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Data communication is the transfer of data from one device to

another via some form of transmission medium.

A data communications system must transmit data to the correct
destination in an accurate and timely manner.
A network is a set of communication devices connected by media
Topology refers to the physical or logical arrangement of a network.
Devices may be arranged in a mesh, star, bus, or ring topology.
An internet is a network of networks.
The Internet is a collection of many separate networks.
TCP/IP is the protocol suite for the Internet.
A protocol is a set of rules that governs data communication; the key
elements of a protocol are syntax, semantics, and timing.
Standards are necessary to ensure that products from different
manufacturers can work together as expected.
Forums are special-interest groups that quickly evaluate and
standardize new technologies.
A Request for Comment (RFC) is an idea or concept that is
a precursor to an Internet standard.

Five Components of Data Communications






Different forms of information






Data flow between two devices

Simplex - Only one of the two devices on a link can transmit; the other
can only receive.

Half-duplex - Each station can both transmit and receive, but not at
the same time.
Full-duplex - Both stations can transmit and receive simultaneously.

Three criteria for an effective and efficient network

Performance - Measured in many ways, including transit time and

response time. It is evaluated by two networking metrics: throughput
and delay.
Reliability - Measured by the frequency of failure, the time it takes a
link to recover from a failure, and the network's robustness in a
Security - Include protecting data from unauthorized access,
protecting data from damage and development, and implementing
policies and procedures for recovery from breaches and data losses.

Types of Connection (Line configurations)

Point-to-point connection - two and only two devices are connected

by a dedicated link.
Multipoint connection - three or more devices share a link.

Four Basic Topologies

Mesh - Every device has a dedicated point-to-point link to every other

Star - Each device has a dedicated point-to-point link only to a central
controller, usually called a hub.
Ring - Each device has a dedicated point-to-point connection with only
the two devices on either side of it.
Bus - One long cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices in a

Network Categories

Local area network (LAN) - data communication system within a

building, plant, or campus, or between nearby buildings.
Metropolitan-area network (MAN) - data communication system
covering an area the size of a town or city.
Wide area network (WAN) - data communication system spanning
states, countries, or the whole world.

Internet service providers (ISPs)





Key Elements of a Protocol

Syntax - structure or format of the data, meaning the order in which

they are presented.
Semantics - the meaning of each section of bits.
Timing - refers to two characteristics: when data should be sent and
how fast they can be sent.

Some of the organizations involved in standards creation






The International Standards Organization created a model called

the Open Systems Interconnection, which allows diverse systems
to communicate.
The seven-layer OSI model provides guidelines for the development
of universally compatible networking protocols.
ISO is the organization. OSI is the model.
The physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit
stream over a physical medium.
The data link layer is responsible for delivering data units from one
station to the next without errors.
The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination
delivery of a packet across multiple network links.
The transport layer is responsible for the process-to-process delivery
of the entire message.
The session
layer establishes,
the interactions between communicating devices.
The presentation
layer ensures interoperability between
communicating devices through transformation of data into a mutually
agreed upon format.
TCP/IP is a five-layer hierarchical protocol suite developed before the
OSI model.

The TCP/IP application layer is equivalent to the combined session,

and application layers of the OSI model.
The physical address, also known as the link address, is the address
of a node as defined by its LAN or WAN.
The IP address uniquely defines a host on the Internet.
The port address identifies a process on a host.
A specific address is a user-friendly address.
The physical addresses will change from hop to hop but the logical
addresses usually remain the same.
The physical addresses change from hop to hop but the logical and
port addresses usually remain the same.
Peer-to-peer processes are processes on two or more devices
communicating at a same layer
Headers and trailers are control data added at the beginning and the
end of each data unit at each layer of the sender and removed at the
provide source and destination addresses, synchronization points,
information for error detection, etc.

The Seven Layer of the OSI Model

Application - responsible for providing services to the user.

Presentation - responsible for translation, compression, and
Session - responsible for dialog control and synchronization.
Transport - responsible for the delivery of a message from one
process to another.
Network - responsible for the delivery of individual packets from the
source host to the destination host.
Data link - responsible for moving frames from one hop (node) to the
Physical - responsible for movements of individual bits from one hop
(node) to the next.

Summary of layers and functions

TCP/IP and OSI model
The Internet Model (TCP/IP protocol suite)




Data link


The Network Support Layers


Data link


The User Support Layers




Link the Network Support and User Support Layers

Transport layer

Four levels of addresses the TCP/IP protocols

Physical Addresses

Logical Addresses

Port Addresses

Specific Addresses

Relationship of layers and addresses in TCP/IP

Protocols in the Network Layer of TCP/IP

Internetworking Protocol (IP) - the transmission mechanism used


Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) - used to associate a logical

physical address.
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) - allows a host to
address when it knows only its physical address.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) - mechanism used by
gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the
query and error reporting messages.
Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) - facilitate the
transmission of a message to a group of recipients.
Data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals to be
Data can be analog or digital. Analog data are continuous and take
values. Digital data have discrete states and take discrete values.
Signals can be analog or digital. Analog signals can have an infinite
number of
values in a range; digital signals can have only a limited number of

In data communications, we commonly use periodic analog signals and

digital signals.

A signal is periodic if it consists of a continuously repeating pattern.

Frequency and period are the inverse of each other.
Frequency is the rate of change with respect to time.

Change in a short span of time means high frequency. Change over a

long span of time means low frequency.

If a signal does not change at all, its frequency is zero. If a signal

changes instantaneously, its frequency is infinite.

Phase describes the position of the waveform relative to time O.

A time-domain graph plots amplitude as a function of time.
A frequency-domain graph plots each sine waves peak amplitude
against its frequency.
A complete sine wave in the time domain can be represented by one
spike in
the frequency domain.

A single-frequency sine wave is not useful in data communications; we

need to send a composite signal, a signal made of many simple sine
According to Fourier analysis, any composite signal is a combination
of simple sine waves with different frequencies, amplitudes, and
The spectrum of a signal consists of the sine waves that make up
the signal.

If the composite signal is periodic, the decomposition gives a series of

signals with discrete frequencies; if the composite signal is
nonperiodic, the decomposition gives a combination of sine waves with
continuous frequencies.

The bandwidth of a composite signal is the difference between the

highest and the lowest frequencies contained in that signal.
Bit rate (number of bits per second) and bit interval (duration of 1
bit) are terms used to describe digital signals.
A digital signal is a composite analog signal with an infinite
Bit rate and bandwidth are proportional to each other.
Baseband transmission of a digital signal that preserves the shape
signal is possible only if we have a low-pass channel with an infinite or
very wide bandwidth.
Baseband transmission means sending a digital or an analog signal
using a low-pass channel.
Broadband transmission means modulating a digital or an analog
signal using a band-pass channel.
If the available channel is a bandpass channel, we cannot send a
directly to the channel; we need to convert the digital signal to
an analog signalbefore transmission.
For a noiseless channel, the Nyquist bit rate formula defines the
theoretical maximum bit rate. For a noisy channel, we need to use
the Shannon capacity to find the maximum bit rate.

The Shannon capacity gives us the upper limit; the Nyquist formula
tells us how many signal levels we need.

Optical signals have very high frequencies. A high frequency means

a short wave length because the wave length is inversely proportional
to the frequency ( = v/f), where v is the propagation speed in the

Attenuation is the loss of a signal's energy due to the resistance of

the medium.
The decibel measures the relative strength of two signals or a signal
at two different points.
Distortion is the alteration of a signal due to the differing propagation
speeds of each of the frequencies that make up a signal.
Noise is the external energy that corrupts a signal.
The bandwidth-delay product defines the number of bits that can fill
the link.
The wavelength of a frequency is defined as the propagation speed
divided by the frequency.

If a signal does not change at all, its frequency is zero. If a signal

changes instantaneously, its frequency is infinite.

The Shannon capacity gives us the upper limit; the Nyquist formula
tells us how many signal levels we need.

The bandwidth-delay product defines the number of bits that can fill
the link.

Data can be



Comparison of analog and digital signals

Units of period and frequency

Characteristics of a Sine Wave




Can Impair a Signal




We can evaluate transmission media by

Throughput - a measure of how fast we can actually send data

through a network. An actual measurement of how fast we can send
Propagation speed - depends on the medium and on the frequency
of the signal. In a vacuum, light is propagated with a speed of 3 x
108 m/s. It is lower in air and it is much lower in cable.
Propagation time - measures the time required for a bit to travel
from the source to the destination. The propagation time is calculated

In networking, we use the term bandwidth in two contexts.

The first, bandwidth in hertz, refers to the range of frequencies in a

composite signal or the range of frequencies that a channel can pass.

The second, bandwidth in bits per second, refers to the speed of bit
transmission in a channel or link.


Frequency and Period

Number of bits of each Level


, dB = 20 log10(V2/V1)

Noiseless Channel: Nyquist Bit Rate

Noisy Channel: Shannon Capacity

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)

SNRdb = 10log10SNR





Line coding is the process of converting digital data to a digital signal.

Line coding methods must eliminate the dc component and provide
a means of synchronization between the sender and the receiver.
NRZ, RZ, Manchester, and differential Manchester encoding are the
most popular polar encoding methods.
AMI is a popular bipolar encoding method.

In NRZ-L the level of the voltage determines the value of the bit. In
NRZ-I the inversion or the lack of inversion determines the value of the

NRZ-L and NRZ-I both have an average signal rate of N/2 Bd.

NRZ-L and NRZ-I both have a DC component problem.

