Anda di halaman 1dari 4

BP CLC_Guide_CV_AW.

indd 1

16/10/07 12:01:35 pm

Comprehensive List of Causes


A Tool for Root Cause Analysis
Antecedent Behaviour Consequence
Analysis for accident investigators
> A guide

BP CLC_Guide_CV_AW.indd 2

16/10/07 12:01:35 pm

Contents

Page No.s

Foreword

1. Introduction
1.1 The ABC Model
1.2 When should an ABC analysis
be performed?
1.3 Human Error Analysis (HEA)
1.4 The Swiss Cheese Model

1
2
2

3
3
3

2. Performing an AntecedentBehavioural-Consequence Analysis 4


2.1 Identify behaviours
4

Learning Point Identify behaviours 4
2.2 Choose the right tool
5

Learning Point Intentional behaviour 5
Learning Point Unintentional
behaviour 
5
2.3 Consider antecedents 
6
Learning Point Consider
antecedents 
6

Learning Point Antecedents 
6
2.4 Consider Expected Consequences 7
2.5 Assess the consequences 
7
Learning Point Consider the
consequences 
7
2.6 Immediate and System Causes 
7
2.7 Corrective actions 
7

BP CLC_Guide_CV_AW.indd 3

3. Achieving a Desired Behaviour 


3.1 Specify the desired behaviour 
Learning Point Specify the
desired behaviour
3.2 Describe antecedents 
3.3 Describe consequences 
3.4 Assess the consequences 

Learning Point Consequences 
3.5 Recommend corrective actions 
3.6 Evaluate the effectiveness

8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9


Appendix 1 

The Swiss Cheese Model 
10
Applying the Reason Barrier Idea to
Investigations
11

Appendix 2 
ABC Analysis Worksheet 

12

Appendix 3 
Definitions for Antecedents
listed in ABC Analysis Worksheet

16


Appendix 4 
ABC Analysis Worksheet
Worked Example

18

16/10/07 12:01:35 pm

20/21

14/15

7. Take into account the consequences listed at Step 3 and list in the left hand column below the consequences
which will reinforce the desired behaviour. Examples of consequences that can reinforce or extinguish behaviour
are given in the right hand column below. Assess each consequence to determine whether it is, from the perspective
of the person involved: Positive or Negative (P/N); Immediate or Future (I/F); Certain or Uncertain (C/U).
Consider expected consequences

Fhej[Yj^[Wh_d]
9ec\ehjWXb[[WhZ[\[dZ[hi
Ikf[hl_iehieXi[hl[Z[i_h[ZX[^Wl_ekhZkh_d]

i_j[jekhiWdZfhel_Z[\[[ZXWYa$
7le_ZZ_iY_fb_dWhoWYj_ed$

P/N

F

I/F

C/U

< 9

F ? 9
F ? 9
F ? 9

Examples / Comments
Examples of consequences that can increase a behaviour include: meaningful and important safety work; proper performance is rewarded;
leadership providing lots of feedback about achievement of the desired behaviour. If the desired behaviour is not increasing in frequency it is
not being reinforced. Examples of consequences that can decrease a behaviour include: leadership do not tolerate lax standards; leadership
provides performance feedback about unsafe behaviour. This list is not exhaustive.
PIC consequences influence behaviour more strongly than do NFU consequences.
8. Write recommendations to put into place the antecedents and consequences required to promote the desired behaviour.

BP CLC_Guide_CV_AW.indd 4

16/10/07 12:01:36 pm