empty or sad when a group activity has finished
· Why might some people feel the mourning stage more acutely than others?
· How do you deal with your own feelings after the project or show?

Q.4 “Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants,

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either by self or by the subordinates. The essence of power is to control over the
behavior of others”: Explain what are the various bases of Power?

Answer: Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants,
either by self or by the subordinates. The essence of power is control over the behavior
of others. Managers derive power from both organizational and individual sources.
These sources are called position power and personal power, respectively. Personal
power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual's position.
Three bases of personal power are:
1. Expertise,
2. Rational persuasion,
3. Reference.
Expert power is the ability to control another person's behavior by virtue of possessing
knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person lacks, but needs. A
subordinate obeys a supervisor possessing expert power because the boss ordinarily
knows more about what is to be done or how it is to be done than does the subordinate.
Expert power is relative, not absolute.
However the table may turn in case the subordinate has superior knowledge or skills
than his/ her boss. In this age of technology driven environments, the second
proposition holds true in many occasions where the boss is dependent heavily on the
juniors for technologically oriented support.
Rational persuasion is the ability to control another's behavior, since, through the
individual's efforts; the person accepts the desirability of an offered goal and a viable
way of achieving it. Rational persuasion involves both explaining the desirability of
expected outcomes and showing how specific actions will achieve these outcomes.
Referent power is the ability to control another's behavior because the person wants to
identify with the power source. In this case, a subordinate obeys the boss because he
or she wants to behave, perceive, or believe as the boss does. This obedience may
occur, for example, because the subordinate likes the boss personally and therefore
tries to do things the way the boss wants them done. In a sense, the subordinate
attempts to avoid doing anything that would interfere with the pleasing boss-subordinate

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relationship. Follower ship is not based on what the subordinate will get for specific
actions or specific levels of performance, but on what the individual represents-a path
toward lucrative future prospects.
Charismatic Power is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual's
personality and interpersonal style. Others follow because they can articulate attractive
visions, take personal risks, demonstrate follower sensitivity, etc.

Q.5 Explain “Organizational Development” process

Answer: Organization development (OD) is a planned, top-down, organization-wide


effort to increase the organization's effectiveness and health. OD is achieved through
interventions in the organization's "processes," using behavioral science knowledge.

Planned: OD takes a long-range approach to improving organizational performance


and efficiency. It avoids the (usual) "quick-fix".
Organization-wide: OD focuses on the total system.
Managed from the top: To be effective, OD must have the support of top-
management. They have to model it, not just espouse it. The OD process also
needs the buy-in and ownership of workers throughout the organization.
Increase organization effectiveness and health: OD is tied to the bottom-line. Its goal
is to improve the organization, to make it more efficient and more competitive
by aligning the organization's systems with its people.
Planned interventions: After proper preparation, OD uses activities called
interventions to make system wide, permanent changes in the organization.
Using behavioral-science knowledge: OD is a discipline that combines research and
experience to understanding people, business systems, and their interactions.

According to Warren Bennis, OD is a complex strategy intended to change the beliefs,


attitudes, values, and structure of organizations so that they can better adapt to new
technologies, markets, and challenges. OD is not "anything done to better an
organization"; it is a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a
particular kind of end result. OD involves organizational reflection, system improvement,
planning, and self-analysis. The term "Organization Development" is often used
interchangeably with Organizational effectiveness, especially when used as the name of

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a department or a part of the Human Resources function within an organization.
Organization Development is a growing field that is responsive to many new
approaches including Positive Adult Development.

