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THANKS
We will not start this graduation memory for CAPEN in Physics and Chemistry without
praise God Almighty for with His grace and mercy that we have been able to achieve.
We wish to express our warmest thanks to the teachers who were willing to serve on the
jury in this case:
x

Mr. ANDRIANARIMANANA Jean-Claude Omer, Full Professor , for the honor he


has done in agreeing to chair the jury ;

Mr. RASOLONDRAMANITRA Henry, PhD, Assistant Professor and Mrs.


RATOMPOMALALA Harinosy, Doctor, Lecturer, who dedicated the effort to
review our work.

Our deep gratitude particularly to Ms. Judith RAZAFIMBELO, Full Professor, for her
interest to us, as well as the invaluable assistance she has provided us, leading to the
culmination of this work.
We also want to express our gratitude to all the teachers who formed us throughout our
curriculum at the Ecole Normale Suprieure.
Our sincere thanks also go to our family and loved ones for the unwavering support and
encouragement that they have shown throughout the trials we went through.





General introduction.......................................................................................................................... 7

Chapter 1: Conceptual benchmarks: academic motivation.....................................................9


I. Conception systems........................................................................................................................10
II. Perception systems........................................................................................................................11
III. Teacher responsabilities............................................................................................................. 12
IV. Influence of interest on academic motivation......................................................................... 12
Chapter 2: The physical sciences education in literary section.............................................15
I. The specific teaching of sciences in First L class in France......................................................15
II. The teaching of physical sciences in the United States............................................................ 19
III. The teaching of physical sciences in Terminale A in Madagascar........................................23
IV. Comparative analysis of curricula and teaching methods......................................................26
Chapter 3: Difficulties in learning physics in Terminale A.....................................................29

I. Previous works............................................................................................................................... 29
II. Current data collection methodology........................................................................................34
III. Analysis of results....................................................................................................................... 51
Chapter 4: Proposal for new themes in the program...............................................................58
I. The concepts to be introduced......................................................................................................58
III. Conceptual framework for curriculum development .............................................................66
III. Proposition of curriculum........................................................................................................... 69

General conclusion........................................................................................................................... 76



APPENDIX
Appendix

1:

Specific

curriculum

of

sciences

in

1st

class

in

France.......................................................................................................................................79
Appendix 2: Official Skills Program sciences in the United States, according to the
sciences California standards ............................................................................................... 87
Appendix 3: Physical sciences program of class Terminale A in Madagascar...................... 88
Appendix 4: Tables showing data obtained concerning candidates for the bachelor Series A
the last three years in the six provinces and nationally............................................................91
Appendix 5: Questionnaire on the content of physical science curriculum of the Terminale
A...............................................................................................................................................92

Bibliographic reference..........................................................................................................94
Webographie...........................................................................................................................97




List of tables
Table 1: Percentage of candidates who selected physical science as a compulsory subject in
series A1
Table 2: Percentage of candidates who selected physical science as a compulsory subject in
series A2

Table 3: Table of theoretical values of


related to the degrees of freedom

Table 4: Sample sizes relevant to the investigation


Table 5: Simplifying the decision tree
Table 6: Numbers of students surveyed for each stratum for the series A1
Table 7: Numbers of students surveyed for each stratum for the series A2
Table 8: Organization of the teaching of the proposed themes
List of figures
Figure 1: Articulation between the survey levels adopted during the investigation
Figure 2: Eating utensils and washing machine made with stainless steel

Figure 3: Building whose frame is made with stainless steel


Figure 4: Turbine airplane made with nickel
Figure 5: Valve coated with a layer of nickel
Figure 6: Automotive battery made with an alloy of lithium and nickel
Figure 7: 1 euro coin made with a copper alloy containing nickel
List of acronymes
C.E.R. : &HQWUHG(WXGHVHWGH5HFKHUFKHV
S.A.T.: Scholastic Aptitude Tests
A.P.: Advanced Placement




GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Through the offices within the Ministry of Education, such as the Curriculum Support Office
RIWKH6HFRQGDU\(GXFDWLRQ'LUHFWRUDWH, the Study and Planning Office RIWKHDirectorate
of Planning of the EGXFDWLRQ, which are responsible for developing, studying and constantly
improving the content and implementation of curricula for each subject and each class, the
State plans the system of education. The education system currently in force is thus dictated
by Law No. 94-033 of March 13th, 1995 on the General Orientation of Education and
Training System in Madagascar. The different topics of education and training make up one
of the key points to remember in this direction.
Through the content, the target of education is to train citizens able to achieve the
development goals and follow the frantic pace of evolution of humanity. It is in this sense
that the curricula of schools and general secondary schools have been defined so that each
subject taught at every level of education contributes to the achievement of these objectives.
Teaching Physics in Terminale A, among others topics, is so used to train students not only to
the success of the baccalaureate exam, but also to better prepare them for college and their
future life.
As a student out of C.E.R.1 Physics and Chemistry of the Ecole Normale Suprieure, we are
called to teach physical sciences at high schools. Furthermore, we have the feeling of having
to work constantly to improve the teaching and learning of the discipline. This can be done
through the development of new tools to facilitate our mission which is to assist students in
acquiring knowledge; it can also lead us to make a critical thinking on the current learning
program, and propose innovations forward to improve it.
One study of students in Terminale A in North Befandriana (Raharisoa, 2007) shows that the
knowledge and skills that students have acquired by the end of the school year are not clearly
identifiable, resulting home the lack of motivation and interest in learning the physical
sciences. Recognizing that physics is used to explain the phenomena, we wondered if the
phenomena covered in the program are well understood by the students. Moreover, thinking
about the fact that students of class Terminale A, being literary, may have difficulty in



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understanding the formulas and perform calculations, we assumed that the mathematical
concepts they are being taught in physics prevents a better understanding of these concepts,
which does not motivate them to learn this subject.
We used appropriate statistical methods to obtain a representative sample of students in
Terminale A of Madagascar. For that, we went to the Ministry of Higher Education to obtain
data on the percentages of candidates selected physical sciences as compulsory test bachelor.
The next step is to identify the schools that meet the constraints resulting from sampling, and
to meet the students to identify any difficulties they face in learning physics. After identifying
the problems, proposing new ideas seems to be a relevant contribution from us in the
perspective of a better implementation of the program to improve the results of student
learning. In this context, we have chosen to call this work:
"Current situation of the teaching of physics in class Terminale A in Madagascar Proposed innovations"
This study is to identify problems related to learning the physical sciences by the students of
class Terminale A, in order to propose solutions to try to deal with these obstacles.
In order to identify problems related to learning physical sciences in Terminale A, it is
important to first define the conceptual benchmarks, based on the concept of academic
motivation. Then we discuss the teaching of sciences in the literary sections of different
countries to make a comparative analysis of programs and teaching methods. In the third
chapter, we will identify the potential problems associated with learning physical science in
class Terminale A through the one hand, studies on the lack of interest of students from
Terminale A towards the physical sciences and the program in place, and secondly, a survey
conducted as part of this study of drawing up the state of knowledge acquired by students.
Finally, we will reach the goal of this paper that is to propose new themes to introduce in the
physical sciences program in Terminal A




Chapter 1: CONCEPTUAL BENCHMARKS: ACADEMIC MOTIVATION

So that the student is fully engaged in the activities leading to the assimilation of the course,
and so produce the results expected of it at the end of the learning process, he must be
motivated. Indeed, regardless of implemented education, student motivation is an essential
parameter conditioning the successful learning (Tardif, 1992).
Motivation is the factor of awareness and activation towards an exciting body and can lead to
different concrete achievements (Le Petit Larousse, 2013). The concept of motivation
therefore encompasses the notions of "need" and "interest" to the extent that the act is due to
the presence of a conscious or unconscious motive. At school, it requires the student to
engage in learning activities as best he could, and to lead them ultimately; when confronted
with problems, he must draw to progress. Academic motivation of a student is mainly related
to the image he has of himself and his environment; it is defined as the commitment,
involvement and perseverance of the student in learning (Dweck, 2000).
In schools, the motivation is a dynamic phenomenon influenced by perceptions of student, his
behavior, environment, which encouraged him to choose an activity, commit to it and to
persevere in its accomplishment to achieve a goal (Viau, 1998). Thus, the motivation is based
on the conditions in which the student learns and perceptions he has of these conditions. This
motivation is an essential component of the success of the student at the end of a learning
process (McCombs & Miller, 2007). Student constructs academic motivation from his
experiences, successes and failures, he draws conclusions; he extracts the rules and laws.
According to Tardif (1992), academic motivation is influenced by two types of factors
intrinsic to the student: conception systems and perception systems. Viau (1998) also showed
that the teacher must act on the motivational dynamic of the student. Furthermore, Berbaum
(1991) explained that the interest of the student for the purpose of learning fosters motivation
to learn.




