Anda di halaman 1dari 18

Introduction

In this assignment implementation was done for Control of a simple automated system using a
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). Structure and the operation described as follows;

S, A, B and C are photo sensors which are placed on the same horizontal level. S, A, B are
normally opened while C is normally closed. There are two actuators A2 and A3 that push the
items and actuator A1 is used to stamping.
It is required to sort the items into following three categories.
1. Items greater than length AC
2. Items equal or greater than length AB and less than length AC
3. Items less than length AB

The items satisfying condition (1) are to be stamped three times by A1 and ejected by actuator
A2, those satisfying condition (2) are to be stamped two times by A1 and ejected by actuator A3
and those satisfying condition (3) are ejected at the end of the conveyor.
The conveyor belt should be stopped at the time of stamping and there should be sufficient time
for the stamping actuator to go down and come up. The sensor S senses when an item is placed
into the conveyor and the belt should start moving when there is an item in the conveyor and
while it is being processed. When there is no item, the conveyor should be stopped.

Apparatus used
1. Photo sensors
A photoelectric sensor, or photo eye, is an equipment used to discover the distance,
absence, or presence of an object by using a light transmitter, often infrared, and
a photoelectric receiver.

2. Single acting cylinders


Single-acting cylinders transfer the force in one direction only.
The cylinder may be pulling or pushing. For the cylinder to return to its original position,
a force in the opposite direction is necessary. The opposite effect can be achieved by using
a built-in spring system.

3. Siemens S7-200 PLC


The Siemens S7-200 PLC is a very popular choice, when you start
PLC programming. It is the cheapest PLC from Siemens, and it is very
easy to begin programming.

6 digital inputs
4 digital outputs
Not expandable with modules

4. Conveyor
A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves
materials from one location to another.
5. Motor
Motor is used to run the conveyor belt.
6. Power supply
We use 24V to power supply to give power to PLC, sensors
and implementation board.

Methodology

Identify the inputs and outputs


In order to control of the automated system correctly identification of the required
inputs (sensors) and outputs (actuators) has to be done correctly. Figure 1 shows the
address table which is used to implemented the system.

Figure 1 - Address table

Timing diagram

According to the required conditions, correct ladder diagram must be sketch.

Condition 1

The sensor S senses when an item is placed into the conveyor and the belt should start moving
when there is an item in the conveyor and while it is being processed.

According to the above ladder diagram when we placed an item sensor S senses and the motor will start
until it met with a breaking condition such as stamping or ejecting the item. Meanwhile motor should
start after the stamping. We used 2 up counters (C1, C2) to detect the number of stamping times
separately for different length of an item.

Condition 2
Selecting the length of the item.

It is required to sort the items into following three categories.


1. Items greater than length AC
2. Items equal or greater than length AB and less than length AC
3. Items less than length AB

This ladder diagram uses to identify the items which lengths are larger than AB. So it is saved to the
memory which we can used it another time. And also it should contain a breaking condition to reset the
memory.

1. Items greater than length AC

When item length is larger than AC, Sensor A, B, C should trigger and have to save it in memory. So the
breaking condition should be the ejecting the item with the use of A2 actuator to reset the memory.

2. Items equal or greater than length AB and less than length AC

In this we used that memory which we used to detect the length greater than AB and used a normally
closed Sensor A to separate it from the length AC. Because when R1 triggers, both items can be there.
(Length is greater than AC, greater than length AB and less than length AC) When it is greater than
AC, R2 triggers if its not R3 triggers.

3. Items less than length AB

Items less than length AB should go along with the conveyor until it reaches to the end of the
conveyor. Accordingly, when item length greater than AC or items equal or greater than length
AB and less than length AC breaking conditions can be set.

Condition 3

When the length of item is detected item should send for stamping. Item should reach to actuator A1
within specific time (14 seconds). Timer should reset after counting.

Condition 4
Items greater than length AC stamped three times by A1
Length is greater than AC, greater than length AB and less than length AC - stamped two

times by A1
Less than length AB no stamping required

Stamping should stop when counter expires. Counters must reset at the end of the each ejection.

Condition 5

When the item reaches for stamping we should maintain on and off sequence to detect number of
stamping cycles. That means we have to give separate time for stamping and eject the stamping.

Condition 6
After completion of stamping accordingly conveyor has to start and reach the correct ejecting position
(A2 or A3). After the completion of the stamping T41 helps to reach the item length greater than AC to
ejecting point at A2 and T43 helps to reach the item length greater than AB and less than AC to ejecting
point at A3. When item reaches to the ejecting point conveyor has to be stopped and the breaking
conditions of conveyor stopping is T41 and T43.

Condition 7
After T41 and T43 get expires ejecting actuators must work accordingly.

Complete ladder diagram

Block:
MAIN
Author:
Created:
10/16/2016 06:25:54 pm
Last Modified: 10/26/2016 08:52:41 pm

Symbol

Var Type

Data Type

Comment

TEMP
TEMP
TEMP
TEMP
PROGRAM COMMENTS
Network 1

conveyor starts when an object is detected.it stops at when stamping and ejecting the object

Network Comment
Sensor_S:I0.0

T37
/

T41

T43

T45
/

out1:Q0.2
/

Motor:Q0.0
1.A
C1

C2

out2:Q0.3

Motor:Q0.0

1.A

Symbol
Motor
out1
out2
Sensor S

Address
Q0.0
Q0.2
Q0.3
I0.0

Comment

1/9

tesing4 / MAIN (OB1)

