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Human resource management is currently gaining unprecedented importance especially

India incorporated the idea of realizing manpower as a resource and not a mere commodity. Our
hopes and desires are mainly placed on the development and utilization of the human resources
which is quantitatively huge. Human resource management ensures the optimum utilization of
human esources. For the purpose of achieving optimum utilization of human resources, what is
required is proper management and motivation of the work force engaged in our organizations

In the modern organizational set up, we find frequent changes in the human resources and
environment factors. There is constant change in the human resources due to the appointment of
new employees with new ideas and expectations in various posts. Environmental factors that are
subject to change normally include organizational structure, operating systems, procedures, rules,
customs and economic, social and political partners.

Human resources from the viewpoint of the individual organization represent the total of the
inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of
employees the expression human resources include all the component resources of employees at
various management levels viz., top, middle and lower management levels

The main aim of human resource management is to achieve the organizational and individual
goals by ensuring the most effective use of employees in the organizational. It also aims at
providing for and coordinating the human resources. Solving the employment problems to the
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help enterprise in achieving the organizational goals facilitating employees development and
satisfaction and offering services and programmers to meet the needs of each and every
employee providing competent and well- motivated employees to the organization with the main
aim of achieving organizational objectives forever. Integrating the individuals and
organizational objectives so as attain effectiveness

Employees working in organization exhibit their nature both through their individual actives as
well group actions. Individuals come to their organization with technical skills and knowledge on
the one hand and personal feelings, ideas , likes, dislikes, attitudes, values ect. On the other hand.
Hence managing human beings is complex because human behavior is unpredictable.

The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of certain factors in motivating
employees at the Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center. Specifically, the
study sought to describe the ranked importance of the following ten motivating factors: (a) job
security, (b) sympathetic help with personal problems, (c) personal loyalty to employees, (d)
interesting work, (e) good working conditions, (f) tactful discipline, (g) good wages, (h)
promotions and growth in the organization, (i) feeling of being in on things, and (j) full
appreciation of work done. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the results of this
study with the study results from other populations.

Objectives of the study

To study the attitude of the employees towards their work .


To understand the various sources of motivation and welfare measures followed by the

organization.
To identify the various factors that motivates the employee towards their organization.
To analyze the employees welfare of the employee welfare of the organization.
Suggest various remedial mesures to motivate the organization.

Scope of the study

Motivating employees appropriately is the source of success. The knowledge of all aspects of
motivation and its adequate adjustment to the possibilities and requirements of a company is
significant in order to create an effective incentive system.to develop qualifications and enhance
skills of employees. Non monitory methods of motivation, adjusted to the individual
requirements of companies, are developed and implemented together . The management staff,
which has a direct impact on the efficiency of the systems future operation, is also trained in
terms of changes implemented
The present study has been undertaken to study find out effectiveness of
employee welfare measures in aavin. To find out the practical difficulties
involved in welfare measures that can be evaluated through this study. The
study can be used to bring out the solution for the problem faced by the
employees availing the welfare measures Through the study, company would
be able to know the satisfaction level of employee on welfare on motivation
measures.

Need for the study

To know about the employees satisfactions towards welfares.


To find out the facilities entitled by aavin.
It helps in increasing productivity & efficiencies by improving physical
health.

Limitation of the study

Time is the important limitation. Due to time constraints only limited


population is taken for the study

The biased view of the respondent is another cause of the limitation

Industry profile

Today, India is 'The Oyster' of the global dairy industry. It offers opportunities galore to
entrepreneurs worldwide, who wish to capitalize on one of the world's largest and fastest
growing markets for milk and milk products. A bagful of 'pearls' awaits the international dairy
processor in India. The Indian dairy industry is rapidly growing, trying to keep pace with the
galloping progress around the world. As he expands his overseas operations to India many
profitable options await him. He may transfer technology, sign joint ventures or use India as a
sourcing center for regional exports. The liberalization of the Indian economy beckons to MNC's
and foreign investors alike.
Indias dairy sector is expected to triple its production in the next 10 years in view of expanding
potential for export to Europe and the West. Moreover with WTO regulations expected to come
into force in coming years all the developed countries which are among big exporters today
would have to withdraw the support and subsidy to their domestic milk products sector. Also
India today is the lowest cost producer of per litre of milk in the world, at 27 cents, compared
with the U.S' 63 cents, and Japans $2.8 dollars. Also to take advantage of this lowest cost of
milk production and increasing production in the country multinational companies are planning
to expand their activities here. Some of these milk producers have already obtained quality
standard certificates from the authorities. This will help them in marketing their products in
foreign countries in processed form.
The urban market for milk products is expected to grow at an accelerated pace of around 33%
per annum to around Rs.43,500crores by year 2005. This growth is going to come from the
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greater emphasis on the processed foods sector and also by increase in the conversion of milk
into milk products. By 2005, the value of Indian dairy produce is expected to be Rs 10,00,000
million. Presently the market is valued at around Rs7,00,000mn
India with 134mn cows and 125mn buffaloes, has the largest population of cattle in the world.
Total cattle population in the country as on October'00 stood at 313mn. More than fifty percent
of the buffaloes and twenty percent of the cattle in the world are found in India and most of these
are milk cows and milkbuffaloes.
Indian dairy sector contributes the large share in agricultural gross domestic products.
Presently there are around 70,000 village dairy cooperatives across the country. The co-operative
societies are federated into 170 district milk producers unions, which is turn has 22-state
cooperative dairy federation. Milk production gives employment to more than 72mn dairy
farmers. In terms of total production, India is the leading producer of milk in the world followed
by USA. The milk production in 1999-00 is estimated at 78mn MT as compared to 74.5mn MT
in the previous year. This production is expected to increase to 81mn MT by 2000-01. Of this
total produce of 78mn cows' milk constitute 36mn MT while rest is from other cattle.
While world milk production declined by 2 per cent in the last three years, according to
FAO estimates, Indian production has increased by 4 per cent. The milk production in India
accounts for more than 13% of the total world output and 57% of total Asia's production. The top
five milk producing nations in the world are India ,USA, Russia, Germany and France.
Although milk production has grown at a fast pace during the last three decades (courtesy:
Operation Flood), milk yield per animal is very low. The main reasons for the low yield are

Lack of use of scientific practices in mulching.

