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# Cairo University

Faculty of Engineering
Giza Campus

## Department of Electronics and

Communications Engineering
ELCN405 ELC405A

## EXERCISE I: BASIC ANTENNA PARAMETERS

Problem (1)
The maximum radiation intensity of a 90% efficiency antenna is 200 mW/unit solid angle.
Find the directivity and gain (dimensionless and in dB) when:
a) The input power is 125.66 mW.
b) The radiated power is 125.66 mW.

Problem (2)
The power radiated by a lossless antenna is 10 watts. The directional characteristics of the
antenna are represented by the radiation intensity of
a) (, ) = 0 cos2 (watts/unit solid angle)

.
}
b) (, ) = 0 cos3 (0 2 , 0 2)
For each case find:
a) The maximum power density (in watts/square meter) at a distance of 1,000 m (assume
far-field distance). Specify the angle where this occurs.
b) The beam solid angle .
c) The directivity of the antenna (dimensionless and in dB).

Problem (3)
The radiation intensity of an antenna is given by
(, ) = cos4 sin2

For 0 and 0 2 (i.e., in the upper half-space). It is zero in the lower half2
space. Find:
a) The directivity (dimensionless and in dB).
b) The elevation plane half-power beam width (in degrees).

Problem (4)
The maximum gain of a horn antenna is +20 dB, while the gain of its first side lobe is 15 dB.
What is the difference in gain between the maximum and first side lobe:
a) In dB.
b) As a ratio of the field intensities.

Problem (5)
A base station cellular communication systems lossless antenna has a maximum gain of 16
dB (above isotropic) at 1,900 MHz. Assuming the input power to the antenna is 8 watts, what
is the maximum radiated power density (in watts/cm2) at a distance of 100 meters?

Problem (6)
A /2 dipole, with a total loss resistance of 1 ohm, is connected to a generator whose
internal impedance is 50 + j25 ohms. Assuming that the peak voltage of the generator is 2 V
and the impedance of the dipole, excluding the loss resistance, is 73 + j42.5 ohms, find:
a) The power supplied by the source.
b) The power radiated by the antenna.
c) The power dissipated by the antenna.

Problem (7)
An antenna with a radiation resistance of 48 ohms, a loss resistance of 2 ohms, and a
reactance of 50 ohms is connected to a generator with open-circuit voltage of 10 V and
internal impedance of 50 ohms via a /4-long transmission line with characteristic
impedance of 100 ohms.
a) Draw the equivalent circuit
b) Determine the power supplied by the generator
c) Determine the power radiated by the antenna

Problem (8)
The input reactance of an infinitesimal linear dipole of length /60 and radius a = /200 is
given by

ln ( ) 1
2
120

tan ( 2 )
Assuming the wire of the dipole is copper with a conductivity of 5.7 107 S/m, determine at
a frequency of 1 GHz:
a) The loss resistance.
d) The VSWR when the antenna is connected to a 50-ohm line.

Cairo University
Faculty of Engineering
Giza Campus

## Department of Electronics and

Communications Engineering
ELCN405 ELC405A

## EXERCISE 2: DIPOLE, MONOPOLE & LOOP ANTENNAS

Problem (1)
Consider a center-fed dipole antenna of length 3/2. Determine the zeros and
maxima of the radiation pattern as well as the maximum of the directivity function,
given that Rrad = 105 .
Problem (2)
1. Derive an expression for the total field of a current element. Comment on the
variation of the different field components. Is the radiated wave TEM?
2. Derive an expression for the radiated fields of a short dipole. Obtain an
expression for the radiation resistance and directivity.
3. Derive an expression for the radiated fields of a small loop antenna. Obtain an
expression for the radiation resistance and directivity.
Problem (3)
A thin center-fed dipole antenna of length L = 50 cm is fed with input current 100 mA
at 30 MHz. The antenna is situated on the Y-axis in free space.
1. Calculate the power radiated by the antenna
2. Obtain expressions for the radiated fields.
3. Specify the results of (b) for the principal planes and draw the radiation field
patterns.
4. Determine the directivity function.
5. Calculate the maximum radiation power density 1-km away from the antenna.
Problem (4)
A thin center-fed dipole 0.1-m long, oriented in the direction ( = 45, = 90) and
operated at 300 MHz, has 0.1 A feed current.
1. Obtain an expression for the directivity function D(,) and specify you result to
the principal planes.
2. Determine the total radiated power.
3. Determine the radiated power density 100 m away in directions (45,90),
(45,90), (90,90), (90,0). Show graphically without any formulation the
Problem (5)
1. Show that the unattenuated radiation field at the surface of the earth of a
quarter-wave monopole is given by:

9.9 mV/m
where r is the distance in km, W is the radiated power in watts.
2. Obtain the corresponding expression for a short monopole.

Problem (6)
Consider the small half-loop antenna above a large conducting screen, with coaxial
feed as shown in the figure. Give expressions for the radiated fields and draw the
directional patterns in principal planes showing the polarization of radiated fields.

