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No.

16-50017
__________________________________________________________________

IN THE

United States Court of Appeals


FOR THE FIFTH CIRCUIT

__________
TELADOC, INC.; TELADOC PHYSICIANS, PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION; KYON HOOD;
EMMETTE A. CLARK, Plaintiffs-Appellees,
v.
TEXAS MEDICAL BOARD; MICHAEL ARAMBULA, M.D., PHARM. D., in his official
capacity; MANUEL G. GUAJARDO, M.D., in his official capacity; JOHN R. GUERRA,
D.O., M.B.A., in his official capacity; J. SCOTT HOLLIDAY, D.O., M.B.A., in his
official capacity; MARGARET MCNEESE, M.D., in her official capacity; ALLAN N.
SHULKIN, M.D., in his official capacity; ROBERT B. SIMONSON, D.O., in his official
capacity; WYNNE M. SNOOTS, M.D., in his official capacity; KARL SWANN, M.D., in
his official capacity; SURENDRA K. VARMA, M.D., in his official capacity; STANLEY
WANG, M.D., J.D., MPH, in his official capacity; GEORGE WILLEFORD, III, M.D., in
his official capacity; JULIE K. ATTEBURY, M.B.A., in her official capacity; PAULETTE
BARKER SOUTHARD, in her official capacity, Defendants-Appellants.
__________

On Appeal from the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas,
Austin Division
__________
BRIEF OF AMICI CURIAE 55 ANTITRUST AND COMPETITION
POLICY SCHOLARS IN SUPPORT OF PLAINTIFFS-APPELLEES
Erik S. Jaffe
ERIK S. JAFFE, P.C.
5101 34th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
(202) 237-8165
Counsel for Amici Curiae

__________________________________________________________________

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2837026

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................i
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES ................................................................................... iii
INTEREST OF AMICI CURIAE ............................................................................... 1
SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT ................................................................................. 1
ARGUMENT ............................................................................................................. 4
I.

THE PROBLEM OF OCCUPATIONAL LICENSING BOARDS DOMINATED


BY MARKET PARTICIPANTS. ............................................................................... 4
A. Market-Participant-Dominated Boards Have
Anticompetitive Effects. ...................................................................... 4
B. Health-Care Markets Are No Exception. ............................................. 5
C. The Need for Strong Antitrust Scrutiny of MarketParticipant-Dominated Boards. ............................................................ 6
D. The Question Is Whether Disinterested State Officials
Have Actually Approved the Agencys Specific
Conduct. ............................................................................................... 9

II.

TEXAS ADMINISTRATIVE-LAW JUDICIAL REVIEW IS NOT ACTIVE


SUPERVISION. ................................................................................................... 11
A. State Judicial Review Cannot Confer Antitrust Immunity
if It Requires Costly Litigation or if It Is Post-Injury. ....................... 12
B. Judicial Review Is Deferential and Therefore Asks the
Wrong Question. ................................................................................ 14
1. Judicial Review Must Not Only Be Substantive
but Must Also Focus on Whether the Boards
Decision Accords with State Policy. ........................................... 14
2. Because Texas Judicial Review Is Deferential, It
Does Not Truly Go to the Merits................................................. 16

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2837026

III. THE FEATURES OF TEXAS LAW THAT SUPPOSEDLY CONTROL SELFDEALING ARE IRRELEVANT TO WHETHER THERE IS ACTIVE
SUPERVISION. ................................................................................................... 20
A. The Board Does Not Argue That These Features
Constitute Active Supervision, Merely That They
Should Lead to a Weaker Analysis. ................................................... 20
B. The N.C. Dental Courts Reasoning and Holding Do Not
Support an Active-Supervision Inquiry That Depends on
the Risk of Self-Dealing. .................................................................... 23
1. The Risk of Self-Dealing Only Affects the
Threshold Determination of Whether Active
Supervision Is Required. ............................................................. 23
2. Legislative Oversight Likewise Does Not Convert
State-Court Judicial Review into Active
Supervision. ................................................................................. 27
C. A Sliding Scale of Active-Supervision Scrutiny
Depending on the Risk of Self-Dealing Would Be
Unadministrable. ................................................................................ 28
IV. STATE SOVEREIGNTY AND COOPERATIVE FEDERALISM CONCERNS
SHOULD NOT AFFECT THE RESOLUTION OF THIS CASE. ................................... 30
CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................ 31
APPENDIX: LIST OF AMICI ................................................................................ A1

ii

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2837026

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
CASES
Cal. Dental Assn v. FTC, 526 U.S. 756 (1999) ................................................... 29
Cal. Retail Liquor Dealers Assn v. Midcal Aluminum, Inc.,
445 U.S. 97 (1980) ........................................................................................ 1, 30
Cantor v. Detroit Edison Co., 428 U.S. 579 (1976) ............................................. 14
Chevron, U.S.A., Inc. v. NRDC, 467 U.S. 837 (1984) .......................................... 17
City of Columbia v. Omni Outdoor Adver., Inc., 499 U.S. 365 (1991) ................ 29
City of Lafayette v. La. Power & Light Co., 435 U.S. 389 (1978) ......................... 8
First Am. Title Ins. Co. v. Combs, 258 S.W.3d 627 (Tex. 2008) ......................... 19
FTC v. Ticor Title Ins. Co., 504 U.S. 621 (1992) ........................................... passim
Goldfarb v. Va. State Bar, 421 U.S. 773 (1975) ............................................ 7, 9, 10
Gulf Coast Coal. of Cities v. PUC, 161 S.W.3d 706 (Tex. App. 2005) ................ 17
Hoover v. Ronwin, 466 U.S. 558 (1984) ................................................................ 27
Motor Vehicle Mfrs. Assn v. State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co.,
463 U.S. 29 (1983) ............................................................................................. 17
N.C. State Bd. of Dental Examrs v. FTC, 135 S. Ct. 1101 (2015) ................ passim
Natl Soc. of Profl Engrs v. United States, 435 U.S. 679 (1978) .......................... 9
NCAA v. Bd. of Regents of Univ. of Okla., 468 U.S. 85 (1984)............................. 29
Parker v. Brown, 317 U.S. 341 (1943) .............................................................. 7, 30
Patrick v. Burget, 486 U.S. 94 (1988) ............................................................ passim
Patterson v. Planned Parenthood of Houston & Se. Tex., Inc.,
971 S.W.2d 439 (Tex. 1998) .............................................................................. 13