Inadequate availability of fodder in all seasons.

The transition of the Indian milk industry from a situation of net import to that of surplus has
been led by the efforts of National Dairy Development Board's Operation Flood. programme
under the aegis of the former Chairman of the board Dr. Kurien.
Launched in 1970, Operation Flood has led to the modernization of India's dairy sector and
created a strong network for procurement processing and distribution of milk by the co-operative
sector. Per capita availability of milk has increased from 132 gm per day in 1950 to over 220 gm
per day in 1998. The main thrust of Operation Flood was to organize dairy cooperatives in the
milkshed areas of the village, and to link them to the four Metro cities, which are the main
markets for milk.
The efforts undertaken by NDDB have not only led to enhanced production, improvement in
methods of processing and development of a strong marketing network, but have also led to the
emergence of dairying as an important source of employment and income generation in the rural
areas. It has also led to an improvement in yields, longer lactation periods, shorter calving

Packaging Technology
Milk was initially sold door-to-door by the local milkman. When the dairy co-operatives initially
started marketing branded milk, it was sold in glass bottles sealed with foil. Over the years,
several developments in packaging media have taken place. In the early 80's, plastic pouches re
Productivity : To have an exportable surplus in the long-term and also to maintain cost
competitiveness, it is imperative to improve productivity of Indian cattle.

There is a vast market for the export of traditional milk products such as ghee, paneer, shrikhand,
rasgolas and other ethnic sweets to the large number of Indians scattered all over the world
Company profile
Aavin is the trademark of the Tamil Nadu co-operative milk producers federation limited ,
aTamil Nadu-based milk producers union. The aim of aavin is to procure milk, process it, chill
it,pack and sell it to the consumers. The dairy development department was established inTamil
Nadu in the year 1958 to oversee andregulate milk production and commercial Distribution in
the state. The dairy development department took over control of the milkCooperatives. It was
replaced by the Tamil Nadu cooperative milk producers federation limited in the year 1981.
On Feb 1,1981, the commercial activities of the cooperative were handed over to Tamil
NaduCo-operative milk producers Federation limited which sold milk and milk products under
theTrademark aavin.

With many private companies entering the field of dairy, the Tamil

Nadu government isgiving high priority to improve the performance of the cooperatives. Tamil
Nadu is one of the leading states in India in milk about 14.5 million Liters per day.
The Tamil Nadu cooperative milk producers federation is located 13 910N80 1440E aavin
Illam, MADHAVARAM milk colony ,Chennai. The Tamil Nadu co-operative milk producers
Federation limited is an apex body of 17 district cooperative milk producers unions The
Federation has four dairy plants at the following locations in Chennai.
1.Ambattur with a capacity of 4.00 lakh liters per day
2.madhavaram with a capacity of 3.00 lakh liters per day
3.sholinganallur with a capacity of 4.00 lakh liters per day
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4.ambatttur- product diar


Product profile
Pasteurized Toned milk

FAT 3.0% SNF 8.5%

Standardized milk

FAT 4.5% SNF 8.5%

Full cream milk

FAT 6

Double toned milk

FAT 1.5 % SNF 9.0 %

Ghee varieties

Ghee(Tin) 15kg

% SNF 9.0 %

Ghee(Tin)

5LTR

Ghee(Tin)

1LTR

Ghee(Tin)

1LTR

Ghee(Tin)

1LTR

Ghee(Jar)

1LTR

Ghee(CARTON)

cheese

1KG

200gms \400gms

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Research methodology:

Data collection methods:


The source of data includes primary sources.

Primary Data: Primary data has been collected directly from sample respondents through
questionnaire and with the help of interview.

Research Instrument: Research instrument used for the primary data collection is
Questionnaire

Research design:
.The research design is the blueprint for the fulfillment of objectives and answering questions. It
is a master plan specifying the method and procedures for collecting and analyzing needed
information.Advertising effectiveness is used in this study as the main aim is to describe
characteristics of the phenomenon or a situation.

Sample Design: Sample design is definite plan determine before any data is actually
obtaining for a sample from a given population. The researcher must decide the way of selecting
a sample. Samples can be either probability samples or non-probability samples.

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Sample Size: 90 Respondents.

Statistical tools

Statistical tools applied

Weighted average

Correlation

WEIGHTED AVERAGE
Mean in which each item being averaged is multiplied by a number (weight) based on the item's
relative importance. The result is summed and the total is divided by the sum of the weights.
Weighted averages are used extensively in descriptive statistical analysis such as index numbers.
Also called weighted mean.
Formula:
Weighted average =
Net score =weighted formulax numbers of respondent
Total weight

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CORRLATION

Correlation coefficients measure the strength of association between two variables. The
most common correlation coefficient, called the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient,
measures the strength of the linear association between variables.
The sign and the of a Pearson correlation coefficient describe the direction and the magnitude of
the relationship between two variables.
Correlation between the extra efforts of the employees and rewards

dxdy
dx
dy

2
d x ( d x 2 )
d y2

N d y 2()

N ()



N
r=

where :
r = stand for the correlation
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N = number of pairs of scores


xy = sum of the products of paired scores
x = sum of x scores
y = sum of y scores
x2 = sum of squared x scores
y2 = sum of squared y scores

Review of literature

Title: Motivation employee retention and satisfaction, & commitment of employees for the
survival of the organization: A study of Rular enterprises in pondychery
Author(s): Rama lingam.H (Department of Business Studies, Indian Institute of Science,
pondychery, India)
Citation: Rama lingam, (2005) "Motivation employee retention and satisfaction, &
commitment of employees for the survival of the organization: A study of Rular enterprises in
pondycherymanagement Research News, vol 21
Abstract:

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Paper also discusses the benefits and effects of motivation, employee retention and satisfaction,
& commitment of employees for the survival of the organization
In the current competitive climate, the organization must have an intense interest in maximizing
the resources at hand. Leadership must be alert to the ways in which fluctuating outside
conditions and internal changes can dramatically impact the groups dynamics required for peak
performance. This will best be accomplished by motivation everyone to work together.
Motivation is the art of creating conditions that allows everyone to get their work done at their
own peak level of efficiency (gellerman, 1992). It helps people to focus their minds and energies
on doing their work as effectively as possible. It is the inner force that drives individuals to
accomplish personal and organizational foals (Lindner, 1998). Through motivation, skilled
leaders can bring out hidden or untapped capabilities of their people. At the same time, this will
give each person involved a greater degree of job satisfaction and make them more successful as
individuals.
Findings Employees have the need to be motivated for survival. Motivated employees are

needed in the rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated employees are more productive, and they
help organizations survive. To be effective

managers need to understand what motivates

employees within the context of the roles they perform. Employees, on the other hand, must be
willing to let managers know what motivates them, and managers must be willing to design
reward systems that motivate employees.
Identifying the factors that affect the quality and quantity of employees job performance is an
important issue in the study of work and the workplace. Managers routinely make assumptions
about the characteristics that enhance or detract form performance. It is generally assumed, for

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Originality/value example, that great organizational commitment contributes to better

performance as more committed employees should be more motivated to work hard on their
organizations behalf. Performance is also assumed to be affected by structural and task
characteristics such as whether employees are able to exercise autonomy and discretion in their
work. The extent to which their tasks are clearly defined and whether they are rewarded for hard
work .

Title: Effectiveness of Inventory Control in small and medium enterprises: A study of machine
tool enterprises in Bangalore.
Author(s): N. Rajeev, (Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore, India)
Citation: N. Rajeev, (2008) "Inventory management in small and medium enterprises: A study
of machine tool enterprises in Bangalore", Management Research News, Vol. 31.
Article type: Research paper
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for entrepreneurs for implementing
effective inventory management (IM) practices and presents the results of a survey of machine
tool enterprises in Bangalore, India.

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Design/methodology/approach A descriptive analysis is used to present aspects of the


findings, which reflect the current state of IM in machine tool enterprises. In addition,
percentages, bar diagrams and correlation analysis provide a more accurate assessment of this
industry sector.
Findings The study identified several major problems in the context of IM in machine
tool enterprises including the use of rule-of-thumb for IM, a low importance given to forecasting,
random ordering of materials, low levels of training and development, and low computer use as
well as a low importance given to purchasing and variable lead-time. The study confirmed the
need for managers in the machine tool sector to alter drastically their approach to IM.
Research limitations/implications This study of 40 SMEs in Bangalore should be
extended using a larger sample representative of Indian SMEs in order to arrive at findings that
are more generalizable across the machine tool sector in India.
Practical implications The managers of SMEs should consider seriously IM as a
strategic concept simply because effective IM positively influences productivity. There is
profound scope for improving the operations and performance of SMEs through the application
of quality practices in IM.
Originality/value Considering the lack of studies about IM in the context of Indian
small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), this paper helps fill a gap in the literature. A
review of the policy framework concerned with SMEs suggests that policymakers do not
consider critically the role of IM and related issues. It is significant to note that there is no
exclusive reference to improvement in IM within the policy documents.
Efficiency in effective inventory management will always give a competitive edge to the
business, regardless of its nature. With effective control and management over inventory stock,
as well as accurate visibility and fast efficient fulfillments, comparative pricing can be given on a
customer-to-customer basis. In addition to cutting down on operating costs, it will also bring
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satisfied customers back for more businesses in the near future. However, modern day
management of the inventory is usually not as simple as the contemporary practices of just
keeping abreast with inventory standards.
Most of this businesses, especially those in the process and manufacturing industries, will
require varied sets of both simplified as well as complex integrated inventory management
controls. Such regulations are streamlined for effectiveness in compliance and distribution as
well as making provision for further improvement on software and other protocols. Primarily, the
first and most important step to commence in inventory management is to acquire accurate data
in terms of facts and figures. Next, a set of rules and regulations is set up to protect and guard the
information efficiently. Such information may become a crux factor in the improvement of
inbound operations, strategies and productivity. In addition to the physical monitoring of
materials being received and issued into and out of the stock rooms and drawing up
reconciliations of the inventory balances, other tasks involved in inventory management may
include tracking and reporting of restock level techniques, analysis on the actual and projected
inventory status.
Although having proper management of the inventory may create a great difference in
attaining and retaining a competitive edge in the sales markets for certain products of any
businesses, it remains an integral and essential effort of a company to reduce its inventory
management costs. As a result, several computer software companies have since developed a
standardized set of comprehensive inventory management systems to help businesses control.
Aside from certain specialty features, the requisite module should be able to integrate into
the pre-existing software system of the business. In addition to providing a quick and easy access
to inventory and ordering information, the new inventory management software should also give
accurate results.
Although the inventory management system is a beneficial tool, there are some basic and
extremely significant points to ensure an effective and proper flow. These will include good
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practices like making accurate entries on every stock receipts into the computer, setting up a
restock level strategy on all items in the stock houses and drawing up specific guidelines on the
control of excess inventory as well as on-going dead stock. Such effective inventory
management habits will give any kind of businesses a superior competitive advantage over their
competitors, especially with an easy-to-use stock analysis tool that delivers quick and accurate
Information

The concept of HRM receives as much attention of academicians, researchers and practicing
managers motivation. The increased attention towards motivation is justified by several reasons.
Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. This statement can apply to
corporate strategists and to production workers. It is the responsibility of managers to make
employees look for better ways of doing their jobs.a motivated employee generally is more
quality oriented. This is true whether we are talking about a top manager spending extra time on
data gathering and analysis for a report or a clerk taking extra care when filing important
document.
Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker .The high productivity of
Japanese worker and the fever worker are needed to produce an automobile in Japan than
elsewhere is well known. An appreciation of the nature of motivation is highly useful manager.

