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MountKilimanjaroWikipedia
Coordinates:030433S372112E

MountKilimanjaro
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

MountKilimanjaro(pronunciation:/klmndro/),[6]withitsthreevolcaniccones,
"Kibo","Mawenzi",and"Shira",isadormantvolcanoinTanzania.Itisthehighest
mountaininAfrica,andrisesapproximately4,900m(16,000ft)fromitsbaseto5,895
metres(19,341ft)abovesealevel.Thefirstrecordedascenttothesummitofthe
mountainwasbyHansMeyerandLudwigPurtschellerin1889.Themountainispartof
theKilimanjaroNationalParkandisamajorclimbingdestination.Themountainhas
beenthesubjectofmanyscientificstudiesbecauseofitsshrinkingglaciers.

Kilimanjaro

KibosummitofKilimanjaro

Contents
1 Geologyandphysicalfeatures
1.1 Geology
1.2 Drainage
2 Name
3 History
3.1 Firstsightingsbynonindigenousexplorers
3.2 Climbinghistory
3.2.1 Nineteenthcenturyexplorers
3.2.2 Fastestmaleascentanddescent
3.2.3 Fastestfemaleascentanddescent
3.2.4 Youngestandoldestpeopletosummit
3.2.5 Ascentsbypeoplewithdisabilities
3.2.6 FirstDescentBySnowboard
4 TrekkingKilimanjaro
4.1 Overview
4.2 Dangers
4.3 Deaths
5 Mapping
6 Vegetation
7 Animallife
8 Climate
9 Glaciers
10 Mythology
11 Inpopularculture
12 Miscellany
13 Seealso
14 References
15 Externallinks

Highestpoint
Elevation

5,895m(19,341ft)[1][2]

Prominence

5,885m(19,308ft)[3]
Ranked4th[4]

Isolation

5,510kilometres(3,420mi)

Listing

Coordinates

SevenSummits
HighestmountainsofAfrica
VolcanicSevenSummits
Countryhighestpoint
Ultra
SevenThirdSummits
(Mawenzi)
030433S372112E
Geography

Kilimanjaro

MountKilimanjaro'slocationinTanzania

Geologyandphysicalfeatures
Kilimanjarorisesapproximately4,900m(16,000ft)fromitssouthernbaseintheplains
nearthemunicipalityofMoshitoitssummitheightof5,895metres(19,341ft).[2]
KilimanjaroisthehighestvolcanooutsideSouthAmerica.[7]
Kilimanjaroisalargestratovolcanoandiscomposedofthreedistinctvolcaniccones:
Kibo,thehighestMawenziat5,149metres(16,893ft)[8]andShira,theshortestat
4,005metres(13,140ft).[9]MawenziandShiraareextinct,whileKiboisdormantand
coulderuptagain.[10]

Location

KilimanjaroRegion,Tanzania

Topomap

Kilimanjaromapandguideby
Wielochowski[5]
Geology

Mountaintype Stratovolcano
Lasteruption

Between150,000and200,000years
ago
Climbing

Firstascent

6October1889byHansMeyerand
LudwigPurtscheller

Easiestroute

Hiking

UhuruPeakisthehighestsummitonKibo'scraterrim.TheTanzaniaNationalParks
Authority,agovernmentalagency,[1]andtheUnitedNationsEducational,Scientificand
CulturalOrganization[2]listtheheightofUhuruPeakas5,895m(19,341ft).ThatheightisbasedonaBritishOrdnanceSurveyin1952.[11]
Sincethen,theheighthasbeenmeasuredas5,892metres(19,331ft)in1999,5,891metres(19,327ft)in2008,and5,888metres(19,318ft)
in2014.[11]

Geology
Theinteriorofthevolcanicedificeispoorlyknown,giventhelackoflargescaleerosionthatcouldhaveexposedtheinteriorsofthe
volcano.[12]
EruptiveactivityattheShiracentrecommencedabout2.5millionyearsago,withthelast
importantphaseoccurringabout1.9millionyearsago,justbeforethenorthernpartofthe

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importantphaseoccurringabout1.9millionyearsago,justbeforethenorthernpartofthe
edificecollapsed.[10]Shiraistoppedbyabroadplateauat3,800metres(12,500ft),which
maybeafilledcaldera.Theremnantcalderarimhasbeendegradeddeeplybyerosion.
Beforethecalderaformedanderosionbegan,Shiramighthavebeenbetween4,900m
(16,000ft)and5,200m(17,000ft)high.Itismostlycomposedofbasiclavaswithsome
pyroclastics.Theformationofthecalderawasaccompaniedbylavaemanatingfromring
fractures,buttherewasnolargescaleexplosiveactivity.Twoconesformedsubsequently,
thephonoliticoneatthenorthwestendoftheridgeandthedoleritic"Platzkegel"inthe
calderacentre.[10][12][13]
BothMawenziandKibobeganeruptingabout1millionyearsago.[10]Theyareseparated