iii

R.R. Commn of Tex. v. Tex. Citizens for a Safe Future & Clean
Water, 336 S.W.3d 619 (Tex. 2011) .................................................................. 17
Tex. Bd. of Chiropractic Examrs v. Tex. Med. Assn,
375 S.W.3d 464 (Tex. App. 2012) ..................................................................... 19
Tex. Med. Assn v. Tex. Workers Comp. Commn, 137 S.W.3d
342 (Tex. App. 2004) ......................................................................................... 14
Tex. Orthopaedic Assn v. Tex. State Bd. of Podiatric Med.
Examrs, 254 S.W.3d 714 (Tex. App. 2008) ................................................ 17, 19
Town of Hallie v. City of Eau Claire, 471 U.S. 34 (1985) .............................. 10, 25
Va. Acad. of Clinical Psychologists v. Blue Shield of Va., 624
F.2d 476 (4th Cir. 1980) ....................................................................................... 9
STATUTES
TEX. BUS. & COM. CODE ANN. 15.01, et seq.................................................... 15
TEX. GOVT CODE 2001.032(c) .......................................................................... 28
TEX. OCC. CODE ANN. 164.051(a)(6) ................................................................. 18
OTHER AUTHORITIES
1A PHILLIP E. AREEDA & HERBERT HOVENKAMP, ANTITRUST
LAW: AN ANALYSIS OF ANTITRUST PRINCIPLES AND THEIR
APPLICATION (4th ed. 2013) ....................................................................... passim
RONALD S. BOND, ET AL., STAFF REPORT ON EFFECTS OF RESTRICTIONS
ON ADVERTISING AND COMMERCIAL PRACTICE IN THE PROFESSIONS:
THE CASE OF OPTOMETRY (FTC, Bur. of Econ., 1980) ....................................... 6
Aaron Edlin & Rebecca Haw, Cartels by Another Name:
Should Licensed Occupations Face Antitrust Scrutiny?,
162 U. PA. L. REV. 1093 (2014) ................................................................. passim
Einer Richard Elhauge, The Scope of Antitrust Process,
104 HARV. L. REV. 667 (1991) .......................................................... 4, 11, 13, 15
iv

Scott A. Keller, Texas Versus Chevron: Texas Administrative


Law on Agency Deference After Railroad Commission v.
Texas Citizens, TEX. BAR J., Dec. 2011, at 94 .................................................. 18
Morris M. Kleiner, Occupational Licensing, J. ECON. PERSP.,
Fall 2000, at 189 .................................................................................................. 5
Alexander Volokh, The New Private-Regulation Skepticism:
Due Process, Non-Delegation, and Antitrust Challenges,
37 HARV. J.L. & PUB. POLY 931 (2014) ............................................................. 4

INTEREST OF AMICI CURIAE1


Amici curiae are 55 academics at leading universities.

These include

professors who have taught and written about antitrust and the economics of
competition, and scholars who have helped develop antitrust caselaw. Their names
and affiliations (for identification purposes only) appear in the Appendix.
SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT
This appeal involves an effort by a state administrative agency, the Texas
Medical Board, to evade the substance of federal antitrust law. The basic purpose
of antitrust law is to prevent markets from being manipulated anticompetitively
yet that is precisely what professional licensing boards dominated by market
participants do. The Board argues that it is actively supervised and therefore
qualifies for the narrow state-action immunity to antitrust law. But this active
supervision is illusory, and this Court should not be fooled by the Boards attempt
to argue otherwise.
The background for this dispute begins with California Retail Liquor
Dealers Assn v. Midcal Aluminum, Inc., 445 U.S. 97 (1980), where the Supreme
Court held that private parties are not immune from antitrust law unless (1) they

No person or entity other than amici or their counsel had any role in authoring
this brief or made a monetary contribution intended to fund the briefs preparation
or submission. All parties have consented to the filing this brief.

are acting pursuant to a clearly articulated anticompetitive state policy and (2) they
are actively supervised by the State.
In particular, professional licensing boards dominated by market participants
can have anticompetitive effects, and federal antitrust law plays a valuable role in
controlling these effects.

The Supreme Court recognized as much in North

Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners v. FTC, 135 S. Ct. 1101 (2015), holding
that the Midcal testin particular its second prongapplies to such boards, just as
it applies to fully private parties: [A] state board on which a controlling number
of decisionmakers are active market participants in the occupation the board
regulates must satisfy Midcals active supervision requirement in order to invoke
state-action antitrust immunity. Id. at 1114.
The Texas Board concedes that it is dominated by active market participants
and that the active-supervision requirement therefore applies. However, it argues,
first, that state judicial review satisfies this requirement. Second, it argues that
because Texas law has mechanisms to limit Board members self-dealing and
promote accountability, the active-supervision requirement should be enforced less
strictly than it would otherwise be. In effect, the Board contends that this Court
should endorse a sliding scale approach to assessing state supervision.
Both arguments are mistaken.

For judicial review to count as active supervision, it must reach the merits of
the specific anticompetitive decisions; it must be de novo; and it must be actual,
not potentialthat is, it must occur before anticompetitive harm is suffered, and it
must not require victims to engage in costly litigation. See N.C. Dental, 135 S. Ct.
at 1116 (The supervisor must review the substance of the anticompetitive
decision, not merely the procedures followed to produce it; the supervisor must
have the power to veto or modify particular decisions to ensure they accord with
state policy; and the mere potential for state supervision is not an adequate
substitute for a decision by the State. (citations omitted) (quoting FTC v. Ticor
Title Ins. Co., 504 U.S. 621, 638 (1992)). Yet state judicial review fails on all
these dimensions. It goes only to whether Board decisions are adequately reasoned
and within the broad bounds of the Boards authority, not to whether disinterested
officials actually approve of the merits. It defers heavily to Board decisionmaking
in areas of discretion. And it relies on costly litigation by the victims of Board
action, which is not guaranteed to occur before harm is suffered.
Moreover, the sliding scale of review is supported by neither existing law
nor good sense. The strength of the active-supervision inquiry does not depend on
whether there are mechanisms to limit self-dealing and promote accountability.
Such mechanisms are praiseworthy, but they do not ensure that disinterested
officials actually approve of the specific Board decisions challenged here. The
3

reasoning of N.C. Dental does not support sliding-scale scrutiny of activesupervision depending on these factors, and such a sliding scale would not be
judicially administrable.
Therefore, the Board should be denied state-action immunity.
ARGUMENT
I.

THE PROBLEM OF OCCUPATIONAL LICENSING BOARDS DOMINATED


MARKET PARTICIPANTS.
A.

BY

Market-Participant-Dominated Boards Have Anticompetitive


Effects.