In Manchester and differential Manchester encoding, the transition at

the middle of the bit is used for synchronization.

The minimum bandwidth of Manchester and differential Manchester is

2 times that of NRZ.

In bipolar encoding, we use three levels: positive, zero, and negative.

Block coding provides redundancy to ensure synchronization and

inherent errordetection. Block coding is normally referred to as mB/nB
coding; it replaces each m-bit group with an n-bit group.

In mBnL schemes, a pattern of m data elements is encoded as a

pattern of n signal elements in which 2m Ln.

Block coding can improve the performance of line coding through

redundancy and error correction.
Block coding involves grouping the bits, substitution, and line coding.

Block coding is normally referred to as mB/nB coding; it replaces each

m-bit group with an n-bit group.

B8ZS substitutes eight consecutive zeros with 000VB0VB.

HDB3 substitutes four consecutive zeros with 000V or B00V depending

on the number of nonzero pulses after the last substitution.

Scrambling provides synchronization without increasing the number

of bits. Two common scrambling techniques are B8ZS and HDB3.
The number of different values allowed in a signal is the signal level.
The number of symbols that represent data is the data level.
Bit rate is a function of the pulse rate and data level.
The most common technique to change an analog signal to digital data
(digitization) is called pulse code modulation (PCM).
The first step in PCM is sampling. The analog signal is sampled every
Ts s, where Ts is the sample interval or period. The inverse of the
sampling interval is called the sampling rate or sampling frequency
and denoted by fs, where fs =lITs. There are three sampling methods:
ideal, natural, and flat-top.
PCM involves sampling, quantizing, and line coding.
According to the Nyquist theorem, to reproduce the original analog
signal, one necessary condition is that the sampling rate be at
least twice the highest frequency in the original signal.
Other sampling techniques have been developed to reduce the
complexity of PCM. The simplest is delta modulation. PCM finds the
value of the signal amplitude for each sample; DM finds the change
from the previous sample.
Digital transmission can be either parallel or serial in mode.
While there is only one way to send parallel data, there are three
subclasses of serial transmission: asynchronous, synchronous, and
In parallel transmission, a group of bits is sent simultaneously, with
each bit on a separate line.
In serial transmission, there is only one line and the bits are sent

Three techniques involve digital-to-digital conversion

Line coding

Block coding


Five categories of Line coding

Unipolar - the signal levels are on one side of the time axis, either
above or below. Traditionally, a unipolar scheme was designed as a
non-return-to-zero (NRZ) scheme in which the positive voltage defines
bit 1 and the zero voltage defines bit O.
Polar - the voltages are on the both sides of the time axis. In polar
NRZ encoding, we use two levels of voltage amplitude. We can have
two versions of polar NRZ: NRZ-L and NRZ-I.
Bipolar - there are three voltage levels: positive, negative, and zero.
The voltage level for one data element is at zero, while the voltage
level for the other element alternates between positive and negative.
Multilevel - The desire to increase the data speed or decrease the
required bandwidth has resulted in the creation of many schemes. The
goal is to increase the number of bits per baud by encoding a pattern
of m data elements into a pattern of n signal elements.
Multitransition- MLT-3, a scheme that maps one bit to one signal
element. The signal rate is the same as that for NRZ-I, but with greater
complexity (three levels and complex transition rules). It turns out that
the shape of the signal in this scheme helps to reduce the required

Line coding schemes

Summary of line coding schemes
Common Block coding methods

4B/5B - A block coding technique in which 4 bits are encoded into a 5bit code. The four binary/five binary (4B/5B) coding scheme was
designed to be used in combination
with NRZ-I.
8B/10B - A block coding technique in which 8 bits are encoded into a
lO-bit code.

8B/6T - A three-level line encoding scheme that encodes a block of 8

bits into a signal
of 6 ternary pulses.

Two common scrambling techniques

B8ZS - bipolar with 8-zero substitution (B8ZS), a scrambling technique

in which a stream of 8
zeros are replaced by a predefined pattern to improve bit
HDB3 - High-density bipolar 3-zero (HDB3) is commonly used outside
of North America. Four consecutive zero-level voltages are replaced
with a sequence of OOOV or BOOV. The reason for two different
substitutions is to maintain the even number of nonzero pulses after
each substitution.

The three sampling methods

Ideal - pulses from the analog signal are sampled. This is an ideal
sampling method and cannot be easily implemented.
Natural - a high-speed switch is turned on for only the small period of
time when the sampling occurs.
Flat-top - The most common sampling method, called sample and hold,
however, creates flat-top samples by using a circuit.

Three subclasses of serial transmission

Asynchronous - send 1 start bit (0) at the beginning and 1 or more

stop bits (1 s) at the end of each byte.
Synchronous - send bits one after another without start or stop bits or
gaps. It is the responsibility of the receiver to group the bits.
Isochronous - provides synchronized for the entire stream of bits
must. In other words, it guarantees that the data arrive at a fixed rate.

Data transmission and modes

Note: You can proceed to take the multiple choice exam regarding this
Analog transmission refers to the transmission of analog signals
using a band-pass channel. Baseband digital or analog signals are
converted to a complex analog signal with a range of frequencies
suitable for the channel.
Digital-to-analog conversion is the process of changing one of the
characteristics of an analog signal based on the information in the
digital data. It is also called modulation of a digital signal. The
baseband digital signal representing the digital data modulates the
carrier to create a broadband analog signal.
In amplitude shift keying, the amplitude of the carrier signal is
varied to create signal elements. Both frequency and phase remain
constant while the amplitude changes.
In frequency shift keying, the frequency of the carrier signal is
data. The frequency of the modulated signal is constant for the
duration of one signal element, but changes for the next signal
element if the data element changes. Both peak amplitude and phase
remain constant for all signal elements.
In phase shift keying, the phase of the carrier is varied to represent
two or more different signal elements. Both peak amplitude and
frequency remain constant as the phase changes.
Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is a combination of ASK
and PSK. QAM uses two carriers, one in-phase and the other
quadrature, with different amplitude levels for each carrier.
QAM enables a higher data transmission rate than other digital-toanalog methods.
Baud rate and bit rate are not synonymous. Bit rate is the number
of bits transmitted per second. Baud rate is the number of signal units
transmitted per second. One signal unit can represent one or more
The minimum required bandwidth for ASK and PSK is the baud rate.

The minimum required bandwidth (BW) for FSK modulation is BW = f

c1 .f c0 + N baud , where f c1 is the frequency representing a 1 bit, f
c0 is the frequency representing a 0 bit, and N baud is the baud rate.

A regular telephone line uses frequencies between 600 and 3000

Hz for data communication.
ASK modulation is especially susceptible to noise because
the amplitude is more affected by noise than the phase or frequency.

frequencies, FSK
modulation requires more bandwidth than ASK and PSK.
Trellis coding is a technique that uses redundancy to provide a lower
error rate.
The 56K modems are asymmetric; they download at a rate of 56 Kbps
and upload at 33.6 Kbps.
A constellation diagram shows us the amplitude and phase of a
signal element, particularly when we are using two carriers (one inphase and one quadrature).
Analog-to-analog conversion is the representation of analog
information by an analog signal. Conversion is needed if the medium is
bandpass in nature or if only a bandpass bandwidth is available to us.
In AM transmission, the carrier signal is modulated so that its
amplitude varies with the changing amplitudes of the modulating
signal. The frequency and phase of the carrier remain the same; only
the amplitude changes to follow variations in the information.
In PM transmission, the frequency of the carrier signal is modulated
to follow the changing voltage level (amplitude) of the modulating
signal. The peak amplitude and phase of the carrier signal remain
constant, but as the amplitude of the information signal changes, the
frequency of the carrier changes correspondingly.
In PM transmission, the phase of the carrier signal is modulated to
follow the changing voltage level (amplitude) of the modulating signal.
The peak amplitude and frequency of the carrier signal remain
constant, but as the amplitude of the information signal changes, the
phase of the carrier changes correspondingly.
In AM radio, the bandwidth of the modulated signal must be twice the
bandwidth of the modulating signal.
In FM radio, the bandwidth of the modulated signal must be 10 times
the bandwidth of the modulating signal.

Types of digital-to-analog conversion

Digital-to-analog modulation can be accomplished using the following

Amplitude shift keying (ASK) - the amplitude of the carrier signal

Frequency shift keying (FSK) - the frequency of the carrier signal
Phase shift keying (PSK) - the phase of the carrier signal varies.
Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) - both the phase and
amplitude of the carrier signal vary. It combines ASK and PSK.

PSK and QAM modulation have two advantages over ASK:

They are not as susceptible to noise.

Each signal change can represent more than one bit.

Analog-to-analog conversion can be accomplished in three ways:

amplitude modulation (AM)

frequency modulation (FM)

phase modulation (PM)

The Total Bandwidth Required:

The total bandwidth required for AM can be determined from the

bandwidth of the audio signal: BAM = 2B.
The total bandwidth required for FM can be determined from the
bandwidth of the audio signal: BFM = 2(1 + )B.
The total bandwidth required for PM can be determined from the
bandwidth and maximum amplitude of the modulating signal: BPM =
2(1 + )B.

AM band allocation
FM band allocation
Note: You can proceed to take the multiple choice exam regarding this topic.

Bandwidth utilization is the use of available bandwidth to achieve

specific goals.
Efficiency can be achieved by using multiplexing; privacy and
antijamming can be achieved by using spreading.
Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous
transmission of multiple signals across a single data link.
In a multiplexed system, n lines share the bandwidth of one link. The
word link refers to the physical path. The word channel refers to the
portion of a link that carries a transmission.
Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) and wave-division multiplexing
(WDM) are techniques for analog signals, while time-division
multiplexing (TDM) is for digital signals.

Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is an analog technique that

can be applied when the bandwidth of a link (in hertz) is greater than
the combined bandwidths of the signals to be transmitted.

Telephone companies use FDM to combine voice channels into

successively larger groups for more efficient transmission.

Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is designed to use the

high bandwidth capability of fiber-optic cable. WDM is an analog
multiplexing technique to combine optical signals.
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a digital process that allows
several connections to share the high bandwidth of a link. TDM is a
digital multiplexing technique for combining several low-rate channels
into one high-rate one.
Framing bits allow the TDM multiplexer to synchronize properly.
Interleaving - process of sending a unit in the multiplexing and
receiving on the demultiplexing side.
Digital signal (DS) is a hierarchy of TDM signals.

T lines (T-1 to T-4) are the implementation of DS services. A T-1 line

consists of 24 voice channels.

T lines are used in North America. The European standard defines a

variation called E lines.

Inverse multiplexing splits a data stream from one high-speed line

onto multiple lower-speed lines.
In spread spectrum (SS), we combine signals from different sources
to fit into a larger bandwidth.
Spread spectrum is designed to be used in wireless applications in
which stations must be able to share the medium without interception
by an eavesdropper and without being subject to jamming from a
malicious intruder. To achieve these goals, spread spectrum techniques
add redundancy.
The frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technique
uses M different carrier frequencies that are modulated by the source
signal. At one moment, the signal modulates one carrier frequency; at
the next moment, the signal modulates another carrier frequency.
The direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technique expands
the bandwidth of a signal by replacing each data bit with n bits using a
spreading code. In other words, each bit is assigned a code of n bits,
called chips.

Three basic Multiplexing Techniques

Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) - each signal modulates a

different carrier frequency. The modulated carriers are combined to

form a new signal that is then sent across the link. In FDM, multiplexers
modulate and combine signals while demultiplexers decompose and
demodulate. Also in FDM, guard bands keep the modulated signals
from overlapping and interfering with one another.
Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) - similar in concept to
FDM, however, the signals being multiplexed are light waves.
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) - digital signals from n devices
are interleaved with one another, forming a frame of data (bits, bytes,
or any other data unit).

Two different schemes of TDM

Synchronous TDM - each input connection has an allotment in the

output even if it is not sending data. The data rate of the link is n times
faster, and the unit duration is n times shorter.
Statistical TDM - slots are dynamically allocated to improve
bandwidth efficiency.

Digital hierarchy

DS and T line rates

E line rates

Note: You can proceed to take the multiple choice exam regarding this topic

Transmission media lie below the physical layer.

A guided medium provides a physical conduit from one device to

Twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, and optical fiber are the most popular
types of guided media.

Twisted-pair cable consists of two insulated copper wires twisted

together. Twisting allows each wire to have approximately the same
noise environment. Twisting ensures that both wires are equally, but
inversely, affected by external influences such as noise.

Twistedpair cable is used for voice and data communications.

Coaxial cable consists of a central conductor and a shield. Coaxial

cable can carry signals of higher frequency ranges than twisted-pair
cable. Coaxial cable is used in cable TV networks and traditional
Ethernet LANs.

Coaxial cable has the following layers (starting from the center): a
metallic rod-shaped inner conductor, an insulator covering the rod, a
metallic outer conductor (shield), an insulator covering the shield, and
a plastic cover.

The inner core of an optical fiber is surrounded by cladding. The core is

denser than the cladding, so a light beam traveling through the core is
reflected at the boundary between the core and the cladding if the
incident angle is more than the critical angle.
Fiber-optic cables are composed of a glass or plastic inner
core surrounded by cladding, all encased in an outside jacket.

Fiber-optic cables carry data signals in the form of light. The signal is
propagated along the inner core by reflection.

Fiber optic transmission is becoming increasingly popular due to

its noise resistance, low attenuation, and high-bandwidth capabilities.

Fiber-optic cable is used in backbone networks, cable TV networks, and

Fast Ethernet networks.

Signal propagation in optical fibers can be multimode (multiple beams

from a light source) or single-mode (essentially one beam from a light
In multimode step-index propagation, the core density is constant
and the light beam changes direction suddenly at the interface
between the core and the cladding.
In multimode graded-index propagation, the core density
decreases with distance from the center. This causes a curving of the
light beams.
Unguided media (free space) transport electromagnetic waves
without the use of a physical conductor.
Wireless data are transmitted through ground propagation, sky
propagation, and line-of- sight propagation.
In sky propagation radio waves radiate upward into the ionosphere
In line-of-sight
propagation signals are transmitted in a straight line from antenna to
Wireless waves can be classified as radio waves, microwaves, or
infrared waves. Radio waves are omnidirectional; microwaves are
Radio waves are omnidirectional. The radio wave band is under
government regulation.
Microwaves are unidirectional; the propagation is line of sight.
Microwaves are used for cellular phone, satellite, and wireless LAN
Microwaves are used for cellular phone, satellite, and wireless LAN
The parabolic dish antenna and the horn antenna are used for
transmission and reception of microwaves.
Infrared waves are used for short-range communications such as
PC and a peripheral device. It can also be used for indoor LANs.

Categories of Transmission Media

Guided media - have physical boundaries

Unguided media - are unbounded.

Three Major classes of Guided Media

Twisted-pair cable

Coaxial cable
Optical fiber

Propagation modes

Single mode - uses step-index fiber and a highly focused source of

light that limits beams to a small range of angles, all close to the
Multimode - multiple beams from a light source move through the
core in different paths. It can be implemented in two forms: step-index
or graded-index

Ground Propagation

Sky Propagation

Line-of-sight Propagation

Frequency Bands
Wireless Transmission

Radio Wave - used for multicast communications, such as radio and

television, and paging systems.
Micro Wave - used for unicast communication such as cellular
telephones, satellite networks, and wireless LANs.
Infrared - used for short-range communication in a closed area using
line-of-sight propagation.

Switching is a method in which communication devices

are connected to one another efficiently.

A switch is intermediary hardware or software that links devices together


There are three fundamental switching methods: circuit switching, packet

switching, and message switching.

Circuit switching uses either of two technologies: the space-division switch

or the time-division switch.

In a space-division switch, the path from one device to another is spatially

separate from other paths.

A crossbar is the most common space-division switch. It connects n inputs

to m outputs via n m crosspoints.

Multistage switches can reduce the number of crosspoints needed, but

blocking may result.

Blocking occurs when not every input has its own unique path to every

In a time-division switch, the inputs are divided in time, using TDM.

control unit sends the input to the correct output device.

The time-slot interchange and the TDM bus are two types of timedivision switches.

Space- and time-division switches may be combined.

A telephone network is an example of a circuit-switched network.

Switching at the physical layer in the traditional telephone network uses

the circuit-switching approach.

In a datagram network, each packet is treated independently of all others.

Packets in this approach are referred to as datagrams. There are no setup or
teardown phases.

A switch in a datagram network uses a routing table that is based on

the destination address.

The destination address in the header of a packet in a datagram

network remains the same during the entire journey of the packet.

Switching in the Internet is done by using the datagram approach to

packet switching at the network layer.

A virtual-circuit network is a cross between a circuit-switched network and

a datagram network. It has some characteristics of both.

In virtual-circuit switching, all packets belonging to the same source and

destination travel the same path; but the packets may arrive at the
destination with different delays if resource allocation is on demand.

Switching at the data link layer in a switched WAN is normally implemented

by using virtual-circuit techniques.

The address field defines the end-to-end (source to destination) addressing.

A switch in a packet-switched network has a different structure from a

switch used in a circuit-switched network.We can say that a packet switch has
four types of components: input ports, output ports, a routing processor, and
switching fabric.

The United States is divided into more than 200 local exchange carriers
(ILECs) and competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs). Inter-LATA services
are handled by interexchange carriers (IXCs).

Telephone companies provide digital services such as switched/56 services

and digital data services.

The AT&T monopoly was broken in 1984 through a government suit.

Three Fundamental Switching Methods

Circuit switching - a direct physical connection between two devices is

created by space-division switches, time-division switches, or both. Circuit
switching takes place at the physical layer. In circuit switching, the resources
need to be reserved during the setup phase; the resources remain dedicated
for the entire duration of data transfer until the teardown phase.

Packet switching - there is no resource allocation for a packet. This means

that there is no reserved bandwidth on the links, and there is no scheduled
processing time for each packet. Resources are allocated on demand. Packet
switching uses either the virtual circuit approach or the datagram approach.

Message switching - has been phased out in general communications but

still has networking applications.

Today's Networks Three Broad Categories

Circuit-switched networks - made of a set of switches connected by

physical links, in which each link is divided into n channels.

Packet-switched networks - there is no resource reservation; resources are

allocated on demand. If the message is going to pass through a packetswitched network, it needs to be divided into packets of fixed or variable size.

The size of the packet is determined by the network and the governing








two subcategories: virtual-circuit networks and datagram networks

Message-switched -

Taxonomy of switched networks

Three Phases in a Circuit-switched network

Setup Phase - The end systems are normally connected through dedicated
lines to the switches, so connection setup means creating dedicated channels
between the switches.

Data Transfer Phase - After the establishment of the dedicated circuit

(channels), the two parties can transfer data.

Teardown Phase - When one of the parties needs to disconnect, a signal is

sent to each switch to release the resources.

