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Data can be either

Images
Numbers
Words
All of these
The word Data is derived from

Middle
Lowest
None of these
The quantitative data is expressed in
Numerical form
Non-numerical form
Both a & b
None of these

Latin
Contextual
DB
None of these
The qualitative data is expressed in
How many types of data are
1
2
3
4

Numerical form
Non-numerical form
Both a & b
None of these
The qualitative data may be

The types of data are


Qualitative
Quantitative
Both a & b
None of these

Things
Words
Text
None of these

Data are taken as ________ level of abstraction

Which type of data is hard, rigorous, credible


and scientific

Highest
Middle
Lowest
None of these

Qualitative data
Quantitative data
Both a & b
None of these

Information are taken as ________ level of


abstraction

Which data are rich, poor, tall, short, good,


bad, better

Highest
Middle
Lowest
None of these

Qualitative data
Quantitative data
Both a & b
None of these

Knowledge are taken as ________ level of


abstraction

Data type is thought of as a set of

Highest

Values
Operations on values

Both a & b
None of these

In a 32-bit word it can represent signed integer


values ranging from

Data type as defined in programming language


are

0 to 232 -1
-231 to 231-1
231 to 264 -1
0 to 231 -1

Integers
Floating-point numbers
Characters
Alphanumeric strings
All of these
The smallest addressable unit of data is
defined as a group of ___ bits is known as a
byte:
4
8
16
32
The unit processed by machine code
instructions is called a _______
Word
Number
Bit
Byte

The machine code unit may be _________


depending on the computer architecture:
8 bit or 16 bit
16 bit or 32 bit
32 bit or 64 bit
64bit or 128 bit
In a 32-bit word it can represent unsigned
integer values ranging from
0 to 232 -1
-231 to 231-1
0 to 264 -1
0 to 231 -1

A signal is an
Electric current
Electromagnetic field
Electronic current
Both a & b
A signal is used to convey data from
One place to another place
One system to another system
Both a & b
None of these
In case of PSTN, signaling between
A telephone user
The telephone network
Both a & b
None of these
A channel is defined as a path between
a. Transistor and receiver
b. Transmitter and transistor
c. Transmitter and receiver
d. None of these
The path of channel may be
Physical
Logical
Both a & b
None of these
The path of channel may be
Hard wired
Wireless
Both a & b
None of these
Noise of channel noise___________ the quality of
information and data

Upgrades
Degrades
Both a & b
None of these
In channel , the information may not be
Reproduced
Reach the receiver at all
Both a & b
None of these
In channel noise, data by affecting
communications and files of all types including
Images
Audio
Text
Programs
Telemetry
All of these

300GHz
300Hz
External noise is generally picked up from
electrical appliances existing
____________________
In the vicinity
From the atmosphere
From electrical transformers
Also from outer space
All of these
Internal noise is generated in the
Channels
Receivers
Transmitter
Both a & b
Internal noise is less dependent on frequency,
but has a significant effect at:

Information and data may be treated as a


signal in either
Electrical form
Electromagnetic form
Both a & b
None of these

Higher frequency
Low frequency
Middle frequency
No frequency
External noise has _______ effect on higher
frequencies

The noise may be classified as ______________


based upon the sources
Internal
External
Both a & b
None of these
The noise generated because of electricity or
atmospheric disturbances is of the order of
300kHz
300MHz
300GHz
300Hz
The noise generated which is lower than the
high frequency range of ____ and may have
more interface with the signal of information:

More
Less
No
None of these
Internal noise is fairly low in case of
Digital signal processing
Fiber optics technology
Both a & b
None of these
Noise is measured in terms of the signal to
noise ratio
S/N
SNR
S/M
Both a & b
The unit of noise is

300MHz
300kHz

decibels

Hertz
Micron
bits per second

Channel Data Transmission Rate


Channel noise
Channel capacity
Channel Data Transmission Rate is measured in

____________ defined as the size of the range of


frequencies that can be transmitted through a
channel
Channel Bandwidth
Channel Data Transmission Rate
Channel noise
Channel capacity
In other words channel bandwidth may be
define it as the volume of information per unit
time that a _____________________

decibels
Hertz
Micron
bits per second

Computer
Person
Transmission medium can handle
All of these

Which gave the maximum data rate of a


noiseless channel
H.Nyquist in 1924
H.Nyquist in 1934
Peter Sain in 1932
None of these
Channel latency depends on the
Signal propagation speed
Media characteristics
Transmission distance
All of these
_____________ is the amount of time that is
needed for the information to propagate from
the source to destination through the channel:

Channel Bandwidth is measured in


decibels
Hertz
Micron
bits per second

Propagation time
Channel Latency
Channel Utilization
Both a & b

Bandwidth is expressed as data speed in


___________ digital systems:

Throughput may be defined as the number of


_______________ through a data communication
system over a period of time:

decibels
Hertz
Micron
bits per second

bits
characters
blocks passing
All of these

In analog systems, bandwidth is expressed as


the difference between the

___________ may be defined as range of


frequencies assigned to a channel

Highest frequency
Lowest frequency
Both a & b
None of these

Bandwidth
Channel noise
Bit rate
Channel latency

__________ is determined by the maximum


number of bits that can be transmitted per unit
time through the physical medium:
Channel Bandwidth

