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INTRODUCTION

The construction industry can be considered as one of the


major industry in Malaysia. This industry output is often seen as a
driver for economic growth practically in development country such
as Malaysia. Moreover, construction industry has a strong linkage
with the development of other industries directly or indirectly in this
county. Due to the significance of construction industry, in 1960's
the Malaysian government has introduced a more systematic and
effective method known as the Industrialized Building System (IBS)
as replacement of conventional method. IBS has been defined in a
number of definitions in construction literature, for example defined
IBS

as

prefabrication

process

and

construction

industrialized

concept. IBS also has been addressed as an integrate manufacturing


and construction process with systematic organization and well
management. In simply state, IBS definitions and concept can be
differentiating

from

experience

of

users,

perception

and

understanding.
However, although IBS has been introduced in Malaysia since
1960's,

yet

its

application

are

still

at

low

levels.

Despite

acknowledging IBS benefits, the construction industry in Malaysia is


still far from mature. One of the crucial barriers in IBS adoption is
project deliveries which still domination by traditional method. Till
date, the traditional method has been addressed and criticizes due
to its fragmented approach that always led to construction problem
such as increase project cost, overrun time, less communication and
collaboration and wastages. Moreover, the domination of traditional
method practically, procurement and payment mechanism in
organizing and delivery IBS project in Malaysia would negatively
affect the IBS project outcomes.

Proper planning and preparation works are required before the


actual erection of precast concrete elements. It is to ensure
efficiency and quality of installation. The following items should be
carefully planned:
1) Method and sequence of assembly and erection
2) Method of providing temporary support
3) Provision for final structural connections and joint details
4) Erection tolerances
5) Handling and rigging requirements
Fabrication concept of IBS or factory made by products is
meaning rational and efficient manufacturing processes, skilled
workers, repetition of actions and quality surveillance. Advantages
of precast concrete are:

Easy to control construction quality in terms of plant


management, installation / operating process and quality
control of execution.

Competitive cost compared to other similar alternative


systems.

Minimize space on site as precast concrete is usually on site


during installation only.

Systematic with uniform element size which cast and design


to

requirements.

Hence,

reduce

wastage

since

it

is

manufactured off site.

Efficient construction and save a lot of time on site with high


speed completion time Less than half of conventional cast
in-situ construction.

Overhead saving in terms of machineries/equipment on site


and management of labor which can usually be assembled by
semi-skilled operatives.

Optimum use of raw materials and reuse of moulds.

Clean and safe system.

BACKGROUND OF BUILDING/PROJECT
In order to make the construction industries in Malaysia grow
rapidly without having much problem such as delays, high cost and
high level of wastage, the government of Malaysia had introduced a
new system that are more convenient which is knows by the name
of

Industrialised

Building

System.

Enforce

of

IBS

usage

in

government projects in phase from 30% in 2004 to 70% in the 2008.


The authority also offer levy exemption from 2004 for low cost, low
medium cost and medium cost for housing project. Government had
commanded to expand the use of Industrialised Building System
throughout the whole country.
This project was known as Privatisation Project for the
Developer and Construction of Teachers Quarters for Ministry of
Education. It was launched in 1998 and finished in 2002. A company
which is called Encorp Berhad and Leighton had introduced precast
concrete walls and precast planks. This material is used in the
construction of 10,000 units of teachers quarters on 107 sites
throughout Malaysia. A total of 4,700 units of the teachers quarters
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were completed by Sunway Precast Industries Sdn. Bhd. The project


comprised low-rise (4 and 5-storey high) apartment complexes and
each apartment unit has 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, a living room, a
dining room, a balcony and a courtyard.
The developments of this project were designed by NRY
Architects Sdn. Bhd. All of the building that has been constructed is
owned by the Malaysia Ministry of Eduction. The quarters project in
Shah Alam and KajangUtama in 2000 successfully implement the
used of precast structural frame and precast facade system. The
project also involved a prefabricated drywall partitions for low rise
housing.