AerialviewofMountKilimanjaroinDecember
2009

bythe"SaddlePlateau"at4,400metres(14,400ft)elevation.[14]:3
TheyoungestdatedrocksatMawenziareabout448,000yearsold.[10]Mawenziformsahorseshoeshapedridgewithpinnaclesandridges
openingtothenortheastwhichhasatowerlikeshaperesultingfromdeeperosionandamaficdykeswarm.Severallargecirquescutintothe
ring,thelargestofthesesitsontopoftheGreatBarrancogorge.AlsonotablearetheOstandWestBarrancosonthenortheasternsideofthe
mountain.Mostoftheeasternsideofthemountainhasbeenremovedbyerosion.MawenzihasasubsidiarypeaknamedNeumannTower
(4,425metres(14,518ft)).[10][12][13]
Kiboisthelargestconeandismorethan15miles(24km)wideatthe"SaddlePlateau"altitude.Thelastactivityherehasbeendatedto
between150,000and200,000yearsagoandcreatedthecurrentKibosummitcrater.Kibostillhasgasemittingfumarolesinthe
crater.[10][12][13]Kiboiscappedbyanalmostsymmetricalconewithescarpmentsrising180metres(590ft)to200metres(660ft)onthe
southside.Theseescarpmentsdefinea2.5kilometrewide(1.6mi)caldera[15]causedbythecollapseofthesummit.Withinthiscalderaisthe
InnerConeandwithinthecrateroftheInnerConeistheReuschCrater,whichtheTanganyikagovernmentin1954namedafterGustavOtto
RichardReuschuponhisclimbingthemountainforthe25thtime(outof65attemptsduringhislifetime).[16][17]TheAshPit,350metres
(1,150ft)deep,lieswithintheReuschCrater.[18]About100,000yearsago,partofKibo'scraterrimcollapsed,creatingtheareaknownasthe
WesternBreachandtheGreatBarranco.[19]
Analmostcontinuouslayeroflavasburiesmostoldergeologicalfeatures,withtheexceptionofexposedstratawithintheGreatWestNotch
andtheKiboBarranco.Theformerexposesintrusionsofsyenite.[12]Kibohasfivemainlavaformations:[10]
Phonotephritesandtephriphonolitesofthe"LavaTowergroup",onadykecroppingoutat4,600metres(15,100ft),482,000yearsago
Tephriphonolitetophonolitelavas"characterizedbyrhombmegaphenocrystsofsodicfeldspars"ofthe"RhombPorphyrygroup",
460,000360,000yearsago
aphyricphonolitelavas,"commonlyunderlainbybasalobsidianhorizons",ofthe"Lentgroup",359,000337,000yearsago
porphyritictephriphonolitetophonolitelavasofthe"Calderarimgroup",274,000170,000yearsago
phonolitelavaflowswithaegirinephenocrysts,ofthe"InnerCratergroup",whichrepresentsthelastvolcanicactivityonKibo
Kibohasmorethan250parasiticconesonitsnorthwestandsoutheastflanksthatwereformedbetween150,000and200,000yearsago[10]
anderuptedpicrobasalts,trachybasalts,ankaramites,andbasanites.[10][12][13]TheyreachasfarasLakeChalaandTavetainthesoutheastand
theLengurumaniPlaininthenorthwest.Mostoftheseconesarewellpreserved,withtheexceptionoftheSaddlePlateauconesthatwere
heavilyaffectedbyglacialaction.Despitetheirmostlysmallsize,lavafromtheconeshasobscuredlargeportionsofthemountain.The
SaddlePlateauconesaremostlycinderconeswithterminaleffusionoflava,whiletheUpperRomboZoneconesmostlygeneratedlava
flows.AllSaddlePlateauconespredatethelastglaciation.[12]
Accordingtoreportsgatheredinthe19thcenturyfromtheMaasai,LakeChalaonKibo'seasternflankwasthesiteofavillagethatwas
destroyedbyaneruption.[20]

Drainage
Themountainisdrainedbyanetworkofriversandstreams,especiallyonthewetterandmoreheavilyerodedsouthernsideandespecially
above1,200metres(3,900ft).Belowthataltitude,increasedevaporationandhumanwaterusagereducesthewaterflows.TheLumiand
PanganiriversdrainKilimanjaroontheeasternandsouthernsides,respectively.[21]

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TwoofMountKilimanjaro'svolcaniccones:Kibo(left)andMawenzi(right).

Name
Theoriginofthename"Kilimanjaro"isnotpreciselyknown,butanumberoftheoriesexist.European
explorershadadoptedthenameby1860andreportedthat"Kilimanjaro"wasthemountain's
Kiswahiliname.[22]The1907editionofTheNuttallEncyclopdiaalsorecordsthenameofthe
mountainas"KilimaNjaro".[23]
JohannLudwigKrapfwrotein1860thatSwahilisalongthecoastcalledthemountain"Kilimanjaro".
Althoughhedidnotsupporthisclaim,[24]heclaimedthat"Kilimanjaro"meanteither"mountainof
greatness"or"mountainofcaravans".Underthelattermeaning,"Kilima"meant"mountain"and
"Jaro"possiblymeant"caravans".[22]
JimThompsonclaimedin1885,althoughhealsodidnotsupporthisclaim,[24]thatthetermKilima
Njaro"hasgenerallybeenunderstoodtomean"theMountain(Kilima)ofGreatness(Njaro)."Though
notimprobablyitmaymean"the"White"mountain.[25]
"Njaro"isanancientKiswahiliwordfor"shining".[26]Similarly,Krapfwrotethatachiefofthe
Wakambapeople,whomhevisitedin1849,"hadbeentoJaggaandhadseentheKimajaJeu,
mountainofwhiteness,thenamegivenbytheWakambatoKilimanjaro...."[27]Morecorrectlyinthe
Kikambalanguage,thiswouldbeKiimaKyeu,andthispossiblederivationhasbeenpopularwith
severalinvestigators.[24]