In recent decades, States have created many new licensing boards, often
dominated by participants in the very markets that the boards regulate.
Predictably, self-dealing and anticompetitive behavior run rampant: [F]inancially
interested parties cannot be trusted to restrain trade in ways that further the public
interest. Einer Richard Elhauge, The Scope of Antitrust Process, 104 HARV. L.
REV. 667, 696 (1991). Occupational licensing has been abused by incumbent
market participants to exclude rivals and raise prices, through overly restrictive
licensing requirements or aggressive and unjustified enforcement actions or
delicensing proceedings. See generally Aaron Edlin & Rebecca Haw, Cartels by
Another Name: Should Licensed Occupations Face Antitrust Scrutiny?, 162 U. PA.
L. REV. 1093 (2014); Alexander Volokh, The New Private-Regulation Skepticism:

Due Process, Non-Delegation, and Antitrust Challenges, 37 HARV. J.L. & PUB.
POLY 931 (2014).
The most generally held view on the economics of occupational licensing is
that it restricts the supply of labor to the occupation and thereby drives up the price
of labor as well as of services rendered.

Morris M. Kleiner, Occupational

Licensing, J. ECON. PERSP., Fall 2000, at 189, 192. Licensing achieves this effect
through several mechanisms, including: (1) establishing entry barriers, for instance
requiring applicants to take certain courses and pass exams, or not recognizing outof-state licenses, (2) restricting competition, such as by advertising bans, or (3)
adopting expansive definitions of the profession they regulate, so as to acquire
jurisdiction overand ultimately oustlow-cost competitors that had previously
been operating at the fringes of their profession. Edlin & Haw, supra, at 1112.
These effectsrestricted supply and increased pricedo not imply that
licensing necessarily violates antitrust law. But these effects exist; and when the
licensing regime is administered by self-interested market participants, there is an
increased probability that these price increases are not justified by improved
quality and that the restrictions are on balance anticompetitive.
B.

Health-Care Markets Are No Exception.

The anticompetitive effects of licensing boardsprice increases without


necessary quality improvementsalso extend to health-care markets.
5

First, occupational licensing restricts practitioners business strategies. In


many states, dentists cannot legally employ more than two hygienists each, a
restriction that artificially limits how many patients dentists may serve. And in
some states, nurse practitioners must be supervised by a physician, even though
studies show that nurse practitioners and physicians provide equivalent quality of
care where their practices overlap. Id. at 1107-08 (footnotes omitted).
Second, licensing increases pricesin health-care markets as elsewhere.
This has been documented in areas from dentistry to optometry. Id. at 1113-14.
Thus, some consumersespecially poor onesuse fewer medical services than
they otherwise would.
Third, quality improvements are not assured. Various studies have failed to
find a positive effect of licensing on quality. The FTC has long played a leading
role in pointing out the inefficiency of much licensing, including in health care.
See, e.g., id. at 1112 n.101, 1116-18; RONALD S. BOND, ET AL., STAFF REPORT ON
EFFECTS

OF

RESTRICTIONS

ON

ADVERTISING

AND

COMMERCIAL PRACTICE

IN THE

PROFESSIONS: THE CASE OF OPTOMETRY 25 (FTC, Bur. of Econ., 1980).


C.

The Need for Strong Antitrust Scrutiny of Market-ParticipantDominated Boards.

Antitrust review is appropriate for curbing the excesses of occupational


licensing because licensing has a similar effect to traditional cartel activity. In the
private sector, courts have used the Sherman Act to condemn combinations of
6

competitors using written tests to erect entry barriers, imposing advertising


restrictions, and predicating membership in a trade association on having a
favorable business reputation. Edlin & Haw, supra, at 1132-33. But regulatory
boards use these same techniques to suppress competition through licensing.
Making matters worse, licensing schemes are particularly durable. When
private firms collude, they have to act secretly to avoid antitrust penalties; they
have to deal with lone holdout firms who refuse to agree to the collusive scheme;
they have to police whether their co-conspirators are abiding by the agreement and
(again secretly) threaten credible penalties for non-compliers. Ultimately, cartels
often fail to emerge, or break down, because the gains to cheating are high or
because new firms enterto the consumers benefit. By contrast, licensing boards
face few of these problems. By convincing the government to centralize decisionmaking in a regulatory board (which they dominate), competitors can impose an
agreement on dissenting firms, prevent cheating by legal sanctions, and use
licensing to control entry. Id. at 1133.
It has thus long been recognized that state boards are subject to antitrust law.
Goldfarb v. Va. State Bar, 421 U.S. 773, 791 (1975) (that the State Bar is a state
agency for some limited purposes does not create an antitrust shield that allows it
to foster anticompetitive practices for the benefit of its members). And while
such bodies may benefit from the immunity recognized in Parker v. Brown, 317
7

U.S. 341 (1943), the Supreme Court has stressed that this immunity is interpreted
narrowly.

[S]tate-action immunity is disfavored, much as are repeals by

implication. Ticor, 504 U.S. at 636 (citing City of Lafayette v. La. Power & Light
Co., 435 U.S. 389, 398-99 (1978)); see also N.C. Dental, 135 S. Ct. at 1110.
Moreover, N.C. Dental makes clear that boards dominated by market
participants are particularly suspect. For these, the Supreme Court insists on both
prongs of the Midcal test: not only (1) that the anticompetitive policies be clearly
authorized by state law, but also (2) that the boards be actively supervised.
The active-supervision requirement is a necessary and independent
requirement. State agencies controlled by active market participants, who possess
singularly strong private interests, pose the very risk of self-dealing Midcals
supervision requirement was created to address. This conclusion does not question
the good faith of state officers but rather is an assessment of the structural risk of
market participants confusing their own interests with the States policy goals.
N.C. Dental, 135 S. Ct. at 1114 (citing 1A PHILLIP E. AREEDA & HERBERT
HOVENKAMP, ANTITRUST LAW: AN ANALYSIS

OF

ANTITRUST PRINCIPLES

AND

THEIR APPLICATION 227, at 226 (4th ed. 2013); Patrick v. Burget, 486 U.S. 94,
100-01 (1988)).
And just as the anticompetitive effects of licensing boards apply generally,
so, too, does antitrust scrutiny apply generally. There is no general health-care,
8

professional-standards, or safety exception to antitrust law. See Goldfarb, 421


U.S. at 787 (In arguing that learned professions are not trade or commerce the
County Bar seeks a total exclusion from antitrust regulation. . . . We cannot find
support for the proposition that Congress intended any such sweeping exclusion.
The nature of an occupation, standing alone, does not provide sanctuary from the
Sherman Act, nor is the public-service aspect of professional practice controlling
in determining whether 1 includes professions.); Natl Soc. of Profl Engrs v.
United States, 435 U.S. 679, 695 (1978) ([T]hat engineers are often involved in
large-scale projects significantly affecting the public safety does not alter our
analysis. Exceptions to the Sherman Act for potentially dangerous goods and
services would be tantamount to a repeal of the statute.); Va. Acad. of Clinical
Psychologists v. Blue Shield of Va., 624 F.2d 476, 485 (4th Cir. 1980) ([I]t is not
the function of a group of professionals to decide that competition is not beneficial
in their line of work[;] we are not inclined to condone anticompetitive conduct
upon an incantation of good medical practice.).
D.