I. Conception systems
There are two conception systems involved emotionally: the conception of the aims of the
school and the conception of intelligence.
I. 1. Conception of the aims of the school
According to Elliot (1983)2 and Dweck (2000), students recognize that the school has two
main categories of goals: learning goals and evaluation goals.
Student who pursues the learning goals thinks that the teacher wants him to acquire more
knowledge and develop a better understanding of his environment in his mind in order to
control what happens around him. For the student, the acquisition of knowledge is a
challenge; when he encounters obstacles, he makes use of diverse strategies. He performs the
comparison with himself, by knowledge he mastered before and those he controls now, and
takes responsibility for his successes and failures.
Student who pursues the evaluation goals thinks the teacher wants simply try his skills; his
concern is to get the largest possible number of favorable judgments. The student prefers the
easiest activities to increase his probability of success; his participation in the performance of
a task depends on the judgment that will be issued on his performance. In this context, the
level of success he binds is exclusively normative, and he attributes his failures and successes
to factors that do not depend on him.
I. 2. Conception of intelligence
According to Dweck (2000), there are two forms of representation that the student is
intelligence.
A first representation considers intelligence as a stable entity. The participation of the student
in the realization of an activity is so very limited, and motivation for learning is very low.
A second view sees intelligence as scalable. The student believes that his knowledge can
evolve over time and can develop at any time, thereby increasing its ability to act on its
environment.



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Besides the design of the aims of the school and the conception of intelligence that make up
the system design, there are also the perception systems acting on the motivation of the
student.

II. The perception systems


For Covington (2000), it is the perception of the student and not its actual capabilities which
is weightier in motivation.
II. 1. The perception of the value of the task
The student is willing to engage in learning activities to the extent that he knows the personal,
social and professional benefits. For the student, the value of the task is determined by the
meaning and scope it gives him, and especially by the usefulness of the knowledge acquired
when it is out of the classroom.
II. 2. The perception of the demands of the task
The perception of the demands of the task refers to the criteria that the student is as the
standard to which he must adhere to succeed an activity. This perception is strongly
influenced by the design that the student has towards goals that the school continues: if the
student continues learning purposes, he will engage easily in activities knowing that risk of
encountering difficulties; if he continues evaluation purposes, he will have a lot of hesitation
to participate.
II. 3. The perception of the controllability of the task
Controllability of the task is on the causes of success or failure of an activity carried out by
the student. These causes are controllable when the student sees himself as the protagonist of
what happened; they are uncontrollable when he thinks he has no power over what happens
to him. Motivation and student performance increase with the perception of the
controllability of the task.

First, the designs of the student on the aims of the school and intelligence, and secondly, the
perception that the student has of value, requirements and the controllability of the task, so



have effects on motivation to learn. In addition to these factors, the teacher also has
responsibilities in stimulating the student in the learning process.

III. Teacher Responsibilities


The teacher cannot be content to acquire knowledge of the student; he must play the role of
coach of the student and mediator between him and the subject he teaches, so to build with
student strategies enabling him to act on his environment.
To raise the motivation of the student, the teacher must absolutely continue learning goals
and show that classroom activities are also pursuing learning goals; he must demonstrate the
need to take risks.
The teacher who wishes the active participation of the student in the knowledge construction
must make students aware of how he conceived the achievement of learning activities. In the
presentation of an activity, the teacher should clarify with the student the steps of realization
and success criteria, and allow him to refer to prior knowledge during execution.
The teacher should lead the student to experience success as a result of the introduction of
knowledge and strategies which are taught, learned and developed, and thus show that the
student can master the reasons of his success. In case of fall, the teacher must make clear to
the student that there still have skills to acquire or enhance.
Teachers should make students aware of the social and professional impact of mastery of the
knowledge that the learning activities provide him.

If the conceptions and perceptions of student affect his motivational dynamics, the teacher
should be concerned, acting as a model. As a model, the teacher must teach student interest in
learning the subject he teaches.

IV. Influence of interest on academic motivation


Academic motivation is manifested by the courage, determination and perseverance. Indeed,
for the learning process the desired result, students should be aware of the attitudes and



behaviors to adopt towards the learning object (Berbaum 1991). This learning object is to
stimulate the spirit of curiosity. Curiosity is defined as the desire to see and know (Le Petit
Larousse, 2013), then it arouses student interest in learning activities led by the teacher.
Interest in a learning activity is an indicator frequently used to identify the motivation in
students (Cosnefroy, 2004).
IV. 1. Interest in learning
On one hand, "interest" means "that which is useful, beneficial to someone" (Le Petit
Larousse, 2013) ; the word "interest" is synonymous with "concern" opposite of
"indifference". The interest created automatically in an individual's motivation to complete a
task. It is the interest of the students on the subject of learning that nurtures in them the
motivation to learn. Therefore, school success would require the knowledge acquired at the
end of learning, beyond its immediate utility, is meaningful to the student by opening new
horizons for understanding ourselves and understand the world (Berbaum 1991).
On the other hand, "interest" means "dedication to something beneficial." The students have
no interest in learning if such learning does not respond to a desire to know. The teaching of a
subject must meet a living, dynamic natural desire harmonizing with the means at the
disposal of students. The desire for knowledge pushes students to make the necessary efforts
to understand, deepen and broaden the knowledge they have learned in class, and
understanding is the main manifestation of the success of learning.
IV. 2. Relationship between interest and motivation
The motivation of a student is identified from the time where he continued learning goals
(Cosnefroy, 2004). The orientation towards learning goals is favored when it perceived
similarity between the current activity and purpose; that is, the student should be able to
relate what he now teaches and what he will need later. In this case, an interest is created for
the object of learning; then the student involves in the knowledge acquisition process.
For the student who is pursuing evaluation purposes, interest in school activity is
strengthened if he considers himself able to achieve good results (Cosnefroy, 2007). Indeed,
if the student is engaged in learning, it is mainly to demonstrate his skills and obtain a
favorable judgment. Thus the performance of the student is a key determinant of interest, and
consequently, motivation to learn material.




In schools, the motivation is a dynamic state that encourages students to choose a learning
event, commit to it and to persevere in its accomplishment to achieve a goal. It reflects both
emotions and perception of the student. It is a variable that the teacher can act. The
motivation for a student to learn a subject is closely related to the interest in it. Based on this
notion of academic motivation, part of this study is to identify problems related to learning
physics in Terminale A.




Chapter 2: THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION IN LITERARY SECTION

After defining the concept of academic motivation through the work of various researchers,
we will tackle the analysis of science education in the literary section of some countries. To
do this, we first develop the specific science education program in First L class in France,
which will make us ideas on the objectives and content of teaching sciences in literary series.
Next, we will discuss the teaching of physical sciences in the United States through the study
by Tabailloux and Gilbert in 2008, for an overview of the methods applied there. After, we
will outline the physical sciences program in Terminale A to Madagascar. Finally, we will
make a comparative analysis of program content and teaching methods, to determine at what
level we could take action to improve the teaching and learning of physics in class Terminale
A.

I. The specific teaching of sciences in First L class in France


In high schools of the french education system, students of class Terminale L no longer learn
the physical sciences. The teaching of sciences in literary section ends in First class; the life
and earth sciences and physical sciences are merged into one subject "Sciences", the current
educational program was established by ministerial decree 3 in 2010.
In France, science education received by student from the college until Second class allows
him to make a comprehensive and coherent representation of the world around him. Literary
section of the 1st class, science education continues to build the scientific culture of students
to prepare them to better integrate the society whose development is increasingly dependent
on technology and scientific progress. The program content is designed as a compendium of
knowledge from both life and earth sciences and physical sciences. This approach allows
providing students with both a comprehensive science education through common themes in
the life and earth sciences and physical sciences, and independent knowledge, original and
specific to each discipline.