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Every organization requires human resources in addition to financial and physical resources for it
to function .Three behavioral dimensions of HR are significant to organizations (i) people must
be attracted not only to join the organizations but also to remain it (ii) people must perform he
tasks for which they are hired and must do so in a dependable manner and (iii) people must go
beyond this dependable role per performance and engage in some form of creative,
spontantaneous, and innovative behavior at work.
Motivation as a concept represents a highly complex phenomenon that affects. and is affected
by .a multitude of factors in the organizational milieu .an understanding of the topic of
motivation is thus essential in order to comprehend more fully the effects of variations in other
reaction as they relate to the performance, satisfaction, and so forth .
Why increasing attention is paid towards motivation can be found in the present and future
technology required for production, as technology increases in complexity, machines tend to
become necessary, yet insufficient, vehicles of effective and efficient operation .Consider the
example of the highly technology-based space programmed in our country.
The polar Satellite Launch Vehicles (PSLV) lift-off has been the result of 12 years of
developmental work, transfer of technology to the private industry, smoothening the manufacture
of components and subsystem, complex project management, and dedicated work by literally
thousands in ISRO. Industry other national laboratories and research institutes. With this feat,
India has joined the exclusive club of half a dozen nations that can build and, more importantly,
launch its own satellites.
The secret behind the success of ISRO has been its employees who are both capable of using and
are willing to use the advanced technology to reach the goals.

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The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of certain factors in motivating
employees at the Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center. Specifically, the
study sought to describe the ranked importance of the following ten motivating factors: (a) job
security, (b) sympathetic help with personal problems, (c) personal loyalty to employees, (d)
interesting work, (e) good working conditions, (f) tactful discipline, (g) good wages, (h)
promotions and growth in the organization, (i) feeling of being in on things, and (j) full
appreciation of work done. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the results of this
study with the study results from other populations.

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The framework of motivation indicates that motivation is a simple process. But in reality, the
task is more dauntingOne reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is
changing. Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. Their values,
beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are different. Not many organizations
have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about the ways of motivating such
diverse workforce.
Motivating employees is also more challenging at a time when firms have dramatically
changed the jobs that employees perform, reduced layers of hierarchy, and jetusoned large
numbers of employees in the name of right-sizing or down-sizing .These actions have
considerably damaged the level of trust and commitment necessary for employee to put in efforts
above minimum requirements some organization have resorted to hire and fire and pay forperformance strategies almost giving up motivational efforts. Such strategies may have some
effects (both positive and negative) but fail to make and individual overreach him or herThird,
motives can only be inferred, but not seen. The dynamic nature of needs offend poses challenge
to any manager in motivating his or her subordinate. An employee, at any given time, has a
various needs, desire, and expectations. Employees who put in extra hours at work to fulfill their
needs or accomplishment may find that these extra hours conflict directly with needs for
affiliation and their desire to be with their families. However, there is no shortage of models,
strategies, and tactics for motivating employees. As a result, firms constantly experiment with
next motivational programmed and practice.

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Human behavior is goal-directed. Motivation cause goal-directed behaviour. It is through


motivation that needs can be handled and tackled purposely. This can be understood by
understanding the hierarchy of needs by manager. The needs of individual serves as a driving
force in human behaviour. Therefore, a manager must understand the hierarchy of needs.
Maslow has proposed The Need Hierarchy Model.
The needs have been classified into the following in order:
1. Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of an individual which includes food,
clothing, shelter, air, water, etc. These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human
life.
2. Safety needs- These needs are also important for human beings. Everybody wants job
security, protection against danger, safety of property, etc.
3. Social needs- These needs emerge from society. Man is a social animal. These needs become
important. For example- love, affection, belongingness, friendship, conversation, etc.
4. Esteem needs- These needs relate to desire for self-respect, recognition and respect from
others.
5. Self-actualization needs- These are the needs of the highest order and these needs are found
in those person whose previous four needs are satisfied. This will include need for social
service, meditation.