The Question Is Whether Disinterested State Officials Have


Actually Approved the Agencys Specific Conduct.

A state Legislatures willingness to authorize regulation leaves a host of


judgment calls that the Legislature has not made about a particular topic like
telehealthsuch as what are the safety benefits of in-person consultation, and
whether any quality and safety gains justify the increased prices. Those judgment
9

calls are instead made by the Board, whose market participation makes it
financially interested in exaggerating safety concerns and in perversely weighing
increased prices as a positive rather than a negative. Thuseven if a Legislature
clearly authorizes displacement of competitionif there is no active supervision,
there is no assurance that disinterested officials endorsed the restraint at issue.
In Town of Hallie v. City of Eau Claire, 471 U.S. 34 (1985), the Supreme
Court explained that a municipality, to obtain immunity, did not need to satisfy the
active-supervision prong of Midcal, but could rely solely on the first prongits
clear authorization in state law. But this was because there is little or no danger
that [municipal officials are] involved in a private price-fixing arrangement
unlike private parties who may be acting to further [their] own interests, rather
than the governmental interests of the State. Id. at 47.
But as N.C. Dental made clear, boards dominated by market participants are
different: The presence of self-interest requires active supervision to guarantee
that the specific interstitial policies made by the entity claiming immunity be
review[ed] and approve[d] by the State. 135 S. Ct. at 1112; see also id. at 1111
(Parker immunity requires that the anticompetitive conduct of nonsovereign
actors, especially those authorized by the State to regulate their own profession,
result from procedures that suffice to make it the States own. (citing Goldfarb,

10

421 U.S. at 790; 1A AREEDA & HOVENKAMP, supra, 226, at 180)); Ticor, 504
U.S. at 635; Patrick, 486 U.S. at 100-01.
II.

TEXAS ADMINISTRATIVE-LAW JUDICIAL REVIEW IS NOT ACTIVE


SUPERVISION.
The Board relies on a single feature of Texas law that, in its view,

constitutes active supervision: state-court administrative-law judicial review.


Appellants Br. at 36, 45 (calling such review sufficient). (Nonetheless, the
Board spends many pages discussing other aspects of Texas law that it concedes
are not active supervision; the (ir)relevance of that discussion is discussed in Part
III, infra.)
But judicial review in Texas courts does not qualify as active supervision
under Midcal. If judicial review is to be active supervision, it must at least address
the merits of the specific anticompetitive decision; it must be de novo; and it must
occur before the imposition of the market restraint without the need for costly
litigation. See N.C. Dental, 135 S. Ct. at 1116; Elhauge, supra, at 716-17.
Texas judicial review fails this test, for the following two reasons.
First, it occurs only if someone incurs the substantial cost of state-court
litigation. This cost means that state judicial review might never occurin which
case there is no reason to think that disinterested officials have actually approved
the Boards specific decision. Moreover, such review is not guaranteed to occur

11

before antitrust harm is suffered. This makes state judicial review the mere
potential for state supervision, which the N.C. Dental Court explicitly held
inadequate. 135 S. Ct. at 1116 (quoting Ticor, 504 U.S. at 638).
But there is a second reason, which goes to the heart of administrative law:
Judicial review, even the substantive kind, merely checks for adequate reasoning
and consistency with the enabling statute sufficient to show that the rule is within
the Boards authority, and defers to the Boards reasonable interpretations where
there is ambiguity. But this is not the same as review of decisions to ensure they
accord with state policy, which the N.C. Dental Court wrote was necessary. Id.
Judicial review must at least be de novo to count as adequate supervision.
A.

State Judicial Review Cannot Confer Antitrust Immunity if It


Requires Costly Litigation or if It Is Post-Injury.

First, state-court judicial review cannot confer antitrust immunity if it occurs


only after costly litigation.

State courts will not review a rule that no one

challenges. But affected firms cannot always be expected to challenge Board


rules. An aggrieved firm may decide that the expense of litigation is just too great.
Sometimes, an agency rule may be a disguised form of cartel enforcementfor
instance, benefiting all incumbent firms by setting a mandatory price. In such a
case, the affected firms have no interest in challenging the rule. The cost of the
rule falls on consumers, who (if they even have standing) usually cannot be
counted on to challenge the rule: Each individuals harm may be too small to
12

justify the expense of litigation, and one cannot rely on the possibility of damages
class actions. See Elhauge, supra, at 716 ([T]he effort and time necessary to
invoke state review can discourage and delay vindication of the right to a
competitive market.).
That the mere potential for state supervision is not an adequate substitute
for decision by the State is one of the few constants of active supervision.
N.C. Dental, 135 S. Ct. at 1116 (quoting Ticor, 504 U.S. at 638). Even if judicial
review can be active supervision, there can be no assurance that the Boards
decision comports with state policy (as determined by disinterested officials) until
after judicial review has been successfully completed.
Second, state-court judicial review cannot confer immunity if it occurs after
injury is suffered. There is no guarantee of pre-implementation review: Like
federal courts, Texas courts recognize the doctrine of ripeness, which asks
whether the facts have developed sufficiently so that an injury has occurred or is
likely to occur, rather than being contingent or remote, and thus serves to avoid
premature adjudication. Patterson v. Planned Parenthood of Houston & Se. Tex.,
Inc., 971 S.W.2d 439, 442 (Tex. 1998). Aggrieved parties thus might not be able
to challenge Board rules until after implementation.
The prospect of having to suffer harm before incurring the additional
expense of a lawsuit can discourage firms from challenging the rule to begin with:
13

They might simply conform their conduct to the (invalid) rule and never achieve
the ripeness necessary for a challenge.
B.

Judicial Review Is Deferential and Therefore Asks the Wrong


Question.
1.

Judicial Review Must Not Only Be Substantive but Must


Also Focus on Whether the Boards Decision Accords with
State Policy.