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As part of our study, we focus on the objectives of such teaching and disciplinary content
delivered to students in the literary section.
I. 1. The objectives
The specific teaching First class science of the literary section in France revolves around two
goals: to develop scientific literacy to students; help build their skills.
I. 1. 1. Develop scientific literacy
Students in literary series in First class are not prepared for university studies science-based,
science education that is provided is essentially oriented so that they can develop scientific
literacy. Thus, this teaching is assigned as objectives to enable the student:
- to acquire knowledge that will serve him to understand the issues and problems of science
to which he will have to face in his daily lives;
- to understand the scientific issues related to social issues such as sustainable development,
to have a critical view to act as responsible citizen;
- to explore these issues through consultation of various documents and information sources;
- to understand by simple manner the steps that led to the current notions and concepts
through, for example, the history of science.
I. 1. 2. Contribute to building skills
The main goal of any scientific training is to introduce students to the scientific process so
that he is able to implement a reason. Such jurisdiction will always be useful to him
regardless of the area in which he will have to evolve in his future life. Indeed, it includes
research capabilities, organizational and operational information, especially through the use
of computer technology, as well as oral and written expression and communication activities
such as presentations and debates.
On the one hand, the specific science education in literary classes should primarily teach
student applications through which science and technology interact with society and everyday
life. The student is then asked to provide a scientific argument on social issues such as health
issues and sustainable development, and the benefits and limitations of scientific and




technological advances, which will promote the development of his critical thinking, his
curiosity and his leadership.
On the other hand, a global scientific and cultural approach is essential in order to flourish in
a society of the disciplinary diversity. Scientific training of literary students in First class
aims to develop skills including the multiplicity of approaches, the search for explanations
and forecasting implications in various fields. It joins such as economic and social sciences,
mathematics and the physical sciences.
I. 2. Organisation of teaching
The science curriculum in First L is organized around four themes. There are, among others,
two common themes in the life and earth sciences and the physical and chemical sciences,
entitled " Visual representation " and "Feeding humanity" ; the other two themes are each
dedicated to a specific theme for each discipline, " The energy challenge " for physics and
chemistry , and " Female - Male " for life and earth sciences (Appendix 1, p. 79).
I. 2. 1. Visual representation
The theme "Visual representation" intends to help students understand how the eye as an
optical unit, the principle of correcting some defects of the eye and obtaining color matter.
This education should help students to adopt behaviors to preserve the integrity of his vision.
In the first part, the approach is to directly address geometrical optics concepts from a natural
manifestation which the students live constantly experience. Indeed, considering the eye as an
optical apparatus, this theme talks about the characteristic features of a converging lens and
the construction of the image obtained from a converging lens, and makes the comparison
with a negative lens. The study of defects and corrections of the eye deepens the concepts and
introduce the concepts of focal distance and convergence, showing their application. The use
of dyes and pigments through the experimental determination of the presence of dyes in a
mixture introduced the influence of certain parameters on color of certain chemical species.
The section of chemistry perception serves to highlight the chemical nature of the
transmission of nerve messages through chemicals and chemical disturbances caused by
hallucinogens.




I. 2. 2. Feeding humanity
The theme "Feeding KXPDQLW\ is used initially to make students understand the complexity
of issues relating to meeting food needs. In this context, it will develop some answers,
scientifically substantiated, some of these questions about the increase in agricultural
production, food preservation and transformation. Then, pointing to the cross-cutting theme
by taking into account the geopolitical, socio-economic and environmental aspects, students
must adopt responsible attitudes to food risks.
The introduction to sustainable agriculture is used to compare the energy and matter balances
in an ecosystem and different agro-systems (crops, livestock) from data collected in the field
or in databases processed by software calculation or simulation, and link the progress of
science and technology and their impact on the environment over time. The issue of the
quality of soil and water in agriculture and the quality control of food products are used to
introduce students to the scientific process by documentary research, use of information and
development of experimental protocols for laboratory analysis.
I. 2. 3. The energy challenge
The availability and quality of natural resources, control of energy resources and optimizing
their management and the management of natural and industrial risks are the challenges of
sustainable development on which the experimental sciences must contribute, hence the need
to talk about energy challenge. In this context, the teaching of the subjHFWV role is to raise
awareness among students by making them understand the needs and constraints in the search
for new solutions.
Following this theme, students need to acquire knowledge enabling them to take a critical
look at the energy consumption of appliances in daily life and industrial facilities, discuss the
advantages and disadvantages of the operation of an energy resource, including in terms of
environmental impact such as the management of radioactive waste. The key is to search for
and exploit information on energy needs, the different types of energy resources and
processes for their use.
I. 2. 4. Female - Male
Support responsibly his sex life by the future adult makes necessary to perfect a sexuality
education that began in college. The own theme to life sciences and earth "Female - Male"



shows how the knowledge of sex determination and hormonal control has led to the
development of current chemical methods of control of reproduction by a couple. This is an
opportunity to recall the hygiene and prevention principles. This will also be the opportunity
to say that if sexual identity and gender roles in society with their stereotypes belong to the
public sphere, sexual orientation is part of the private sphere.
The objectives of this course are initially to make the student able to explain to simple level
methods to choose when to procreate or to help an infertile couple to have a child. At the end
of this course, students must also behave in a reasonable individual to avoid contamination
and the spread of sexually transmitted infections. It serves to explain to the student the
genetic and hormonal determinism of sex, and the difference between sexual identity and
orientation. This theme also helps to show students that sexual activity in humans is partly
based on biological phenomena, particularly the activation of the reward system.

In France, students from First L classes learn science in the context of a specific program that
allows them both to develop scientific literacy, and develop transferable skills that could be
useful in various fields. This program focuses on different themes, the visual representation
and "Feeding humanity" common to the life and earth sciences and physical sciences, the
energy challenge that is specific to the physical sciences and )HPLQLQH- masculine " which is
related to life and earth sciences.

II. The teaching of physical sciences in the United States


During the 2007-2008 academic year, Amandine Tabailloux and Benoit Gilbert, respectively
trainee teachers of life and earth sciences and physical sciences at the Academy of
Montpellier, conducted a study on the teaching of sciences the United States for their
professional dissertation4 as part of their training in the teaching of a Non Linguistic Subject.
For us, the interest of this study is to analyze the physics education in high schools in the
United States. Indeed, this analysis provides an overview of the methods of teaching and the



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objectives assigned in order to make a comparison with the realities in Madagascar and
possible improvements in the implementation of the education program of physics in
Terminale A classes.
II. 1. Originality of teaching
Science education in the United States has its peculiarities. As the United States is a federal
state, they consist of several states. Thus, in the education sector, specifically in the case of
education programs, each state decides concepts to teach. In the United States, the life and
earth sciences, physics and chemistry are collectively known as "sciences" from the college;
high school begins in 3rd class, and each institution chooses the order in which it teaches
sciences in each during the 4 years of high school. However, the national review of the SAT 5
imposes a relative homogeneity.
II. 1. 1. Teaching units
In the US, the contents are structured into teaching units. At Stuart High School, one of San
Francisco schools where the observations were made, in the 3rd class, students study physics,
biology in 2nd, chemistry in 1st; in Terminal class, they choose between biology, physiology,
chemistry or physics, which they will deepen in AP6.
Despite a dominant material used red thread, the materials are discussed annually in an
integrated way. Thus, there is a strong link between subjects (physics-chemistry-biologygeology), they are taught very wide basis, and serve one another. This open-plan approach is
very interesting in that it allows students to have more perspective and to understand the links
between different subjects.
II. 1. 2. Dynamic of project and constructivism
From the elementary school, students often work in groups to create a project in the form of
presentation, experimental workshop or activity for the benefit of the community. The role of
the teacher is to disseminate as widely as possible the project and move towards application
in everyday life.




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In the official bulletin7, constructivist method is considered the fairest pedagogy. However,
the study of Tabailloux and Gilbert shows that few teachers use this method; rather they
make a course in narrative form in which the key concepts are presented to the students,
followed by an application in practical work or exercise.
II. 1. 3. Evaluation
In the USA, by American culture, the error is not punished. As a result, students do not have
the same vision of the role of evaluation. According to the survey conducted as part of this
study, the American students think evaluation more positively than French students. For
them, it serves to improve, to self-confidence, and even reward work. In comparison, the
French have a little apprehensive as creating a spirit of competition, as a way to punish, deter.
The idea that American students have of the assessment can be explained by the fact that
many teachers prepare for the assessment. Plugs and review exercises are very common
during class sessions and are very similar to those given on the day of the assessment.
Students therefore consider the feedback more as a way to reward them for their work rather
than trap and deter.
II. 2. For physical sciences
In college, the teaching of physical sciences is done in areas prone to 'visual' experience,
leaving the microscopic to high school. Only students taking Advanced Placement courses
(AP) study more difficult concepts.
The experimental skills are grouped outside notions. As we have written previously, students
are introduced to the experiences and research regardless of the course taught in the
classroom, through the development of projects which, according to type, do not necessarily
have a direct link with the program education.