Higher the Bandwidth,________ will be the data


transmission rate or throughput

More
Less
Medium
None of these
In transmission of a signal, the range of carrier
frequencies depends on the
Nature of medium
Requirement of the applications supported
Nature of distance
Both a & b
________ may be defined as the range of
frequencies being supported by a particular
transmission medium
Frequency
Frequency spectrum
Carrier frequency
None of these
The actual range of frequencies supporting a
given communication is known as

Data rate
Baud rate
Pass band
What is the frequency range of gamma and
cosmic rays
>1008GHz
<1018GHz
>1018GHz
<1008GHz
The most popular method for detecting errors
in bit rate is ________ a parity bit alongside the
data bit for a character
Deleting
Inserting
Modifying
Updating

________ refers to the minimum or maximum


spatial separation between devices over a link,
in the context of a complete, end to end circuit

TDM means
Total division multiplex
Time division modem
Time detect modem
Time division multiplex
FEC means
Formal Error Checking
Forward Error Checking
Forward Error Character
Formal Error Character
The net bit rate is also known as
Pass bit rate
Data bit rate
Useful bit rate
Network bit rate
The incorrect bit rate is also known as
Data bit rate
Useful bit rate
Network bit rate
Parity bit
The example of net bit rate are

Bandwidth
Channel
Distance
None of these

TDM
FEC
Framing Bit
All of these

_________ is the rate over network speed which


is used to detect errors while transmitting data

The speed of connection of bit rate is


determined by

Bit rate

TDM

Baud rate
Pass band
Band data
Pass

Higher frequency signal offers _________


bandwidth
Lesser
Greater
Medium
None of these

FEC
Framing Bit
All of these
The FEC is also refers to
Logical layer net bit rate
Physical layer net bit rate
Prefix layer net bit rate
None of these
The size of the multimedia file is the product of
_______
Bit rate in bytes
Bit rate in kilobytes
Bit rate in gigabytes
None of these
The size of the multimedia file is the length of
recording in seconds divided by:
4
8
12
16

The fundamentals of Bit rate:


The sample uses different number of bits
The data is encoded by different number of bits
The material is sampled at different
frequencies
The information is digitally compressed by
different algorithms
All of these
The bit rate is __________ for a specific network
Fixed
Uniform
Fixed and Uniform
None of these
The gross bit rate is the number of bits
transmitted
per second by an ideal transmitter
per second by an ideal transistor
per min by an ideal transmitter
per min by an ideal transistor
The bit rate could be as high as
1Gbit/s
1Mbit/s
1Mbyte/s
1Gbyte/s
Bit rate is used to calculate the speed of time
to access the network

Without getting error frames


Getting error frames
Without getting error format
Getting error format
Bit rate is always ________ to the baud rate
Equal
More
Equal or more
None of these
Baud rate determines the bandwidth required
to transmit the ______
Signal
Data
Symbol
None of these
Lesser bandwidth is required to move these
signal units with _____ bits for an efficient
system
Less
Large
Equal
None of these
A character set was designed by
Jean-Maurice-Emile Baudot in 1874
Jean-Maurice-Emile Baudot in 1885
John-Maurice-Emile Baudot in 1864
John-Merry-Emile Baudot in 1894
Character set system was implemented using
keyboard having ____
8-key
6-key
5-key
9-key
Who modified system using keyboard using 5key
Donald Murray in 1901
Donald Merry in 1902
Donald Duck in 1904
Donald Murray in 1902
Donald Murray modification took a shape as
International Telegraph Alphabet 1
International Telephone Alphabet 1
International Television Alphabet 1
International Telegram Alphabet 1

International Telegraph Alphabet 1 was further


developed to
ITA 1
ITA 2
ITA 3
ITA 4
In character code system, a 5-bit code is
00011
00101
00010
10101
A 5-bit code is signified a
Line Feed
Light Feed
Line Format
None of these
The basic idea behind coding was really
workable if number of characters it had to
handle do not require more than
8 characters
16 characters
32 characters
64 characters
For covering all the characters of alphabet with
special
Characters
Punctuation marks
Other control characters
Other coding technique was needed
All of these
Encoding is done for data
Inside computer
Outside computer
Both a & b
None of these
The following data techniques are used
Binary Coded Decimal(BCD)
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange
Code(EBCDIC)

American Standard Code for Information


Interchange(ASCII)
Unicode
Manchester Code
Differential Manchester Encoding(DME)
Return to Zero(RZ)
Non Return to Zero(NRZ)
Non Return to Zero Invertive(NRZ-I)
MLT-3
4B/5B
5B/6B
All of these
Unicode Examples are
UTF-7
UTF-8
UTF-16
UTF-32
UTF-EBCDIC
All of these
Binary Coded Decimal system makes use of a
series of _____ to represent a decimal number
4
8
16
32

Nibble is known as series of ____


8 bits
4 bits
16 bits
32 bits
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange
Code is developed by
Parallel to ASCII, IBM in 1964
Parallel to ASCII, IBM in 1974
Parallel to ASCII, IBM in 1962
Parallel to ASCII, IBM in 1964
EBCDIC is a coding system that uses
8 bit
4 bit
16 bit
32 bit
A byte in EBCDIC system of coding contained
___ nibbles

d. None of these
Unicode is appeared in
3
4
2
6

a.
b.
c.
d.