N.C. Dental teaches that purely procedural review cannot constitute active
supervision and that [t]he supervisor must review the substance of the
anticompetitive decision . . . to ensure [it] accord[s] with state policy. N.C.
Dental, 135 S. Ct. at 1116; see also Patrick, 486 U.S. at 102-05. At a minimum,
judicial review must be substantive, and must focus on the merits of the
anticompetitive aspects of the specific acts being challenged. Cantor v. Detroit
Edison Co., 428 U.S. 579, 595 (1976); 1A AREEDA & HOVENKAMP, supra,
226c2, at 204-05.
Thus, to support its argument that state judicial review is sufficient, the
Board points out that the Texas APA allows both procedural and substantive
challenges. Appellants Br. at 46 (citing Tex. Med. Assn v. Tex. Workers Comp.
Commn, 137 S.W.3d 342, 346 (Tex. App. 2004)). But the mere label
substantive is not enough for judicial review to be active supervision. The
review must also ask the proper question: whether the Boards decision accord[s]
with state policy as determined by disinterested officials.
14

A simple example will show why. Texas has its own antitrust statute, TEX.
BUS. & COM. CODE ANN. 15.01, et seq., which resembles federal antitrust
statutes. Suppose Texas grants a Board the power to control access to a profession,
as long as that power is used consistently with the state antitrust Rule of Reason.
Anyone aggrieved by the Boards acts can go into state court and sue the
Board under Texas antitrust law. Would the possibility of such state-court review
constitute active supervision and thus (provided there was also clear authorization)
preclude a later federal-court suit under the Sherman Act?
Obviously not.

State antitrust review is of course substantive, not

procedural. But it cannot constitute active supervision under Midcal. First, this
would imply the wholesale preclusion of federal antitrust law, which is an
untenable reading of the Sherman Act. Elhauge, supra, at 716. Second, the
substance of this judicial review focuses on the wrong issue: whether the
defendants acts are unreasonable in an antitrust sense, not (as Midcal requires)
whether the Boards acts comply with state policy as determined by a disinterested
official. These are two different questions.
Thus, to be active supervision under Midcal, judicial review must not only
be substantive in a generic sense, but in particular answer whether the merits of
the Boards specific policy have been actually approved by disinterested officials.
In most cases, Texas administrative-law reviewlike Texas antitrust-law review
15

in the hypothetical aboveanswers the wrong question. Administrative law cares


whether a policy has means-ends rationality and is within the bounds of agency
authority (which, in this case, is extremely broad). This is simply not the same
question as whether the merits of the specific policy have been actually approved
by disinterested officials.
In fact, in a sense, state judicial review asks the opposite of the correct
question. Texas administrative law, like its federal counterpart, is characterized by
deference to agencies when a statute is ambiguous. Deference regimes are founded
on the belief that agencies are politically accountable and thus better able to fill
statutory gaps. But when agencies are dominated by active market participants,
N.C. Dental teaches that they are actually unaccountable because of the risk of
self-dealing. Allowing self-interested agencies to fill gaps is the opposite of N.C.
Dentals insistence that their specific decisions be actually approved by
disinterested officials.

Therefore, deferential review is antithetical to active

supervision.
2.

Because Texas Judicial Review Is Deferential, It Does Not


Truly Go to the Merits.

A glance at the cases cited by the Board shows how pervasive deference is.
The Board notes that the Texas APA allows substantive (as well as
procedural) challenges, and asserts that the purpose of such judicial review is to
ensure that agency rules are in accord with the policy objectives set by the
16

Legislature.

Appellants Br. at 46 (emphasis omitted) (citing Gulf Coast

Coalition of Cities v. PUC, 161 S.W.3d 706, 712 (Tex. App. 2005)).
As Gulf Coast Coalition explains, however, a reviewing court determines
whether the agency acted consistently with its statutory authority; and when
statutes are ambiguous, agencies are granted deference. 161 S.W.3d at 711-12.
This is similar to review of federal agency action under the federal APA. See, e.g.,
Motor Vehicle Mfrs. Assn v. State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co., 463 U.S. 29 (1983);
Chevron, U.S.A., Inc. v. NRDC, 467 U.S. 837 (1984).
The Board, at 47, also cites Texas Orthopaedic Assn v. Texas State Board of
Podiatric Medical Examiners, 254 S.W.3d 714 (Tex. App. 2008). There, the court
wrote: An agencys construction of a statute that it is charged with enforcing is
entitled to serious consideration by reviewing courts, so long as that construction
is reasonable and does not contradict the plain language of the statute. Id. at 719
(citation omitted).
This, too, sounds like Chevron review. Indeed, the Texas Supreme Court
has agreed that its standard is similar to Chevron. R.R. Commn of Tex. v. Tex.
Citizens for a Safe Future & Clean Water, 336 S.W.3d 619, 625 (Tex. 2011).
Both state and federal administrative-law review are characterized by
deference to agencies when there is ambiguity or discretion. As one commentator
intimately familiar with Texas administrative lawnow the Solicitor General of
17

Texashas noted, Texas law may be somewhat less deferential than Chevron, but
the two systems are analogous. [T]he issue of agency deference pervades our
states legal system, he writes; [the Texas Supreme Courts] statements on
agency deference suggest a series of decision rules that relate to the federal
Chevron inquiry. Scott A. Keller, Texas Versus Chevron: Texas Administrative
Law on Agency Deference After Railroad Commission v. Texas Citizens, TEX. BAR
J., Dec. 2011, at 984, 986, 988.
The deferential posture of state judicial review shows that such review
cannot suffice under Midcal.

Recall the purpose of the active-supervision

requirement: to ensure that disinterested officials actually approve of the agencys


specific decision. But many statutes, including the ones here, are ambiguous. For
example, one statute requires that physicians practice medicine in an acceptable
professional manner consistent with public health and welfare. TEX. OCC. CODE
ANN. 164.051(a)(6). Does this statute require examinations at an established
medical site? Does it authorize disciplinary action for prescribing drugs as a
result of an online or telephonic evaluation by questionnaire?
This is a far cry from the interpretation of unambiguous statutes, where the
intent of the Legislature is clearwhat federal law calls a Chevron Step 1
issueand administrative review is a straightforward matter of making sure
agency action conforms to the statute. The Board cites a few such cases, where
18

courts struck down agency action because of an evident mismatch with


legislative objectives. Appellants Br. at 47 (citing Tex. Orthopaedic, 254 S.W.3d
at 722; Tex. Bd. of Chiropractic Examrs v. Tex. Med. Assn, 375 S.W.3d 464, 47588 (Tex. App. 2012)).
In such caseswhere the agencys decision is so unreasonable that it is
clearly inconsistent with legislative judgment and the agencys authorityjudicial
review tells us that the agencys decision does not comport with state policy. And
if a statute is so clear that it grants no discretion, and the agencys action is exactly
within that grantin effect, if the Legislature commanded some actthen the
agencys decision is that of the State and immunity properly applies. But in most
interesting cases, courts defer to exercises of agency discretion within broad and
ambiguous grants, where the States decision on the precise issue is unknown.
The statute here is phrased broadly, using ambiguous language that
authorizes many possible actions, depending on Board members values. Texas
law lets agencies choose any of these possibly contradictory policies, provided
they are reasonable. As in federal law, there is no absolute bar against agencies
reversing their previous interpretations, if the new policy is also reasonable and the
change is adequately explained. See, e.g., First Am. Title Ins. Co. v. Combs, 258
S.W.3d 627, 645 & n.28 (Tex. 2008) (Hecht, J., dissenting) (citing Texas and
federal cases supporting this rule).
19