Telephone system has three major components

Local loops - a twisted-pair cable that connects the subscriber telephone to

the nearest end office or local central office. The local loop, when used for

voice, has a bandwidth of 4000 Hz (4 kHz). The first three digits of a local
telephone number define the office, and the next four digits define the local
loop number.

Trunks - transmission media that handle the communication between offices.

A trunk normally handles hundreds or thousands of connections through

Switching Offices - A switch connects several local loops or trunks and

allows a connection between different subscribers.


In a three-stage switch, the total number of crosspoints is 2kN

k(N/n)2 which is much smaller than the number of crosspoints in a singlestage switch (N2).

According to the Clos criterion:

n = (N/2)1/2
k > 2n 1
Crosspoints 4N [(2N)1/2 1]

Note: You can proceed to take the multiple choice exam regarding this topic.

The telephone, which is referred to as the plain old telephone system

(POTS), was originally an analog system. During the last decade, the
telephone network has undergone many technical changes. The
network is now digital as well as analog.

A home computer can access the Internet through the existing

telephone system or through a cable TV system.

The telephone network is made of three major components: local

loops, trunks, and switching offices. It has several levels of switching
offices such as end offices, tandem offices, and regional offices.

Telephone companies provide two types of services: analog and digital.

The United States is divided into many local access transport areas
(LATAs). The services offered inside a LATA are called intra-LATA
services. The carrier that handles these services is called a local

exchange carrier (LEC). The services between LATAs are handled

by interexchange carriers (lXCs).
A LATA is a small or large metropolitan area that according to the
divestiture of 1984 was under the control of a single telephone-service

In in-band signaling, the same circuit is used for both signaling and
data. In out-of band signaling, a portion of the bandwidth is used for
signaling and another portion for data. The protocol that is used for
signaling in the telephone network is called Signaling System Seven

Telephone companies provide two types of services: analog and digital.

We can categorize analog services as either analog switched services
or analog leased services. The two most common digital services are
switched/56 service and digital data service (DDS).
Data transfer using the telephone local loop was traditionally done
using a dial-up modem. The term modem is a composite word that
refers to the two functional entities that make up the device: a signal
modulator and a signal demodulator.
Most popular modems available are based on the V-series standards.
The V.32 modem has a data rate of 9600 bps. The V32bis modem
supports 14,400-bps transmission.
called 56K
modems, with a downloading rate of 56 kbps and uploading rate
of 33.6 kbps are very common. The standard above V90 is called V92.
These modems can adjust their speed, and if the noise allows, they can
upload data at the rate of 48 kbps.
Telephone companies developed another technology, digital subscriber
line (DSL), to provide higher-speed access to the Internet. DSL
technology is a set of technologies, each differing in the first letter
(ADSL, VDSL, HDSL, and SDSL. ADSL provides higher speed in the
downstream direction than in the upstream direction. The high-bitrate
digital subscriber line (HDSL) was designed as an alternative to the T-l
line (1.544 Mbps). The symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL) is a one
twisted-pair version of HDSL. The very high-bit-rate digital subscriber
line (VDSL) is an alternative approach that is similar to ADSL.
DSL supports high-speed digital communications over the existing
telephone local loops.
ADSL technology allows customers a bit rate of up to 1 Mbps in the
upstream direction and up to 8 Mbps in the downstream direction.
ADSL uses a modulation technique called DMT which combines QAM
and FDM.

ADSL is an asymmetric communication technology designed for

residential users; it is not suitable for businesses.

ADSL is an adaptive technology. The system uses a data rate based on

the condition of the local loop line.

SDSL, HDSL, and VDSL are other DSL technologies.

Theoretically, the coaxial cable used for cable TV allows Internet

access with a bit rate of up to 12 Mbps in the upstream direction and
up to 30 Mbps in the downstream direction.
An HFC network allows Internet access through a combination of
fiber-optic and coaxial cables.
The coaxial cable bandwidth is divided into a video band, a
downstream data band, and an upstream data band. Both upstream
and downstream bands are shared among subscribers.
DOCSIS defines all protocols needed for data transmission on an HFC
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) is a synchronous high-datarate TDM network for fiber-optic networks.
SONET has defined a hierarchy of signals (similar to the DS hierarchy)
called synchronous transport signals (STSs).
Optical carrier (OC) levels are the implementation of STSs.
A SONET frame can be viewed as a matrix of nine rows of 90 octets
SONET is backward compatible with the current DS hierarchy through
the virtual tributary (VT) concept. VT's are a partial payload consisting
of an m-by-n block of octets. An STS payload can be a combination of
several VT's.
STSs can be multiplexed to get a new STS with a higher data range.
Community antenna TV (CATV) was originally designed to provide
video services for the community. The traditional cable TV system used
coaxial cable end to end. The second generation of cable networks is
called a hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) network. The network uses
a combination of fiber-optic and coaxial cable.

Communication in the traditional cable TV network is unidirectional.

Communication in an HFC cable TV network can be bidirectional.

To provide Internet access, the cable company has divided the

available bandwidth of the coaxial cable into three bands: video,
downstream data, and upstream data. The downstream-only video
band occupies frequencies from 54 to 550 MHz. The downstream data
occupies the upper band, from 550 to 750 MHz. The upstream data
occupies the lower band, from 5 to 42 MHz.
In a telephone network, the telephone numbers of the caller and
callee are serving as source and destination addresses. These are used
only during the setup (dialing) and teardown (hanging up) phases.

Three Major Components of Telephone System

Local loops - a twisted-pair cable that connects the subscriber

telephone to the nearest end office or local central office. The local
loop, when used for voice, has a bandwidth of 4000 Hz (4 kHz). The
existing local loops can handle bandwidths up to 1.1 MHz.
Trunks - transmission media that handle the communication between
offices. A trunk normally handles hundreds or thousands of connections
through multiplexing. Transmission is usually through optical fibers or
satellite links.
Switching offices - A switch connects several local loops or trunks
and allows a connection between different subscribers.

A SONET system can use the following equipment:

STS multiplexer - combines several optical signals to make an STS

Regenerator - removes noise from an optical signal.
Add/drop multiplexer - adds STSs from different paths and removes
STSs from a path.

Data can be corrupted during transmission. Some applications require

that errors be detected and corrected.

In a single-bit error, only one bit in the data unit has changed.
A burst error means that two or more bits in the data unit have

To detect or correct errors, we need to send extra (redundant) bits with


Redundancy is the concept of sending extra bits for use in error

There are two main methods of error correction: forward error
correction and correction by retransmission.
We can divide coding schemes into two broad categories: block
coding and convolution coding.
In coding, we need to use modulo-2 arithmetic. Operations in this
arithmetic are very simple; addition and subtraction give the same
results. we use the XOR (exclusive OR) operation for both addition
and subtraction.
In modulo-N arithmetic, we use only the integers in the range 0 to N
1, inclusive.

In block coding, we divide our message into blocks, each of k bits,

called datawords. We add r redundant bits to each block to make the
length n = k + r. The resulting n-bit blocks are called codewords.

An error-detecting code can detect only the types of errors for which it
is designed; other types of errors may remain undetected.

The Hamming code is an error correction method using redundant

bits. The number of bits is a function of the length of the data bits.
In the Hamming code, for a data unit of m bits, use the formula 2 r >=
m + r + 1 to determine r, the number of redundant bits needed.
By rearranging the order of bit transmission of the data units, the
Hamming code can correct burst errors.
The Hamming distance between two words is the number of
differences between corresponding bits. The minimum Hamming
distance is the smallest Hamming distance between all possible pairs
in a set of words.
To guarantee the detection of up to s errors in all cases, the minimum
Hamming distance in a block code must be dmin = s + 1. To guarantee
correction of up to t errors in all cases, the minimum Hamming
distance in a block code must be dmin = 2t + 1.
In a linear block code, the exclusive OR (XOR) of any two valid
codewords creates another valid codeword.
A simple parity-check code is a single-bit error-detecting code in
which n = k + 1 with dmin = 2. A simple parity-check code can detect
an odd number of errors.
All Hamming codes discussed in this book have dmin = 3. The
relationship between m and n in these codes is n = 2m - 1.
Cyclic codes are special linear block codes with one extra property. In
a cyclic code, if a codeword is cyclically shifted (rotated), the result is
another codeword.
The divisor in a cyclic code is normally called the generator
polynomial or simply the generator.
In a cyclic code, those e(x) errors that are divisible by g(x) are not

If the generator has more than one term and the coefficient of x0 is 1,
all single errors can be caught.

If a generator cannot divide x t + 1 (t between 0 and n 1), then all

isolated double errors can be detected.

A generator that contains a factor of x + 1 can detect all oddnumbered errors.

A category of cyclic codes called the cyclic redundancy check

(CRC) is used in networks such as LANs and WANs.

A pattern of Os and Is can be represented as a polynomial with

coefficients of 0 and 1.
Traditionally, the Internet has been using a 16-bit checksum, which
uses one's complement arithmetic. In this arithmetic, we can represent
unsigned numbers between o and 2n -1 using only n bits.

Error Categories:

Single-bit error - has one bit error per data unit.

Burst error - has two or more bit errors per data unit.

Three common redundancy methods

Parity check- An extra bit (parity bit) is added to the data unit. The
parity check can detect only an odd number of errors; it cannot detect
an even number of errors. In the two-dimensional parity check, a
redundant data unit follows n data units.
Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) - a powerful redundancy checking
technique, appends a sequence of redundant bits derived from binary
division to the data unit. The divisor in the CRC generator is often
represented as an algebraic polynomial.
Checksum - used in the Internet by several protocols although not at
the data link layer.