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II. 2. 1. The educational objectives


Taking a quick look at the goals of science education in secondary schools, as defined by the
Department of Education of the State of California in the "California Science Standard"8
(Appendix 2, p. 87) we find pragmatism, which is one of the fundamentals of American
culture in the abilities the students have to acquire at the end of their curriculum. Indeed, the
mastery of the required skills is based on the active participation of students in learning
activities, and practice. We thus find a way to introduce students to the scientific method, and
connect sciences with community life in which they find through topics such as natural
resources and environmental quality.
II. 2. 2. The teaching method
The teacher's job is to follow up the study of the concepts and do practice tests. In physical
sciences as in other science subjects, the paper trail is not very important. Each session is
devoted to the deepening of what the teacher has asked to read at home during the previous
course. For motivated students who do the work, this method is very effective and allows for
more experiences during group lessons and work on their designs ; however, it presents a
huge risk since the student who has not read the course will be quickly exceeded .
The physics course is based on the concepts that the professor briefly reviewed and then rises
experience which students reflect on and confront their views from the pre-acquired through
reading what they have done at home. The course is more oriented to concepts than to the
calculations, the teacher encourages students to ask questions about their environment and
perform experiments in thought trying to imagine what happens. The goal is to get students to
think scientifically.
II. 2. 3. Impacts at the student level
The comparison made by the authors of the study shows that American students seem more
fulfilled than their French counterparts, but their overall level is less good. Furthermore, the
available technical means to students do not ensure overall success, and permanent access to
computers does not always facilitate the understanding of difficult concepts. In American
institutions with limited resources, teachers must use their creativity to share their knowledge,



^^W
^<'d^h




and it is often in these situations that students are most convinced, since they are involved
and actively participate to the development of the course. Indeed, a survey was conducted by
Tabailloux and Gilbert with students of these institutions with limited resources; it shows that
85% of students found that the concepts they learn in physics seem appropriate for everyday
life.

The analysis of the teaching of physical sciences in the United States allows us to conclude
that students OHDUQLQJ LV based on their participation in the construction of the course, the
teacher just ensuring the role of supervisor of the process.

III. The teaching of physical sciences in Terminale A in Madagascar


The physics program currently in place in the classrooms of Terminale A is dictated by a
ministerial decree9 released in 1998, which include the general framework of education in
Madagascar. This general framework has the purpose to form autonomous and responsible
individuals, physically, intellectually and morally fulfilled, capable of participating in the life
of the community in scientific advancement and its benefits in and able to contribute to
economic and social development of Madagascar.
It is through this framework that defined the different levels of objectives and subject content
assigned to each of the subjects to be taught. In the following, we will report the objectives
and subject content for teaching physical science class Terminal A.
III. 1. The objectives
An educational objective is a statement of expected effects more or less long term and with
more or less certainty and interest by trainers, trainees, prescribers and sponsors training, and
society (Hameline, 1979).
In the ministerial order mentioned earlier, there are the general objectives of education, the
objectives of each subject, the objectives of the teaching of each subject in high school, the



^:D^
EYdDD
^




objectives of each subject in a given class, the general objectives of the teaching of the
subject in the classroom, and specific goals at every stage of progress of the program.
III. 1. 1. The general objectives of education
The teaching of physics in high school is part of the contribution to the achievement of
certain objectives assigned to education. Indeed, the teaching aims, among other things:
- develop in the student the spirit of rigor and objectivity in order to make him capable of
opening and acting on the real, complex and diverse world;
- ensure the acquisition of knowledge that would guide the development of skills and
intellectual capacities;
- encourage creativity and initiative of the student to allow it to flourish and participate in the
development of the country;
- develop in the student the analytical and critical thinking;
- provide to the student the intellectual and moral means to act on his environment in order to
promote and protect it.
III. 1. 2. The objectives of the material
The physical sciences should enable the student to:
- perform an experimental approach to a search result;
- adopt scientific attitude developing in him the scientific spirit;
- interpret natural phenomena;
- better understand the technical world around us through the analysis of the realities and
effort to understand and explain.
III. 1. 3. The objectives of the teaching of physics in high school
At the end of high school, the student should be able to:
- continue his studies;
- use scientific reasoning;




- interpret with finesse scientific facts;


- articulate and correctly apply the studied physical laws;
- verify the agreement between theoretical prediction and experimental result;
- write correctly a numerical result;
- apply mathematical laws to physical and chemical phenomena.
III. 1. 4. The overall objectives of the physical sciences in Terminal A
At the end of the class Terminal A, the student should be able to:
- interpret the phenomenon of mechanical interference;
- interpret the phenomenon of light interference;
- interpret the photoelectric effect;
- briefly explain the origin of the different theories of light;
- briefly explain the origin of the different theories of mechanics.
III. 2. The content
The physical sciences program in Terminale A class consists of three parts: periodic
phenomena, theories of light, and theories of mechanics (see Appendix 3, p.88).
III. 2. 1. The periodic phenomena
The section on periodic phenomena deals first with sinusoidal functions used mathematical
tools for the following chapters. The second chapter discusses the periodic sinusoidal motion,
focusing on the physical aspects such as speed, wavelength, and the double spatial and
temporal periodicity. The last two chapters deal respectively with mechanical interference
and vibratory nature of sound.
III. 2. 2. The theories of light
The section on theories of light highlights the dual character of light through the study of
light interference and the photoelectric effect. It also deals with the history of the evolution of
optics.




III. 2. 3. The theories of mechanics


The last part of the program deals with theories of mechanics, namely classical mechanics
and relativistic mechanics. It allows students to distinguish between the domains of validity
of each mechanics.

Through the three parts that are periodic phenomena, theories of light, and theories of
mechanics, physics education in Terminal A assigns objectives are to develop the scientific
mind of the student, to allow him to explain physical phenomena and understand the
technical world around.

IV. Comparative analysis of curricula and teaching methods


The review of the teaching of physical science literary section in the three countries, namely
France, the United States and Madagascar, is used to compare the subject content and
teaching methods.
IV. 1. The subject content
In France, the subject content taught in First L class is designed for the student to acquire a
scientific culture and develop transferable skills. Indeed, much of the teaching of science is
not to address scientific concepts, but rather to directly connect science with the daily lives of
students and societal problems. The theme "The energy challenge", for example, aims to
make students capable of exercising responsibility for sustainable development needs
analysis and the search for solutions; this teaching help him to understand that no sustainable
development is possible without the availability, quality and optimizing energy management.
In Terminale A to Madagascar, the linking of the concepts covered during the physical
sciences with the environment in which students move operation is difficult. Indeed, the
section on periodic phenomena focuses on teaching formulas and their applications in the
exercises rather than show students examples where these phenomena occur ; theories of light
also found no benefit for the students, if not the example of the operation of photovoltaic
solar panels for the chapter on the photoelectric effect, which is not specified in the
instructions.



IV. 2. Teaching methods


In order to develop the scientific spirit of the students, the teaching of physical sciences in the
United States is conducted on the basis of observing phenomena directly related to the
students' environment; the teacher implements practical sessions to help them acquire the
knowledge and experimental skills. The teacher also encourages students to develop projects
which consist of illustrations and applications of knowledge acquired; this method allows
students to get involved in course development and thus promotes their motivation to learn
the material and deepen their research.
In Madagascar, the exploitation of experience in the construction of the lesson is difficult.
Indeed, the lack or the absence of laboratory equipment in high schools is a major handicap
in the teaching of physics, even though the official program suggests the implementation
experience; the teacher is obliged to make a lecture by dictating the content of the lesson
students should acquire. Previous observations (Raharisoa, 2007) also showed that teachers
are not fully involved in student motivation by failing to extend the course to the observation
of phenomena related to lesson and applications from the knowledge acquired by students.
IV. 3. Need for updating
At first, it is essential to remember that the current curriculum was enacted in 1998; for the
physical sciences program of the Terminale A in particular, the program designers have taken
the essential content of the program developed in 1978 through Law No. 78.040, modeled on
the program of physical sciences in force in literary classes of France at the time
(Ranaivoarison, 1990). All this assertion serves to say that the content of this program has
experienced no overhaul and is completely overtaken by time, since it is nearly forty years
old. By comparison, the specific science program in First L of the french education system
was enacted in 2010; we can say that this program is renewed every ten years, as the previous
program came into force in 2000.
A school program is an evolving product; it is submitted to the advancement of knowledge
achieved in the discipline, but it also depends on changes in the environment of the training
organization in the economic, political, social, cultural and technological society (Demeuse,
2013).
The physical sciences program in Terminale A class should take into account that for students
in the literary section, the key is to develop scientific literacy to enable them to understand



the current technical and scientific context in relation to other social events. Indeed, the
teaching of physics in Terminale A should not only be focused on the technical and scientific
knowledge; it is important that students know the issues related to the development of science
and technological developments and the impact on their daily lives.