Deferential review, which upholds agency action unless it is unreasonable,


substantively irrational, or arbitrary and capricious, thus cannot be active
supervision under Midcal. 1A AREEDA & HOVENKAMP, supra, 226c1, at 187.
Though substantive, it answers the wrong question: Is the policy both adequately
reasoned and somewhere within the large set of authorized policies? Having
means-ends rationality and being not totally contrary to legislative policy are
praiseworthy. But because many policies are both authorized and capable of being
rationally justified, passing this test is not the same as being actually approved on
the merits by disinterested officials.
Moreover, the premise of deferencethat agencies are more accountable
than the judiciaryis precisely inappropriate when agencies are dominated by
self-interested actors. In such cases, N.C. Dental holds that there is no substitute
for actual scrutiny of the merits of the specific anticompetitive decision. At a
minimum, then, judicial review must be de novo. One can imagine judicial review
without deference, but Texas law has squarely rejected such a vision.
III.

THE FEATURES OF TEXAS LAW THAT SUPPOSEDLY CONTROL SELF-DEALING


ARE IRRELEVANT TO WHETHER THERE IS ACTIVE SUPERVISION.
A.

The Board Does Not Argue That These Features Constitute


Active Supervision, Merely That They Should Lead to a Weaker
Analysis.

Despite its view that judicial review is sufficient supervision, the Board
spends many pages talking about other features of Texas law. For instance, the
20

fact that Board members are appointed by, and may be removed by, the Governor
and Senate, and the fact that Board members are specialists from different fields,
are supposedly [f]eatures of the Boards membership [that] minimize the risk that
[the Board] will forego its mandate and act with only a private purpose.
Appellants Br. at 38-41.

Good-government laws and reporting requirements

further reduce the risk that the Board will shirk its official duties and pursue only
private interests. Id. at 41-45. Later, the Board points to features of legislative
oversight that reinforce[] or buttress[] active supervision, id. at 50-52.
The Board does not argue that these features themselves constitute active
supervision. And wisely so: Such an argument would directly contravene the rule
of Patrick, 486 U.S. at 102, Ticor, 504 U.S. at 633, and N.C. Dental, 135 S. Ct. at
1112, that active supervision must extend to the specific challenged actions. See
id. (The second Midcal requirement . . . seeks to avoid [the] harm [of private selfdealing] by requiring the State to review and approve interstitial policies made by
the entity claiming immunity.); id. at 1116 (The supervisor must review the
substance of the anticompetitive decision, not merely the procedures followed to
produce it; the supervisor must have the power to veto or modify particular
decisions to ensure they accord with state policy; and the mere potential for state
supervision is not an adequate substitute for a decision by the State. (citations
omitted) (quoting Ticor, 504 U.S. at 638)); see also 1A AREEDA & HOVENKAMP,
21

supra, 226c1, at 185-87 (Of course, the active supervision must extend to the
anticompetitive aspects of challenged conduct.).
Rather, the Board argues that these features, because they control selfdealing and increase political accountability, should lead this Court to apply the
active-supervision requirement less strictly than it otherwise would.

See

Appellants Br. at 41 (arguing that the necessary degree of active supervision


depends on the risk that [the Boards] rulemaking does not pursue state policy,
which is mitigated by its political accountability and structure).
The argument of Part II, supra, implies that state judicial review is not active
supervision at all, even under a weak standard, because it does not answer whether
the merits of the specific Board decision have been actually approved by
disinterested officials, it is not de novo, it does not occur before anticompetitive
harm is suffered, and it relies on costly litigation by victims. So whether the
active-supervision requirement should apply in watered-down form is not
important here: The Board should be denied immunity regardless.
Nonetheless, the Board is incorrect that the active-supervision requirement
should be watered down, for the following two reasons. First, N.C. Dental did not
consider these institutional details relevantrather, it broadly stressed the
anticompetitive dangers posed by market-participant-dominated agencies. Second,
a sliding scale of active-supervision analysis based on the estimated risk of self22

dealing or extent of political accountability in particular cases would be


unadministrable.
B.

The N.C. Dental Courts Reasoning and Holding Do Not Support


an Active-Supervision Inquiry That Depends on the Risk of SelfDealing.
1.

The Risk of Self-Dealing Only Affects the Threshold


Determination of Whether Active Supervision Is Required.

In N.C. Dental, the Supreme Court did look to the risk that active market
participants will pursue private interests in restraining trade. 135 S. Ct. at 1114.
But it did not suggest that this risk affected the stringency of the active-supervision
requirement. Rather, this risk informed the threshold question whether to require
compliance with the active-supervision prong of Midcal at all.

Self-interest

determines whether a Board needs supervision, not whether it is supervised. And


the Board has conceded that it needs supervision, since it is dominated by market
participants. Bringing in self-interest at this stage, to determine whether the Board
is supervised, would amount to relitigating that issue.
The Board states that required active supervision is flexible and contextdependent, and that [t]hat requires a context-specific assessment of the risk of
self-dealing, Appellants Br. at 35 (citing N.C. Dental, 135 S. Ct. at 1116, 1114)
(emphasis added). But yoking these statements together with a [t]hat requires is
misleading. The context-specific assessment of the risk of self-dealing is the
reason that Midcals active-supervision prong applies at all; assessing the precise
23

degree of self-dealing risk is not part of the inquiry into how much supervision is
enough. Moreover, N.C. Dental made clear that, despite the flexible and contextdependent nature of the test, there are a few constants: The supervision must be
on the merits, must be de novo, and must have actually occurred rather than being
merely potential. N.C. Dental, 135 S. Ct. at 1116. None of those requirements is
met here.
Thus, N.C. Dental explained that the actor in Hallie was an electorally
accountable municipality with general regulatory powers and no private pricefixing agenda, 135 S. Ct. at 1114. The risk of self-dealing was thus low. But that
consideration led the Court to exempt municipalities from the active-supervision
prong altogether.
Conversely, in N.C. Dental itself, the Board of Dental Examiners was an
agenc[y] controlled by market participants, which was more similar to private
trade associations vested by States with regulatory authority. Id. Therefore, that
dental board was fully subject to the active-supervision prongjust as if it were a
trade association or other private actor.
When the Court talked about self-dealing, it deliberately painted with a
broad brush to encompass all market-participant-controlled agencies, because
market participation inherently provides private anticompetitive motives:
Limits on state-action immunity are most essential when the State
seeks to delegate its regulatory power to active market participants,
24