1992
1991
1993
1994

First nibble is known as


The first version of Unicode
Zone
Digit
Byte
Bit

Unicode 1.0
Unicode 2.0
Unicode 3.0
None of these

Second nibble is known as


Unicode version 5.0 appeared in
Zone
Digit
Byte
Bit

2005
2006
2007
2004

First nibble represents category to which the


__________
Characters belong
Integers belong
String belong
None of these
ASCII is a ___ bit coding for representing
characters of English alphabets
64 bit
7 bit
16 bit
32 bit

In Unicode there were codes for representing


characters and their basic graphical
representation are known as
Graphical
Graphemes
Graphs
None of these
The first 256 code points belong to __________
for conversion to Roman Text
ISO 5589-1
ISO 5569-1
ISO 5579-1
ISO 5559-1

ASCII was published in


1964
1965
1963
1966
Unicode was developed by
a. Unicode Consortium
b. Unique Consortium
c. Unicode Constant

Unicode mapping methods are of two types,


namely are
UTF(Unicode Transformation Format)
UCS(Unicode Character Set)
Both a & b
None of these
Every communication channel has a ________
which is defined as the frequency range
Channel

Bandwidth
Carrier
Data rate
The bandwidth is a _________ property of a
transmission medium
Physical
Logical
Both a & b
None of these
A telephone wire has bandwidth of ______ for
short distance
1M
2M
3M
4M
Data rate that can be achieved using a channel
depends on the _____________ of a channel
Frequency
Bandwidth
Data rate
Capacity
The undesirable waveform is known as
Anti-Aliasing
Aliasing
Channel
Bandwidth
The word PCM stands for
Primary code mapping
Pulse code modulation
Primary channel modulation
None of these
How many way to communicate, display, store
or manipulate information
1
2
3
4

The way to communicate, display, store or


manipulate information are
Analog
Digital
Both a & b
None of these
The analog form of electronic communication
represents the information in
Continuous electromagnetic wave form
Discrete form
Both a & b
None of these
The digital form of electronic communication
represents the information in
Continuous electromagnetic wave form
Discrete form
Both a & b
None of these
The word AM stands for
Analog Modulation
Analog Manipulation
Amplitude Modulation
Analog Modeling
The word FM stands for
Frequency Modulation
Fourier Manipulation
Frequency Manipulation
Frequency Modeling
The bandwidth of voice grade channel is
approximately
4000Hz
5000Hz
6000Hz
3000Hz
The bandwidth of CATV video channel is
approximately
2MHz
4MHz
6MHz
8MHz
The advantages of FM over AM are
Improved signal to noise ratio(about 25dB)
Less radiated power
Well defined service areas for given transmitter
power
Smaller geographical interference between
neighboring stations
All of these
The disadvantages of FM are

Much more bandwidth(as much as 20 times as


much)
More Complicated receiver
More complicated transmitter
All of these
Computer are________ in nature
Analog
Digital
Both a & b
None of these
SS7 means
Signal Source7
Signaling source7
Signaling system7
Signal system7
SS7 is a
System
Source
Protocol
None of these
The PSTN provides a _________ path between
the destination and source

Synchronization
None of these
Synchronous systems can be classified into
three categories:
Asynchronous systems
Character synchronous systems
Flag Synchronous systems
All of these
Asynchronous transmission is a _________
method of transmission in which a sign bit is
added to the beginning:
Start
Stop
Start-stop
None of these
Manchester is also known as
MPE(Manchester Phase Encoding)
MPD(Manchester Phase Data)
MPN(Manchester Phase Network)
MPW(Manchester Phase Website)
Manchester coding is used in
telecommunication by
Encoding standard 802.3
Ethernet standard 802.3
Ethernet standard 805.3
Encoding standard 805.3

Logical
Physical
Both a & b
None of these
The functions of SS7 are
Controlling network
Set up and tear down the call
Handles the routines decision
All of these
SS7 uses voice switches known as
SSWs(Service Switching websites)
SSPs(Service Switching Points)
SSNs(Service Switching Networks)
SSDs(Service Switching Data)
SSPs uses Query Service Control Point (SCP)
database using Packet switches called
Signal Transfer Points(STPs)
SSWs(Service Switching websites)
SSPs(Service Switching Points)
SSNs(Service Switching Networks)
_____________ refers to correct detection by
receiving equipment at the beginning and end
of data that was sent from sending equipment
Asynchronous
Synchronous

For 10Mbps Ethernet carrier frequency is


20MHz
15MHz
10MHz
5MHz

The another name of DME(Differential


Manchester Encoding)
CDP(Conditioned Diphase Encoding)
MPE(Manchester Phase Encoding)
SSWs(Service Switching websites)
SSPs(Service Switching Points)
In DME, logical values are indicated by
_______________ of transitions
Absence
Presence
Both a & b

None of these

31.24MHz
32.26MHz

In RZ, zero between each bit signifies a


_____________

4B/5B encoding scheme is also known as

Rest Condition
Neutral Point
Both a & b
None of these

Block coding
Bit coding
Byte coding
Block character

The NRZ-pulses contain ____ energy in


comparison to that of a RZ code

In 4B/5B scheme, we need a 125MHz clock for


a signal of

less
more
either less or more
none of these

1000MHz
100MHz
10MHz
99MHz

NRZ has no ___ state

The 5B/6B scheme encodes the scrambled 5bit data pattern into predetermined _____ bit
symbol