Historicalmapwith"Kilima
Ndscharo"inGermanEastAfrica,
1888

Othershaveassumedthat"Kilima"isKiswahilifor"mountain".Theproblemwiththisassumptionis
that"Kilima"actuallymeans"hill"andis,therefore,thediminutiveof"Mlima",theproperKiswahili
wordformountain.However,"[i]tis...possible...thatanearlyEuropeanvisitor,whoseknowledgeof
[Kiswahili]wasnotextensive,changedmlimatokilimabyanalogywiththetwoWachagganamesKiboandKimawenzi."[24]

Adifferentapproachistoassumethatthe"Kileman"partofKilimanjarocomesfromtheKichagga"kileme",whichmeans"whichdefeats",
or"kilelema",whichmeans"whichhasbecomedifficultorimpossible".The"Jaro"partwould"thenbederivedfromnjaare,abird,or,
accordingtootherinformants,aleopard,or,possiblyfromjyaroacaravan."ConsideringthatthenameKilimanjarohasneverbeencurrent
amongtheWachaggapeople,itispossiblethatthenamewasderivedfromWachaggasayingthatthemountainwasunclimbable,
"kilemanjaare"or"kilemajyaro"andportersmisinterpretedthisasbeingthenameofthemountain.[24]
Inthe1880s,themountainbecameapartofGermanEastAfricaandwascalled"KilimaNdscharo"inGermanfollowingtheKiswahiliname
components.[28]
On6October1889,HansMeyerreachedthehighestsummitonthecraterridgeofKibo.Henamedit"KaiserWilhelmSpitze"("Kaiser
Wilhelmpeak").[29]ThatnameapparentlywasuseduntilTanzaniawasformedin1964,[30]whenthesummitwasrenamed"UhuruPeak",
meaning"FreedomPeak"inKiswahili.[31]

History
Firstsightingsbynonindigenousexplorers
ThemountainmayhavebeenknowntononAfricanssinceantiquity.Sailors'reportsrecordedby
Ptolemymentiona"MoonMountain"andaspringlakeoftheNile,whichmayindicateKilimanjaro
althoughavailablehistoricalinformationdoesnotallowdifferentiationamongMountKenya,the
mountainsofEthiopia,theVirungaMountains,Kilimanjaro,andtheRwenzoriMountains.Before
Ptolemy,AeschylusandHerodotusreferredto"Egyptnurturedbythesnows"andaspringbetween
twomountains,respectively.Oneofthesementionstwotallmountainsinthecoastalregionswitha
valleywithtracesoffireinbetween.MartnFernndezdeEnciso,aSpanishtravellertoMombasa
whoobtainedinformationabouttheinteriorfromnativecaravans,saidinhisSummadeGeografa
(1519)thatwestofMombasa"standstheEthiopianMountOlympus,whichisexceedinglyhigh,and
beyonditaretheMountainsoftheMoon,inwhicharethesouresoftheNile".[20][32]:15[33]:114

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beyonditaretheMountainsoftheMoon,inwhicharethesouresoftheNile".[20][32]:15[33]:114
TheGermanmissionariesJohannesRebmannofMombasaandKrapfwerethefirstEuropeanstotry
toreachthesnowymountain.AccordingtoEnglishgeographerHalfordMackinderandEnglish
explorerHarryJohnston,Rebmannin1848wasthefirstEuropeantoreporttheexistenceof
Kilimanjaro.[34][35]HansMeyerhasclaimedthatRebmannfirstarrivedinAfricain1846andhas
quotedRebmann'sdiaryentryof11May1848assaying,"Thismorning,at10o'clock,weobtaineda
clearerviewofthemountainsofJagga,thesummitofoneofwhichwascoveredbywhatlookedlikea
beautifulwhitecloud.WhenIinquiredastothedazzlingwhiteness,theguidemerelycalledit'cold'
andatonceIknewitcouldbeneithermorenorlessthansnow....ImmediatelyIunderstoodhowto
interpretthemarveloustalesDr.KrapfandIhadheardatthecoast,ofavastmountainofgoldand
silverinthefarinterior,theapproachtowhichwasguardedbyevilspirits."[32]:6Inlightofthese
sources,J.ShearsonHyland'sassertionthatRebmannfirstsawthemountainin1840[20]appearstobe
erroneous.