At the core of OD is the concept of organization, defined as two or more people working
together toward one or more shared goal(s). Development in this context is the notion
that an organization may become more effective over time at achieving its goals.
OD is a long-range effort to improve organization's problem solving and renewal
processes, particularly through more effective and collaborative management of
organizational culture, often with the assistance of a change agent or catalyst and the
use of the theory and technology of applied behavioral science.
Organization development is a "contractual relationship between a change agent and a
sponsoring organization entered into for the purpose of using applied behavioral
science in a systems context to improve organizational performance and the capacity of
the organization to improve itself".[citation needed]
Organizational development is an ongoing, systematic process to implement effective
change in an organization. Organizational development is known as both a field of
applied behavioral science focused on understanding and managing organizational
change and as a field of scientific study and inquiry. It is interdisciplinary in nature and
draws on sociology, psychology, and theories of motivation, learning, and personality.

OD AS A PROCESS

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Action Research is a process, which serves as a model for most OD interventions.
French and Bell describe Action Research as a "process of systematically collecting
research data about an ongoing system relative to some objective, goal, or need of
that system; feeding these data back into the system; taking actions by altering
selected variables within the system based both on the data and on hypotheses;
and evaluating the results of actions by collecting more data." The steps in Action
Research are (6, 7):

Entry: This phase consists of marketing, i.e. finding needs for change within an
organization. It is also the time to quickly grasp the nature of the organization,
identify the appropriate decision maker, and build a trusting relationship.
Start-up and contracting: In this step, we identify critical success factors and the real
issues, link into the organization's culture and processes, and clarify roles for
the consultant(s) and employees. This is also the time to deal with resistance
within the organization. A formal or informal contract will define the change
process.
Assessment and diagnosis: Here we collect data in order to find the opportunities and
problems in the organization for suggestions about what to look for, see the
previous article in this series, on needs assessment. This is also the time for the
consultant to make a diagnosis, in order to recommend appropriate
interventions.
Feedback: This two-way process serves to tell those what we found out, based on an
analysis of the data. Everyone who contributed information should have an
opportunity to learn about the findings of the assessment process. This
provides an opportunity for the organization's people to become involved in the
change process, to learn about how different parts of the organization affect
each other, and to participate in selecting appropriate change interventions.
Action planning: In this step we will distill recommendations from the assessment and
feedback, consider alternative actions and focus our intervention(s) on activities
that have the most leverage to effect positive change in the organization. An
implementation plan will be developed that is based on the assessment data, is
logically organized, results- oriented, measurable and rewarded. We must plan
for a participative decision-making process for the intervention.
Intervention: Now, and only now, do we actually carry out the change process. It is
important to follow the action plan, yet remain flexible enough to modify the
process as the organization changes and as new information emerges.
Evaluation: Successful OD must have made meaningful changes in the performance
and efficiency of the people and their organization. We need to have an
evaluation procedure to verify this success, identify needs for new or continuing
OD activities, and improve the OD process itself to help make future
interventions more successful.
Adoption: After steps have been made to change the organization and plans have
been formulated, we follow-up by implementing processes to insure that this

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remains an ongoing activity within the organization, that commitments for action
have been obtained, and that they will be carried out.
Separation: We must recognize when it is more productive for the client and consultant
to undertake other activities, and when continued consultation is
counterproductive. We also should plan for future contacts, to monitor the
success of this change and possibly to plan for future change activities.

Q6. Write short note on “Stress Management”

Answer: Organizational life may be quite stressful. Work pressures, tight schedules,
meetings that never seem to end on time, unhelpful colleagues, critical bosses,
incompetent subordinates and a host of other irritating factors may all have a cumulative
effect in making the lives if modern day executives quite miserable. As we all know,
stress is a body’s reaction to any demand made by it. Perceptions of events, whether
positive or negative, activate stress. It is therefore a highly individual affair. What is
stressful to ‘X’ may not be to another. But it is fairly easy to conclude that everyone lives
under a certain amount of stress. But if stress persists for long periods of time, it can be
harmful. Stress can be disruptive o an individual as an accident. It can lead to poor
performance on the job, excessive use of alcohol or drugs, poor attendance or even be
a major cause of death and other diseases.