At least three types of error cannot be detected by the

current checksum

First, if two data items are swapped during transmission, the sum and
the checksum values will not change.
Second, if the value of one data item is increased (intentionally or
maliciously) and the value of another one is decreased (intentionally or
maliciously) the same amount, the sum and the checksum cannot
detect these changes.
Third, if one or more data items is changed in such a way that the
change is a multiple of 216 1, the sum or the checksum cannot detect
the changes.

Two Main Methods of Error Correction

Forward error correction- the receiver tries to correct the corrupted

Error correction by retransmission - the corrupted message is
discarded (the sender needs to retransmit the message).

In block coding, errors be detected by using the following

two conditions:

a. The receiver has (or can find) a list of valid codewords.

b. The original codeword has changed to an invalid one.

Data link control deals with the design and procedures for
The two main functions of the data link layer are data link
control and media access control.

Data link control functions include framing, flow and error control, and
software-implemented protocols that provide smooth and reliable
transmission of frames between nodes.

Flow control is the regulation of the senders data rate so that the
receiver buffer does not become overwhelmed.
Error control is both error detection and error correction.
Frames can be of fixed or variable size. In fixed-size framing, there
is no need for defining the boundaries of frames; in variable-size
framing, we need a delimiter (flag) to define the boundary of two
Variable-size framing uses two categories of protocols: byte-oriented
(or character-oriented) and bit-oriented. In a byte-oriented protocol,
the data section of a frame is a sequence of bytes; in a bit-oriented
protocol, the data section of a frame is a sequence of bits.
In byte-oriented (or character-oriented) protocols, we use byte
stuffing; a special byte added to the data section of the frame when
there is a character with the same pattern as the flag.
Byte stuffing is the process of adding 1 extra byte whenever there is
a flag or escape character in the text.
In bit-oriented protocols, we use bit stuffing; an extra 0 is added to
the data section of the frame when there is a sequence of bits with the
same pattern as the flag.
Bit stuffing is the process of adding one extra 0 whenever five
consecutive 1s follow a 0 in the data, so that the receiver does not
mistake the pattern 0111110 for a flag.
Flow control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount
of data that the sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment.
Error control refers to methods of error detection and correction.

For the noiseless channel, we discussed two protocols: the Simplest

Protocol and the Stop-and-Wait Protocol. The first protocol has neither
flow nor error control; the second has no error control.
In the Simplest Protocol, the sender sends its frames one after
another with no regards to the receiver.
In the Stop-and-Wait Protocol, the sender sends one frame, stops
until it receives confirmation from the receiver, and then sends the
next frame.
For the noisy channel, we discussed three protocols: Stop-and-Wait
ARQ, Go-Back- N, and Selective Repeat ARQ.
The Stop-and-Wait ARQ Protocol, adds a simple error control
mechanism to the Stop-and-Wait Protocol.
Error correction in Stop-and-Wait ARQ is done by keeping a copy of
the sent frame and retransmitting of the frame when the timer expires.
In Stop-and-Wait ARQ, we use sequence numbers to number the
frames. The sequence numbers are based on modulo-2 arithmetic.
In Stop-and-Wait ARQ, the acknowledgment number always announces
in modulo-2 arithmetic the sequence number of the next frame
Stop-and-Wait ARQ is a special case of Go-Back-N ARQ in which the
size of the send window is 1.
In the Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol, we can send several frames before
receiving acknowledgments, improving the efficiency of transmission.
In Go-Back-N ARQ, multiple frames can be in transit at the same
time. If there is an error, retransmission begins with the last
unacknowledged frame even if subsequent frames have arrived
correctly. Duplicate frames are discarded.
In the Go-Back-N Protocol, the sequence numbers are modulo 2m,
where m is the size of the sequence number field in bits.
The send window is an abstract concept defining an imaginary box of
size 2m 1 with three variables: Sf, Sn, and Ssize. The send window can
slide one or more slots when a valid acknowledgment arrives.
In Go-Back-N ARQ, the size of the send window must be less than 2 m;
the size of the receiver window is always 1.
In the Selective Repeat ARQ protocol we avoid unnecessary
transmission by sending only frames that are corrupted.
In Selective Repeat ARQ, multiple frames can be in transit at the
same time. If there is an error, only the unacknowledged frame is
In Selective Repeat ARQ, the size of the sender and receiver window
must be at most one-half of 2m.
Both Go-Back-N and Selective-Repeat Protocols use a sliding
window. In Go-Back- N ARQ, if m is the number of bits for the sequence
number, then the size of the send window must be less than 2m; the

size of the receiver window is always 1. In Selective Repeat ARQ, the

size of the sender and receiver window must be at most one-half of
A technique called piggybacking is used to improve the efficiency of
the bidirectional protocols. When a frame is carrying data from A to B,
it can also carry control information about frames from B; when a
frame is carrying data from B to A, it can also carry control information
about frames from A.
The bandwidth-delay product is a measure of the number of bits a
system can have in transit.
High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented protocol for
communication over point-to-point and multipoint links. However,
the most common protocols for point-to-point access is the Point-toPoint Protocol (PPP), which is a byte-oriented protocol.
HDLC is a protocol that implements ARQ mechanisms. It supports
communication over point-to-point or multipoint links.

PPP is a byte-oriented protocol using byte stuffing with the escape byte

HDLC stations communicate in normal response mode (NRM) or

asynchronous balanced mode (ABM).
HDLC protocol defines three types of frames: the information frame
(I-frame), the supervisory frame (S-frame), and the unnumbered frame
HDLC handle data transparency by adding a 0 whenever there are five
consecutive 1s following a 0. This is called bit stuffing.

Two Main Functions of the Data Link layer

Data link control - deals with the design and procedures for
Media access - control deals with procedures for sharing the link.

Two categories of protocols in Variable-size framing

Byte-oriented protocol - data to be carried are 8-bit characters from

a coding system. Character-oriented protocols were popular when only
text was exchanged by the data link layers.
Bit-oriented protocol - the data section of a frame is a sequence of
bits. Bit-oriented protocols are more popular today because we need to
send text, graphic, audio, and video which can be better represented
by a bit pattern than a sequence of characters.

Taxonomy of protocols discussed in this chapter

Note: You can proceed to take the multiple choice exam regarding this
topic. Data Link Control - Set 1 MCQs

Definition of Terms

We can consider the data link layer as two sublayers. The upper
sublayer is responsible for data link control, and the lower
sublayer is responsible for resolving access to the shared media.
Many formal protocols have been devised to handle access to a shared
link. We categorize them into three groups: random access protocols,
controlled access protocols, and channelization protocols.
In random access or contention methods, no station is superior to
another station and none is assigned the control over another.
ALOHA allows multiple access (MA) to the shared medium. There are
potential collisions in this arrangement. When a station sends data,
another station may attempt to do so at the same time. The data from
the two stations collide and become garbled.
To minimize the chance of collision and, therefore, increase the
performance, the CSMA method was developed. The chance of
collision can be reduced if a station senses the medium before trying
to use it. Carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) requires that each
station first
sending. Three
methods have been devised for carrier sensing: I-persistent,
nonpersistent, and p-persistent.
Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
(CSMA/CD) augments the CSMA algorithm to handle collision. In this
method, a station monitors the medium after it sends a frame to see if
the transmission was successful. If so, the station is finished. If,
however, there is a collision, the frame is sent again.
To avoid collisions on wireless networks, carrier sense multiple
access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) was invented. Collisions are

avoided through the use three strategies: the interframe space, the
contention window, and acknowledgments.
In CSMA/CA, the IFS can also be used to define the priority of a station
or a frame.
In CSMA/CA, if the station finds the channel busy, it does not restart
the timer of the contention window; it stops the timer and restarts it
when the channel becomes idle.
In controlled access, the stations consult one another to find which
station has the right to send. A station cannot send unless it has been
authorized by other stations. We discussed three popular controlledaccess methods: reservation, polling, and token passing.
In the reservation access method, a station needs to make a
reservation before sending data. Time is divided into intervals. In each
interval, a reservation frame precedes the data frames sent in that
In the polling method, all data exchanges must be made through the
primary device even when the ultimate destination is a secondary
device. The primary device controls the link; the secondary devices
follow its instructions.
In the token-passing method, the stations in a network are
organized in a logical ring. Each station has a predecessor and a
successor. A special packet called a token circulates through the ring.
Channelization is a multiple-access method in which the available
bandwidth of a link is shared in time, frequency, or through code,
between different stations. We discussed three channelization
protocols: FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA.
In frequency-division multiple access (FDMA), the available
bandwidth is divided into frequency bands. Each station is allocated a
band to send its data. In other words, each band is reserved for a
specific station, and it belongs to the station all the time.
In FDMA, the available bandwidth of the common channel is divided
into bands that are separated by guard bands.
In time-division multiple access (TDMA), the stations share the
bandwidth of the channel in time. Each station is allocated a time slot
during which it can send data. Each station transmits its data in its
assigned time slot.
In TDMA, the bandwidth is just one channel that is timeshared
between different stations.
In code-division multiple access (CDMA), the stations use different
codes to achieve multiple access. CDMA is based on coding theory and
uses sequences of numbers called chips. The sequences are generated
using orthogonal codes such the Walsh tables.
In CDMA, one channel carries all transmissions simultaneously.