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Early in this century, as the influence of Charles Darwins evolutionary theory grew, it became
fashionable to classify all sorts of behaviors as instincts.
If people cruised themselves, it was because of their Self-abasement instinct. This theory
explaining like a bright childs low grades by labeling the child an underachiever. To name a
behavior is not to explain it.
To quality as an instinct, a complex behavior must have a fixed pattern throughout a species
and be unlearned such behaviors are common in other species.
Human behavior, too, exhibits certain innate tendencies, including simple fixed patterns such as
an infants rooting and sucking. Most psychologists, through, view human behavior as directed
by physiological needs and psychological wants.
Although instinct theory failed to explain human motives the underlying assumption that genes
predispose species- typical behavior is as strong as ever, and evolution might influence our
gender difference; our helping behavior; and our attraction to certain people.
When the instinct theory of motivation collapsed, it was replaced by drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused psychological state that drives the
organism to reduce the need. With few exceptions, when a physiological need increases, so does
a psychological drive.
The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis- the maintenance of a steady internal
state. An example, of homeostasis (literally staying the same ) is the bodys temperature
regulation system, which works like a thermostat. Both systems operates through feedback
loops; sensors feed room temperature to control device. If room temperature cools the control
device switches on the furnace. Likewise, if body temperature cools, blood vessels constrict to
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conserve warmth, environment. Similarly, if the water level in our cells drops, sensors detect
our need for water and we feel thirsty.
Rather then reduce a physiological need or minimize tension, some motivated behaviors increase
arousal. Asked Why he wanted to climb Mount Everest, George Mallory, enjoy high arousal
are most likely to enjoy intense music, novel goods, and risky behaviors.
Experiments on Sensory restriction in a monotonous chamber reveal our need for stimulation.
Despite having all our biological needs satisfied, we feel driven to experience stimulation.
Without it, we feel bored and look for a way to increase arousal to some optimum level. With
too much stimulation, we feel stressed and look for a way to decrease arousal.
Incentive theory
Not only are we pushed by our need reduce drives achieve optimum arousal; we are also
pulled by incentives positive or negative stimuli that lure or repel us. This is one way our
individual learning histories influence our motives. Depending on our learning, the aroma of
fresh roasted peanuts, the sight of someone we find attractive, and the threat of disapproval can
all motivate our behavior. Our internal needs energize and direct our behavior, but so do these
external incentives. When there is both a need and an inventive, we feel driven. The food
deprived person who smelts baking bread feels a hunger for it. For each motive, we can therefore
ask How is it pushed by our inborn physiological needs and pulled by incentives in the
environment?
Work motivation
Craig Pinder echoing the basic definition of motivation, define it as follows:
Work motivation is a set of energetic force that originate both within as well as beyond and
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individuals being, to initiate work related behavior, and to determine its form, direction,
intensity, and duration.
While general motivation is concerned with effort towards any goal, Stephen Robbins
narrow the focus to organizational goals in order to reflect singular interest in work related
behavior the effort element is a measure of intensity. The need means some internal state that
makes certain outcomes appear attractive. And unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates
drives within the individual. This drives general a search behavior to find particular goals, if
attend, will satisfied the needs and lead to the reduction of tension
Executive summary
Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to
behave in certain ways. A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. Highly
motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker one reason why motivation is a
difficult task is that the workforce is changing. Employees join organizations with different needs
and expectations. Their values, beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are
different. Not many organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear
about the ways of motivating such diverse workforce.
Now days employees have been hired, trained and remunerated they need to be motivated
for better performance. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set or forces that
cause people to behave certain ways. People are motivated rewards something they can relate to
and something they can believe in. Times have changed People wants more. Motivated
employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. It is the responsibility of managers to
make employees look for better ways of doing their jobs.

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Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do, or motivation
Managers who are successful in motivating employees are often providing an environment in
which appropriate goals are available for needs satisfaction. Retaining and motivating workers
requires special attention and the responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of HR as well as
managers and supervisors at all level. They have to create a work environment where people
enjoy what they do, feel like they have a purpose and have pride in the mission of the
organization. It requires more time, more skill, and managers who care about people. It takes true
leadership.
By giving employees special tasks, you make them feel more important. When your
employees feel like they are being trusted with added responsibilities, they are motivated to work
even harder so they wont let the company down.
Motivation is essential for any company because employee is Asset of company.
Motivation is important for the growth of employees as well as growth of the organization.
What is motivation
A basic principle is that the performance of an individual depends on his or her ability
backed by motivation. Stated algebraically the principle is:Performance =f (ability motivation)
Ability refers to the skill and competence of the person to complete a given task.
However, ability alone is not enough. The persons desire to accomplish the task is also
necessary. Organizations become successful when employees have abilities and desire to
accomplish given task.

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Framework of motivation
Framework of motivationThe framework comprises six steps.
(step1) Motivation process begins with the individuals needs. Needs are telt deprivations
which the individual experiences at a given time and act as energizers. These needs may be
psychological (e.g., the needs for recognition), physiological (e.g., the needs for water, air or
foods) or social (e.g., the needs for friendship).
(step2) Motivation is goal directed.
(step3) A goal is a specific result that the individual wants to achieve .An employees goal are
often driving forces and accomplishing those goals can significantly reduce needs.
(step4) Promotions and raises are two of the ways that organizations seek to maintain
desirable behavior. They are signals to employees that their needs for advancement and
recognition and their behaviors are appropriate.
(step5) Once the employee have received either rewards or punishments.
(step6) They reassess their needs.

Some Definitions On Motivation:


how behavior gets started is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped, and what kind
of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on jones, 1955).he term
motivation refers to a process governing choices made by person or lower organisms among
alternative forms of voluntary activitymotivation is the result of process, internal or external to
the individual that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.
motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that

28

activates behavior or a drive that aimed at a goal or an incentiveObviously, the first definition
covers all stages shown in the motivation model.

The role of motivation:


Why do we need motivated employees? The answer is survival (Smith, 1994). Motivated
employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated employees help
organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive. To be effective, managers need
to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Of all the
functions a manager performs, motivating employees is arguably the most complex. This is due,
in part, to the fact that what motivates employees changes constantly. For example, research
suggests that as employees' income increases, money becomes less of a motivator. Also, as
employees get older, interesting work becomes more of a motivator.
Employee welfare
Employee welfare work aims at providing such service facilities andAmenities which enable the
workers employed in an organization to performTheir work in healthy congenial surrounding
conductive to good health and High morale.
Employee welfare is a comprehensive term including various services,Benefits and facilities
offered by the employer. Through such generous fringeBenefits the employer makes life worth
living for employees. The welfareAmenities are extended in additional to normal wages and
other economicRewards available to employees as per the legal provisions.
The term is derived from the French word WELFARE. The of this French word is well being
or happiness or prosperity of individuals Welfare means faring or doing well. It is a

29

comprehensive term and refers The physical, mental, moral and emotional well being of
individual
Welfare measures may also be provided by the government, trade unionsAnd non-government
agencies in addition to the employer. InternationalEmployee Organization efforts to make life
worth living for workers AccordingTo the Oxford dictionary Welfare is fundamentally an
attitude of mind on thePart of management influencing the method by which management
activitiesAre undertake
Employee Welfare as a term which is understood to include such services, facilities and
amenities as may be established in the vicinity of undertaking to enable the persons employed in
them to perform their work in healthy, congenial surrounding to provide them amenities
conductive to good and healthy and high moral.
ARTHUR JAMES TODD point welfare is Anything done for the comfort and improvement,
intellectual and social of the employees over and above the wage paid, which is not necessary for
the industry.
PROUD E.S. defines the welfare work as voluntary efforts on the part of employers to improve
the existing industrial system the condition of employment in their own factories.
Employee welfare in India has a special significance as the constitutionProvides for the
promotion of welfare of the employee for human conditions ofWork and securing to all workers.
The various welfare measures provided by the employee will haveImmediate impact on the
health, physical and mental efficiency, alertness,Morale and overall efficiency of the workers and
thereby contributing to thehighestproductivity.Social security measure provided by employer will
act as a protection toThe workers.