FromtheUKNationalArchives

Climbinghistory
Nineteenthcenturyexplorers

FirstaerialphotographofKibotaken
byWalterMittelholzerin1929

InAugust1861,thePrussianofficerBaronKarlKlausvonderDeckenaccompaniedbyEnglish
geologistR.ThorntonmadeafirstattempttoclimbKibobut"gotnofartherthan8,200feet(2,500m)owingtotheinclemencyofthe
weather."[32]:9[36]InDecember1862,vonderDeckentriedasecondtimetogetherwithOttoKersten.Theyreachedaheightof14,000feet
(4,300m).[37]
InAugust1871,missionaryCharlesNewbecamethe"firstEuropeantoreachtheequatorialsnows"onKilimanjaroatanelevationofslightly
morethan13,000feet(4,000m).[32]:11
InJune1887,theHungarianCountSmuelTelekiandAustrianLieutenantLudwigvonHhnelmadeanattempttoclimbthemountain.
ApproachingfromthesaddlebetweenMawenziandKibo,Hhnelstoppedat4,950meters(16,240ft),butTelekipushedthroughuntilhe
reachedthesnowat5,300meters(17,400ft).[38]
Laterin1887duringhisfirstattempttoclimbKilimanjaro,theGermangeologyprofessorHansMeyerreachedtheloweredgeoftheicecap
onKibo,wherehewasforcedtoturnbackbecausehelackedtheequipmentneededtohandletheice.[39]:81Thefollowingyear,Meyer
plannedanotherattemptwithOscarBaumann,acartographer,butthemissionwasabortedafterthepairwereheldhostageandransomed
duringtheAbushiriRevolt.[39]:82
Intheautumnof1888,theAmericannaturalistDr.AbbottandtheGermanexplorerOttoEhrenfriedEhlersapproachedthesummitfromthe
northwest.WhileAbbottturnedbackearlier,Ehlersatfirstclaimedtohavereachedthesummitrimbut,afterseverecriticismofthatclaim,
laterwithdrewit.[32]:1719
In1889,MeyerreturnedtoKilimanjarowiththeAustrianmountaineerLudwigPurtschellerforathirdattempt.[39]:82Thesuccessofthis
attemptwasbasedontheestablishmentofseveralcampsiteswithfoodsuppliessothatmultipleattemptsatthetopcouldbemadewithout
havingtodescendtoofar.[39]:82MeyerandPurtschellerpushedtonearthecraterrimonOctober3butturnedaroundexhaustedfromhacking
footstepsintheicyslope.[39]:82Threedayslater,onPurtscheller'sfortiethbirthday,theyreachedthehighestsummitonthesouthernrimof
thecrater.[39]:82TheywerethefirsttoconfirmthatKibohasacrater.[39]:82AfterdescendingtothesaddlebetweenKiboandMawenzi,Meyer
andPurtschellerattemptedtoclimbthemoretechnicallychallengingMawenzibutcouldreachonlythetopofKlutePeak,asubsidiarypeak,
beforeretreatingduetoillness.[39]:84OnOctober18,theyreascendedKibotoenterandstudythecrater,crestingtherimatHansMeyers
Notch.[39]:84Intotal,MeyerandPurtschellerspent16daysabove15,000feet(4,600m)duringtheirexpedition.[39]:84Theywere
accompaniedintheirhighcampsbyMwiniAmaniofPangani,whocookedandsuppliedthesiteswithwaterandfirewood.[32]:135186
ThefirstascentofthehighestsummitofMawenziwasmadeon29July1912,bytheGermanclimbersEdwardOehlerandFritzKlute,who
christeneditHansMeyerPeak.OehlerandKlutewentontomakethethirdeverascentofKibo,viatheDrygalskiGlacier,anddescendedvia
theWesternBreach.[39]:85
In1989,theorganizingcommitteeofthe100yearcelebrationofthefirstascentdecidedtoawardposthumouscertificatestotheAfrican
porterguideswhohadaccompaniedMeyerandPurtscheller.[40]Onepersoninpicturesordocumentsofthe1889expeditionwasthoughtto
matchalivinginhabitantofMarangu,YohaniKinyalaLauwo.[40]Lauwodidnotknowhisownage.[40]NordidherememberMeyeror
Purtscheller,butherememberedjoiningaKilimanjaroexpeditioninvolvingaDutchdoctorwholivednearthemountainandthathedidnot
gettowearshoesduringtheclimb.[40]LauwoclaimedthathehadclimbedthemountainthreetimesbeforethebeginningofWorldWarI.[40]
ThecommitteeconcludedthathehadbeenamemberofMeyer'steamandthereforemusthavebeenbornaround1871.[40]Lauwodiedon10
May1996,107yearsafterthefirstascent,butnowissometimesevensuggestedascofirstascendantofKilimanjaro.[41]
Fastestmaleascentanddescent
ThefastestascentdescenthasbeenrecordedbytheSwissEcuadorianmountainguideKarlEgloff(born16March1981inQuito),whoranto
thetopandbackin6hoursand42minuteson13August2014.[42]PreviousrecordswereheldbySpanishmountainrunnerKlianJornet(7
hours,14minuteson29September2010)andbyTanzanianguideSimonMtuy(9hours,21minuteson22February2006).[43][44]