Rest
Zero
Neutral
None of these

5
4
6
3

MLT-3 is an encoding scheme in which ____


voltage levels are used
2
3
4
5
Due to four transitions the maximum
fundamental frequency requirement is reduced
to ____
One-fourth of the baud rate
One-third of the baud rate
One-half of the baud rate
None of these
Who specified the committee scheme of coding
ANSI X3T9.7
ANSI X5T9.6
ANSI X3T9.5
ANSI X6T9.5
FDDI uses ANSI X3T9.5 for obtaining 100Mbps
from a signal of ______
32.25MHz
31.25MHz

Modulation is the technique used to translate


Information from source to destination
Low frequency to higher
frequency
Source to higher frequency
Low frequency to destination
The low frequency signal are
Audio
Video
Music
Data
All of these
The modulation/demodulation is a
Linear process
Non-linear process
Both a & b
None of these

In character synchronous system ,_______ are


added
Special character
Start bit
Stop bit
None of these
Special character are called
STN
SYN
SBN
SRN

10
100
1000
10000
Modulation is the technique used to translate
low-frequency(base-band) signals like
__________ to a higher frequency
Audio
Music
Video
Data
All of these

The character string of the SYN character is


01001111
10001110
00010110
00110011
The character synchronous system receives
_______ as one character
2bit
4bit
8bit
16bit
In the 4B/5B we need a 125MHz clock for a
signal of
100MHz
10MHz
1000MHz
10000MHz
5B/6B creates a data pattern that is placed
with equal numbers of
1
0
Both a & b
None of these
How many encoding techniques we used today

Modulation/ demodulation is a non linear


process where two different sinusoids are
_________
Addition
Subtraction
Multiplied
Division
Angular frequency id defined as _______ the
frequency of carrier signal
Once
Twice
Thrice
None of these
The frequencies that comprise the message
(base band) are translated into a _________
range of frequencies
Lower
Higher
Zero
None of these
Modulation also reduces the size of antenna for
higher frequencies with ________ frequency
Lower
Greater
Middle
None of these

The non-linearity results in several ___________


harmonics
Even
Odd
Both a & b
None of these
Harmonics are the _________ of the frequency,
that is the message frequency
Addition
Subtraction
Multiply
Division
The carrier frequency may be a ___________
Radio wave
Light wave
Both a & b
None of these
The amplitude of carrier frequency ________ in
accordance with the modulated signal
Can not change
Change
Either change or not
None of these
The frequency of the carrier ___________and we
get a complex wave
does not changed
Change
Either change or not
None of these
For demodulation, it needs the carrier
frequency to be generated or derived at the
receiving location known as
DSB-SC
DBS-CS
BDS-SC
BSD-CS
The full form of DSB-SC
Direct Side Band-Suppressed Carrier

Direct Side Base-Suppressed Carrier


Double Side Band-Suppressed Carrier
Double Slide Band-Suppressed Carrier
One more kind of analog modulation is called
Vestigial side band modulation
Vestigial side base modulation
Vestigial slide band modulation
Vestigial slide base modulation
Pulse code modulation is a method by which an
audio signals are represented as
Direct data
Digital data
Device data
None of these
Pulse Code Modulation(PCM) requires
bandwidth of ________
32Kbps
64Kbps
128Kbps
256Kbps
PCM is a coding scheme used in digital
communication because of _____ sensitive to
noise
Less
Middle
High
None of these
In digital signal the main source of noise is
___________, which introduces as the finite
number of quantization levels during the
conversion to PCM code
Quantization noise
Equalization noise
Digital noise
None of these
The main parameters in determining the
quality of a PCM system are the
Dynamic range
Signal-to-Noise Ratio(SNR)
Both a & b
None of these
The maximum error occurs between the
Original level
Quantized level
Both a & b
None of these

The maximum error occurs when the original


level falls exactly halfway between ______
quantized levels
2
3
4
1
The dynamic range is the ratio of the
Largest possible signal magnitude
Smallest possible signal magnitude
Both a & b
None of these
For a six bits system the dynamic range will be
approximately equal to ___
34dB
36dB
40dB
38dB
In dynamic range, the largest voltage
amplitude is _______ the smallest voltage
amplitude
32times
64times
125times
256times
The disadvantages associated with the Delta
Modulation PCM is
Slope overload
Granular noise
Both a & b
None of these
Communication channels like ____________ are
usually analog media
Telephone lines
Television lines
Digital lines
None of these
Which is a bandwidth-limited channel
Digital media
Analog media
Both a & b
None of these

In the case of telephone lines, the usable


bandwidth falls in the range of _______
300Hz to 3000Hz
300Hz to 3300Hz
30Hz to 3300Hz
33Hz to 3300Hz
Digital information signals have the shape of
pulse and represented by
0
1
both a & b
none of these
The following types of modulation are used in
modems
ASK-Amplitude Shift Keying
FSK-Frequency Shifted Keying
PSK-Phase Shift Keying
DPSK-Differential Phase Shift Keying
BPSK-Binary Phase Shift Keying
QPSK-Quadrature Phase Shifted Keying
QAM- Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
All of these
The main advantage of this technique, it is
easy to such
Signals
Also to detect them
Both a & b
None of these
Telephone lines limit amplitude changes to
some _________ changes per second
3000
3300
3100
3330
In the Frequency Shift keying, the frequency of
the carrier signal is changed according to the
data
Modulation
Data
Signals
None of these
In the Phase Shift Keying method a sine wave
is transmitted and the phase of the sine wave
carries the ______