THE STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


There is much Strength and Weaknesses might be considered in implementing IBS for
public housing/quarters.
Strengths
Able to provide longer span and spacious area

Weaknesses
Difficulties in refurbishment

Energy efficiency with insulated panels


Improves indoor air quality and provides fresh

Not Attractive or No aesthetic value

air
Higher thermal mass
Higher headroom
Quicker occupancy

Massive amount of resources used


Higher transportation lifting costs
Problem of joints Water leakage is often the
major problems in building constructed using
IBS
4

Maximizes capacity usage by longer span and

Poor connection system the connections

higher headroom

cannot be joined properly due to poor


construction details lead to issues of comfort
and safety

INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW IBS CONTENT SCORING SYSTEM


(IBS SCORE)
Over the years many information and enquiries have been
collected for new IBS product also to improve the manual.IBS
Content Scoring System (IBS Score) is a systematic and structured
assessment system that can be used to measure the usage of
Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) in a consistent way.
THE IBS SCORE MANUAL
The objective of this Manual is to provide a well-structured
assessment system to determine the IBS usage in a building project.
It sets out the IBS Score Formula, the IBS Factor for each of the
elements used in the building, methods of calculating the IBS Score,
explanatory notes as well as sample calculations. It is also intended
to provide a complete guidance for every professional to evaluate
the IBS Score for any building project.
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But for these teachers quarters project does not use IBS score
because it was still in improvements during the project was started.
For this project, they used Satisfaction Index for Performance.

INDEX PERFORMANCE FOR SATISFACTION


The merits of quantitative (V) to be given to any particular solution
resulting from the possible combinations of design variables. The design variables
are the structural design of the building is through the construction of the
building. Here, the analysis will directly answered through questionnaire: What
aspects of IBS can contribute to the design of customized housing in Malaysia.
Estimates of the relative value of each level of satisfaction listed above are
called constant weight goals (ri). It is derived from a study conducted by Asiya et
al., (2009) and assumed for this study alone. It is expected that the values of the
goals may vary from individual to individual, according to the different locations
and components. Score (Si) for each design goal is to scale where Si100, and the
sum of the constant goal weight is equal to 1.00.

Table 1 shows the percentage score and the weight continued to satisfy every user
Table 1: The percentage of score and weight of constant for each users
satisfaction

Percentage of Score
(S)
Quality of finishing [S1]
36.2
Level of ventilation [S2]
69.5
Level of lighting [S3]
69.5
Height of ceiling [S4]
77.0
Level of finishing [S5]
36.2
Level of circulation [S6]
56.0
Arrangement of spaces
46.8
[S7]
Size of spaces [S8]
84.6

Weighting of constant
(r)
0.4
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.8

The total means (Mi) of merit value for each specific solution Vi was computed based on the
constant (ci) multiplied by mean of score (mi) of each satisfaction for Ti where:

Mi =

ci mi

=1

Ti

=1

A merit value V = 100 effectively satisfies the adaptability of space inside the unit, and a
merit value V = 50, for instance, is not likely to satisfy the requirement of adaptability.
The weighting score of each variable is computed by using the following formula:

Sw =

Sa
Samax

, where Sw 1.00.

Tw =

Ta
Famax

, where Tw 1.00.

Pw =

Pa
Pamax

, where Pw 1.00.

Tables 2 summarize these given merit values for each specific solution i n
T e a c h e r s Q u a r t e r s . The t y p e s o f d e f e c t s a r e obviously
different in each category because of the differentiation in location and
component.

Table 2: The merit value (V) of the possible solutions for Teachers Quarters.
P

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

Sa
Sw

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T8
T9
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T8
T9
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T8
T9
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9

56
63
58
66
66
63
64
52
50
54
35
56
54
52
54
42
44
45
23
48
48
50
52
46
39
51
56
48
57
60
58
56
41
45
51
35
51
49
47
56
53
41
50.83
0.88

55
64
63
64
64
66
59
52
46
51
30
50
47
50
49
40
44
44
20
49
48
51
49
42
38
49
56
43
56
58
61
55
44
49
54
50
54
52
54
57
52
43
50.52
0.87

53
62
55
63
60
65
60
52
45
51
35
50
51
51
47
36
49
49
25
54
55
56
57
52
45
52
58
43
58
58
64
58
48
54
59
50
60
62
60
65
59
51
53.26
0.92

57
65
58
64
66
68
65
50
55
62
58
62
63
65
60
51
52
57
38
59
59
58
64
56
48
52
62
53
61
63
62
61
53
51
60
55
59
59
55
64
59
47
58.00
1.00