The specific curriculum of sciences in First L class in France serves to develop scientific
literacy to students and develop their transferable skills that can be useful in various fields. In
the US, learning science is based on student participation in the construction of the course;
the teacher simply ensures the role of mentor. In Terminale A to Madagascar, physics
education should enable students to develop the scientific spirit, explain physical phenomena
and understand the technical world around, through the acquisition of knowledge about
periodic phenomena, theories of light, and theories of mechanics. Comparison of these
teachings encourages update the physical sciences program in Terminale A, both in terms of
its objectives, and its content and its implementation.




Chapter 3: DIFFICULTIES IN LEARNING PHYSICS IN TERMINALE A

In the previous chapter, we compared the content of the curriculum of physical sciences in
Terminal A to Madagascar with that of the specific science education in First L in France; we
also found the lack of explicit teaching methods in the implementation of the teaching of
physics in Terminale A, in contrast to what is done in the United States; finally, we explained
the need to update the program.
Work has already been done on learning the physical sciences literature section. It is in this
case the study of the disinterest of students in Terminale A towards physics, presented by
Raharisoa in 2007, centered on the opinion of students on their learning of the material, and
the study about the current program conducted by Ranaivoarisoa in 1990, which is an
analysis of the content and implementation.
For our part, we conducted a survey of students in Terminale A of the 2013-2014 school year,
which has allowed us to make a state of really acquired and retained knowledge by the
students at the end of physical sciences courses. For this, we determined the number of
students we have to investigate, defined evaluation criteria and analyzed the responses.

I. Previous works
In the following, we will present an overview of the results obtained by Raharisoa (2007) at
the end of his research on the lack of interest of students in Terminale A towards the physical
sciences. Then we will report the reflections of Ranaivoarison (1990) on the physical sciences
program in literary classes.
I. 1. Research disinterest of students of Terminale A towards physics
The lack of interest of students of Terminale A class towards the physical sciences was the
subject of memory for obtaining the diploma CAPEN by Raharisoa (2007) as part of a study
at high schools in North-Befandriana. He found that rural students do not wear little or no
interest in the physical sciences.




I. 1. 1. Gaps in learning physics


Learning physics is to show the different elements of an object, its mode of operation, the
process of its formation and the different stages through which it passed during its
transformation. At secondary level, this training should be done by observing common
phenomena in nature, the analysis of data from this observation, the issue of hypotheses to
explain the phenomena, conducting experiments in order to make additional observations,
and interpretation of results leading to the statement of the laws governing the existence and
transformations of the object of the study and the resulting applications in order to bring
technical progress to improve everyday life.
It emerged from the study of Raharisoa that students in Terminale A find no interest in
learning the physical sciences because the teacher does not show the application of the
concepts taught in their daily lives, especially as they are in rural areas where technological
progress illustrating the use of this knowledge is not yet reached, at least during the field visit
conducted by the author. For example, the solar panels producing electricity would have been
a perfect illustration of the application of the photoelectric effect, but lack of such facilities,
the teacher cannot take this example in his explanation.
It is also cited in the work of Raharisoa that teachers have a large share towards the failure of
learning because of the lack of innovation and creativity in their teaching methods, which not
arouse the desire of students to deepen their knowledge. Indeed, he observed that only the
main points which are the subject of the exercises at the Baccalaureate exam are covered in
class; teachers simply maintain essential in not implementing any experience and observation
shows that students make "by heart" and use more memory than reasoning, which is why they
have difficulty on understanding.
I. 1. 2. Causes of disinterest
During his study, Raharisoa raised that the majority of students in Terminale A he
interviewed said they did not get good results in the physical sciences, which causes them to
lose interest in the subject. In fact, their lack of success stems from their lack of courage,
determination and perseverance, which are the key drivers of productivity of learning, as we
noted in the first chapter on academic motivation.
The author then tried to determine the causes of this lack of success. He found that many
students have complained about the difficulty of the physical sciences. According to the



students, learning physics requires a certain level of knowledge to be acquired from the base.
His meeting with the students was an opportunity to raise the teaching method as the main
factor of this difficulty; other students said their shortcomings in previous classes, including
low levels in mathematics, preventing them from understanding the physical sciences in
Terminale A. As an illustration, Fresnel structures to determine the sum of two sinusoidal
functions require strong knowledge in constructive geometry. These factors of failure have
created in students a sense of disgust and disinterest in learning physics.
There are also psychological and sociological causes that make pupils from Terminale A not
motivated to learn the physical sciences. First, the design of intelligence by the students, that
there should be a high intellectual level to shine in physics, leads them to believe that physics
is a material made only for gifted students. Moreover, almost a quarter of students said they
did not like the physics tends to flee their teacher, which is justified by the fear of a negative
judgment on the part of the latter in case of failure; these students pursue evaluation purposes.
Indeed, they expect that the teacher gives them easy exercises to solve to make sure to get
good answers; as soon as they feel unable to achieve the good results, they refuse to engage
in the learning process.
I. 2. Study of the physical sciences program currently in place
If according Raharisoa, several causes may be causing the lack of interest of students in
grades Terminale A towards the physical sciences, the search for the causes brings us to
another study by Ranaivoarison (1990) on the physical sciences program in literary section
(Appendix 3, p.88).
The programs are the foundation of any activity. In education, they are used to define the
elements of the subject content to be developed during the school year. As part of his work,
Ranaivoarison first analyzed the content of the program, and then she tried to determine the
conditions for its implementation.
I. 2. 1. Content analysis
As part of her work, the author conducted a Terminale A studentV survey to determine the
problems they face in learning physics. She found that the inconsistency between the tools
provided to students through mathematics and their needs in order to better understand the
concepts taught in the Physics, and inadequate or non-existent practical application of the




knowledge acquired in physics course are the main barriers to good assimilation of the
different chapters covered in physics in Terminale A.
Mathematical knowledge is useful in several disciplines, especially the physical sciences
because these two subjects are closely related: the formulas and geometric constructions are
the main tools used in learning physics. Two examples illustrate the relationship between
mathematics and the physical sciences: the calculation of the linear velocity of a point on a
vibrating string requires the derivation formulas of trigonometric functions; Fresnel
construction performed when the sum of two sinusoidal functions representing periodic
movements requires knowledge of geometry.
The main goal of mathematics education is the mastery of calculation methods by students.
For this control has an impact on the learning of physics, it is essential to an elementary
mathematical description of the concepts taught to students in physics classes. For example,
to study the periodic phenomena, some trigonometry elements are essential: controlling the
use of the unit circle, the exploitation of different relationships between sine, cosine and
tangent of an angle, the study of variation and the graphical representation of sinusoidal
functions. From these concepts, it would be easier to define the period, amplitude, and phase
elongation to clarify the study of phenomena.
There are also chapters getting students to do too many calculations and demonstrations, such
as the chapter on periodic phenomena where students have to pass by the sum of sine or
cosine to explain the phenomena of interference; so they do not find the interest of these
calculations and abandon this chapter, and the same material. Indeed, it is necessary to take
into consideration the fact those students in Terminale A, being literary, do not appreciate the
long mathematical approaches. Ranaivoarison therefore proposed to drop the calculations but
emphasize the experimental side to clarify the phenomena they observe. This does not
exclude the knowledge of some basic mathematical elements.
However, it is necessary that students are able to search and select in mathematics lessons the
elements they need in physics. The results of the investigation by Ranaivoarison as part of her
study, students have difficulty applying mathematics in physics. They are due to lack of
insight to use mathematical techniques in physics. They usually see the bad relationship
between their mathematical knowledge and applying that knowledge to translate physical
phenomena.