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hours,14minuteson29September2010)andbyTanzanianguideSimonMtuy(9hours,21minuteson22February2006).[43][44]
Fastestfemaleascentanddescent
ThefemaleascentrecordisheldbyAnneMarieFlammersfeld.On27July2015,sheclimbedtothesummitin8hours,32minutesviathe
UmbweRoute,whichisabout30kilometres(19mi)long.BorninGermanybutlivinginSwitzerland,shebroketherecordofBritain's
BeckyShuttleworthwhoclimbedtothesummitin11hours,34minuteson20September2014.[43][45]
Flammersfeldthenneeded4hours,26minutestorundowntotheMwekaGate,foracombinedasentanddescenttimeof12hours,58
minutes.[45]Thatbrokethepreviousrecordof18hours,31minutesheldbyDebbieBachman.[46]
Youngestandoldestpeopletosummit
Despiteanagelimitof10yearsforaclimbingpermit,exceptionsareoccasionallygranted,andKeatsBoydofLosAngeleswasonlyseven
yearsoldwhenhesummitedKilimanjaroon21January2008.TheoldestpersontoreachUhuruPeakwasAngelaVorobevaatage86years
and267days.TheoldestmantosummitthemountainisAmericanRobertWheeler,whowas85yearsand201dayswhenhesummitedon2
October2014.InOctober2015.
Ascentsbypeoplewithdisabilities
WheelchairboundBernardGoosenscaledKilimanjaroinsixdaysin2007,whilein2012KyleMaynard,whohasnoforearmsorlowerlegs,
crawledunassistedtothesummitofMountKilimanjaro.[43]
FirstDescentBySnowboard
ThefirstdescentbysnowboardwasaccomplishedbyAceBaileyonJuly1st,1988.Thisdescent,atthetime,wasalsothehighestaltitude
descentbysnowboardeveraccomplished.ThisrecordwashelduntilJulythefollowingyear.TheridewasphotographedbyBarryLewis.[47]

TrekkingKilimanjaro
Overview
KilimanjaroNationalParkgeneratedUS$51millioninrevenuein2013,[48]:285the
secondmostofanyTanzaniannationalpark.[49]:258(TheNgorongoroConservationArea,
whichincludestheheavilyvisitedNgorongoroCrater,isnotanationalpark.)The
TanzaniaNationalParksAuthorityreportedthattheparkrecorded57,456touristsduring
the201112budgetyear,ofwhom16,425hikedthemountain,whichwaswellbelowthe
capacityof28,470asspecifiedinthepark'sGeneralManagementPlan.[50]Themountain
climbersgeneratedirregularandseasonaljobsforabout11,000guides,porters,andcooks
in2007,[51]althoughseriousconcernshavebeenraisedabouttheirpoorworking
conditionsandinadequatewages.[48]:287291[49]:259[51]
A3DmodelofKibo

TherearesevenofficialtrekkingroutesbywhichtoascendanddescendMount
Kilimanjaro:Lemosho,Machame,Marangu,Mweka,Rongai,Shira,andUmbwe.[52]Of
alltheroutes,Machameisconsideredthemostscenic,albeitsteeper,route.[53]Itcanbedoneinsixorsevendays.[53]TheRongaiisthe
easiestandleastscenicofallcampingroutes.[54]TheMaranguisalsorelativelyeasy,butthisroutetendstobeverybusy,theascentand
descentroutesarethesame,andaccommodationisinsharedhutswithallotherclimbers.[55]
PeoplewhowishtotrektothesummitofKilimanjaroareadvisedtoundertakeappropriateresearch[56]andensurethattheyarebothproperly
equippedandphysicallycapable.ThoughtheclimbistechnicallynotaschallengingaswhenclimbingthehighpeaksoftheHimalayasor
Andes,thehighelevation,lowtemperature,andoccasionalhighwindsmakethisadifficultanddangeroustrek.Acclimatisationisessential,
andeventhemostexperiencedtrekkerssuffersomedegreeofaltitudesickness.[57]

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SignatUhurupeak,indicatingto
trekkersthattheyhavereachedthe
top

MemorialrecognizingtheGerman
HansMeyerasthefirstEuropeanto
"conquer"Kilimanjaro

Dangers
Asmallstudyofpeopleattemptingtoreachthesummitof
KilimanjaroinJulyandAugust2005foundthat61.3
percentsucceededand77percentexperiencedacute
mountainsickness(AMS).[58]Aretrospectivestudyof917
personswhoattemptedtoreachthesummitviathe
LemoshoorMachameroutesfoundthat70.4percent
experiencedAMS,definedinthisstudytobeheadache,
nausea,diarrhea,vomiting,orlossofappetite.[59]

MountKilimanjaroasseenfromtheMoshimunicipalityintheKilimanjaroRegion

Kilimanjaro'ssummitiswellabovethealtitudeatwhichlifethreateninghighaltitudepulmonaryedema(HAPE)orhighaltitudecerebral
edema(HACE),themostsevereformsofAMS,canoccur.[60]Thesehealthrisksareincreasedsubstantiallybyexcessivelyfastclimbing
schedulesmotivatedbyhighdailynationalparkfees,busyholidaytravelschedules,andthelackofpermanentshelteronmostroutes.[61]
Adailydoseof250milligramsofacetazolamideisassociatedwitha48percentrelativeriskreductionofAMScomparedtoplacebo,witha
higherdosenotprovidingadditionalprotectionbutcausingmoreadversesideeffects.[62]ThesixdayMachameroute,whichinvolvesone
nightof"sleepinglow",maydelaytheonsetofAMSbutdoesnotultimatelypreventitsoccurrence.[63]
Fallsonsteepportionsofthemountainandrockslideshavekilledtrekkers.Forthisreason,therouteviatheArrowGlacierwasclosedfor
severalyears,reopeninginDecember2007.[64]

