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Part A

Serum protein electrophoresis is a method used in laboratory that can determine
the proteins in our blood called globulins. Electrophoresis of serum protein is applied
to an acetate membrane soaked in a liquid buffer and exposed to an electric current to
separate the serum protein components into five major fractions by size and electrical
charge namely serum albumin, alpha-1 globulins, alpha-2 globulins, beta 1 and 2
globulins, and gamma globulins. Both albumin and globulins carries substances into
the blood stream.
Albumin proteins keep the blood from leaking out of blood vessels. It is
important for tissue growth and healing. More than half of the portion of protein
serum consists of albumin . In addition they also help the trnsport of medicine into the
bloodstream. Alpha-1 globulin carries high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into the blood
stream and whereas Alpha-2 globulin or called haptoglobin binds to haemoglobin to
aid in the transport of oxygen. Beta globulin help to carry substances, such as iron,
into the bloodstream and help in fighting against the pathogens that invade the body
and basically it is a part of human body immune system. Gamma globulin are also
known as antibodies. They prevent the body from invasion of foreign substance by
binding of these globulin to the pathogens and causing them to be destroyed through
the immune system . Basically , they can act as biomarkers to indicate the presence of
foreign substance in the body such as viruses and bacteria.
Serum protein electrophoresis is used to diagnose variety of disease and
conditions. For example, problems regarding kidney and liver, diagnosis of cancer, the
effectiveness of the immune system and also the conditions regarding poor dietary
intake. The results that is obtained from the test can be used to determine if the
individual is suffering from any disease or not. This can be done by looking at the
percentage of blood protein present in the blood. In this experiment done in
laboratory, the abnormality of an individual can be detected when the blood stain is
not fluorescent under the uv light long wave and the individual is detected normal
when the blood stain is fluorescent under the uv light long wave. Sometimes, some
people dont even know the severity of the sickness they are suffering until they are
tested using serum protein electrophoresis.
Sometimes, the serum protein electrophoresis can show an improper result due to
several conditions. Some of the conditions are high levels of lipids, iron deficiency
anemia, some medicines, such as corticosteroids, insulin, cholesterol-lowering
medicines and birth control pills and also pregnancy. During this conditions, the
proteins in the blood are abnormal due to usage of fetus during pregnancy, the
abnormal content of iron in anemia and so on.