Ranaivoarison also suggested coordination between the programs of these two disciplines so
that useful mathematical concepts are treated in parallel, if not earlier chapters in the physical
sciences in need, which will avoid the difficulties to students and teachers.
I. 2. 2. Conditions of implementation
The current trend in physics education is to make students aware that physics is not just made
up of formulas, calculations and properties to be learned by heart; it is taught to be able to
explain phenomena they encounter in everyday life. Indeed, one of the objectives of the
physical sciences is to connect the knowledge acquired in the classroom and their
manifestation in daily life. The physical sciences are studies of phenomena which can occur
in their environment; therefore, their teaching is to persuade students that there are still
scientific explanations of the observed phenomena.
In the physical sciences, the role of experience is considerable. The organization of practical
sessions during which the teacher develops manipulations to replicate common phenomena is
the best way to show students the concepts taught to them that are used to explain what
happens in nature. Yet the lack of teaching materials is a major problem making it difficult to
teaching the subject. Indeed, learning materials are essential for the realization of the
experiments. However, most of the materials are very expensive and high schools are
equipped only partially or not at all, because of the budget shortfall.
Furthermore, when we talk about physics to students in literary classes, two questions often
come back: what is physics? what are the knowledge being taught physics? The usefulness of
this material in everyday life and the need to understand the physics concepts should
therefore illustrate physics with applications because they allow students to grasp. Otherwise,
there are unselfishness physical sciences, or students tend to learn by heart and apply
formulas without knowing their meanings.

Works by Raharisoa and Ranaivoarison have identified some problems related to learning
physics in Terminale A, including the context of student learning, the difficulty of the
concepts taught and gaps in the implementation of teaching this material. For our part, we
conducted a survey of making the state of knowledge acquired by students of class Terminale
A at the end of physical sciences courses. To do this, it was first necessary to develop a
methodology that has helped collect the data we need.



II. Current data collection methodology


Having reviewed the various works done before and that may relate to our work, including
the disinterest of students in Terminale A towards the physical sciences and the study of
physical sciences program in Terminale A to Madagascar, it is important in this section to
develop the methodology we have adopted for our study. In order to determine the status of
actual knowledge acquired and retained by the pupils from Terminale A to the physics
courses end, we decided to conduct a field survey to collect information.
Investigate all baccalaureate candidates is impracticable because the population is too large to
be investigated in its entirety, also added the human and material resources and limited
financial and the time for the completion of the investigation. In this case, a sampling survey
was conducted to obtain information on the FDQGLGDWHV baccalaureate series A; there was
therefore a need for a sampling.
II. 1. Study population
Before performing a sampling that will allow us to choose students to investigate, it is first
necessary to know the characteristics of the population, in this case all candidates bachelor
Series A throughout Madagascar.
The information provided by the Ministry of Higher Education and summarized in the tables
in Appendix 4 show the rate of candidates who chose Physics, knowledge of which is
essential to determine the optimal sampling plan, the guarantor the analyzes carried out.
As we mentioned above, only a part, commonly called "sample" will be the subject of the
investigation. This sample of students must possess the same characteristics as all students
nationally to allow estimating with acceptable margin of error characteristics of the
population from the results of the analysis of those of the sample. This is called a
representative sample of all students in grades Terminale A to Madagascar.
The accuracy of the estimate called "inference" depends on the diversity and similarity of the
sample of students with the total population. It depends on the geographical distribution and
the proportion of the choice of the compulsory examination at the baccalaureate exam. It will
therefore be necessary to determine beforehand the essential characteristics of the population,
according to the interests of the evaluation carried out, to make sure to get a sample called
"representative".



II. 1. 1. Population size


It is important in the sampling process to know the size of the original population size
because it calculates the size and the degree of accuracy of the desired sample and perform
correctly interpreting results when applied to the total population of the findings made on the
study sample (inference phase).
As we conduct a survey assessing the understanding of the content of the Physical Sciences
program in classes Terminale A by students, our starting population is all students of class
Terminale A throughout Madagascar.
However, during the development of the survey strategy, we could not have the actual
number of pupils in classes of Terminale A across the country, or the number of candidates
registered for the baccalaureate on the year in which we conduct the investigation.
To make a good sample, it is necessary to establish the number and geographical distribution
of students to constitute the sample, taking into account the criteria that we define. The
definition of these criteria was done using data obtained at the Ministry of Higher Education
concerning candidates for the bachelor Series A past three years throughout Madagascar
(Appendix 4, p.91).
These data refer to the numbers of candidates in the A1 and A2 series, and the numbers and
percentages of applicants who opted for Physics as compulsory test bachelor in six provinces
and nationally. They allowed us to calculate the values needed to test our hypotheses
selection, i.e., the average percentage of candidates who opted for Physics as compulsory test
bachelor in each province and nationally over the last three years, the gap between the
national average and the average for each province. The results of these calculations are
shown in Tables 1 and 2 below, where the following notations are adopted:
- : average percentage of candidates who chose Physics in the last three years in each of
the six provinces
- : average percentage of candidates who chose Physics in the last three years nationally
- Calculating the difference is the gap between the national average and the average
for each province that will allow us to perform the calculations for hypothesis testing required
for sample selection.




Table 1: Percentage of candidates who selected physical science as a compulsory subject in


series A1
Province

2011

2012

2013

Average

Antananarivo 21,04% 25,36% 23,80%

23,40%

0,43

Antsiranana

21,50% 29,68% 25,50%

25,56%

2,59

Fianarantsoa 26,81% 27,15% 24,78%

26,25%

3,28

Mahajanga

19,53% 19,81% 17,56%

18,97%

-4,00

Toamasina

20,44% 23,36% 25,04%

22,95%

-0,02

Toliara

17,80% 21,24% 23,03%

20,69%

-2,28

National

21,19% 24,43% 23,29% %

-1,78

1,46

0,32

Table 2 : Percentage of candidates who selected physical science as a compulsory subject in


series A1
Average

Antananarivo 41,55% 43,28% 44,74%

43,19%

1,09

Antsiranana

38,24% 41,34% 40,88%

40,15%

-1,95

Fianarantsoa 42,92% 43,33% 43,14%

43,13%

1,03

Mahajanga

39,06% 34,64% 31,37%

35,02%

-7,08

Toamasina

46,57% 50,03% 48,29%

48,30%

6,20

Toliara

39,21% 45,08% 44,20%

42,83%

0,73

National

41,26% 42,95% 42,10%

-0,84

Province

2011

2012

0,85

2013

0,00




II. 1. 2. Units of study


The population covered by the study was defined as the set of candidates baccalaureate Series
A, we look at each of these students who will be the Final Poll Units. These students are
grouped by class; each class can be defined as an intermediate unit called Collective Unit of
Teaching. Indeed, during our descent on the ground, it is more convenient to interview
students in a class.
As the data collected at the Ministry of Higher Education are distributed in the six provinces,
each province will be defined as a Primary Unit; this will allow us to draw a sample that can
represent all students in the province considered just trying to fill the number of students
completing the sample size without the choice of the location of the school to visit has an
impact on the reliability of the results.
For lack of time, personal for investigation and both material and financial resources, we
cannot define intermediate unit between the Primary Unit and Collective Unit of Teaching.
We only need to cover the number of schools and school districts required to meet the quota
of students to investigate defined by province after sampling.
Population:
all students in Terminal A across
Madagascar

Primary Unit : Province

Collective Unit of Teaching :


Class Terminal A

Final Poll Unit:


Each student in Terminale A
choosing Physical Sciences
as compulsory test

Figure 1: Articulation between the survey levels adopted during the investigation




II. 1. 3. The target population


Students who will be useful for sample survey must give results we can infer to all students
of Terminale A across Madagascar. It is therefore necessary to select those students. As we
have a distribution of baccalaureate candidates in the six provinces in three successive years,
we need to ensure the relevance of two hypotheses:
1 the percentage of candidates who chose Physics as a compulsory subject is not dependent
on the province.
2 the percentage of candidates who chose Physics as a compulsory subject does not depend
on the year of the Bachelor.
Indeed, the relevance of these two hypotheses guarantees the reliability of the sample of
students selected for our investigation.
In Tables 1 and 2 are given the annual percentages of candidates who chose Physics and
average percentages of the six provinces, taken over the last three years; these observations
were used to determine the average nationally. All these data can be used to test hypotheses
by the chi-square test.
The chi-square test uses the differences between the observations corresponding to the
hypothesis to be tested and the average nationally. Threshold test is the probability of
rejecting the hypothesis; over the selected threshold, the greater the hypothesis may be
rejected. A 5% level is typically used (Istas, 1999). To verify these hypotheses with
significant evidence, so let's do a chi-square test at the 5 % level for each of them:

The results of each test must be compared with the theoretical values from the following table
of chi-square:

Table 3: Table of theoretical values of


related to the degrees of freedom (Istas, 1999)

Degrees of freedom 1

3.84 5.99 7.82 9.49 11.07 12.59 14.07 15.51 16.92




To accept the assumption made, the result from the calculation must be less than the
theoretical value corresponding to the degree of freedom. More the result is less than the
theoretical value, the assumption is most relevant. The degree of freedom is given by the
formula: .
Test the first hypothesis: the percentage of candidates in Physics does not depend on the
province.
Here, n is the number of provinces, the degree of freedom is 5.
For each of A1 and A2 series, we will consider the average percentage of candidates who
chose Physics in the last three years in each of the six provinces, making six average
percentages for the six provinces, the degree of freedom is 5, and we can deduce the national
percentage.
From Table 3, the threshold of 5% we have chosen requires that the chi-square from the
calculation with a degree of freedom equal to 5 must be below 11.07 to conclude that the
percentage of candidates in Physics bachelor series A does not depend on the province.
In the chi-square formula, then we have:
: average of the percentage of candidates who chose Physics in the last three years in
each of the six provinces
: average of the percentage of candidates who chose Physics in the last three years
nationally
Calculations performed on the data in Tables 1 and 2 give the following results:

- for the Series A1:


: we can conclude with significant evidence that the

percentage of candidates in Physics Bachelor A1 series does not depend on the province.