Deaths
AccordingtotheKilimanjaroChristianMedicalCentreinMoshi,25peoplediedfromJanuary1996toOctober2003whileclimbingthe
mountain.Seventeenwerefemaleandeightweremale,ranginginagefrom29to74.Fourteendiedfromadvancedhighaltitudeillness,
includingonewithHACE,fivewithHAPE,andsixwithbothHACEandHAPE.Theremainingelevendeathsresultedfromtrauma(three),
myocardialinfarction(four),pneumonia(two),cardiopulmonaryfailureofotherunderlyingcause(one),andacuteappendicitis(one).The
overallmortalityratewasanestimated13.6per100,000climbers(0.0136percent).[65]
On18July2016,SouthAfricanrallychampionGuguZuludiedwhileclimbingMountKilimanjaro.[66]GuguwasclimbingKilimanjarowith
hiswifeLetshegoandprojectleaderRichardMabaso.Theteamwasledbyexperiencedmountaineer,SibusisoVilane.Guguwaspartofthe
Trek4MandelainitiativethatsawprominentSouthAfricanstrytosummitthemountainforMandelaDay.
On12September2015,33yearoldScottDinsmorefromtheUnitedStateswaskilledinarockfallwhileclimbingKilimanjaro.[67][68]
On19September2008,exCentralIntelligenceAgencyagentKenMoskowdiedfromaltitudesicknesswhilejust20yards(18m)shortof
reachingthesummitofKilimanjaro.[69]
InJanuary2006,threepersonsfromtheUnitedStateswerekilledinarockfallwhileclimbingKilimanjaro.[70]

Mapping
AmapoftheKiboconeonMountKilimanjarowaspublishedbytheBritishgovernment'sDirectorateofOverseasSurveysin1964basedon
aerialphotographyconductedin1962(SubsetofKilimanjaro,EastAfrica(Tanganyika)SeriesY742,Sheet56/2,D.O.S.4221964,Edition1,
Scale1:50,000).[71]

TouristmappingwasfirstpublishedbytheOrdnanceSurveyinEnglandin1989basedontheoriginalDOSmapping(1:100,000,100ft
intervals,DOS522).[72]WestColProductionsproducedamapwithtouristinformationin1990(1:75,000,100metrecontourintervals,inset
mapsofKiboandMawenzion1:20,000and1:30,000scalesrespectivelyand50metrecontourinterval).[72]Inthelastfewyears,numerous
othermapshavebecomeavailableofvariousqualities.[5]

Vegetation
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Naturalforestscoverabout1,000squarekilometres(250,000acres)onKilimanjaro.[73]Inthe
foothillareamaize,beans,andsunflowers(onthewesternsidealsowheat)arecultivated.
RemnantsoftheformersavannavegetationwithAcacia,Combretum,TerminaliaandGrewia
alsooccur.Between1,000metres(3,300ft)and1,800metres(5,900ft),coffeealsoappearsas
partofthe"Chaggahomegardens"agroforestry.Nativevegetationatthisaltituderange
(Strombosia,Newtonia,andEntandrophragma)islimitedtoinaccessiblevalleysandgorges[74]
andiscompletelydifferentfromvegetationathigheraltitudes.Onthesouthernslopemontane
forestsfirstcontainOcoteausambarensisaswellasfernsandepipythes,fartherupincloud
forestsPodocarpuslatifolius,HageniaabyssinicaandEricaexcelsagrowaswellasfog
dependentmosses.Onthedriernorthernslopesolive,CrotonCalodendrum,Cassipourea,and
Juniperusformforestsinorderofincreasingaltitude.Between3,100metres(10,200ft)and
3,900metres(12,800ft)lieEricabushandheathlands,followedbyHelichrysumuntil4,500
metres(14,800ft).[75][76]Neophyteshavebeenobserved,includingPoaannua.[77]

CloudforestontheMarangurouteonthe
southeastslope.

RecordsfromtheMaundicraterat2,780metres(9,120ft)indicatethatthevegetationofKilimanjarohasvariedovertime.Forestvegetation
retreatedduringtheLastGlacialMaximumandtheericaceousvegetationbeltloweredby1,500metres(4,900ft)between42,000and30,000
yearsagobecauseofthedrierandcolderconditions.[74]

Animallife
LargeanimalsarerareonKilimanjaroandaremorefrequentintheforestsandlowerpartsofthemountain.ElephantsandCapebuffaloesare
amongtheanimalsthatcanbepotentiallyhazardoustotrekkers.Bushbucks,chameleons,dikdiks,duikers,mongooses,sunbirds,and
warthogshavebeenreportedaswell.ZebrasandhyenashavesporadicallybeenobservedontheShiraplateau.[78]
SpecificspeciesassociatedwiththemountainincludetheKilimanjaroshrew[79]andthechameleonKinyongiatavetana.[80]