270
Analog data
Digital data
Signal data
None of these
For a 0, a __ degrees phase sine wave is
transmitted
0
45
90
180
For a 1, a __ degrees phase sine wave is
transmitted
0
45
90
180

In binary phase shift keying, the case of 4


different phase shifts, where each symbol
represents ____, the modulation technique is
called quadrature PSK(QPSK)
2 bits
4 bits
8 bits
16 bits
In binary phase shift keying, the case of 8
different phase shifts, where each symbol
represents ____, the modulation technique is
called
QPSK
8PSK
8QAM
8FSK
Binary Phase Shift Keying is measured in

A sub method of the phase modulation is


Differential phase modulation
Direct phase modulation
Double phase modulation
None of these
Differential phase modulation technique is also
called
Amplitude Shift Keying
Phase Shift Keying
Frequency Shift Keying
None of these
In the differential phase shift keying, For a 0
the modem shifts the phase of each
succeeding signal in a certain number of
degrees
0
45
90
180
In the differential phase shift keying, For a 1
the modem shifts the phase of each
succeeding signal and a different certain
number of degrees

Decibel
Baud
Hertz
bits per second
In QPSK, the four angle are usually out of phase
by
0
45
90
180
The AM is considered as a
Linear process
Non-linear process
Both a & b
None of these
The FM is considered as a

0
90
180

Linear process
Non-linear process

Both a & b
None of these

Multiplexing
Modulation
Encoding technique
De-multiplexing

The phase modulation is similar to the


Amplitude Modulation
Frequency Modulation
Angle Modulation
Pulse Code Modulation
In PM, ________ of the carrier wave changes
Frequency
Phase
Both a & b
None of these

PCM requires bandwidth of


21Kbps
24Kbps
64Kbps
65Kbps
In data communication using computers
,________ signal are normally converted into
PCM
Analog
Digital
Both a & b
None of these
The PCM is a coding scheme used in __________
communication because of less sensitive to
noise
Analog
Digital
Both a &b
None of these
________ is a process where multiple analog
message signals or digital data streams are
combined into one medium over a shared
medium

The various ways to multiplex are


Frequency Division Multiplexing(FDM)
Time Division Multiplexing(TDM)
Code Division Multiplexing(CDM)
Wavelength Division Multiplexing(WDM)
All of these
In which , Multiple channels are combined onto
a single aggregate signal for transmission
Frequency Division Multiplexing(FDM)
Time Division Multiplexing(TDM)
Code Division Multiplexing(CDM)
Wavelength Division Multiplexing(WDM)
In FDM , channels are separated in the
aggregate by their
Bandwidth
Signal
Frequency
None of these
_________ was the foremost multiplexing
scheme to have the benefits of wide scale
network deployment and till today, such
systems are still in use and are used with
analog transmission
Frequency Division Multiplexing(FDM)
Time Division Multiplexing(TDM)
Code Division Multiplexing(CDM)
Wavelength Division Multiplexing(WDM)
The two alternative technologies of
multiplexing for digital sources are
Frequency Division Multiplexing(FDM)
Time Division Multiplexing(TDM)
Code Division Multiplexing(CDM)
Wavelength Division Multiplexing(WDM)
Both b & c
Both a & b
Both c & d
_______ provides a means for merging data
from the varied sources into a single channel to
support communication over a microwave
system , satellite system or a telephone lines
Frequency Division Multiplexing(FDM)
Time Division Multiplexing(TDM)
Code Division Multiplexing(CDM)
Wavelength Division Multiplexing(WDM)
The TDM are implemented in two ways are
Synchronous TDM
Asynchronous TDM
Both a & b
None of these

Ultra- High-Frequency
Ultra-Half-Frequency
In which type of TDM , a single channel is
divided into time slots and each transmitting
device is assigned for least one of the time
slots for its transmission

________ may be defined as the form of


multiplexing where the transmitter encodes the
signal using a pseudo random sequence

Synchronous TDM
Asynchronous TDM
Both a & b
None of these

CDM
FDM
STDM
CDMA

The Asynchronous TDM is properly known as

The number of different frequency per bit are


called

Statistical TDM
Static TDM
Dynamic TDM
None of these

Bit rate
Data rate
Baud rate
Chip rate

Which ways of Multiplex are more flexible


If one or more bits are transmitted at the same
frequency are called
FDM
TDM
CDM
None of these
In which way of multiplex ,the whole amount
for a certain amount of time is provided to the
user and all user uses the same frequency but
at different time
FDM
TDM
CDM
None of these
To overcome the inefficiency of standard TDM,
a technique known as
CDM
FDM
STDM
CDMA
The word UHF means
Ultra -High Form
Ultra Half-Form

Frequency doping
Frequency hopping
Frequency hoping
Frequency hipping
The main disadvantage of CDM is
Protection from interference
Tapping as only the sender know the spreading
code
Tapping as only the receiver know the
spreading code
All of these
The Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA) was
widely introduced in
1963
1989
1979
1958
In CDMA system ,all user transmit in the ______
bandwidth simultaneously
Different
Same
Both a & b
None of these