52
59
40
59
53
56
58
43
48
55
35
56
49
53
54
44
45
46
23
50
50
53
54
48
39
47
55
48
54
54
55
55
44
46
50
43
50
48
48
53
52
42
49.19
0.85

53
60
40
60
54
63
59
47
45
53
30
52
49
50
48
41
43
46
23
50
50
48
52
45
38
48
56
40
55
54
57
54
46
51
57
45
57
61
54
58
53
47
49.81
0.86

61
62
58
63
63
63
61
53
49
49
45
52
59
57
50
38
40
44
28
50
50
45
52
45
37
51
59
40
58
61
57
57
50
48
55
53
55
58
53
59
55
47
52.14
0.90

53
64
53
64
60
62
60
43
41
44
35
48
50
45
43
31
32
30
10
38
44
39
42
30
26
43
54
38
52
57
50
50
39
48
55
48
56
59
50
59
53
43
46.21
0.80

N
116
156
6
126
38
63
95
58
116
156
6
126
38
63
95
58
116
156
6
126
38
63
135
95
58
116
156
6
126
38
63
95
58
116
156
6
126
38
63
135
95
58

Ta
55.15
62.52
52.81
62.85
60.85
63.26
60.75
49.02
47.43
52.44
37.81
53.37
52.78
52.69
50.64
40.40
43.56
45.17
23.44
49.83
50.44
50.01
52.80
45.50
38.75
49.12
56.96
43.75
56.36
58.08
58.15
55.97
45.69
49.03
55.08
47.19
55.33
55.94
52.56
59.10
54.48
45.16

Pa

58.40

48.45

44.39

53.01

52.65

Tw
0.87
0.99
0.83
0.99
0.99
1.00
0.96
0.77
0.75
0.83
0.60
0.84
0.83
0.83
0.80
0.64
0.69
0.71
0.37
0.79
0.80
0.79
0.83
0.72
0.61
0.78
0.90
0.69
0.89
0.92
0.92
0.88
0.72
0.78
0.87
0.75
0.87
0.88
0.83
0.93
0.86
0.71

Pw

1.00

0.83

0.76

0.91

0.90

The possible solutions are reevaluated by calculating the values of the Performance Index of
Satisfaction (PIS). These values are obtained from the equation: PIS = Pw x Sw. The
results are shown in Tables 3 as follows:
Table 3: The values of the Performance Index of Satisfaction in Teachers Quarters
P

Pw

P1
P2
P3
P4
P5

1.00
0.83
0.76
0.91
0.90

S1w
0.88
0.88
0.73
0.67
0.80
0.79

S2w
0.80
0.80
0.66
0.61
0.73
0.72

S3w
0.87
0.87
0.72
0.66
0.79
0.78

S4w
1.00
1.00
0.83
0.76
0.91
0.90

S5w
0.86
0.86
0.71
0.65
0.78
0.77

S6w
0.79
0.79
0.66
0.60
0.72
0.71

S7w
0.84
0.84
0.70
0.64
0.77
0.76

S8w
0.78
0.78
0.65
0.59
0.71
0.70

The performance index of satisfaction is not an absolute value for every solution, but rather a
means of comparing and ranking each solution with the others. The performance index here
is an indicator for sustainable house. It must be noted that there is only one solution in
which PIS = 1.00, this solution is in efficiency unit size (P1S4). It is clear that as the value
of PIS approaches 1.00, the solution accomplishes a higher degree of adaptability and
satisfies with design. It was identified that the living area the best space among others. The
optimal height of ceiling in the space is allows for good ventilation of the unit. All indexes
are more than 0.5 which mean that most of respondents satisfied with all spaces in their
house especially for living area. The users satisfaction for every internal spaces base on
PIS is ranks as follows:
i.

Height of ceiling (1.00)

ii.