Climate
TheclimateofKilimanjaroisinfluencedbytheheightofthemountain,whichallowsthesimultaneousinfluenceoftheequatorialtradewinds
andthehighaltitudeantitrades,andtheisolatedpositionofthemountain.Kilimanjarohasdailyupslopeandnightlydownslopewinds,a
regimenstrongeronthesouthernthanthenorthernsideofthemountain.Theflattersouthernflanksaremoreextendedandaffectthe
atmospheremorestrongly.[14]:34
Kilimanjarohastwodistinctrainyseasons,onefromMarchtoMayandanotheraroundNovember.Thenorthernslopesreceivemuchless
rainfallthanthesouthernones.[73]Thelowersouthernslopereceives800to900millimetres(31to35in)annually,risingto1,500to2,000
millimetres(59to79in)at1,500metres(4,900ft)altitudeandpeaking"partlyover"3,000millimetres(120in)intheforestbeltat2,000to
2,300metres(6,600to7,500ft).Inthealpinezone,annualprecipitationdecreasesto200millimetres(7.9in).[75]:18
Theaveragetemperatureinthesummitareaisapproximately7C(19F).NighttimesurfacetemperaturesontheNorthernIceField(NIF)
fallonaverageto9C(16F)withanaveragedaytimehightemperatureof4C(25F).Duringnightsofextremeradiationalcooling,the
NIFcancooltoaslowas15to27C(5to17F).[81]:674
SnowfallcanoccuranytimeofyearbutisassociatedmostlywithnorthernTanzania'stworainyseasons(NovemberDecemberandMarch
May).[81]:673Precipitationinthesummitareaoccursprincipallyassnowandgraupel(250to500millimetres(9.8to19.7in)peryear)and
ablateswithindaysoryears.[82]

Glaciers
Kibo'sdiminishingicecapexistsbecauseKilimanjaroisalittledissected,massivemountainthatrisesabovethesnowline.Thecapis
divergentandoutwardssplitsupintoindividualglaciers.ThecentralportionoftheicecapisinterruptedbythepresenceoftheKibo
crater.[14]:5Thesummitglaciersandicefieldsdonotdisplaysignificanthorizontalmovementsbecausetheirlowthicknessprecludesmajor
deformation.[82]
GeologicalevidenceshowsfivesuccessiveglacialepisodesduringtheQuaternaryperiod,namelyFirst(500,000BP),Second(greaterthan
360,000yearsagoto240,000BP),Third(150,000to120,000BP),Fourth(alsoknownas"Main")(20,000to17,000BP),andLittle(16,000
to14,000BP).TheThirdmayhavebeenthemostextensive,andtheLittleappearstobestatisticallyindistinguishablefromtheFourth.[83]
Acontinuousicecapcoveringapproximately400squarekilometres
(150sqmi)downtoanelevationof3,200metres(10,500ft)covered
KilimanjaroduringtheLastGlacialMaximuminthePleistoceneepoch
(theMainglacialepisode),extendingacrossthesummitsofKiboand
Mawenzi.[9][15]Becauseoftheexceptionallyprolongeddryconditions
duringthesubsequentYoungerDryasstadial,theicefieldson
Kilimanjaromayhavebecomeextinct11,500yearsBP.[82]Icecorestaken
fromKilimanjaro'sNorthernIceField(NIF)indicatesthattheglaciers
therehavea"basalage"of11,700years,[84]althoughananalysisofice

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therehavea"basalage"of11,700years,[84]althoughananalysisofice
takenin2011fromexposedverticalcliffsintheNIFsupportsanage
extendingonlyto800yearsBP.[85]
HigherprecipitationratesatthebeginningoftheHoloceneepoch(11,500
yearsBP)allowedtheicecaptoreform.[82]Theglacierssurviveda
widespreaddroughtduringathreecenturyperiodbeginningaround4,000
yearsBP.[82][86]

AerialviewoftheKibosummitofMountKilimanjaroin1938.

Inthelate1880s,thesummitofKibowascompletelycoveredbyanicecapcovering
about20squarekilometres(7.7sqmi)withoutletglacierscascadingdownthewestern
andsouthernslopes,andexceptfortheinnercone,theentirecalderawasburied.Glacier
icealsoflowedthroughtheWesternBreach.[9][15]
Theslopeglaciersretreatedrapidlybetween1912and1953,inresponsetoasuddenshift
inclimateattheendofthe19thcenturythatmadethem"drasticallyoutofequilibrium",
andmoreslowlythereafter.Theircontinuingdemiseindicatestheyarestilloutof
equilibriuminresponsetoaconstantchangeinclimateoverthelast100years.[9]
Incontrasttothepersistentslopeglaciers,theglaciersonKilimanjaro'scraterplateau
haveappearedanddisappearedrepeatedlyduringtheHoloceneepoch,witheachcycle
lastingafewhundredyears.[87]:1088Itappearsthatdecreasingspecifichumidityinsteadof
temperaturechangeshascausedtheshrinkageoftheslopeglacierssincethelate19th
century.Noclearwarmingtrendattheelevationofthoseglaciersoccurredbetween1948
and2005.Althoughairtemperaturesatthatelevationarealwaysbelowfreezing,solar
radiationcausesmeltingontheirverticalfaces."Thereisnopathwayfortheplateau
glaciersotherthantocontinuouslyretreatoncetheirverticalmarginsareexposedtosolar
radiation."[9]Verticalicemarginwallsareauniquecharacteristicofthesummitglaciers
andamajorplaceoftheshrinkageoftheglaciers.Theymanifeststratifications,calving,
andothericefeatures.[81]

VerticalmarginwalloftheRebmannGlacierin
2005withMountMeruinthebackground.