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) was designed to provide a

dedicated line for users who need Internet access via a telephone line
or a cable TV connection.
A PPP connection goes through these phases: idle, establishing,
authenticating (optional), networking, and terminating.
At the data link layer, PPP employs a version of HDLC.

The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for establishing,

maintaining, configuring, and terminating links.

Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake

Authentication Protocol (CHAP) are two protocols used for
authentication in PPP.
PAP is a two-step process. The user sends authentication identification
and a password. The system determines the validity of the information
CHAP is a three-step process. The system sends a value to the user.
The user manipulates the value and sends its result. The system
verifies the result.
Network Control Protocol (NCP) is a set of protocols to allow the
encapsulation of data coming from network layer protocols; each set is
specific for a network layer protocol that requires the services of PPP.
Internetwork Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP), an NCP protocol,
establishes and terminates a network layer connection for IP packets.

Data link layer divided into two functionality-oriented


Three Categories of Multiple Access Protocols

Random access method- the stations consult one another to find

which station has the right to send. A station cannot send unless it has
been authorized by other stations.
Controlled access method - there is no access control (as there is in
controlled access methods) and there is no predefined channels (as in

channelization). Each station can transmit when it desires. This liberty

may create collision. The whole available bandwidth belongs to the
station that wins the contention; the other stations needs to wait.
Channelization - the available bandwidth is divided between the
stations. If a station does not have data to send, the allocated channel
remains idle.

Taxonomy of multiple-access protocols discussed in this


Ethernet is the most widely used local area network protocol.

The original Ethernet was created in 1976 at Xeroxs Palo Alto Research
Center (PARC). Since then, it has gone through four generations.



Standard defines I-persistent CSMA/CD as



method for first-generation 10-Mbps Ethernet.

The data link layer of Ethernet consists of the LLC sublayer and the MAC

The MAC sublayer is responsible for the operation of the CSMAlCD access
method and framing.

Each station on an Ethernet network has a unique 48-bit address imprinted

on its network interface card (NIC).





for lO-Mbps

Ethernet is 64



maximum is 1518 bytes.

The common implementations of lO-Mbps Ethernet are lOBase5 (thick

Ethernet), 10Base2 (thin

Ethernet), lOBase-T (twisted-pair

and lOBase-F (fiber Ethernet).


The 10Base5 implementation

cable. lOBase2 uses thin




uses thick

cable. lOBase-T uses four


cables that connect each station to a common hub. lOBase-F uses fiber-optic

A bridge can increase the bandwidth and separate the collision domains on
an Ethernet LAN.

A switch allows each station on an Ethernet LAN to have the entire capacity
of the network to itself.

Full-duplex mode doubles the capacity of each domain and removes the
need for the CSMAlCD method.

Fast Ethernet has a data rate of 100 Mbps.

Fast Ethernet was designed to compete with LAN protocols such as FDDI or
Fiber Channel. IEEE created Fast Ethernet under the name 802.3u. Fast
Ethernet is backward-compatible with Standard Ethernet, but it can transmit
data 10 times faster at a rate of 100 Mbps.

In Fast Ethernet, autonegotiation allows two devices to negotiate the mode

or data rate of operation.

The Fast Ethernet reconciliation sublayer is responsible for the passing of

data in 4-bit format to the MII.

The Fast Ethernet MII is an interface that can be used with both a 10- and a
100-Mbps interface.

The Fast Ethernet PHY sublayer is responsible for encoding and decoding.

The common Fast Ethernet implementations are 1OOBase-TX (two pairs of


cable), lOOBase-FX (two



and 100Base-

T4 (four pairs of voice-grade, or higher, twisted-pair cable).

Gigabit Ethernet has a data rate of 1000 Mbps.

Gigabit Ethernet access methods include half-duplex using traditional

CSMA/CD (not common) and full-duplex (most popular method).

The Gigabit Ethernet reconciliation sublayer is responsible for sending 8-bit

parallel data to the PHY sublayer via a GMII interface.

The Gigabit Ethernet GMII defines how the reconciliation sublayer is to be

connected to the PHY sublayer.

The Gigabit Ethernet PHY sublayer is responsible for encoding and decoding.

The common Gigabit Ethernet implementations are 1000Base-SX (two

optical fibers and a short-wave laser source), 1000Base-LX (two optical
fibers and a long-wave laser source), and 1000Base-T (four twisted pairs).

The latest Ethernet standard is Ten-Gigabit Ethernet that operates at 10

Gbps. The three common implementations are lOGBase-S, 10GBase-L, and
10GBase-E. These implementations use fiber-optic cables in full-duplex

In the full-duplex mode of Gigabit Ethernet, there is no collision; the

maximum length of the cable is determined by the signal attenuation in the

In 1985, the Computer Society of the IEEE started a project, called Project
802, to set standards to enable intercommunication among equipment from
a variety of manufacturers. Project 802 is a way of specifying functions of
the physical layer and the data link layer of major LAN protocols.

Medium access methods can be categorized as random, controlled, or


In the carrier sense multiple-access (CSMA) method, a station must

listen to the medium prior to sending data onto the line.

A persistence strategy defines the procedure to follow when a station

senses an occupied medium.

Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is

CSMA with a postcollision procedure.

Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is

CSMA with procedures that avoid a collision.

Reservation, polling, and token passing are controlled-access methods.

In the reservation access method, a station reserves a slot for data by

setting its flag in a reservation frame.

In the polling access method, a primary station controls transmissions to

and from secondary stations.

In the token-passing access method, a station that has control of a frame

called a token can send data.

Channelization is







bandwidth of a link is shared in time, frequency, or through code, between

stations on a network.

FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA are channelization methods.

In FDMA, the bandwith is divided into bands; each band is reserved fro the
use of a specific station.

In TDMA, the bandwidth is not divided into bands; instead the bandwidth is

In CDMA, the bandwidth is not divided into bands, yet data from all inputs
are transmitted simultaneously.

CDMA is based on coding theory and uses sequences of numbers called

chips. The sequences are generated using Walsh tables.

The preamble is a 56-bit field that provides an alert and timing pulse. It is
added to the frame at the physical layer and is not formally part of the frame.
SFD is a one byte field that serves as a flag.

A multicast

address identifies




a broadcast

address identifies all stations on the network. A unicast address identifies

one of the addresses in a group.

A layer-2 switch is an N-port bridge with additional sophistication that

allows faster handling of packets.

The least significant bit of the first byte defines the type of address. If the bit
is 0, the address is unicast; otherwise, it is multicast.

The broadcast destination address is a special case of the multicast address

in which all bits are 1s.

Ethernet evolution through four generations

The Data Rates

Standard Ethernet -10 Mbps

Fast Ethernet - 100 Mbps

Gigabit Ethernet - 1 Gbps

Ten-Gigabit Ethernet - 10 Gbps

Categories of Standard Ethernet

Summary of Standard Ethernet implementations

The common Fast Ethernet implementations:




Summary of Fast Ethernet implementations

The common Gigabit Ethernet implementations:





Summary of Gigabit Ethernet implementations

The common Ten-Gigabit Ethernet implementations:




Summary of Ten-Gigabit Ethernet implementations

Definition of Terms

802.11 standard
services: basic service set (BSS) and extended service set
(ESS). An ESS consists of two or more BSSs; each BSS must have an
access point (AP).
A BSS without an AP is called an ad hoc network; a BSS with an AP is
called an infrastructure network.

The basic service set (BSS) is the building block of a wireless LAN.

An extended service set (ESS) is made up of two or more BSSs with

APs. In this case, the BSSs are connected through a distribution
system, which is usually a wired LAN.

The physical layer methods used by wireless LANs include

frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), direct sequence spread
spectrum (DSSS), orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM),
and high-rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR-DSSS).
FHSS is a signal generation method in which repeated sequences of
carrier frequencies are used for protection against hackers.
One bit is replaced by a chip code in DSSS.
OFDM specifies that one source must use all the channels of the

The orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) method for

signal generation in a 5-GHz ISM band is similar to frequency division
multiplexing (FDM), with one major difference: All the subbands are
used by one source at a given time. Sources contend with one another
at the data link layer for access.

HR-DSSS is DSSS with an encoding method called complementary

code keying (CCK).
The wireless LAN access method is CSMA/CA.
The access method used in the distributed coordination function
(OCF) MAC sublayer is CSMAICA.
The access method used in the point coordination function (PCF) MAC
sublayer is polling.
The network allocation vector (NAV) is a timer used for collision

Network Allocation Vector (NAV) forces other stations to defer sending

their data if one station acquires access. In other words, it provides the
collision avoidance aspect. When a station sends an RTS frame, it
includes the duration of time that it needs to occupy the channel. The
stations that are affected by this transmission create a timer called a
The MAC layer frame has nine fields. The addressing mechanism can
include up to four addresses.
Wireless LANs use management frames, control frames, and data

IEEE 802.11 defines several physical layers, with different data rates
and modulating techniques.

The CTS frame in CSMA/CA handshake can prevent collision from a

hidden station.

Bluetooth is a wireless LAN technology that connects devices (called

gadgets) in a small area.
A Bluetooth network is called a piconet. Multiple piconets form a
network called a scatternet.
A Bluetooth network consists of one primary device and up to seven
secondary devices.

The Bluetooth radio layer performs functions similar to those in the

Internet model's physcial layer.

The Bluetooth baseband layer performs functions similar to those in

the Internet model's MAC sublayer.
A Bluetooth network consists of one master device and up to seven
slave devices.
A Bluetooth frame consists of data as well as hopping and control
mechanisms. A frame is one, three, or five slots in length with each slot
equal to 625 s.

