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WELCOME

An Introduction to

Network Centric Warfare


D.A.Mohan, CEO, DAC Intl
Formerly, Executive Director(Strategy), Bharat Electronics

Delivered at: The Bangalore Science Forum


19th August 2015

How Warfare has changed over time


Platform Centric Warfare

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D.A.Mohan CEO, DAC Intl

Platform Centric Warfare

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Nuclear, Biological & Chemical Warfare

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Electronic Warfare
Jammers, Direction Finders, Intelligence
gathering, ECM & ECCM, Cyber attack

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Technology Innovations
Innovations in Technology accelerated after
1970
Innovations in Defence & Aerospace fueled
developments in Civilian sector and Vice
versa

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Disruptive innovation
is changing our world
Innovation

Disrupted Market

CD / DVD
Digital Photography
Flat Panel TVs
Fixed Telephones

Cassette Tapes
Film Photography
CRT TVs
Mobile Phones

Smart Phones, IPads


Internet

Cameras, Laptops
Altering the way mankind
thinks and interacts

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Disruptive Tech in Military - Examples


Disruptive Technologies - Capabilities that were
not available and unimaginable In the past
decade
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)
Driverless Vehicles
Cyber technology
Wearable technologies
Internet of Things (IOT)
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Dawn of this Century

Widespread adoption of the


INTERNET
led to arrival of
Network Centric Warfare

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What is Network Centric Warfare?


Integration and interconnection (Networking)
of all different participants in the warfare
environment
Exchange Information
Create Situational awareness
Help fast & correct decision making
Quick action

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New paradigm of Warfare

Collection of Data & Transmission,


Extraction of useful Information & Intelligence,
Dissemination, Decision Making &
Action using
Appropriate advanced weaponry & platforms
Feedback
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The Command & Control Process

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Core concept of NCW

Tight integration and Networking of:


Sensors
Failsafe Transverse Communication Media
Command & Control centers
Land, Air and Naval platforms & Tactical units
To Achieve
Situational Awareness in a highly mobile
environment
Perfect Synchronisation between sensors &
Shooters for effective response

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NCW in Nature
Operating under simple rules, birds orient on
their immediate neighbours to form a V-shaped,
self-organized, cooperative adaptive system.

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Layers of Network

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Tactical Network

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Airborne NCW

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Signals Intelligence

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Key Elements of Network Centric Warfare


Sensor Systems

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Key Elements of Network Centric Warfare


Integrated Communications infrastructure
Point-to-point, Point-to-multipoint Radios

Powerful data routers


Mobile ad-hoc networking (MANET), Multi media
encryption
Combine HF/VHF/UHF/Microwave /SD Radio networks
with IP-based LAN and WAN networks, Fixed & mobile
Telephone networks , and Satellite
Backbone Network with auto rerouting to avoid
jammed pathways

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Key Elements of Network Centric Warfare


The Radio

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Important Network Elements- The Radio

Independent Voice & Data Communications


High Data Rates & Low Spectrum usage
Embedded GPS capability
Net capability- Multi hop & MANET (Mobile
Adhoc Net)
Operational range in all environmental
conditions
Electronic Protection Encryption & Anti Jam
Software Defined Radio - Good solution
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Benefits of SDR in Tactical communications


Embedded routing mechanisms
Reconfiguration of the network in a fast and
automatic way; Seamless connectivity
Radio
based
positioning
capability
(Triangulation) alternative to GPS
Electronic warfare functionalities
Security of communications)
Easy interoperability among different military
forces
Gradual replacement of legacy radios and
interoperability with them
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Important Network Elements - Routers

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Router-to-Radio connectivity
System

Next-generation
3200

Radio

Different rates depending on SNR/BER and


radio waveform of connection
(potentially many waveforms in same chassis)

Important Network Elements The Satellite


Satellite communications networks satisfy
military network centricity requirements
over entire hemispheric areas
High power X , Ku & Ka-band satellites are
ideally suited to ISR requirements. L-Band
and S-Band systems for small narrowband
terminals.

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Satcom Terminals & Earth Stations

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Role of Military Satellites


Static arena applications,

&

Deployed arena applications,

High command, Strategic fixed network


Territorial command posts

Divisional command posts,


posts and Special Forces

Brigade command

Maneuvering arena applications,

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Battalion command posts and Special Forces


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Multi Sensor Data Fusion & Decision Support


Analyse & filter incoming data from multiple
sensors including human inputs (Voice, Video
streams, Raw data)
Combine filtered data
Further Analysis
Extract useful & actionable information
Present to decision makers Digital displays
Assist decision making process On line/off line
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Technologies for Data Fusion


Very complex process, Handle Terra Bytes of data
Data Compression / Decompression
Sophisticated computer algorithms, Data bases, Data
base management, Data mining
Knowledge systems, Pattern identification,
Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
Very high performance computing, Computer
Networking, SENSOR interface technologies
Display technologies, Decision Support Systems, High
speed Communications, Overlay on GIS
Immunity from Cyber attacks
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Command & Control Center

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Indian Network Centric Programs


CIDSS Command Information & Decision
Support System
BSS Battlefield Surveillance System
AWAN Army Wide Area Network
ASCON- Army Strategic Communication Network
BMS- Battle Field Management System
TCS Tactical Communication System
NFS Network For Spectrum
ACCCS Artillery Command & Control System
AFNET Air Force Network
Navy Net Naval Network
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Battle Field Surveillance System

SURVEILLANCE CENTER

GENERATOR
COMMUNICATION CONTROL
UNIT

NCW Drawbacks
Information and how it is processed and interpreted
in the minds of the combatants is just as importantif
not more importantthan the information itself
NCW - Computer centric instead of Human centric
Heavy reliance on complex technology, particularly
infrastructure - primary centre of gravity for
opponents to exploit
Any disruption to networks could be catastrophic
GPS - Core asset for NCW to work - GPS jammers
can block GPS signals
Cyber attack susceptibility
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Interoperability - Major challenge in


Network Centric Systems
Interoperability between:
Different types of Hardware & Software used
in various electronic systems
Equipment used by Infantry soldier, Tanks &
other Ground fighting vehicles
Gnd to Air, Air to Air, Air & Sea
communication
Ship to Ship, Ship to shore, Ship to Air
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NCW Drawbacks Contd.


Massive quantities of video and imagery can
strain the ability of a network to supply the
right information, at the right place, at the right
time

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NCW Drawbacks Contd.


Enemy could deliberately induce disturbances
designed to push the NCW system into chaos.
Overload sensor and shooter network grids with
multitude of small weapon systems like a swarm of
birds

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Possible Mitigation
Intensive training at different levels
Built in redundancy against node failures
Fall back option in case of Network
degradation
Prevent information overload at different
operational levels esp. tactical level
Hardening against Cyber attacks, localizing
malware
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Future of NCW

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Acknowledgements
Publicly available information from following used
in parts of this presentation:
Bharat Electronics Ltd
General Dynamics Corp
Elbit
Cisco
Raytheon
Thales
Technical articles on NCW
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Thanks To
Bangalore Science Forum
The National College, Basavanagudi, Bangalore

For the opportunity to make this


presentation
For any additional information contact:

D.A.Mohan, CEO, DAC Intl.,


Ph: +919845518619, +91-80-26720698,
mohanda@dacintl.com, www.dacintl.com
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