Network 2

Sensor_A:I0.1

when the object length is larger than AB , it is save d to memory

Sensor_B:I0.2

out1:Q0.2

out2:Q0.3

R1:M0.1

R1:M0.1

Symbol
out1
out2
R1
Sensor A
Sensor B
Network 3

Sensor_A:I0.1

Address
Q0.2
Q0.3
M0.1
I0.1
I0.2

Comment

when the object length is larger than AC it is saved to memory

Sensor_C:I0.3

Sensor_B:I0.2

out1:Q0.2

R2:M0.2

R2:M0.2

Symbol
out1
R2
Sensor A
Sensor B
Sensor C
Network 4

R1:M0.1

Address
Q0.2
M0.2
I0.1
I0.2
I0.3

Comment

when the object length is larger than AB and less the AC it is saved to memory

Sensor_A:I0.1
/

out2:Q0.3

R2:M0.2

R3:M0.3

Symbol
out2
R1
R2
R3
Sensor_A

Address
Q0.3
M0.1
M0.2
M0.3
I0.1

Comment

2/9

R3:M0.3

tesing4 / MAIN (OB1)

Network 5

Motor:Q0.0

When the length of the object is detected and timer starts, conveyor stops for stamping when time expires

R2:M0.2

C1

C2

T37

R3:M0.3

140

IN

TON

PT

100 ms

T37

Symbol
Motor
R2
R3

Address
Q0.0
M0.2
M0.3

Network 6

R2:M0.2

Comment

According to the length of the object stamping is done

T38

C2

C1

T37

Stamp:Q0.1

R3:M0.3

Symbol
R2
R3
Stamp

Address
M0.2
M0.3
Q0.1

Network 7

T37

Comment

When object reaches to stamping it has to maintain on and off sequence for stamping. T37,T39,T38 used to
make the sequence.

T39

T38

/
10

IN

TON

PT

100 ms

3/9

tesing4 / MAIN (OB1)

Network 8

T38

T39

10

Network 9

C1

IN

TON

PT

100 ms

Conveyor stops when the object is at the ejected point A2 (When T41 get expires)

out1:Q0.2

T41

/
T41

Symbol
out1

120

Address
Q0.2

Network 10

C2

100 ms

out2:Q0.3
IN

TON

PT

100 ms

Comment

when it is stamped 3 times is ie ejected using A2

T42

out1:Q0.2

/
out1:Q0.2

Symbol
out1

Address
Q0.2

(W he n T43 get expires)

T43

150

Address
Q0.3

T41

PT

Conveyor stops when the object is at the ejected point A3

T43

Network 11

TON

Comment

Symbol
out2

IN

Comment

4/9

tesing4 / MAIN (OB1)

Network 12

T43

when it is stamped 2 times is ie ejected using A3

T44

out2:Q0.3

out2:Q0.3

Symbol
out2
Network 13

Address
Q0.3

Comment

T42 on when ejecting from A2 is done and give time to backward stroke for A2

out1:Q0.2

T42

10

Symbol
out1
Network 14

IN

TON

PT

100 ms

Address
Q0.2

Comment

T44 on when ejecting from A3 is done and give time to backward stroke for A3

out2:Q0.3

T44

10

Symbol
out2

Address
Q0.3

IN

TON

PT

100 ms

Comment

5/9

tesing4 / MAIN (OB1)

Network 15

R2:M0.2

C1 counts 3 times when the length is larger than AC

Stamp:Q0.1

C1

CU

CTU

out1:Q0.2
R

4 PV

Symbol
out1
R2
Stamp
Network 16

R3:M0.3

Address
Q0.2
M0.2
Q0.1

Comment

C1 counts 2 times when the length is larger than AB and smaller than AB

Stamp:Q0.1

C2
CU

out2:Q0.3
R
3

Symbol
out2
R3
Stamp

Address
Q0.3
M0.3
Q0.1

PV

Comment

6/9

CTU

tesing4 / MAIN (OB1)

Network 17

When the object is smaller than AB length, object is ejected d at the end of the conveyor

R2:M0.2

R3:M0.3

Motor:Q0.0

out1:Q0.2

out2:Q0.3

17.A

500

T45
17.A

Symbol
Motor
out1
out2
R2
R3

IN

TON

PT

100 ms

Address
Q0.0
Q0.2
Q0.3
M0.2
M0.3

Comment

7/9

Results
In the assignment it is required to sort the items into following three categories.
1. Items greater than length AC
2. Items equal or greater than length AB and less than length AC
3. Items less than length AB
When we placed the item greater than length AC, conveyor starts and in the process it will
be stamped 3 times by A1 actuator and ejected by A2 actuator.
When we placed the item equal or greater than length AB and less than length AC, conveyor
starts and in the process it will be stamped 2 times by A1 actuator and ejected by A3 actuator.
When we placed the item less than length AB, conveyor starts and item will be reached to
end of the conveyor within 50 seconds.

Discussion

This assignment implementation was done for control of a simple automated system using a
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). Photoelectric sensors, single acting cylinders,
Siemens S7-200 PLC, conveyor belt, power supply unit, motor and connecting wires are used
to implement the platform.
In order to successfully detect the wooden items we use photoelectric sensors. But we can
also use capacitive sensors. Because wooden items can change the medium between the
capacitive plates. So the capacitance changes, can detect the items. But in dust or oil
environment we couldnt use these, because dust and oil can change the capacitance. (These
can be used in clean environment only).
As actuators we only used single acting cylinders, but double acting cylinders also can be
used. But it increases the number of outputs, since we uses Siemens S7-200 PLC it contains
only 4 outputs. So it is better to use single acting cylinder because return stroke is done using
a spring.
So we can improve the precision of the implementation by physically and internally. When
the number of networks in the ladder diagram reduces, time reduces to execute the program.
So the optimum solution can make this implementation best in work.