30

Employee welfare means activities designed for the promotion ofThe economic, social and
cultural well being of the employees. Includes both statutory as well as non-statutory activities
undertaken by theEmployers, trade unions and both the central and state governments for
thePhysical and mental development of the workers.
Employee welfare enables workers to have richer and more satisfying life. Itraises the standard
of living of workers by indirectly reducing the burden ontheir pocket. Welfare measures improve
the physical and physiological healthOf the employees, which in turn enhance their efficiency
and productivity.
Employee welfare promotes a sense of belongings among the workers,Preventing them from
resorting to unhealthy practices like absenteeism, Employee unrest strike, etc. welfare work
improves the relations betweenEmployees and employers.
The basic features of employee welfare measures are as follows:
1. Employee welfare includes various facilities, services and amenities provided to workers
for improving their health, efficiency, economic betterment and social status.
2. Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits available
to workers due to legal provisions and collective bargaining
3. Employee welfare schemes are flexible and ever-changing. New welfare measures are
added to the existing ones from time to time.
4. Welfare measures may be introduced by the employers, government, employees or by
any social or charitable agency.

31

Concept of labour welfare:


The National Commission on Labour has observed that the concept of welfare is necessary
dynamic bearing a different interpretation from country to country and from time to time and
even in the same country according to the value system, social Institution, degree of
industrialization and general level of social and economic development. Even with one country
its context may be different from region to region.
1. Welfare measure inside the work place : Condition of the Work Environment,
Conveniences, Work Health Services, Women and Child Welfare, Workers Recreation,
Employment Follow-up Economic Services.
2. Welfare measure inside the work place : Housing, Water, Sanitation, Waste Dioposal,
Road, Recreation, Play Grounds, Schools, Markets, Bank, Transport, Communication,
Health and Medical Services, Security, Community Leadership Development.
3. Social security measures : Welfare Services are render to workers and their families by an
individual enterprise with the proposes of raising their morale, material, social and cultural
levels to adjust to better life.
Welfare activities of the government of india:
The directive principles of state policy in the Indian Constitution refer generally to the
promotion of the welfare of people when lay down that the state shall strive to promote the
welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may, a social order in which
justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institution of natural.
In its specific application to the working class, security and human condition of work has
been highlighted with a view to ensure them provision of a decent standard of life and full
employment to leisure and social and culture opportunities

32

These principles also refer to taking of the steps to secure the participation of workers in the
management of industries. Article 45 also deals with provision of free and compulsory
education for children, which impliedly includes those of workers.
The very logic behind providing welfare schemes is to create efficient, healthy, loyal and
satisfied labor force for the organization. The purpose of providing such facilities is to make their
work life better and also to raise their standard of living. The important benefits of welfare
measures can be summarized as follows:
They provide better physical and mental health to workers and thus promote a healthy work
environmentFacilities like housing schemes, medical benefits, and education and recreation
facilities for workers families help in raising their standards of living. This makes workers to
pay more attention towards work and thus increases their productivity.Employers get stable labor
force by providing welfare facilities. Workers take active interest in their jobs and work with a
feeling of involvement and participation.Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of
organization and promote healthy industrial relations thereby maintaining industrial peace.The
social evils prevalent among the labors such as substance abuse, etc are reduced to a greater
extent by the welfare policies

33

Table 4.1

Working Environment

Attributes
Friendly
Encouraging
Competitive
Cool
In doubt
Total

Numbers of respondent

Percentage of respondent

62
14
10
2
2
90

69
16
11
2
2
100

Interpretation
The working environment doing major role for employees in their job.The above table shows
that most of employees in that organization feel that working environment is friendly good it
show that working environment satisfied the employees.Maximum number of employees said
friendly because the nice relationship between the positions and flexible work. Some the
employees said encouraging due to the appreciation of work the organization monitoring the
activities. Few of the employees said competitive because more interest in work and the
organization provides challenging job activities.so some are feeling competitive a boutthir
environment.

Chart 4.1
Working Environment

34

100

90

80

70

69

60

Percentage

50

40

30

20

16
11

10
2

Cool

In doubt

0
Friendly

Encouraging Competitive

Attributes

35

Table 4.2
Existing working condition

Satisfaction
Highly satisfied
Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied
Total

Numbers of respondent
19
49
18
3
1
90

Percentage of respondent
21
54
20
3
1
100

INTERPRETATION
The existing working condition is related to job satisfaction of employees. Employees
satisfaction shows strong mental health because ofthe nature of the job need to fit to the
employee.

The above table shows that some of the employees highly satisfied with their

working condition. More number of employees satisfied with their working condition because
they feeling that the organization is second home to the employees some said neutral because
they just satisfy with the job. Few said dissatisfied because they dont like the working condition.

36

Chart 4.2
Existing working condition
100

90

80

70

60
54
50

Percentage

40

30
21

20

20

10
3
0

Attributes

37

TABLE 4.3
Clear communication from superior

Attributes
Always
Mostly
Sometime
Rarely
Not at all
Total

Numbers of respondent

Percentage of respondent

25
30
21
6
8
100

28
33
23
7
9
100

Interpretation
Communication is important to any organization. The proper communication makes excellent
effort. The superior gives clear instruction to their sub-ordinate for doing their job well. The
above table shows that some of the employees said that they always get clear communication
from the superior because they received the proper instrument from them. Some of the
employees said mostly they get the clear communication because the communication is very
clear and true. Some employees said sometimes because they cannot understand the oral
communication. Few said rarely because of they wont get communication from their
superiorThe superior not communicated clearly replied by few of them. The improper
communication makes faulty process.