- for the Series A2:


: we can conclude with significant evidence that the

percentage of candidates in Physics Bachelor A2 series does not depend on the province.
Test the second hypothesis: "the percentage of candidates in Physics does not depend on the
year of the Bachelor."




Here, n is the number of years and the degree of freedom is 2.


For each of A1 and A2 series, we'll take the average percentage of candidates who chose
Physics nationwide taken over the last three years; making three average percentages for the
last three years, the degree of freedom is 2 and we can deduce the national percentage.
From Table 3, the threshold of 5% we have chosen requires that the chi-square from the
calculation with a degree of freedom equal to 2 must be less than 5.99 to conclude that the
percentage of registered candidates in Physics bachelor series A does not depend on the year
of the bachelor .
In the chi-square formula, then we have:
: percentage of candidates who chose Physics nationwide
: average of the percentage of candidates who chose Physics nationwide taken over
the last three years
Calculations performed on the data in Tables 1 and 2 give the following results:

- For the Series A1:


: we can conclude with significant evidence that the

percentage of candidates in Physics Bachelor A1 series does not depend on the year of the
Bachelor .

- For the Series A2:


: we can conclude with significant evidence that the

percentage of candidates in Physics Bachelor in Series A2 does not depend on the year.
According to the chi-square tests we performed on two assumptions, we can conclude that the
percentage of candidates in Physics bachelor Series A does not depend on the province in
which students spend their bachelor's degree or on the year bachelor's degree.
If this is the general configuration of the study population, determining the number of
students to investigate in each of A1 and A2 series is a crucial step in order to ensure the
reliability of the results that we will get to infer the whole population.




II. 2. Numbers of students to investigate


To perform a sample survey appreciated for its detailed data accuracy and representativeness,
we should carefully select the study sample. This step is critical to interpret the results of the
study on the sample at the total population. First of all, this is to choose the most appropriate
sampling technique in light of the study's objectives, characteristics of the study population
(size, differentiated groups), as well as constraints on field. Beyond this notion of
UHSUHVHQWDWLYHQHVV, the principle of sampling implies that all individuals or "units" of the
considered population must have, at best, the same probability to be part of the sample, at
least, a known probability.
Taking into account the results obtained at the end of hypothesis testing, we will just
investigate a part of the applicants. As the percentage of candidates in Physics bachelor
Series A does not depend on the year of the undergraduate degree, candidates for the
baccalaureate 2014 session will be interviewed as they are reachable and available for
investigation. Considering the very limited time we have for the completion of the
investigation, and our financial resources which do not allow us to cover the entire country,
we chose to conduct the survey of students in AntananarivoV schools, especially since it has
been shown that the percentage of candidates in Physics bachelor series A does not depend
on the province.
A thorough analysis of available information, including from the data collected in the
Ministry of Higher Education, helps identify four subdivisions of the study population:
- candidates who choose Physics as compulsory test without optional subject;
- candidates who choose Physics as compulsory testing and Natural Sciences as optional
subject;
- candidates who choose Natural Sciences as compulsory test without optional subject;
- candidates who choose Natural Sciences as compulsory testing and Physical Sciences as an
optional subject for the exam
As the survey is conducted beyond the registration period, i.e. the students have already made
their choice for the compulsory test they will do at the exam, the interest of our investigation
was focused only the Series A baccalaureate candidates who chose Physics as compulsory



test for the session of the 2013-2014 year. Thus the sample that we will take to complete the
survey will be made up exclusively of students who chose Physics as compulsory test under
consideration.
To conduct the survey, we must define a sample of students to investigate on the basis of
information provided by Tables 1 and 2 above (p. 36) on the rate of candidates who chose
Physics as a compulsory subject. We then infer to all students in Terminale A matches for the
sample.
It was pointed out earlier that the sample must have the same characteristics as the study
population for that one is able to infer the study population the results for the sample.
II. 2. 1. Statistical criteria
a) Precision level
The precision level, also called sampling error, estimates the confidence interval in which
the true value of the population is going to fall; the value taken by the population will be
understood below and above the estimated value, depending on the desired level of accuracy.
We will express the percentage level of accuracy; in general, the precision level used for
surveys is 5% (Ardilly, 1994).
b) Confidence level
There is always a risk that the selected sample does not represent the study population; the
level of confidence (or error) indicates the percentage chance of the selected sample to be
representative of the study population. The standard deviation, noted measures the width of
the distribution (dispersion of the obtained values from the mean).
Over the chosen confidence level, the smaller the risk of drawing a distant sample of the
study population is. Under the assumption that the choice of the compulsory subject made by
candidates bachelor Series A follows a normal distribution, and as the standard deviation is
not known when the sample is drawn, the theory shows that it is customary to hold a
confidence level of 95%, characterizing any normal distribution, and the associated
probability is t = 1.96 ( Ardilly 1994). We will use this value in the formula for calculating
the optimum sample size.




c) Degree of variability
This test, also called degree of homogeneity, determines the similarity of individuals in the
population according to their characteristics. Fewer individuals in a population are similar,
the larger the sample must be to achieve the same degree of accuracy. Conversely, the more
the population is homogeneous, the smaller the sample will be.
A proportion of 50% indicates a greater variability than 20% or 80%. This proportion is
suspected, but rarely quantifiable in advance, so it is customary to use the maximum
variability of 50% to avoid the risk of errors (Ardilly 1994).
II. 2. 2. Calculating the sample size
The method of "quota sampling" was chosen because it is not possible to use a random
method because our resources are limited, and our investigation is to conduct an exploratory
study (Ardilly 1994). Quota sampling is widely used in market research and opinion surveys,
as in our case, particularly because it assumes no list of individuals in the population.
This method is to calculate the sizes of groups of students, respectively, of the Series A1 and
Series A2, established in the geographical area we defined earlier, the province of
Antananarivo; these sizes are called quotas. From these quotas, we will draw the necessary
samples to our survey.
a) Formula for proportions
The formula for proportions allows calculating the quotas of students, using the values of
selected statistical criteria with a 95 % confidence level, an accuracy of 5 % and a variability
of 50%.
As we cannot have the exact number of Series A baccalaureate candidates for the year 20132014 but we know the average percentage of candidates who chose Physics as compulsory
test bachelor Series A in the three previous years, we can calculate the number of students in
Terminale A across all options, from which the sample will be drawn using the following
formula:




with e : precision level ;


p: average of the percentage of candidates who chose Physics as compulsory test in the
last three years nationally ;
t: probability associated to the required confidence level ; t = 1,96 for 95 % confidence
For candidates in series A1, the average percentage of candidates who chose Physics as
compulsory test is 22.97 % (tab. 1, p. 36), and the number of students from which the sample
will be drawn is:

For candidates in series A2, the average percentage of candidates who chose Physics as
compulsory test is 42.10 % (tab. 2, p. 36), and the number of students from which the sample
will be drawn is:

In other words, students quotas from which we will draw the necessary samples have
respectively 272 students for the Series A1 and 375 students for the A2 series.
b) Size of valuable samples in the survey
Useful samples in the survey will consist exclusively of students who chose Physics as a
compulsory subject. The numbers of students who form these samples are obtained by
multiplying the average of the percentages of students who chose Physics as a compulsory
subject with quotas of students of Terminale A previously calculated in Tables 1 and 2.
For the sample of candidates in series A1, the average percentage of students who chose
Physics as a compulsory subject is 22.97 %; the number of students in the sample of the
survey is:
For the sample of candidates in series A2, the average percentage of students who chose
Physics as a compulsory subject is 42.10 %, the number of students in the sample of the
survey is:
The sample of A1 series of students who chose Physics as a compulsory subject that we have
to question must therefore include 62 students, and that of the Series A2 must include 158
students.




c) Fixed sample size


These sizes represent the number of individuals to be effectively investigated. It is therefore
important to provide additional sample to compensate for incorrect answers phenomena and
non-response. In practice, we add 10% of the size of the initial sample because the
investigation is based on declarative responses (Ardilly 1994).
Considering the maximum estimate of the sample size which is given by the simplified
formula, the number of candidates to investigate is:
- for the sample of candidates for the A1 series in Antananarivo:

- for the sample of candidates for the A2 series in Antananarivo:



In all, the samples of students that we investigate are summarized in the following table:
Table 4: Sample sizes relevant to the investigation
Number of candidates in the Number of candidates in the Total
A1 series to be surveyed

A2 series to be surveyed

During the investigation, we will have to investigate 68 candidates in the A1 series and 174
candidates from the A2 series, that is to say, 242 completed questionnaires.
The preparation of an investigation is not only down to the definition of the number of
individuals to investigate for reliable results. The prediction of the duration of the descent to
land is an important step in planning.
II. 3. The time required for the completion of investigation
First, it is necessary to determine the average number of questionnaires that an investigator
will be able to fill in a day taking into account the daily working time and the distribution of
tasks during the day.