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STRESS:
Individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints or opportunities, can understand
stress as a state of tension experiences. The pressures of modern life, coupled with the
demands of job, can lead to emotional imbalances that are collectively labeled as
stress. However stress is not always unpleasant. To believe means to respond to the
stress overachievement and the excitement of a challenge.

Two faces of stress:


Constructive Stress
Destructive Stress

Management of Stress
Stress management is the amelioration of stress, especially chronic stress.
Transactional model Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman suggested in 1984 that
stress can be thought of as resulting from an “imbalance between demands and
resources” or as occurring when “pressure exceeds one's perceived ability to cope”.
Stress management was developed and premised on the idea that stress is not a direct
response to a stressor but rather one's resources and ability to cope mediate the stress
response and are amenable to change, thus allowing stress to be controllable.
In order to develop an effective stress management programme it is first necessary to
identify the factors that are central to a person controlling his/her stress, and to identify
the intervention methods, which effectively target these factors. Lazarus and Folkman's
interpretation of stress focuses on the transaction between people and their external
environment (known as the Transactional Model). The model conceptualizes stress as a
result of how a stressor is appraised and how a person appraises his/her resources to
cope with the stressor. The model breaks the stressor-stress link by proposing that if
stressors are perceived as positive or challenging rather than a threat, and if the
stressed person is confident that he/she possesses adequate rather than deficient
coping strategies, stress may not necessarily follow the presence of a potential stressor.
The model proposes that stress can be reduced by helping stressed people change
their perceptions of stressors, providing them with strategies to help them cope and

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improving their confidence in their ability to do so.

Health realization/innate health model


The health realization/innate health model of stress is also founded on the idea that
stress does not necessarily follow the presence of a potential stressor. Instead of
focusing on the individual's appraisal of so-called stressors in relation to his or her own
coping skills (as the transactional model does), the health realization model focuses on
the nature of thought, stating that it is ultimately a person's thought processes that
determine the response to potentially stressful external circumstances. In this model,
stress results from appraising oneself and one's circumstances through a mental filter of
insecurity and negativity, whereas a feeling of well-being results from approaching the
world with a "quiet mind," "inner wisdom," and "common sense".
This model proposes that helping stressed individuals understand the nature of
thought--especially providing them with the ability to recognize when they are in the grip
of insecure thinking, disengage from it, and access natural positive feelings--will reduce
their stress.
Techniques of stress management
There are several ways of coping with stress. Some techniques of time management
may help a person to control stress. In the face of high demands, effective stress
management involves learning to set limits and to say "No" to some demands that
others make. The Journal of the Canadian Medical Association has recently dubbed the
following techniques “Destressitizers”. A destressitizer is any process by which an
individual can relieve stress. Techniques of stress management will vary according to
the theoretical paradigm adhered to, but may include some of the following:

• Autogenic training
• Cognitive therapy
• Conflict resolution
• Exercise
• Getting a hobby
• Meditation

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• Deep breathing
• Nootropics
• Relaxation techniques
• Artistic Expression
• Fractional relaxation
• Progressive relaxation
• Spas
• Stress balls
• Natural medicine
• Clinically validated alternative treatments
• Time management
• Listening to certain types of relaxing music, particularly:
• New Age music
• Classical music
• Psychedelic music

Measuring stress
Levels of stress can be measured. One way is through the use of the Holmes and Rahe
Stress Scale to rate stressful life events. Changes in blood pressure and galvanic skin
response can also be measured to test stress levels, and changes in stress levels. A
digital thermometer can be used to evaluate changes in skin temperature, which can
indicate activation of the fight or flight response drawing blood away from the
extremities.
Stress management has physiological and immune benefit effects.[9]

Effectiveness of stress management


Positive outcomes are observed using a combination of non-drug interventions:
• Treatment of anger or hostility,
• Autogenic training
• Talking therapy (around relationship or existential issues)

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• Biofeedback
• Cognitive therapy for anxiety or clinical depression

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