The spread spectrum technology of CDMA is


___________ than TDMA
More secure
Provides higher transmission quality
Both a & b
None of these

Hipping
Hyping
Harping
Hopping
________ is best known spread spectrum
technique in which a pseudo random noise
code multiples the signal

A CDMA call starts with a standard rate of


___________ bits per second

FHSS
FCSS
DSSS
DHSS

9500
9200
9300
9600

A pseudo random noise code is a sequence of


chips valued________ with noise-like properties

The code used with the signal for spreading


have
Low cross-correlation values
Unique to every user
Higher transmission quality
Both a & b
In spread spectrum technique, a receiver is
only capable of selecting the desired signal if it
has the knowledge about the code of the
intended
Receiver
Transmitter
Both a & b
Signal
The major advantage of spread spectrum
technique may be enumerated as
Low power spectral density
Interference limited operation
Privacy due to unknown random codes
Reduction of multi path affects
All of these
The word FHSS stands for
frequency hopping spread spectrum
file hopping spread spectrum
file hiding spread spectrum
frequency hopping special spectrum
The word DSSS stands for
digital sequence spread spectrum
direct sequence spread spectrum
digital sequence special spectrum
direct signal spread spectrum
The pattern of switching from one channel to
another channel is known as

-1 and1(polar)
0 and 1(non-polar)
Both a & b
None of these

________ time is the time spent on a channel


with certain frequency
FDM
Dwell
Dowel
Dowry

FHSS includes_______ technology


FDM
TDM
CDM
Both a & b

Individual channels are


Data
Audio
Video or their combination
All of these

__________ a multi-channel system in which a


number of individuals channels are multiplexed
for transmission

28 channels
30 channels
24 channels are also called

System
Carrier
Carrier system
None of these

Timeslots
DS0
Both a & b
None of these

T-carrier signaling scheme was developed by


DS0 channel is a ______ that is multiplexed
Bell Laboratory
Hell Laboratory
Dull Laboratory
None of these
243.

68Kbit/s
64Kbit/s
62Kbit/s
70Kbit/s

T1 standards is widely used in

Japan
North America
Both a & b
None of these
T-carrier was digital signal 1, DS1 or DS-1
which is known as
T1
E1
DS0
DS1
DS-1 conveys the meaning of
Direct Service-Level 1
Digital Service-Level 1
Double Service-Level 1
Digital Slide-Level 1
E1 signifies another carrier system that finds
use outside
North America
Japan
South Korea
All of these
A DS1 circuit comprises ________ , each of 8
bits
24 channels
26 channels

DS1 is full-duplex circuit in which the circuit


does concurrent transmission and reception at
a data rate of ___
1.533Mbit/s
1.544Mbit/s
1.566Mbit/s
1.555Mbit/s
By sampling each 8-bit frame for 8000 times
per second, total bandwidth achieved is
________
1.537Kbit/s
1.536Kbit/s
1.538Kbit/s
1.539Kbit/s
Framing schemes are of two types:
Super Frame(SF)
Extended Super Frame(ESF)
Both a & b
None of these
Framing channel has been divided into two
each with ______ in Super Frame
2Kbit/s
3Kbit/s
4Kbit/s
6Kbit/s

There are _____ contiguous frames of 193-bit


each in a Super Frame

A frame having _________ in the super frame is


used for signaling alignment of frame

10
12
14
16

Even-number
Odd-number
Prime-number
None of these

There are _____ contiguous frames of 193-bit


each in a Extended Super Frame

T1 is recognized by its original ______ line rate

20
22
24
26

1.566Mbit/s
1.544Mbit/s
1.555Mbit/s
1.533Mbit/s
T1 used the encoding technique _______

Framing channel has been divided into two


each with _______ in Super frame
2Kbit/s
4Kbit/s
6Kbit/s
8Kbit/s
One is used for alignment of ________
Terminal frame
Signaling frame
Super frame
Switching frame

AMI
LAN
DS1
CEPT
AMI means
Analog Memory Interchange
Alternate Memory Interchange
Alternate Mark Inversion
Analog Mark Interchange
AMI requires less
Bandwidth
Signal
Both a & b
None of these

Second is used for alignment of ________


Terminal frame
Signaling frame
Super frame
Switching frame

Alignment of terminal is carried out with


frames having _______ in the super frame
Even-number
Odd-number
Prime-number
None of these

CEPT means
Conference European of Postal
Telecommunications
European Conference of Postal and
Telecommunications
European Control of Postal Telecommunications
None of these
CEPT after ten years of launch of T1 system
used _____ for framing known as European E1
2bits
4bits
8bits
16bits

An E1 carrier carries digital information at


______
2.084Mbps
2.048Mbps
2.044Mbps
2.088Mbps
An E1 circuit has been divided into ____ time
slots
30
32
34
36
32 time slots implements an individual
communication channel supporting a bit rate of
________
60Kbps
62Kbps
64Kbps
66Kbps
An E1 frame has a total of _________
128bits
256bits
64bits
192bits
Which is used to exchange information over
the E1 carriers that connect remote zones
Protocols Frame Relay
Cell Relay
Both a & b
None of these