38

Chart 4.3
Clear communication from superior
100

90

80

70

60

Percentage

50

40
33
30

28
23

20

10

0
Always

Mostly

Sometime

Attributes

39

Rarely

Not at all

Table 4.4
Attitude of superior

Attributes
Hostile
Indifferent
Encouraging
Understanding
Problem solving
Total

Numbers of respondent

Percentage of respondent

45
21
9
8
7
100

50
23
10
9
8
100

Interpretation:

The employees are possible to facing problem in their job. If they cannot solve the problem then
they seek help from their superior. Superior attitude is differing in problem handling and
employee manages. The above table shows that the attitude of superior towards the employees
problem. Most of the employees said hostile because the superior was unfriendly with their
subordinates. Some of them said indifferent, because the superior dont have interest to solve the
problem of the subordinates. Few said encouraging because of the appreciation of work. Some
said understanding because some superior understand the problems. Few said problem solving
because some superior sole the problem.

40

Chart 4.4
Attitude of Superior

100

90

80

70

60

50
Percentage

50

40

30
23
20
10

10

Attributes

41

Table 4.5
Involvement Decision making

Attributes

Numbers of respondent

Percentage of respondent

Always
Mostly
Sometime
Rarely
Not at all
Total

12
23
28
9
18
90

13
25
31
10
20
100

Interpretation
Decision making is an art. Most of the superior take the decisions themselves. That means, they
would not involve the employees to their decision making. The above table shows how the
superior involve the employees while taking decisions. The one fourth of the respondent said that
involve them with their superior for taking decisions as mostly or sometimes. Another one fourth
of the respondent said that not involve them with their superior for taking decisions. Few of the
respondent said that always involve them with their superior for taking decisions. Few of the
respondent said that rarely involve them with their superior for taking decisions.

Chart 4.5
Involvement Decision making
42

100

90

80

70

60

Percentage

50

40
31
30

25
20

20
13
10

10

0
Always

Mostly

Sometime

Attributes

Table 4.6
Salary package

43

Rarely

Not at all

Satisfaction level
Highly satisfied
Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied
Total

Numbers of respondent
12
49
18
8
3
100

Percentage of respondent
13
54
20
9
3
100

INTERPRETATION

The nature of job and salary is the highly relative one. It shoes that most of the employees are
satisfied about their salary package. Salary induces high motivation to almost all employees. The
same thing repeated in this question. The above table shows that some of the employees have
been highly satisfied on the nature of job with their salary. Half of the employees said satisfied
because of their salary fulfil the needs. The employees who said neutral were newly recruited.
Few employees said dissatisfy because their salary is based on the seniority not on merit in their
organization.

44

Chart 4.6
Satisfied salary package

100

90

80

70

60
54
50
Percentage

40

30
20

20
13

10

3
0

Attributes

45

Table 4.7
Employee welfare schemes &benefits

Attributes
Highly satisfied
Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied
Total

Numbers of respondent
12
51
13
11
3
100

Percentage of respondent
13
57
14
12
3
100

Interpretation
A healthy company gives a lot of benefit to their employees like family insurance, festival loans,
and etc. The company introduce new benefit schemes is must welcomed by the employees. So,
that the table explain how the employees are satisfied about the schemes. Some of the employees
said that they were highly satisfied .due to the monitory benefits provided by the organisation.
Most said that satisfied because the welfare schemes and securities. Some of the employees said
neutral because they just accepting these securities are satisfaction and welfare schemes. Some
were dissatisfied because they are just working.

46

Chart 4.7
Employee welfare schemes &benefits

100

90

80

70

60

57

50

Percentage

40

30

20
14

13

12

10
3
0

Attributes

47

48

Table 4.8
Career developmentprogrammes

Attributes
Almost

Numbers of respondent
10

Percentage of respondent
11

Mostly

25

28

Sometime

26

29

Rarely

Not at all

21

23

Total

90

100

Interpretation
The research and training is another dimension of the company. In this situation, career
development program is highly necessary to their employees. Frequently conducting the training
program is updating the employees knowledge. The above table shows that most of the
employees in that organization told that they think the company is planning their career
development programmes.it shows that company is providing career development programme to
the people those who are all in machine opratinglevel.there is no development programme to
other employees. The training programme will be given to the newly recruited persons as well as
the persons in administration.

Chart 4.8
49

Career development programmes

100

90

80

70

60

Percentage

50

40
29

28

30

23
20
11

10

0
Almost

Mostly

Sometime

Attributes

50

Rarely

Not at all

Table 4.9
Housing loan

Attributes
Yes
No
Total

Numbers of respondent

Percentage of respondent

77
13
90

85
14
100

Interpretation
Almost all employees expect the housing loan from their working company.

The above table

shows that most of the employees were providedwith the housing loans to modify their life styles
Some of the employees said no because they were newly employed. So it shows that the
company is providing housing loan facility to the experienced employees. Based on the
organisationrule,they wont give housing loan to the new employees.

51

Chart 4.9
Housing Loan

100

90
85
80

70

60

PErcentage

50

40

30

20
14
10

0
Yes

No

Attributes

52

Table 4.10
Years of Service

Attributes

Numbers of

Percentage of

respondent

respondent

1-5 years

6-10 years

11-15 years

11

12

16-20 years

30

33

Above 20 years

39

43

Total

90

100

Interpretation

The above table shows that most of the employees are having more than 15 years employees
experience in the organisation. It shows that they feel comfortable with that environment and
they are having good relationship with their colleagues& superior. The above table shows that
most of the employees said as more years working in a company mostly this company was a
government company so many others in that organization feel that working environment is a
comfortable Some of the employees in newly jointed in a company they not interest in a work
the development oriented because the proper career programs.
Chart 4.10
Years of Service

53

100

90

80

70

60

50

Percentage

43
40
33
30

20
12
10
5

54

Table 4.11
Grievances Of The Employee

Attributes

Numbers of

Percentage of respondent

Strongly agree

respondent
6
61

7
68

10

11

13
0
90

14
0
100

Agree
Neither agree nor
disagree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total

Interpretation
The above table interprets that the grievance of the employees are fairly treated by the
organisation. Most of the employees are Grievances handling is very important. Generally,
employees have a idea about them. The above table shows this opinion of grievances in the
company. Around 2/3rd of employees agreed that the grievances of the employees are handled
properly. A few only strongly agree about them. A few are not answered about this question. Few
only disagree. None of them response as strongly disagree. The response of the grievances is
very important to healthy communication and organizational development. The response of the
grievances properly handled and immediately considered by the management.

