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SHEAR STRENGTH

Long footing

Long embankment

3
Element enlargements and
corresponding shear
p

Vertical trench

Retaining wall

Backfill slip

Short footing & punching


5
3

1
2
Alternative

Typical failure modes requiring shear strength evaluation

Vane Shear Test


The test is used for the in-situ determination of the
undrained strength of fully saturated clays
The test is very suitable for soft clays (< 100 kN/m2)
The torque strength : T = cu d2h + d3

T
d

Direct Shear Test (1)


Vertical force (N)
Loading plate

Boxes

Porous plates

specimen

Vertical force (N)


h
Boxes
T

l
Shear force (T)

Vertical force (N)


Loading plate

Box

Shear force (T)


T

specimen

Porous
plates

N
A

T
A

Mohr Circle for Direct Shear Test

Direct Shear Test (2)

Max.

Max.

Direct Shear Test (3)

Failure Envelope

Mohr Circle

Unconfined Compression Test


(ASTM D-2166-66, 72)

This test is classified as unconsolidated undrained test


and only suitable for saturated clay
The compressive strength obtained : qu
The undrained shear strength : Su = qu/2

3 = 0

3 = 0


qu

probable

test

Stress-strain plot to obtain qu

cu
c

qu

Mohrs circle for unconfined


compression test

Triaxial Test

(ASTM D-2850-70)

Axial stress

all-round pressure

1
1 : major principal stress
3 : minor principal stress
1 3 : deviator stress

Triaxial Apparatus
Axial stress
Equal
all-round
pressure

1 : major principal stress


3 : minor principal stress
1 3 : deviator stress

All-round
pressure
supply

Types of Triaxial Test


Unconsolidated Undrained (UU)
- also known as quick test
- the all-round pressure is given initially, then the deviator stress is
applied immediately until it reaches failure state
- no drainage is permitted at any stages of test
Consolidated Undrained (CU)
- also known as quick test
- drainage is permitted under a specified all-round pressure until
consolidation is complete
- deviator stress is then applied with no drainage is permitted
- pore water pressure is measured during the undrained stage
Consolidated Drained (CD)
- drainage is permitted under a specified all-round pressure until
consolidation is complete
- deviator stress is then applied at a slow rate with drainage is
permitted
- the excess pore water pressure is maintained at zero

Aplikasi Pengujian

Kondisi Tidak Terdrainasi (Undrained strength)


- dinyatakan dalam tegangan total : cu and u
- diaplikasikan pada tanah dengan permeabilitas rendah
segera saat konstruksi

Kondisi Terdrainasi (Drained strength)


- dinyatakan dalam tegangan efektif : c and
- diaplikasikan pada tanah dengan permeabilitas rendah
setelah konstruksi selesai dan mewakili kondisi jangka
panjang

Failure plane

Failure envelope

2 = 90+

f
1 + 3

f = (1 - 3)sin 2 = c + tan
f = (1+3) + (1 - 3)cos 2
sin =

(1 - 3)
c cot + (1 + 3)

The Relationship Between and

Consolidated drained
(effective stress)

Consolidated undrained
(total stress)

(3+u) 1

3
u

Effective stress
condition
Total stress
condition

(1+u)