Which was taken by International


Telecommunications Union Telecommunication
Standardization Sector(ITU-T)
T-carrier system
E-carrier system
E1 system
T1 system
ITU-T finds wide use all over the world except
three nations namely
UK, USA, Japan
USA, Canada, Japan
Japan, America, USA
Japan, America, Canada
PDH means
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
Plasma Digital Hierarchy
Pointer Double Hard disk
Plasma Double Hierarchy
In 32 timeslots of E1, only ___ are used two of
these are used for framing and signalling call
setup
20
15
30
40
High quality of call is ensured since
transmission takes place with a constant
Latency
Capacity
Both a & b
None of these
Another timeslot is reserved for signalling
purposes

CEPT revised and improved the technology


adopted by

TS16
TS15
TS14
TS13

T-carrier system
E-carrier system
Both a & b
None of these

Which is controlled some standard protocols in


the field of telecommunications

Teardown
Call setup
Both a & b
None of these
E1 is different from earlier T-carrier systems
since all ___ of every sampling are available for
every call
4bits
8bits
16bits
32bits
There are two general categories of
transmission media
Bounded(guided) media
Unbounded(unguided) media
Both a & b
None of these
__________ are bounded media
Twisted pair
Coaxial cable
Fibre optic cables
All of these
________ are known as unbounded transmission
microwave and satellite transmission
both travel through the air
which has no boundaries
all of these
Wireless transmission systems do not make
use of a
Physical conductor
Guide to bind the signal
Logical conductor
Both a & b
Energy travels through the air rather than
Copper
Glass
Both a & b
None of these

Microwave
Satellite
Infrared
All of the above
Which are used in radio transmission in one
form or another
Radio
TV
Cellular phones
All of these
_______ is the one example of long distance
communication
Satellite signal
Satellite relay
Analog signal
Digital signal
The RF(Radio Frequency) is divided in different
ranges starting from
Very low frequency(VLF)
Extremely high frequency(EHF)
Both a & b
None of these
Two transmitters cannot share the same
frequency band because of
Mutual interference
Band usage is regulated
Both a & b
None of these
PDAs means
Personal Digital Assistants
Personal Double Assistants
Personal Digital Analogs
Power Digital Assistants
ADSL means
Analogs Digital Subscriber Lines
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines
Assistants Digital Subscriber Lines
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber language
A pair of copper wires twisted together and
wrapped with a plastic coating as a twisted pair
and which has a diameter of ____:

The transmission systems addressed under this


category include
0.2-0.6

0.4-0.7
0.2-0.8
0.4-0.8
______ are the substances used for insulation
purposes
Teflon(r)
Flouropolymer resin
Polyvinyl chloride
Polyethylene
All of these

In modem data rate is restricted to


approximately____:
24Kbps
28Kbps
30Kbps
32Kbps

Bandwidth is lower
Bandwidth is higher
Bandwidth is limited
Bandwidth is dynamic
STP stands for
Shielded twisted pair
Signal transmission pair
Shielding twisted process
Shielded transmission pair
150Ohms STP contains ________IBM connector
or RJ45
1 pair
2 pairs
3 pairs
4 pairs
100Ohm UTP contains _________ and 8-pin
modular connector(ISDN)
2 pairs
3 pairs
4 pairs
5 pairs

_______ was first used in telephone system by


Alexander Graham Bell

________ contains multi-mode fibre

Copper medium
Copper signal
Copper set up
None of these

52.5/125
72.5/125
62.5/125
82.5/125

The unshielded twisted pair states the link


between the end in the communication closet
and the outlet which is further restricted to
60metres
90metres
100metres
190metres
A UTP cable contains __________ twisted pairs
2 to 240
2 to 4200
2 to 2400
None of these
The major disadvantage of UTP is

What are the biggest advantage of UTP


Flexibility
Cost-effective media
Usability of both data communication and voice
All of these
LED means
Light Emitting Device
Light Emitting Diode
Light Exchange Device
Light Exchange Diode
The effective capacity of coaxial cable depends
on the
Spacing of amplifiers
The length of the circuit
The gauge of the centre conductor
Other intermediate devices
All of these
LANs function over coaxial cable to the
__________ specifications
10BASE5
10BASE2

10BASET
All of these
Coaxial cables are of two types
Baseband
Broadband
Both a & b
None of these
The gauge of coaxial cable is _____ than the
twisted pair
Thicker
Thinner
Heavy
Bulky
Traditional coaxial cable is quite ________ of
which Ethernet LAN 10Base5 is an example
Thick
Heavy
Bulky
All of these
Twin axial cables contains _____ such
configurations within a single cable sheath
2
3
4
5
The mechanical protections cover the _________
Secondary buffer coating
Primary buffer coating
Both a & b
None of these
The bandwidth is typically ________ over a
length of one kilometer of fibre expressed as
MHz-Km
10 to 20
20 to 30
30 to 40

40 to 50
In which multimode fibre, light is refracted by
an increasing amount as it moves away from
the core
Single mode fibre
Step index multimode fibre
Graded index multimode fibre
All of these
The actual bandwidth of graded index
multimode fibre depends on
How well a particular fibres index profile
minimizes model dispersion
The wavelength of light launched into the fibre
Both a & b
None of these
The typical bandwidth of graded index
multimode fibre range from
100MHz-Km to over 1GHz-Km
200 MHz-Km to over 1GHz-Km
300 MHz-Km to over 1GHz-Km
150 MHz-Km to over 1GHz-Km
Which multimode fibre has a thinner inner core
Single mode fibre/ Monomode fibre
Step index multimode fibre
Graded index multimode fibre
All of these
In which multimode fibre , different wavelength
of light travel at a different speeds
Single mode fibre
Step index multimode fibre
Graded index multimode fibre
All of these
The single mode fibers have the
Very broadest bandwidth
Lowest cost
Lowest attenuation of any optical fibre
All of these
The advantage of single mode fibre are
Small size and light weight
Large bandwidth
Flexibility and high strength
Secure against signal leakage and interference
No short circuit problems
All of these
The fibre optic systems consists of a
Light sources
Cables
Light detectors
All of these
In a fiber optic system, ______ are opto-electric
devices
Repeater
EMI

