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1. Definition of Motivation
• Motivation is defined as "some kind of internal drive which pushes
someone to do things in order to achieve something" (Harmer,
2001:51). As stated by Brown (1994:152), motivation is a term that is
used to define the success or the failure of any complex task. Steers
and Porter (1991:6) deal with three matters while discussing
- What energizes human behavior?
- What directs or channels such behavior and
- How this behavior is maintained or sustained.
• Motivation is thought to be responsible for "why people decide to do
something, how long they are willing to sustain the activity and how
hard they are going to pursue it" (Dörnyei, 2001a:8).

2. Definition of Intrinsic
• 1 intrinsic
Situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which
it acts; "intrinsic muscles"
• 2 intrinsic, intrinsically
Belonging to a thing by its very nature; "form was treated as
something intrinsic, as the very essence of the thing"-

3. Definition of Intrinsic Motivation

Based on explanation above we can conclude that definition of Intrinsic
Motivation is refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual
rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or
4. Purpose of Study Intrinsic Motivation
The main purpose of the present study is to explorer the effects of
students’ intrinsic motivation on academic achievement and cooperative
over competitive learning preferences using the framework of self-
determination theory. We hypothesized that students’ perceived pressures
in classroom would influence the basic psychological needs for autonomy,
competence, and relatedness underpinning self-determination theory.

5. The Second Language of Learning Motivation

The Second Language of Learning Motivation Gardner describes core
second language learning motivation as a construct composed of three
characteristics: the attitudes towards both types are important. A student
might learn an L2 well with an integrative motivation or with instrumental
one, or indeed with both, for one does not rule out the other or with other
motivation. Both integrative and instrumental motivation may lead to
success, but lack of either causes problems, the third component of
Gardner’s goal motivation is the learner’s attitudes towards the learning
situation. In the context of a language classroom the learning situation
could include variables such as the teacher, the textbook, classroom
activities, classmates and so forth. The learner’s attitudes toward these
variables will influence the learner’s core motivation as well as the
learner’s orientation. Positive attitudes toward the learning situation will
likely produce greater enjoyment in the study of the language, desire to
learn the language, and effort expended in learning the language.
6. The Ways to Give Intrinsic Motivation
There are seven ways to give intrinsic motivation that are :
• Teaching writing as a thinking process in which learners develop their
own ideas freely and openly
• Showing learners strategies of reading that enable them to bring their
own information to the written word
• Language experience approaches in which students create their own
reading material for other in the class to read
• Oral fluency exercise in which learners talk about what interests them
and not about a teacher assigned topic
• Listening to an academic lecture in one’s own field of study for specific
information that will fill a gap for the learner
• Communicative language teaching, in which language is taught to
enable learners to accomplish certain specific function
• Even grammatical explanations, if learners see their potential for
increasing their autonomy in a second language.

7. Teacher as Facilitator of Learning

When students ask questions and find the answers for themselves,
they get involved in their own learning. Educational Dividends knows how
powerful that can be for the student and the teacher. Educational
Dividends also knows that creating a facilitative learning environment
brings challenges for teachers.
First, teachers must adapt to a new way of teaching by managing more
open ended discovery by students. This means shifting roles from a
lecturer to a facilitator who provides resources, monitors progress and
encourages students to problem solve. Teachers reap benefits when they
see how excited their students are about applying their knowledge to
solve a problem.
Second, facilitative learning requires that students do the work.
However, many students, especially those who prefer to know "how to get
an A," are uncomfortable with the open-ended design of facilitative
learning. They are not familiar with projects that require them to apply their
knowledge and problem solve. So, at first, students can get frustrated.
Teachers must teach students to manage their own learning. The result
will be students who are more creative and able to apply their learning to
life's challenges. An added benefit is that teachers find once the shift to
facilitative learning is implemented, students are more motivated in the
classroom resulting in fewer discipline problems.
Third, facilitative learning requires students to apply their knowledge
across subjects and that requires teachers in different disciplines to work
together. Teachers feel comfortable managing their own classrooms but
sometimes may not be used to working with their peers. Teachers must
use facilitation skills to find positive ways of working on a single project
with teachers in other disciplines. As a result, teachers find that working
with their peers offers them more resources and ideas to share with
students in their classrooms.

8. General Guidelines Should Help You to Infuse your English Second

Language Classroom with Some Intrinsically Motivating Dynamics
There are six general guidelines should help you to infuse your ESL
Classroom with some intrinsically motivating dynamics that are :
• Teachers are enablers, not rewarders. Therefore, when you teach
focus less on how to administer immediate or tangible rewards and
more on how to get students to tune in to their potential and to be
challenged by self determined goals.
• Learners need to develop autonomy, not dependence. Therefore, be
careful not to let learners become dependent on your daily praise and
other feedback.
• Help learners to take charge of their on learning through setting some
personal goals and utilizing learning strategies
• Learning-centered, cooperative teaching is intrinsically motivation
• Content-based activities and courses are intrinsically motivation
• Tests, with some special attention from the teacher, can be intrinsically


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