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STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC

(SCE)
DEPT. OF GEOTECHNICAL AND TRANSPOTATION ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not
to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge
that everything mentioned in the report is true.

___________
Student Signature

Name

Matric No. :
Date

FACULTY ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT: CIVIL ENGINEERING
TECHNOLOGY

TEST TITLE : FIELD DENSITY - SAND


REPLACEMENT METHOD

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

1/4
1/01/14
1/01/15

1.0 OBJECTIVE
Determine the in situ density of natural or compacted soils using sand pouring cylinders.
2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of this experiment, students are able to:

Understand the relationship between compaction effort and the density of soil on site.
Obtain the in situ density of natural soil and compacted soil.

3.0 THEORY
Sometimes it is important to know the density of in-situ for design purpose. This can be done by mean
of sand replacement method. Determining the in situ density of natural or compacted soils using sand
pouring cylinders requires simple method of analysis. The in situ density of natural soil is needed for the
determination of bearing capacity of soils, for the purpose of stability analysis of slopes, for the
determination of pressures on underlying strata for the calculation of settlement and the design of
underground structures. This along with the Core Cutter is one of the older, more labor intensive
methods of determining density. It is used on boulder clays and granular fills.

FIGURE 1 Sand Cone Equipments

FACULTY ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT: CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TEST TITLE : FIELD DENSITY - SAND
REPLACEMENT METHOD

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

2/4
1/01/14
1/01/15

4.0 TEST EQUIPMENTS

1. Sand pouring cylinder of 3 litre/16.5 litre capacity, mounted above a pouring cone and
separated by a shutter cover plate.
2. Tools for excavating holes; suitable tools such as scraper tool to make a level surface.
3. Cylindrical calibrating container with an internal diameter of 100 mm/200 mm and an
internal depth of 150 mm/250 mm fitted with a flange 50 mm/75 mm wide and about 5 mm
thick surrounding the open end.
4. Balance to weigh unto an accuracy of I g.
5. Metal containers to collect excavated soil.
6. Metal tray with 300 mm/450 mm square and 40 mm/50 mm deep with a 100 rnm/200 mm
diameter hole in the centre.
7. Suitable non-corrodible airtight containers.
8. Thermostatically controlled oven with interior on non-corroding material to maintain the
temperature between 105C to llOC.
9. Glass plate about 450 mm/600 mm square and 10mm thick.
10. MATERIAL : Clean, uniformly graded natural sand passing through 1.00 mm IS. Sieve and
retained on the 600micron I.S.sieve. It shall be free from organic matter and shall have been
oven dried and exposed to atmospheric humidity.
11. A dessicator with any desiccating agent other than sulphuric acid.

FACULTY ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT: CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TEST TITLE : FIELD DENSITY SAND
REPLACEMENT METHOD

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:
AMENDMENT
DATE:

3/4
1/01/14
1/01/15

5.0 PROCEDURES
(I) Calibration of the cylinder:
1. Measure the internal dimensions of the calibrating container and find its volume.
2. Fill the clean uniformly graded standard sand in the sand pouring cylinder upto a height of 1cm
below the top with the shutter closed. Find out initial mass of the sand, (M 0). This mass should
be maintained constant throughout the test for which the calibration is used.
3. Allow the sand of volume equal to that of the calibrating container to run out of the cylinder by
opening the shutter. Close the shutter.
4. Place the sand cone-pouring cylinder on a paper placed on a horizontal table. Open the shutter
again and allow the sand to flow and fill the cone.
5. Close the shutter. Find the mass of sand on paper, (M,)
6. Repeat steps 2-4 at least thrice and find the mean mass, (Mi).
(II) Determination of bulk density of sand:
1. Place the sand-pouring cylinder concentrically on the top of the calibrating container with the
shutter closed making sure that constant mass (M0) is maintained.
2. Open the shutter of cylinder and allow the sand to move into the container. When no further
movement is seen, close the shutter and find the mass of sand left in the cylinder, (M 2).
3. Repeat steps 2-3 at least thrice and find the mean mass (M 2).
(III) Determination of field density of soil
1. Level surface of the soil in the open field.
2. Place metal tray on the surface haring a circular hole of 10 cm diameter at the center. Dig a hole
of this diameter upto about 15 cm depth. Collect all the excavated soil in a tray and find the
mass of excavated soil, (M).
3. Remove the tray and place the sand-purring cylinder concentrically on the hole.
Open the shutter and allow the sand to run into hole till no further movement of
sand is noticed. Close the shutter and determine mass of sand which is left in the
cylinder, (M3).
4.

The representative sample is taken from the excavated soil for determination of
water content.

FACULTY ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT: CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TEST TITLE : FIELD DENSITY - SAND
REPLACEMENT METHOD

PAGE NO.:
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
EFFECTIVE
DATE:

4/4
1/01/14

AMENDMENT
DATE:

1/01/15

6.0 RESULT AND CALCULATIONS


1. Record the readings in the table below.
A) Determination of Mass of sand in the cone
1 . Volume of calibrating container (Vc)

(ml)

2. Mass of sand in cylinder before pouring (M0)

(g.)

3. Mean mass of sand in cone (M^

(g.)

B) Determination of bulk density of sand


1 . Mean mass of sand left in cylinder after pouring (M2)

(g.)

2. Mass of sand filling calibrating container, Mc=Mo-Mi-M2 (g.)


3. Bulk density of sand p s =MC/VC

(g/cm 3)

C) Bulk density and unit weight of soil


1 . Mass of wet soil from the hole (M)

(g.)

2. Mass of sand in cylinder after pouring in the hole (M 3)

(g.)

3. Mass of sand in the hole MS=M0- MI - M3

(g.)

M
s
Ms

5. Dry density of soil d


1 w
4. Bulk density of soil,

(g/cm3)
(g/cm 3)

7.0 QUESTIONS
1. Field engineers are often found talking of optimum moisture content (OMC) conditions while
constructing of road sub-grade. Define and explain this term, bringing out clearly the
importance it posses and the methods by which it is controlled.
2. Discuss the method of compaction of (a) cohesion less soil (b) cohesive soils.