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Computational and Controls Lab

Discrete state process control

Experiments based on Automation rig
Atul Yadav 11D110044
Avijit Singh 11D110046

Objective: To understand basic principles of discrete state process control

Following concepts shall be reinforced.
1. Discrete control
2. Understanding ladder diagrams
3. Implementing ladder logic through electromagnetic relays.

Activities Performed: The following activities were performed in this

experiment1. The following components were identified for building the circuit
a) Push Buttons normally closed (NC) and normally open(NO)
b) Relays
c) Control Relay normally closed and normally open
d) Limit switches normally open and normally closed
e) Motors M1 & M2
f) Lamps
g) Solenoids
2. Then we built a normal latch with a relay by using a NO and NC contact.
Then we modified it to a latch with two NO switches instead of one NO and
one NC the diagram for which is given later in the activity description
3. The ladder diagram was built on the circuit to make a control which fills and
empties the tank continuously between two specified levels (heights) using an
input valve and an output valve
4. The controller diagram was built on the circuit so as to demonstrate the
working of an elevator with START, STOP, UP and DOWN buttons respectively
and lamps were used with them to show upward and downward motions of
the elevator

Summary of Learning: The summary of the learning is as follows1) The role of different components as mentioned above
2) How a simple latch is built and how can we substitute a normally closed
contact with a normally open contact in a simple latch
3) Controlling the level of water in two states using discrete control by
filling and emptying it using an input and output valve. How the discrete
states change as height increases or decreases.
4) Building of different rungs for the ladder circuit for the functioning of
elevator as required. For example
Rung 1 and Rung 2- for initialization state
Rung 3- for running state and rest of the rungs for moving up, down,
stop controls

Various Controls of the system

1) Push Buttons PB (Normally Closed and Normally Opened) These are
basically input devices used to give energy to the relays
2) Relays Represented by a circle and each one is represented by a
number from 1-6 in our circuit. They work on the principle of
electromagnetic induction. NO- relay which is open when the relay is not
energised and NC- relay which is closed when the relays is energised
3) Motors Represented by a circle with M1 and M2 written inside it. They
are used to bring down and take up the elevator in our problem and
their terminals need to be carefully attached (positive and negative)
while making the circuit
4) Limit Switches LS- These are 4 in number and are used to limit the
movement of the elevator between our specified levels and not
exceeding going past them
5) Lamps (R for Red and G for Green) Lamps are used to indicate
particular states of our system by their light colour which is green and
red here. The letters are written in a circle
6) Solenoid These are 3 in number on the circuit. They are used to control
the input and output valves respectively. We used S2 for input valve 2
and S3 for output valve

Latch Implementation and ladder diagram

Fig 1- Ladder diagram of a simple latch using one NO and one NC contact
Fig 2 and Fig 3 Green light showing the off state and Red light showing the on state

Fig 4- Ladder diagram of a simple latch using two NO contacts

Fig 5 and Fig 6 Green light showing the off state and Red light showing the on state

Level Control Problem

Ladder diagram of a level flow controller

Vin = solenoid 2
Vout = solenoid 3

Snapshot depicting the working level flow controller

Description of functioning of the system:

1. The level control system maintains the water level between two specified
levels which are level 2 and level 3 respectively
2. Now if the water level goes below level 2 , the solenoid valve comes into
role and opens the input valve (input valve 2 in our case) which starts to fill the
vessel again up to valve 3.
3. Till the level is between level 2 and level 3 the input valve 2 remains opened.
4. As soon as level 3 is achieved the input valve 2 is switched off and output
valve which is controlled by solenoid 3 opens and starts emptying the tank.
5. This process of alternately filling and emptying the vessel goes on till the
control is applied

Output valve open (tank emptying)

Input valve 2 open (tank filling)

Opened when level 3 is reached and

opened till level 2 is attained as can be
seen by the heights of the tube water

Opened when level 2 is reached and

opened till level 3 is attained as can be
seen by the heights of the tube water

Elevator Problem

Ladder diagram for the elevator

Snapshot depicting the elevator going


Circuit set up for the ladder diagram

Ladder diagram for the elevator going


Description of the working the elevator system:

1. UP button It takes the elevator to its top most position
2. DOWN button It takes the elevator to the bottom position
3. STOP button It stops the elevator in the state it is while the STOP
button is pressed. During this state only the START button works. It is
normally closed
4. START button It starts the controller and moves the elevator to its
bottom position. It is normally open NO.
5. M1 and M2 motors move the elevator up and down and their
movement is interlocked
6. The UP and DOWN positions are sensed by two limit switches LS1 and

Rung 1 and Rung 2 Initialization states
Rung 3 Running state
Rung 4 Indicator of running state
Rung 5 Running and moving down
Rung 6 Running and moving up
Rung 7 Running and moving up motor control