Problem (7)
1. Obtain expressions for the electromagnetic fields radiated by a small circular
loop antenna. Show that the radiation resistance equals 202(D/)4 , where D
is the loop diameter and is the operating wavelength.
2. A loop antenna of diameter 10 cm is operated at 100 MHz with a 0.1 A feed
current. The axis of the loop is oriented in the direction ( = 45, = 90).
a. Draw without any formulation the directional patterns in the YZ, XZ and XY
planes.
b. Calculate the radiation intensity and show graphically the electric field
polarization in the directions (45,90), (45,90) and (90,90).
Problem (8)

An infinitesimal dipole element of length is placed in the X-Z plane and oriented with 45
with Z-axis as shown in the figure. The current on the dipole is assumed, 0 .

## 1. Derive the radiation electric field of that dipole.

2. Find the polarization of the radiation electric field at points on the x, y and z axes.

Useful Relations

cos sin

cos
cos
( ) = (

sin

## sin sin cos

sin cos sin ) ( )
cos
0

)
cos = cos cos + sin sin cos(

Cairo University
Faculty of Engineering
Giza Campus

## Department of Electronics and

Communications Engineering
ELCN405 Spring 2011

## EXERCISE III: ANTENNA TYPES AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Problem (1)
Compute the directivity of long wires having lengths 2 and 2.5 supporting a
standing-wave current distribution. (Hint: use the values of the integrals provided in
the attached Integral Formula).

Problem (2)
Show that for a uniformly illuminated rectangular aperture of dimensions ab, the
maximum gain is given by:
4
0 = 2 ()

Problem (3)
Consider a rectangular aperture of dimensions a = 30 and b = 15 in the XY plane
exists in a large conducting screen.
1. If the aperture is illuminated by a uniform TEM wave with = 0 , = ,
determine:
a. The radiated fields, the FNBW and the SLL in the principal planes.
b. The gain.
c. Total maximum directivity Do (dimensionless and in dB).
2. Repeat (1) if the aperture is non-uniformly illuminated with electric field

## = 0 cos ( ) (i.e. the dominant mode of a rectangular wave guide).

Hence, determine the illumination efficiency.

Integral Formula

Cairo University
Faculty of Engineering
Giza Campus

## Department of Electronics and

Communications Engineering
ELCN405 Spring 2011

## EXERCISE IV: ANTENNAS IN RECEIVING MODE

Problem (1)
A linearly polarized wave traveling in the positive z-direction is incident upon a
circularly polarized antenna. Find the polarization loss factor PLF (dimensionless and
in dB) when the antenna is (based upon its transmission mode operation):
(a) Right-handed (CW)
(b) Left-handed (CCW)
Problem (2)
The electric field of a uniform plane wave traveling along the negative z direction is
given by
= ( + )0
and is incident upon a receiving antenna placed at the origin and whose radiated
electric field, toward the incident wave, is given by

= ( + 2 )1

## Determine the following:

a) Polarization of the incident wave and it sense of.
b) Polarization of the antenna, and its sense of rotation.
c) Losses (dimensionless and in dB) due to polarization mismatch between the
incident wave and the antenna.
Problem (3)
A linearly polarized wave traveling in the negative z-direction has a tilt angle () of
45 . It is incident upon an antenna whose polarization characteristics are given by:
= (4 + )17
Find the polarization loss factor PLF (dimensionless and dB).
Problem (4)
A CW circularly polarized uniform plane wave is traveling in the +z direction. Find the
polarization loss factor PLF (dimensionless and in dB) assuming the receiving antenna
(in its transmitting mode) is:
(a) CW circularly polarized
(b) CCW circularly polarized
Problem (5)
The field radiated by an infinitesimal dipole of very small length (L /50), and of
uniform current distribution I0 , is given by
E
jkI0 L ejkr sin .
=
4r
1. Determine:
(a) the vector effective length
(b) the maximum value of the vector effective length. Specify the angle.
(c) the ratio of the maximum effective length to the physical length .
1

## jI0 jkr cos ( 2 cos )

E

=
e
2r
sin
where 0 is the maximum current.
Problem (6)
A uniform plane wave, of 103watts/cm2 power density and a frequency of 10 GHz is
incident upon a receiving antenna. Determine the maximum open-circuited voltage
at the terminals of the antenna if it is:
(a) An infinitesimal dipole of length L = /50 and uniform current distribution.
(b) A small dipole with triangular current distribution and length L = /10.
(c) A half-wavelength dipole (L = /2) with sinusoidal current distribution.
Problem (7)
Show that the effective length of a linear antenna can be written as:
=

| |2

which, for a lossless antenna and maximum power transfer reduces, to:

= 2

## and represent, respectively, the effective and maximum effective apertures

of the antenna while is the intrinsic impedance of the medium.
Problem (8)
A small circular parabolic reflector, often referred to as dish, is now being advertised
as a TV antenna for direct broadcast. Assuming the diameter of the antenna is 1
meter, the frequency of operation is 3 GHz, and its aperture efficiency is 68%,
determine the following:
(a) the physical area of the reflector (in m2).
(b) the maximum effective area of the antenna (in m2).
(c) the maximum directivity (dimensionless and in dB).
(d) the maximum power (in watts) that can be delivered to the TV if the power
density of the wave incident upon the antenna is 10 W/m2. Assume no losses
between the incident wave and the receiver (TV).
Problem (9)
For an X-band (8.212.4 GHz) rectangular horn, with aperture dimensions of 5.5 cm
and 7.4 cm, find its maximum effective aperture (in cm2) when its gain (over
isotropic) is:
(a) 14.8 dB at 8.2 GHz
(b) 16.5 dB at 10.3 GHz

Cairo University
Faculty of Engineering
Giza Campus

## Department of Electronics and

Communications Engineering
ELCN405 Spring 2011

## EXERCISE V: ANTENNA ARRAYS

Problem (1)
Find the space factor in the following cases (use conventional coordinate system):
1. Two equal in-phase sources at (0, 0, 0) and (d, 0, 0).
2. Two equal in-phase sources at (0, 0, 0) and (d, d, 0).
3. Four equal in-phase sources at (0, 0, 0), (d, 0, 0), (0, d, 0) and (d, d, 0).
4. Three in-phase sources at (0, 0, 0), (0, 0, d) and (0, 0, 2d) with ratio of
magnitudes 1:2:1.
Problem (2)
Show that the array factor of a binomial array with four elements excited in phase
with relative amplitudes 1:3:3:1 is given by:
kd

S cos 3 cos ,
d is the inter - element spacing
2

Hence, draw the pattern and determine the 3-dB beam width for d=/2.
Problem (3)
1. Show that for long linear arrays of isotropic sources the beam width between
the first nulls is approximately given by:
2
, in case of broadside array

Nd
BWBFN
2 2 , in case of end - fire array

Nd
where N is the total number of elements
d is the inter-element spacing
2. For a large broadside array, show that the amplitude of the mth side-lobe
relative to the main beam is approximately given by:
1

N sin 2 N 2m 1
Problem (4)
1. Use the directional pattern of a thin center-fed /2 dipole to obtain the
pattern of a center-fed dipole.
2. Show how the radiation pattern of a straight travelling wave wire antenna of
arbitrary length can be obtained using the principle of pattern multiplication.
Problem (5)
Determine the space factor of a linear end-fire array of eight elements spaced /4
apart, giving directions and relative magnitudes of side-lobes. Sketch the pattern
showing the positions of nulls.
1

## Problem (6) (Jan. 1997)

A two-element antenna array consists of thin half-wave dipoles on the Z-axis at z=0
and z=d. The dipoles are parallel to the X-axis with feed currents I0 and I0ejd.
Find and d in order to have zero radiation in the negative Z direction and maximum
in the positive Z direction. Sketch the directional patterns in the principal planes.
Problem (7)
Four vertical antennas, parallel to Z-axis, are equally spaced along the X-axis, and
excited with equal currents. If the inter-element spacing is 0.8, determine the
Problem (8)
1. A linear array of N=50 equally spaced elements with d=/2 is excited for endfire operation. If the elements are along the Z-axis, give an expression for the
space factor S and find its first two zeros.
2. If the array consists of equal dipoles parallel to the X-axis find the radiation
pattern in the XY and XZ planes. What is the difference for N=49?
Problem (9)
A linear array 80 wavelengths long has equally spaced elements with /2 interelement spacing. The elements are excited with equal in-phase currents. Assuming
isotropic elements, determine the directions and widths of the principal maximum as
well as the side-lobe level in the two cases:
1. All elements (N=161) in operation.
2. Elements 1, 5, 9,......, 157, 161 in operation.
Problem (10)
Consider a two-element array with d=2, fed with in-phase, equal magnitude
currents. Sketch, without formulation, the space factor pattern, showing nulls and
maxima. Comment on the values of lobe maxima.
The inter-element separation is now filled with three additional elements to form a 5
element broadside array. Obtain an expression for the space-factor (S) and
determine the zeros as well as the side-lobe level (SLL).
Problem (11)
A linear array consists of 60 parallel coplanar equally spaced /2 dipoles parallel to
the Z-axis, operating at 1 GHz with equal magnitude current excitation. The array is
placed /4 above and parallel to a perfectly conducting screen in the XZ plane with
inter-element spacing of 0.4.
1. Determine, for broadside operation, the radiation pattern in XY and XZ plane.
2. Give the beam width between nulls and the directions and relative levels of
side-lobes with beam scanning 60 off broadside in the XY plane, keeping the
exciting current magnitude unchanged. Give the change in maximum