for established ethical standards may blend with private


anticompetitive motives in a way difficult even for market participants
to discern. Dual allegiances are not always apparent to an actor. In
consequence, active market participants cannot be allowed to regulate
their own markets free from antitrust accountability.
Id. at 1111. The Court added: State agencies controlled by active market
participants, who possess singularly strong private interests, pose the very risk of
self-dealing Midcals supervision requirement was created to address. Id. at
1114.
This is why the risk of self-dealing goes to the threshold question whether
the active-supervision prong is required at all, not to how stringently to apply this
prong. Market participation leads to (possibly unconscious) [d]ual allegiances
and private anticompetitive motives, id. at 1111, and private parties may be
presumed to be acting primarily on [their] own behalf, Hallie, 471 U.S. at 45.
Midcals supervision rule stems from the recognition that [w]here a private party
is engaging in anticompetitive activity, there is a real danger that he is acting to
further his own interests, rather than the governmental interests of the State.
N.C. Dental, 135 S. Ct. at 1112 (quoting Patrick, 486 U.S. at 100). The risk of
self-dealing is why supervision is required; but once supervision is required, the
only question is whether disinterested officials have actually approved of the
merits of the specific anticompetitive policy.

25

The Supreme Court had the opportunity to introduce further gradations into
the active-supervision prong, based on finely grained assessments of the risk of
self-dealing for particular agencies, whether the agency officials were appointed or
elected, or whether the particular agency was subject to good-government statutes
like Public Records Acts and open-meetings laws. But it did not.
Instead, the Supreme Court heldin a sentence helpfully marked The Court
holds todaythat the same rule obtains for all market-participant-controlled
boards: The Court holds today that a state board on which a controlling number
of decisionmakers are active market participants in the occupation the board
regulates must satisfy Midcals active supervision requirement in order to invoke
state-action antitrust immunity.

135 S. Ct. at 1114.

Since the absence of

supervision was conceded in N.C. Dental, the Court did not commit itself to
whether active supervision is governed by a sliding scale that depends on the
precise extent of self-dealing and accountability; but N.C. Dentals reasoning does
not support an approach that depends on these factors.
(The Board cites the Areeda & Hovenkamp treatise to support the sliding
scale idea.

Appellants Br. at 41 (citing 1A AREEDA & HOVENKAMP, supra,

227a, at 221 ([T]he kind of supervision appropriate for a public body, even of
the kind involved in Hoover, could well be far less than for an entirely private
party.). But note the could well language: This is merely a suggestion of what
26

might be, based on issues left unresolved in Hoover v. Ronwin, 466 U.S. 558
(1984). Moreover, this pre-N.C. Dental language does not suggest that an agency
can dispense with the few constants of active supervision, 135 S. Ct. at 1116.)
2.

Legislative Oversight Likewise Does Not Convert StateCourt Judicial Review into Active Supervision.

The Board further notes two aspects of legislative oversight: first, the review
of rules by a legislative committee; and second, the sunset-review process. The
Board does not argue that these constitute active supervision. Appellants Br. at 51
([E]ven if this legislative review of proposed rules does not amount to active
supervision on its own . . . .); id. at 52 (similar). But it suggests that legislative
oversight nonetheless buttresses the supervision provided by judicial review. Id.
at 51; see also id. at 52 (reinforces).
Legislative oversight thus plays a similar role to the other features of Texas
law discussed above: In the Boards view, it can bolster an otherwise insufficient
supervision regime.
But this purported oversight does not help the Boards case. A particular
rule might never be scrutinized by a committee, because committees have other
things on their agenda.

If a committee does nothing, the rule takes effect;

committee review is thus mere potential review and looks like the negative
option disapproved in Ticor, 504 U.S. at 638. In fact, it is worse than the negative
option: Even if these committees act (perhaps long after anticompetitive harm is
27

suffered), their only power is to send to a state agency a statement supporting or


opposing adoption of a proposed rule, TEX. GOVT CODE 2001.032(c), and even
then a committees view is not that of the State as a whole.
As for sunset review, the Boards last sunset review was in 2005 (before
these rules were adopted), and the next one will be in 2017after anticompetitive
harm will have been suffered. Moreover, sunset review only reviews the enabling
statute, not the agencys regulations or interpretations.

This, too, is mere

potential review at best.


The Board cites no authority for combining individually insufficient
features. But regardless, every feature here is so weak that their sum still does not
answer the question relevant to state-action immunity: whether the merits of the
Boards specific anticompetitive actions have actually been approved by
disinterested officials.
C.

A Sliding Scale of Active-Supervision Scrutiny Depending on the


Risk of Self-Dealing Would Be Unadministrable.

There is no one-size-fits-all approach to active supervision; the inquiry is


flexible and context-dependent. N.C. Dental, 135 S. Ct. at 1116. But the
analysis is not therefore different for different types of market-participantdominated agencies. (The Rule of Reason and the negligence rule are flexible and
context-dependent, but there are not different rules for different entities.) An
inquiry that depended on the risk of self-dealing and extent of accountability in
28

every case would be unadministrable. Moreover, it would increase uncertainty for


state officials, who could not easily determine whether a particular supervisory
regime would successfully avoid treble damages.
A uniform approach is a boon to practitioners and judges. It means that
when a court hands down a decision holding whether a particular type of
supervision is sufficient, that decision becomes useful precedent.

But if the

stringency of the inquiry depends on the agency-specific risks of self-dealing,


every agency in every State is potentially unique, depending on the details of oaths,
appointment and removal provisions, state APAs, and judicial review.

Every

precedent will be of limited value, and every case will require digesting a mass of
cases that are not entirely on point and, to some extent, evaluating every agencys
institutional constraints de novo.
The judiciary is ill-suited to estimating these fine gradations of risks of selfdealing. It is for similar reasons that the Supreme Court, in City of Columbia v.
Omni Outdoor Advertising, Inc., 499 U.S. 365, 374-78 & n.5 (1991), rejected a
conspiracy or corruption exception to state-action immunity. See also N.C.
Dental, 135 S. Ct. at 1113 (calling such an exception vague and unworkable).
This is also why we have areas of per se illegality and of quick look review, see,
e.g., NCAA v. Bd. of Regents of Univ. of Okla., 468 U.S. 85, 109-10 & n.39 (1984);
Cal. Dental Assn v. FTC, 526 U.S. 756, 770 (1999): Always requiring a full29

blown Rule-of-Reason analysis would be overwhelming, even if theoretically more


accurate.
Thus, there are strong administrability reasons to treat the active-supervision
requirement as applying equally to all actors subject to Midcals second prong.
IV.