A Bluetooth LAN is an ad hoc network, which means that the network is

formed spontaneously.

In multiple-secondary communication, the primary sends on the evennumbered slots; the secondary sends on the oddnumbered slots.

Basic service sets (BSSs)

Extended service sets (ESSs)

CSMA/CA flowchart
Physical layers

Industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band



Bluetooth layers

Layer comparison of Bluetooth and the Internet model

Radio layer Internet physical layer

Baseband layer MAC sublayer of Internet data link layer

L2CAP layer LLC sublayer of Internet data link layer

Definition of Terms

A repeater is a connecting device that operates in the physical layer

of the Internet model. A repeater regenerates a signal, connects
segments of a LAN, and has no filtering capability.
A passive hub is just a connector. It connects the wires coming from
different branches.
An active hub is actually a multipart repeater. It is normally used to
create connections between stations in a physical star topology.
A bridge is a connecting device that operates in the physical and data
link layers of the Internet model.
A bridge has filtering capability. It can check the destination address of
a frame and decide if the frame should be forwarded or dropped.
A bridge has a table used in filtering decisions. A bridge does not
change the physical (MAC) addresses in a frame.
A transparent bridge can forward and filter frames and automatically
build its forwarding table.
A transparent bridge is a bridge in which the stations are completely
unaware of the bridges existence. If a bridge is added or deleted from
the system, reconfiguration of the stations is unnecessary.
A bridge can use the spanning tree algorithm to create a loopless
In graph theory, a spanning tree is a graph in which there is no loop.

Note that there is only one single path from any LAN to any other
LAN in the spanning tree system. This means there is only one
single path from one LAN to any other LAN. No loops are created.
The bridges send special messages to one another, called bridge
protocol data units (BPDUs), to update the spanning tree.

A hub is a multiport repeater.

Another way to prevent loops in a system with redundant bridges is to

use source routing bridges. A transparent bridge's duties include
filtering frames, forwarding, and blocking.
A three-layer switch is used at the network layer; it is a kind of
The two-layer switch performs at the physical and data link layers. A
two-layer switch is a bridge, a bridge with many ports and a design
that allows better (faster) performance.
Some new two-layer switches, called cut-through switches, have
been designed to forward the frame as soon as they check the MAC
addresses in the header of the frame.
A router is a three-layer device that routes packets based on their
logical addresses (host-to-host addressing). A router normally
connects LANs and WANs in the Internet and has a routing table that is
used for making decisions about the route.
A three-layer switch is a router, but a faster and more
sophisticated. The switching fabric in a three-layer switch allows faster
table lookup and forwarding.
A gateway is normally a computer that operates in all five layers of
the Internet or seven layers of OSI model. A gateway takes an
application message, reads it, and interprets it.
A backbone LAN allows several LANs to be connected.
A backbone is usually a bus or a star.

In a bus backbone, the topology of the backbone is a bus; in a star

backbone, the topology is a star.

A point-to-point link acts as a LAN in a remote backbone connected

by remote bridges.
A virtual local area network (VLAN) is configured by software, not
by physical wiring.

VLANs create broadcast domains.

Membership in a VLAN can be based on port numbers, MAC

addresses, IP addresses, IP multicast addresses, or a combination of
these features.
Members of a VLAN can send broadcast messages with the
assurance those users in other groups will not receive these messages.

VLANs are cost- and time-efficient, can reduce network traffic, and
provide an extra measure of security.
In 1996, the IEEE 802.1 subcommittee passed a standard
called 802.1Q that defines the format for frame tagging. The standard
also defines the format to be used in multiswitched backbones and
enables the use of multivendor equipment in VLANs.
An amplifieramplifies the signal, as well as noise that may come with
the signal, whereas a repeater regenerates the signal, bit for bit, at the
original strength.
Stations can be grouped by port number, MAC address, IP address, or
by a combination of these characteristics.

Five categories of connecting devices

The five categories contain devices which can be defined as:

1. Those which operate below the physical layer such as a passive hub.
2. Those which operate at the physical layer (a repeater or an active
3. Those which operate at the physical and data link layers (a bridge or
4. Those which operate at the physical, data link, and network layers (a
three-layer switch).
5. Those which can operate at all five layers (a gateway).

Cellular telephony provides communication between two devices.

One or both may be mobile.
A cellular service area is divided into cells.
Reusing cells is cells with the same number in a pattern that can use
the same set of frequencies.
A mobile switching center coordinates communications between a
base station and a telephone central office.
Handof - If the strength of the signal diminishes, the MSC seeks a
new cell that can better accommodate the communication. The MSC

then changes the channel carrying the call (hands the signal off from
the old channel to a new one).
In a hard handof, a mobile station only communicates with one base
station. When the MS moves from one cell to another, communication
must first be broken with the previous base station before
communication can be established with the new one. This may create
a rough transition.
In Soft Handof, a mobile station can communicate with two base
stations at the same time. This means that, during handoff, a mobile
station may continue with the new base station before breaking off
from the old one.
Roaming means, in principle, that a user can have access to
communication or can be reached where there is coverage.
Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) is a first-generation
cellular phone system.
AMPS is an analog cellular phone system using FDMA.
Digital AMPS CD-AMPS) is a second-generation cellular phone
system that is a digital version of AMPS.
D-AMPS, or IS-136, is a digital cellular phone system using TDMA and
Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) is a secondgeneration cellular phone system used in Europe.

GSM is a digital cellular phone system using TDMA and FDMA.

Interim Standard 95 (IS-95) is a second-generation cellular phone

system based on CDMA and DSSS.
IS-95 is a digital cellular phone system using CDMA/DSSS and FDMA.
The third-generation cellular phone system will provide universal
personal communication.
A satellite network uses satellites to provide communication
between any points on earth.

A satellite network is a combination of nodes, some of which are

satellites, that provides communication from one point on the Earth to
another. A node in the network can be a satellite, an Earth station, or
an end-user terminal or telephone.

An artificial satellite needs to have an orbit, the path in which it

The orbit can be equatorial, inclined, or polar.
A footprint is the area on earth at which the satellite aims its signal.
Transmission from the earth to the satellite is called the uplink.
Transmission from the satellite to the earth is called the downlink.

Based on the location of the orbit, satellites can be divided into three
categories: geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), low-Earth-orbit (LEO), and
middle-Earth-orbit (MEO).
A geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) is at the equatorial plane and
revolves in phase with the earth.
Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are medium-Earthorbit (MEO)satellites that provide time and location information for
vehicles and ships.
Iridium satellites are low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites that provide
direct universal voice and data communications for handheld
The Iridium system has 66 satellites in six LEO orbits, each at an
altitude of 750 km.

Iridium is designed to provide direct worldwide voice and data

communication using handheld terminals, a service similar to cellular
telephony but on a global scale.

The main difference between Iridium and Globalstar is the relaying

mechanism. Iridium requires relaying between satellites. Globalstar
requires relaying between satellites and earth stations.
satellites are
provide universal broadband Internet access.
Teledesic has 288 satellites in 12 LEO orbits, each at an altitude of
1350 km.

Cellular system

Cellular bands for AMPS

Second-generation cellular phone systems

GSM bands

IMT-2000 radio interfaces

Satellite orbits

What is the period of the Moon, according to Keplers law?

Period = C x distance1.5
Here C is a constant approximately equal to 1/100. The period is in seconds
and the distance in kilometers.

Satellite categories

Satellite frequency bands

Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) is a standard developed by

ANSI for fiber-optic networks: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
(SDH) is a similar standard developed by ITU-T.
SONET was developed by ANSI; SDH was developed by ITU-T.
Each synchronous transfer signal STS-n is composed of 8000
frames. Each frame is a two-dimensional matrix of bytes with 9 rows by
90 n columns.
A SONET STS-n signal is transmitted at 8000 frames per second.

Each byte in a SONET frame can carry a digitized voice channel.

In SONET, the data rate of an STS-n signal is n times the data rate of
an STS-1 signal.
STS multiplexers/demultiplexers mark the beginning points and
endpoints of a SONET link.
An STS multiplexer multiplexes signals from multiple electrical
sources and creates the corresponding optical signal.
demultiplexer demultiplexes
corresponding electric signals.
Add/drop multiplexers allow insertion and extraction of signals in an
STS. An add/drop multiplexer can add an electrical signals into a given
path or can remove a desired signal from a path.
SONET has defined a hierarchy of signals called synchronous
transport signals (STSs). SDH has defined a similar hierarchy of
signals callefd synchronous transfer modules (STMs).
An OC-n signal is the optical modulation of an STS-n (or STM-n) signal.
Pointers are used to show the offset of the SPE in the frame or for
SONET uses two pointers show the position of an SPE with respect to
an STS.
SONET use the third pointer for rate adjustment between SPE and
A regenerator takes a received optical signal and regenerates it.

The SONET regenerator also replaces some of the existing overhead

information with new information.
SONET defines four layers: path, line, section, and photonic.
The path layer is responsible for the movement of a signal from its
source to its destination.
The line layer is responsible for the movement of a signal across a
physical line.
The section layer is responsible for the movement of a signal across a
physical section.
The photonic layer corresponds to the physical layer of the OSI
model. It includes physical specifications for the optical fiber channel.
SONET uses NRZ encoding with the presence of light representing
1 and the absence of light representing 0.
SONET is a synchronous TDM system in which all clocks are locked to a
master clock.
SONET sends 8000 frames per second; each frame lasts 125 s.
Section overhead is recalculated for each SONET device
(regenerators and multiplexers).
Path overhead is only calculated for end-to-end (at STS multiplexers).
An STS-3c signal can carry 44 ATM cells as its SPE.
An STS-I frame is made of 9 rows and 90 columns; an STS -n frame is
made of 9 rows and n x 90 columns.