55

Chart 4.11
Grievances Of The Employee

100

90

80
68

70

60

50

40

PErcentage
30

20
11
10

14

Attibutes

56

Table 4.12
Learn more About Job

Attributes

Numbers of respondent

Percentage of respondent

To great extent

48

53

To a considerable extent

18

20

To Some extent

18

20

To a little extent

Not at all

Total

90

100

INTERPRETATION

How much help in job when the employees felt in the struggle and problem. How much they
sharing the sub-ordinate pain in the work place and share the jobs load. Half of the employees
respond as to great extent. One fourth of the employees respond as to a considerable extent.
Another one fourth of the employees respond as to some extent. A few of the employees respond
as to a little extent. Only two of the employees respond as not at all.

Chart 4.12
Learn more about job

57

100

90

80

70

60
53.33
50

Percentage

40

30

20

20

20

10
4.44
0

Attributes

Statistical tools

58

2.22

Wight average
Net score =

weighted formula x numbers of respondent


Total weight

Attributes

Satisfaction with salary

Satisfaction with benefits

Highly satisfied

12

12

Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied

49
18
8
3

51
13
11
3

Satisfaction with salary

Satisfaction with benefits

Highly satisfied

60

60

Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied
Total
Weight average
Rank

196
54
16
3
329
3.6
2

204
39
22
9
344
3.82
1

Attributes

Correlation
Correlation coefficients measure the strength of association between two variables. The
most common correlation coefficient, called the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient,
measures the strength of the linear association between variables.
The sign and the absolute value of a Pearson correlation coefficient describe the direction and the
magnitude of the relationship between two variables.
59

Correlation between the extra efforts of the employees and rewards.

Lets consider taking decisions as x

Lets consider career development data as y

Attributes

Always

25

10

Mostly

30

25

Sometimes

21

26

Rarely

Not at all

21

Total

90

90

Attributes

DX

DY

DX2

DY2

DXDY

Always
Mostly
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
Total

25
30
21
6
8
90

10
25
26
8
21
90

7
12
-3
-12
-10
0

-8
7
8
-10
3
0

49
144
9
144
100
446

64
49
64
100
9
286

56
84
24
120
30
314

60

Calculation
dxdy
dx
dy

2
d
x

( d x 2 )

d y2

N d y 2()

N ()



N
r=

r=

5 ( 314 )(0 ( 0 ))

( 5 ( 446 )( 446)2 ) X ( 5 ( 286 )(286)2)

r=

1570
( 5 ( 446 )198914 ) X (5 ( 286 )(81796))

r=

1570
( 2230198914 ) X ( 1430(81796))

r=

1570
( 196684 ) X ( 80366)

126096
1570
1570
r=
=
( 444 ) X (284)

r = 0.0125
61

INTERPRETATION
The sign of the correlation indicates the direction of association between x (The independent
variable) and y (The dependent variable).If y tends to increase when x increase. The Spearman
correlation coefficient is positive. If y tends to decrease when x increase.

The Spearman

correlation coefficient is negative. Since the Spearman rank correlation is 0.0125.


There is a positive relation between the taking decisions

and the career development of the

employees.

is

When

the

employee

taking

decisions

good,

the

employee

career

developmentprogrammers is a low.

Findings

Most of employees feel the company working environment is friendly.


75% of the employees are satisfied with the existing working condition.
Maxmum number ofemployees said that they almost got clear communication from their

superior.
Most of the employees said that the superior were unfriendly with their subordinates.
Some of them said indifferent, because the superior dont have interest to solve the
problem of the subordinates.

62

The one fourth of the respondent said that involve them with their superior for taking
decisions as mostly or sometimes. Another one fourth of the respondent said that not

involve them with their superior for taking decisions.


More thenhalf of the employees said satisfied about otheir salary package.very few only

not satisfied about thir salary.


More then 50% of employees are satisfied with the benefits& welfare schemes of the

organization..
76% of employees are working more then 16 years the organization.
50% of the respondents said that their superior take pain to help them to learn more about
job.

Suggestion

The company should arrange team work and group forming in their employees to make a

better leadership quality.


The company should improve good working environment.
Employees need to develop their communication and listening skills.
The superiors should help to solve the problem to their sub-ordinates.
Superiors take decision making with their sub-ordinates for good involvement.
The company should provide the extra benefit to their employees with salary package.
Before introducing employees new benefit schemes, the company should discuss with

them.
The company frequently conducts the career development programs.
The company concentrate other loan facilities to their employees.
The company is government sector. So, most of the employees must try to complete their

work period.
The management should take immediate action on grievances.
Employees share their problem and make a team to share their problematic works.
63

64

Conclusion
Motivating employees is also more challenging at a time when firms have dramatically changed
the jobs that employees perform, reduced layers of hierarchy, and large numbers of employees in
the name of right-sizing or down-sizing. Employees who put in extra hours at work to fulfill their
needs or accomplishment may find that these extra hours conflict directly with needs for
affiliation and their desire to be with their families.
Aavin is one of largest milk producing company in Tamilnadu state. It is a government
undertaking company. The employees worked year of experience and lawful environment.
In this study, shows the employee motivation and welfare almost good. The working
environment is well and this study shows that they need training new technology and career
development. They expected career development planning and share their problem with subordinates.
This study give me a great experience in the working environment and understanding the role of
motivation and employee welfare how much important in the organization.

65

66