Quality of finishing (0.88)

iii. Level of lighting (0.87)

iv. Level of finishing (0.86)

v. Arrangement of spaces (0.84)

vi. Level of ventilation (0.80)

vii. Level of circulation (0.79)

viii. Size of spaces (0.78)

THE PERCEPTION OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY PLAYER IN RELATION TO


IBS
IBS has been introduced in Malaysia since early 1960s by the use of precast concrete
beamcolumn element and panelised system. However, due to the leaking issue and high cost
in producing panel components the technologies did not take off as planned. There have been
quite a number of cases where the use of IBS had led to such drawbacks. For example, in the
case of Pekeliling Flats in Kuala Lumpur and Taman Tun Sardon, Gelugor, Penang in year
1978 (consists of 1,000 units five-storey walk up flat). Nonetheless, the building design was
very basic and not considering the aspect of serviceability such as the local needs to have wet
toilet and bathroom (Rahman and Omar, 2006).
In the 90s, demand for the new township has seen the increase in the use of precast
concrete system in residential buildings. Between 1981 and 1993, Perbadanan Kemajuan
Negeri Selangor (PKNS) a state government development agency acquired pre-cast concrete
technology from Praton Haus International based on Germany to build low cost houses and
high cost bungalows for the new townships in Selangor (CIDB, 2003 and Hassimet al. 2009).
It was recorded then, around 52,000 housing units was constructed using Praton Haus system.
At present state, the use of IBS as a method of construction in Malaysia is evolving.
Many private companies in Malaysia have teamed up with foreign expert to offer solutions to
their IBS projects. There are quite numbers of registered IBS contractors in Malaysia together
with registered IBS manufacture in Malaysia until 2010 which is producing approximately
347 IBS products available in the market nowadays.

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1.

IBS contractor in Malaysia (Hamid et al. 2008)


Grade
B01
B02
B12
B15
B19

Specialties
Building and industrial pre-casting work
Building and industrial steel structure work
Aluminium, glass and steel work
Roofing and steel cladding work
Special formwork
Total

2.

IBS contractor in Malaysia (based on CIDB G1-G7 classification) (Hamid et al. 2008)
Grade
G7
G6
G5
G4
G3
G2
G1
Total

3.

Numbers
28
516
232
108
11
895

Numbers
334
52
83
42
237
76
71
895

IBS manufacturer in Malaysia (CIDB, 2008)


IBS Type
Pre-cast concrete framing, panel and box system
Steel formwork system
Steel framing system
Prefabricated timber framing system
Block work system
Others (on-site)
Total

Total Manufacturer
36
16
29
16
10
11
118

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, IBS should be seen as innovative improvement in the construction
industry. In industrialized construction, this innovation agenda has been promoted worldwide.
It is imperative that IBS is seen as an evolution of construction using new and innovative
techniques rather than a revolution.

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IBS need to play more roles and has to be involved in project life cycle. The
reproduction of industrialization will involve the whole project life cycle from planning to
maintenance. IBS can be seen as a solution to the whole project life cycle if only, it can
achieve reproduction level of industrialization. The classification of IBS should be expended
to cater the scope of volumetric (modular) and hybrid construction. IBS is not to be seen as a
thread to traditional methods. Both method should be able to work in tandem and improve
their processes collectively. The usage of both method constructions is important to ensure
that the construction industry will obtain the best benefits from both systems.
It is hoped that the generic definition and classification that had been proposed in this
paper will encourage whoever in charge in industrial world and obtain constructive reaction
from practitioners and researchers hoped, and thus will enhance our understanding of IBS.

REFERENCES
1. IBS Digest Special Issue For The 24th Malaysian International Building
Exposition (MALBEX).
2. http://www.academia.edu/2472287/Analysis_Building_Maintenance_F
actors_For_IBS_Precast_Concrete_System_A_Review
3. http://tuengr.com/V06/107.pdf
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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/1700/1/MARDHIAH_ZAWAWI.pdf
http://eprints.utm.my/12212/1/NorHayatiRahimMFKSG2009.pdf
https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/11777300.pdf
http://eprints.qut.edu.au/63646/1/Riduan_Yunus_Thesis.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237550932_ISSUES_AND_
CHALLENGES_IN_THE_IMPLEMENTATION_OF_INDUSTRIALISED_BUILDI

NG_SYSTEMS_IN_MALAYSIA
9. https://www.scribd.com/doc/21794505/Ibs-Complete
10.
http://journals.iium.edu.my/kaedjournal/index.php/KAEDJournal
s/article/view/53/0
11.
http://www.slideshare.net/finalistfarrah/presentation-ibs
12.
https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Payment+issues+in+Malaysia
+Industrialised+Building+System+(IBS)%3A...-a0417473539
13.
IBS BUMIPUTERA VENDOR CERTIFICATION PROGRAM JOURNAL
ACCREDITED BY CIDB

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