STATE SOVEREIGNTY AND COOPERATIVE FEDERALISM CONCERNS SHOULD


NOT AFFECT THE RESOLUTION OF THIS CASE.
Finally, the Board argues, at 52-54, that immunity is necessary to maintain

state sovereignty and cooperative federalism. It is true that denying immunity


affects the organization of state government. But this has always been implicit in
state-action immunity.
Parker immunity is based on the notion that an unexpressed purpose to
nullify a states control over its officers and agents is not lightly to be attributed to
Congress.

317 U.S. at 351.

Midcal recognized that immunity for state

regulatory programs is grounded in our federal structure. 445 U.S. at 103. N.C.
Dental, even while denying immunity to a state agency, recognized that [t]he
Sherman Act protects competition while also respecting federalism. 135 S. Ct. at
1117.
Parker and Midcal have always represented a compromise between state
autonomy and federal supremacy. Because the Court already considered both
federalism and antitrust values in Midcal and N.C. Dental, one should not take

30

federalism into account again in individual cases.

If one does not also

simultaneously take antitrust (and federal supremacy) values into account in every
case, the exercise is biased and therefore unfaithful to Midcal and N.C. Dental; but
if one does consider antitrust values together with federalism values, one is merely
replicating the Midcal and N.C. Dental inquiry, and the nature of precedent
demands that one simply apply Midcal and N.C. Dental as straightforwardly as
possible.
CONCLUSION
Therefore, the Board should be denied state-action immunity.

Respectfully submitted,
s/ Erik S. Jaffe
Erik S. Jaffe
ERIK S. JAFFE, P.C.
5101 34th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
(202) 237-8165
Counsel for Amici Curiae
Dated:

September 9, 2016

31

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE
I hereby certify that the foregoing Brief of Amici Curiae 55 Antitrust and
Competition Policy Scholars in Support of Plaintiffs-Appellees complies with the
type-face requirements of Fed. R. App. P. 32(a)(5) & (6) and the 7,000 word typevolume limitation of Fed. R. App. P. 29(d) and 32(a)(7)(B) in that it uses Times
New Roman 14-point type and contains 6950 words, excluding the table of
contents, table of authorities, certificates of counsel, and appendix. The number of
words was determined through the word-count function of Microsoft Word.
s/ Erik S. Jaffe
Erik S. Jaffe

CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
I hereby certify that, on this 9th day of September, 2016, I caused the
foregoing Brief of Amici Curiae 55 Antitrust and Competition Policy Scholars in
Support of Plaintiffs-Appellees to be served via the CM/ECF system on all
participants in this case.
s/ Erik S. Jaffe
Erik S. Jaffe

32

APPENDIX: LIST OF AMICI


1.

Prof. Rebecca Haw Allensworth, Vanderbilt Law School

2.

Prof. Thomas C. Arthur, Emory University School of Law

3.

Prof. Ian Ayres, Yale Law School

4.

Prof. Roger D. Blair, Department of Economics, University of Florida

5.

Prof. Anu Bradford, Columbia Law School

6.

Prof. Darren Bush, University of Houston Law Center

7.

Dean Henry N. Butler, Antonin Scalia Law School, George Mason


University

8.

Prof. Michael A. Carrier, Rutgers Law School

9.

Prof. Peter C. Carstensen, University of Wisconsin Law School

10.

Prof. Jorge L. Contreras, S.J. Quinney College of Law, University of Utah

11.

Prof. James C. Cooper, Antonin Scalia Law School, George Mason


University

12.

Assoc. Dean Joshua P. Davis, University of San Francisco School of Law

13.

Prof. Nicholas S. Economides, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, New


York University

A1

14.

Prof. Aaron S. Edlin, School of Law and Department of Economics, UC


Berkeley

15.

Prof. Einer R. Elhauge, Harvard Law School

16.

Prof. Eleanor M. Fox, New York University School of Law

17.

Prof. H.E. Frech III, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara

18.

Prof. Thomas L. Greaney, Saint Louis University School of Law

19.

Prof. Jeffrey L. Harrison, University of Florida Levin College of Law

20.

Prof. Clark C. Havighurst, Duke Law School

21.

Prof. Thomas W. Hazlett, Department of Economics, Clemson University

22.

Prof. C. Scott Hemphill, New York University School of Law

23.

Prof. Herbert Hovenkamp, The University of Iowa College of Law

24.

Prof. Justin (Gus) Hurwitz, Nebraska College of Law

25.

Prof. David A. Hyman, University of Illinois College of Law

26.

Prof. John B. Kirkwood, Seattle University School of Law

27.

Prof. Robert B. Lande, University of Baltimore School of Law

28.

Prof. Mark A. Lemley, Stanford Law School

A2

29.

Prof. Christopher Leslie, UC Irvine School of Law

30.

Prof. Stanley J. Liebowitz, School of Management, University of Texas at


Dallas

31.

Executive Director Geoffrey A. Manne, International Center for Law &


Economics

32.

Prof. A. Douglas Melamed, Stanford Law School

33.

Prof. Thomas D. Morgan, The George Washington University Law School

34.

Assoc. Dean Alan B. Morrison, The George Washington University Law


School

35.

Prof. Roger Noll, Department of Economics, Stanford University

36.

Prof. Barak Y. Orbach, University of Arizona, James E. Rogers College of


Law

37.

Prof. Mark R. Patterson, Fordham University School of Law

38.

Prof. Richard J. Pierce, Jr., The George Washington University Law School

39.

Prof. Barak D. Richman, Duke Law School

40.

Prof. Stephen F. Ross, Penn State Law

41.

Prof. Paul H. Rubin, Department of Economics, Emory University

42.

Prof. Daniel Rubinfeld, New York University School of Law


A3

43.

Prof. Christopher L. Sagers, Cleveland-Marshall College of Law

44.

Prof. Steven C. Salop, Georgetown University Law Center

45.

Prof. George B. Shepherd, Emory University School of Law

46.

Prof. Joanna M. Shepherd, Emory University School of Law

47.

Prof. Christopher Jon Sprigman, New York University School of Law

48.

Prof. Maurice Stucke, University of Tennessee College of Law

49.

President E. Thomas Sullivan, University of Vermont

50.

Prof. Alan O. Sykes, Stanford Law School

51.

Prof. Michael E. Sykuta, Department of Agricultural and Applied


Economics, University of Missouri-Columbia

52.

Prof. Avishalom Tor, Notre Dame Law School

53.

Prof. Alexander (Sasha) Volokh, Emory University School of Law

54.

Prof. Spencer Weber Waller, Loyola University Chicago School of Law

55.

Prof. Lawrence J. White, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, New York


University

A4