Almost85percentoftheicecoveronKilimanjarodisappearedfromOctober1912to
June2011,withcoveragedecreasingfrom11.40squarekilometres(4.40sqmi)to1.76
squarekilometres(0.68sqmi).[88]:423From1912to1953,therewasabouta1.1percent
averageannualloss.[86]Theaverageannuallossfor1953to1989was1.4percentwhile
Averticalglaciermarginwallasseenfrom
thelossratefor1989to2007was2.5percent.[86]Oftheicecoverstillpresentin2000,
Gilman'sPointonthecraterrimatasunrisein
almost40percenthaddisappearedby2011.[88]:425Theglaciersarethinninginadditionto
1998
[86]
losingarealcoverage, anddonothaveactiveaccumulationzoneswithretreat
occurringonallglaciersurfaces.Lossofglaciermassiscausedbybothmeltingand
sublimation.[82]WhilethecurrentshrinkingandthinningofKilimanjaro'sicefieldsappearstobeuniquewithinitsalmosttwelvemillennium
history,itiscontemporaneouswithwidespreadglacierretreatinmidtolowlatitudesacrosstheglobe.[86]Atthecurrentrate,mostoftheice
onKilimanjarowilldisappearby2040and"itishighlyunlikelythatanyicebodywillremainafter2060".[88]:430
Acompletedisappearanceoftheicewouldbeofonly"negligibleimportance"tothewaterbudgetoftheareaaroundthemountain.The
forestsofKilimanjaro,farbelowtheicefields,"are[the]essentialwaterreservoirsforthelocalandregionalpopulations".[89]
TheKilimanjaroglaciershavebeenusedforderivingicecorerecords,includingtwofromthesouthernicefield.Basedonthisdata,this
icefieldformedbetween1,250and1,450yearsBP.[90]

Mythology
LocallegendsbytheChaggapeopletellhowamannamedToneonceprovokedagod,Ruwa,tobringfamineupontheland.Thepeople
becameangryatTone,forcinghimtoflee.Nobodywantedtoprotecthimbutasolitarydwellerwhohadstonesthatturnedmiraculouslyinto
cattle.ThedwellerbidthatToneneveropenthestableofthecattle.WhenTonedidnotheedthewarningandthecattleescaped,Tone
followeditbutthefleeingcattlethrewuphillstorunon,includingMawenziandKibo.TonefinallycollapsedonKibo,endingthepursuit.

AnotherlegendhasitthatKiboandMawenziweregoodneighbours,untilMawenziplayedaprankonKiboandthrewawayembershehad
receivedfromKiboandclaimedthattheyhadburnedout.KiboeventuallygotangryandbeatMawenzibadly,explainingwhythemountain
issobadlydegraded.ThistheoryexplainsMawenzi'snameas"theBattered".
Otherlegendstellofivoryfilledgravesofelephantsonthemountain,andofacownamedRaylithatproducesmiraculousfatfromhertail
glands.Ifamantriestostealsuchaglandbutistooslowinhismoves,Rayliwillblastapowerfulsnortandblowthethiefhurlingdowninto
theplain.[91]

Inpopularculture
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UnderKilimanjaroisanonfictionnovelbyErnestHemingwayabouthistravelsintheregion.[92]
SialivesonKilimanjaroisachildren'sbookbyAstridLindgren.[93]
TheSnowsofKilimanjaroisashortstorybyHemingwaythatreferencesKilimanjaro.[94]Thestorywasadaptedintoafilmin1952.[95]
InthefilmAnInconvenientTruth,formerUnitedStatesvicepresidentAlGorestated,"Withinthedecade,therewillbenomoresnows
ofKilimanjaro."[96]
TherockbandTotosongmentionsKilimanjaroinits1982song"Africa".
inthe1994DisneyfilmTheLionKing,Kilimanjarocanbeseeninthebackgroundduringtheopeningmusicsequence"Circleof
Life",asthefilmwassetinTanzania.
PopularBritishYouTuberKSImadeasongin2015calledKilimanjaro.

Miscellany
AccordingtotheTanzaniaNationalParksAuthority,thefirstweddingperformedonthemountainbelowthesummittookplaceon21
September2014,whenanAmericancoupleexchangedvowsatShira2Camp.[97][98]In2011,acouplehadexchangedtheirvowsatthe
summit.[99]
On26September2014,anewworldrecordforthehighestevercricketmatchwassetwhenagroupofinternationalcricketersplayed
onaflatcrateronthemountainatanelevationof5,730metres(18,800ft).[100]

Seealso
BallettoGlacier
BarrancoGlacier
CrednerGlacier
FurtwnglerGlacier
GreatPenckGlacier
ListofvolcanoesinTanzania
LittlePenckGlacier
RebmannGlacier

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Externallinks
MountKilimanjaroNationalPark(http://www.tanzaniaparks.com/kili.html)
NASAEarthExplorerpage(http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=3054)
WeatherforecaseforMountKilimanjaro(19,565feet)(http://www.mountainforecast.com/peaks/MountKilimanjaro/forecasts/5963)

GlacialRecessiononKilimanjaro(picturesofsouthernicefields)(http://www.kilimanjaro.cc/glacialrecession.htm)
MountKilimanjarolivewebcam(http://www.kilicam.com)
Kilimanjaroflorapicturegallery(https://web.archive.org/web/20141107022451/http://www.ewpnet.com/kilimanjaro/flora/index.htm)

AerialphotographsofMountKilimanjaro,193738(http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/search/collection/agsafrica/searchterm/Kiliman
jaro%20%28mountain%29/field/all/mode/exact/conn/and/cosuppress/)
Kilimanjaro(http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/tanzania_kilimanjaro)
HowhardisittoclimbMountKilimanjaro?(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/7919100.stm)

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