RMI
RFI
EMI/RFI means
Electro Magnetic Interference / Radio
Frequency Interference
Electronics Magnetic Interference/Redundancy
Frequency Interference
Electro Minute Intrinsically/ Radio Fibre
Interference
None of these
Monomode fibre optic systems routinely are
capable of transmitting signal over distances in
excess of
250Km
350Km
225Km
325Km
CAD means
Computer aided distribution
Computer application design
Computer aided design
None of these
Bounded Media Comparison Chart

Attenuation
Distortion
Noise
None of these
Attenuation is measured in terms of
Hertz
Micro
decibel
Kilometer
Distortion is calculated as the ratio of the
Signal at two different points
Relative power of two signals at the same point
Both a & b
None of these
A negative value of decibel indicates _______ of
signal strength
Loss
Gain
Either loss or gain
None of these

Media
Twisted pair cable

Advantages
Inexpensive, well established , easy to
add nodes

Coaxial cable (in comparison to twisted)

High bandwidth, long distances

Optical fibre cable

Very High bandwidth, long distances,


noise immunity, high security, small size

In data communication the signal has to travel


through the transmission media that may be
Wired
Wireless
Both a & b
None of these
There exist three causes of impairment in
transmission errors
Attenuation
Distortion
Noise
All of these
___________ is the loss of the signal power
while traversing a transmission media including
electronic circuitry

A positive value of decibel indicates _______ of


signal strength
Loss
Gain
Either loss or gain
None of these

The attenuation includes a number of factors


like
Transmitting and receiving antennas
Transmitter powers
Modulation techniques
Frequency of the transmission
Atmospheric conditions
All of these
Distortion is proportional to the square of the
_________
Atmospheric conditions
Modulation techniques
Operating frequency
Operating system
Equalizing devices are ________ at intermediate
points to keep the shape of the signal intact

Created
Inserted
Modified
Deleted
Data processing and transmission systems
experience errors due to several reasons
Electrostatic interference can be caused from
circuits or machines lying close by
Inductance and capacitance, loss in
transmission due to leakages, impulses from
static in the atmosphere, etc, lead to distortion
Resistance to current in a cable can be caused
due to attenuation
All of these
The main constraints are due to the physical
medium that produces
Noise
Distortion
Attenuation
Dropouts
All of these
The digital signals do not suffer from
___________ but they are susceptible to
dropouts
Noise
Distortion
Both a & b
None of these
The use of several parity bits are
Help to detect any error
Find if any bits are inverted
They should be re-inverted so that the original
data is restored
All of these
SECDEC means
Single error correction, double error
detection
Single exchange correction, double exchange
detection
Single error code, double error detection
Single error character, double error detection
The types of errors are
Single Bit Errors
Burst Errors
Both a & b
None of these

A transmission cable has


Inductance
Capacitance
Resistance
All of these
The inductance and capacitance tends to
Causes the amplitude of the signal to reduce
Distort the shape of a signal
Both a & b
None of these
The resistance tends to
Causes the amplitude of the signal to
reduce and therefore loss of power
Distort the shape of a signal
Both a & b
None of these
Which type of error corrupt the single bits of
transmission
Burst errors
Single bit errors
Both a & b
None of these

Which type of error corrupt the multiple bits of


transmission
Burst errors
Single bit errors
Both a & b
None of these
ENQ means
Enquiry
Encryptions
Enquire
None of these
BER stands for
Byte Enquiry Rate
Bit Error Rate
Burst Enquiry resistance
Burst Error Rate

NAK means
None Acknowledge
Noise Acknowledge
Negative Acknowledgement
Network Acknowledgement
The No of bits that get affected in burst errors
depends upon the
Duration of the noise
Transmission time of the no of bits of the
transmitted packet
Both a & b
None of these
The redundant bit enables

CRC
Parity check
Checksum
All of these

correction of errors
detection of errors
Redundancy check
All of these

Correct the errors


Detect the errors
Correct and detect the errors
None of these

The types of redundancy processes are

When signal amplitude degrades along a


transmission medium , this is called

Parity check
Cyclic redundancy check
Checksum
All of these

__________ is the technique of providing a data


string that is added to information packets
used to detect errors in data packets
CRC
Parity check
Checksum
All of these

Which redundancy process can detect the more


than 95 per cent of all errors

CRC means
Circuit Redundancy Check
Cyclic Redundancy Check
Checksum Rail Check
None of these
The Two-dimensional parity check method can
not

Signal attenuation
Signal bandwidth
Frequency
Data rate
The CRC is validated by using _______
conditions
1
2
3
4
The two conditions of CRC are
It should possess exactly one bit less than the divisor
When CRC is appended to the end of the data stream
Both a & b
None of these