STSs can be multiplexed to get a new STS with a higher data rate.

SONET network topologies can be linear, ring, or mesh.

A linear SONET network can be either point-to-point or multipoint.
A ring SONET network can be unidirectional or bidirectional.

To make SONET backward-compatible with the current hierarchy, its

frame design includes a system of virtual tributaries (VTs).

SONET is designed to carry broadband payloads. Current digital

hierarchy data rates, however, are lower than STS-1. To make SONET
backward-compatible with the current hierarchy, its frame design
includes a system of virtual tributaries (VTs). A virtual tributary is
a partial payload that can be inserted into an STS-1.

A SONET system can use the following equipment:

1. STS multiplexers

2. STS demultiplexers

3. Regenerators

4. Add/drop multiplexers

5. Terminals


A simple network using SONET equipment

SONET layers compared with OSI or the Internet layers

Taxonomy of SONET networks

Virtual tributary types

Virtual-circuit switching is a data link layer technology in

which links are shared.
A virtual-circuit identifier (VCI) identifies a frame between two
The three phases in virtual circuit switching are setup, data transfer,
and teardown.

The setup phase can use the permanent virtual circuit (PVC) approach
or the switched virtual circuit (SVC) approach.

Frame Relay is a relatively high-speed, cost-effective technology that

can handle bursty data.

Frame Relay is a virtual-circuit wide-area network that was designed in

response to demands for a new type of WAN in the late 1980s and
early 1990s.

Frame Relay operates only at the physical and data link layers.

Frame Relay does not provide flow or error control; they must be
provided by the upper-layer protocols.

To handle frames arriving from other protocols, Frame Relay uses a

Frame Relay assembler/disassembler (FRAD). A FRAD assembles
frames coming from other protocols to allow them to be carried by
Frame Relay frames.
Frame Relay networks offer an option called Voice Over Frame Relay
(VOFR) that
sends voice through the network.
Local Management Information (LMI) is a protocol added recently
to the Frame Relay protocol to provide more management features.

One of the nice features of Frame Relay is that it provides congestion

control and quality of service (QoS).
Both PVC and SVC connections are used in Frame Relay.
The data link connection identifier (DLCI) identifies a virtual circuit
in Frame Relay.

VCIs in Frame Relay are called DLCIs.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay protocol that, in

combination with SONET, allows high-speed connections.
A cell is a small, fixed-size block of information.
The ATM data packet is a cell composed of 53 bytes (5 bytes of
header and 48 bytes of payload).

Note that a virtual connection is defined by a pair of numbers: the VPI

and the VCI.

ATM eliminates the varying delay times associated with different-size


ATM can handle real-time transmission.

A user-to-network interface (UNI) is the interface between a user

and an ATM switch.
A network-to-network interface (NNI) is the interface between two
ATM switches.
In ATM, connection between two endpoints is accomplished
through transmission
(TPs), virtual
and virtual circuits (VCs).

In ATM, a combination of a virtual path identifier (VPI) and a virtualcircuit identifier identifies a virtual connection.

ATM technology can be adopted for use in a LAN (ATM LAN).

In a pure ATM LAN, an ATM switch connects stations.

In a legacy ATM LAN, the backbone that connects traditional LANs
uses ATM technology.
A mixed architecture ATM LAN combines features of a pure ATM
LAN and a legacy ATM LAN.
Local-area network emulation (LANE) is a client/server model that
allows the use of ATM technology in LANs.
LANE software includes LAN emulation client (LECS), LAN
emulation configuration server (LECS), LAN emulation server
(LES), and broadcast/unknown server (BUS) modules.

The ATM standard defines three layers:

a. Application adaptation layer (AAL) accepts transmissions from

upper-layer services and maps them into ATM cells. The AAL is divided
into two sublayers: convergence sublayer (CS) and segmentation and
reassembly (SAR).
b. ATM layer provides routing, traffic management, switching, and
multiplexing services.
c. Physical layer defines the transmission medium, bit transmission,
encoding, and electrical-to-optical transformation.

There are four different AALs, each for a specific data type:

a. AAL1 for constant-bit-rate stream

b. AAL2 for short packets.

c. AAL3/4 for conventional packet switching (virtual-circuit approach or

datagram approach).

d. AAL5 for packets requiring no sequencing and no error control


Frame Relay network

Three address formats

Virtual connection identifiers in UNIs and NNIs
An ATM cell
ATM layers

Note: You can proceed to take the multiple choice exam regarding this
topic. Virtual-Circuit Networks: Frame Relay and ATM - Set 1 MCQs

List of Data Communications Lectures

At the network layer, a global identification system that uniquely

identifies every host and router is necessary for delivery of a packet
from host to host (network to network).
An IPv4 address is 32 bits long and uniquely and universally defines
a host or router on the Internet.
The IPv4 addresses are unique and universal.
The address space of IPv4 is 232 or 4,294,967,296.
An address space is the total number of addresses used by the
protocol. If a protocol uses N bits to define an address, the address
space is 2N because each bit can have two different values (0 or 1) and
N bits can have 2N values.
In binary notation, the IPv4 address is displayed as 32 bits. Each
octet is often referred to as a byte. So it is common to hear an IPv4
address referred to as a 32-bit address or a 4-byte address.
Dotted-Decimal Notation - to make the IPv4 address more compact
and easier to read, Internet addresses are usually written in decimal
form with a decimal point (dot) separating the bytes.
In classful addressing, the portion of the IP address that identifies the
network is called the netid.
In classful addressing, the portion of the IP address that identifies the
host or router on the network is called the hostid.
An IP address defines a device's connection to a network.
There are five classes in IPv4 addresses. Classes A, B, and C differ in
the number of hosts allowed per network. Class D is for multicasting
and Class E is reserved.

The class of an address is easily determined by examination of the first


Addresses in classes A,

Addresses in class D are used for multicast communication.



C are



for unicast

Unicast communication is one source sending a packet to one

Multicast communication is one source sending a packet to multiple
Subnetting divides one large network into several smaller ones,
adding an intermediate level of hierarchy in IP addressing.
Subnetting adds an intermediate level of hierarchy in IP addressing.
Default masking is a process that extracts the network address from
an IP address.
Subnet masking is a process that extracts the subnetwork address
from an IP address
Supernetting combines several networks into one large one.
In classless addressing, we can divide the address space into variablelength blocks.
In classless addressing, there are variable-length blocks that belong to
no class. The entire address space is divided into blocks based on
organization needs.
The first address and the mask in classless addressing can define the
whole block.
A mask can be expressed in slash notation which is a slash followed by
the number of 1s in the mask.

The mask in classless addressing is expressed as the prefix length (ln)

in CIDR notation.

To find the first address in a block, we set the rightmost 32 - n bits to

To find the number of addresses in the block, we calculate 232 - n, where n
is the prefix length.
To find the last address in the block, we set the rightmost 32 - n bits
to 1s.

In IPv4 addressing, a block of addresses can be defined as x.y.z.t /n in

which x.y.z.t defines one of the addresses and the /n defines the mask.

The number of addresses in the block can be found by using the

formula 232n.

Subnetting increases the value of n.

Every computer attached to the Internet must know its IP address, the
IP address of a router, the IP address of a name server, and its subnet
mask (if it is part of a subnet).
DHCP is a dynamic configuration protocol with two databases.

The DHCP server issues a lease for an IP address to a client for a

specific period of time.

Network address translation (NAT) allows a private network to use

a set of private addresses for internal communication and a set of
global Internet addresses for external communication.
NAT uses translation tables to route messages.
The IP protocol is a connectionless protocol. Every packet is
independent and has no relationship to any other packet.

Every host or router has a routing table to route IP packets.

In next-hop routing, instead of a complete list of the stops the packet

must make, only the address of the next hop is listed in the routing

In network-specific routing, all hosts on a network share one entry in

the routing table.

In host-specific routing, the full IP address of a host is given in the

routing table.

In default routing, a router is assigned to receive all packets with no

match in the routing table.

A static routing

Classless addressing requires hierarchial and geographic routing to

prevent immense routing tables.

The global authority for address allocation is ICANN. ICANN normally

grants large blocks of addresses to ISPs, which in turn grant
small subblocks to individual customers.

IPv6 addresses use hexadecimal colon notation with abbreviation

methods available.

There are three types of addresses in IPv6: unicast, anycast, and

In an IPv6 address, the variable type prefix field defines the address
type or purpose.








An IPv4 address is 32 bits long. An IPv6 address is 128 bits long.

Classful addressing assigns an organization a Class A, Class B, or Class

C block of addresses. Classless addressing assigns an organization a
block of contiguous addresses based on its needs.

A block in class A address is too large for almost any organization. This
means most of the addresses in class A are wasted and not used. A
block in class C is probably too small for many organizations.

The network address in a block of addresses is the first address. The

mask can be ANDed with any address in the block to find the network

Multicast addresses in IPv4 are those that start with the 1110 pattern.
Multicast addresses in IPv6 are those that start with the 11111111

There are three restrictions in classless addressing:

a. The number of addresses needs to be a power of 2.

b. The mask needs to be included in the address to define the block.

c. The starting address must be divisible by the number of addresses in

the block.