Considering that day starts at 7a.m. and ends at 5p.m., including 8 hours of work:
- the average time required to travel in a survey area is 30 minutes
- the average time to appear at the person responsible in the institution is 30 minutes, taking
into account the necessary times for presentation and explanation of the purpose of the
investigation
- the average time to go to a class is 5 minutes
- the average time to appear at the person in charge of the class is 5 minutes, taking into
account the necessary times for presentation and explanation of the purpose of the
investigation
- the average time needed for filling the questionnaires is 60 minutes, taking into account the
necessary times for presentation and discussions before and after the submission of the
questionnaire
- the average time to thank the various officials at the end of each half day is 30 minutes
- time for the lunch break is usually 2 hours, between noon and 2p.m., but can be changed
depending on the context
We will convert minutes and nest all these periods in the timing of a day "type" limited by the
start and end of the day to cover the number of daily hours. This simulation allows knowing
the number of classes which can be visited in a day's work:
- 30+30+5+5+60+5+60+5+60+30=290 minutes to visit 3 classes in the morning
- 30 + 30 + 5 + 5 + 60 + 5 + 60 + 30 = 225 minutes to visit 2 classes in the afternoon
Suppose a Terminale A class includes an average of 20 students who opted for Physics
matriculation; knowing that an investigator may visit 5 classes in a day, so we can expect the
number of questionnaires that can be completed in one day: 5 20 = 100 questionnaires.
Based on the size of the samples we calculated, the number of days required for the entire
survey is 3 working days.




After setting the number of students to take for the sample and the expected duration of the
investigation, it is also important to set evaluation criteria that will make the processing of the
questionnaires and exploitation of the results we get.
II. 4. Evaluation criteria
The survey we have to do with students must enable the state of knowledge acquired and
actually used by students in Terminale A at the end of physics courses. This state will
determine if the level of understanding of students in mathematics affects their level in
Physics, and if the knowledge they acquire during physics courses help them better
understand the physical phenomena that they may encounter in their daily life.
II. 4. 1. Variables of interest
The secret of a good sampling is the selection of variables, in line with the objectives of our
study, which will differentiate the best study strata. As our investigation is to determine the
specific characteristics of each student that will allow us to define the state of knowledge
gained during physics, we will define qualitative variables.
The inquiry directly address the practical significance of the taught concepts, so the results
will enable us to identify the level of student understanding about the utility and the physical
meaning of knowledge acquired during the Physical Sciences sessions.
Through this survey, each identified issue in the questionnaire will result in answers
formulated differently depending on the student; it can give rise to both formulas or
definitions and properties, according to the knowledge retained by students after learning. It
is said that the questions are open classifications (Blaizeau & Dubois, 1989). We then speak
of "acceptable answers" that is to say, the answers that can be accepted as fair based on their
content. The answers will then be identified and classified into basic variables. These basic
variables will later be joined analysis variables, depending on their type.
When analyzing the results, two analysis variables will be retained, in our opinion, may
summarize the basic variables from the responses from the questionnaires, and help
determine the level of understanding of the students:
- necessary mathematical prerequisites for understanding the lessons




- the contribution of knowledge in terms of personal culture and practical use in the future life
of the candidates.
II. 4. 2. Convergence threshold
In the processing of the questionnaires, we'll file issues depending on whether they require
definitions, or both formulas and definitions. A focal point is the proportion of acceptable
answers given by the student to the number of questions from which it can be said that the
student masters the knowledge of an analysis variable. In other words, from a number of
acceptable answers, we say that the student has reached the convergence threshold for the
variable "general culture", and we will draw he controls the definitions; the same for the
"mathematical prerequisites" variable, if he has given a number of acceptable answers, we
conclude he controls formulas and mathematical aspects of the lessons.
For each of the surveyed students, evaluation of the variable "mathematical prerequisites" is
whether the student has the necessary mathematical tools to understand the lessons and solve
exercises; we retain as convergence threshold the efficient use of formulas. For the evaluation
of the variable "general culture", it is to take stock of what the student has chosen the course
enabling him to understand the physical phenomena; the convergence threshold will be the
ability of the student to explain the phenomena addressed by the course content.
Love (Appendix 5, p.92) includes 18 questions divided equally among the two parts of the
program which are being addressed and are the subject of the review; these questions relate
directly to the contents of the lessons learned by the students, and have no connection with
the type of questions they have to answer in the exam topics.
The issues that we believe can only be answered by definitions are:
- for the first part:
1. a) What is meant by periodic phenomenon? Give examples.
1. b) What are the components of a sinusoidal function? What do they mean?
1. c) What is the derivative of a sinusoidal function?
1. d) How do we represent a sinusoidal function by a phasor ?
2. a) What is the speed ? What is the wavelength?




2. b) How do you define the double periodicity of such a movement ?


3. b) What phenomenon do we observe ? What are the characteristics of this phenomenon?
- For the 2nd part:
1. a) What is a monochromatic light ?
1. b) What is a light interference? Explain the phenomenon.
1. c) What property of light does it put in evidence?
1. d) State the principle of light interference.
3. a) What is the photoelectric effect ? Explain the phenomenon.
3. b) What property of light does the photoelectric effect put in evidence ?
The questions that we believe may be answered by both formulas and definitions are:
- For the first part:
3. a) How do we take the sum of two sinusoidal functions ?
3. c) What are the possible positions of the vibrating point that can be distinguished?
- For the 2nd part:
2. a) What is a fringe ?
2. b) What is a path difference ?
3. c) What is meant by energy - threshold, threshold frequency, work function?
To facilitate the examination, we will make a condition that the student should give correct
answers to at least half of the questions to be classified as having reached the convergence
threshold. Indeed, in this case, the student may be considered to have retained more than half
of the started concepts in the program.
If a report questionnaire contains acceptable definitions for a majority of 18 questions, we
consider that the convergence threshold for the variable "general culture" is reached; and
therefore, if the student has given acceptable definitions on less than half, or 8 questions or
less, the convergence threshold is not reached. If a report questionnaire contains exact
formulas for a majority of five questions that can make use of formulas then we consider the
convergence threshold for the variable "mathematical prerequisites" is reached; and if the



student did not give exact formulas for 1 or 2 issues, the convergence threshold is not
reached.
II. 4. 3. Decision tree
The decision tree is plotted using the selected variables of interest. This step is useful for
collecting the involved numbers according to the criteria, to the extent possible. Each variable
is binary; it is set to 0 when it is below the convergence threshold to 1 when the value is
beyond the threshold.
The definition of convergence threshold for each variable of interest for subdividing the
candidates of baccalaureate A Series have opted for Physics as compulsory test in four strata:
- Stratum 1: the variable "mathematical prerequisites" and the variable "general culture" are
below the adopted convergence thresholds; we will record in that stratum students who do not
master the formulas or definitions.
- Stratum 2: the "mathematical pre-requisites" variable is retained below the convergence
threshold and the variable "general culture" is above the successful convergence threshold;
we will record in that stratum students who have mastered the definitions.
- Stratum 3: the variable "mathematical pre-requisite" is above the convergence threshold
retained and the variable "general culture" is retained below the convergence threshold; we
will record in that stratum students who have mastered the formulas
- Stratum 4: the variable "mathematical prerequisites" and the variable "general culture" are
above the selected convergence thresholds; we will record in that stratum students who
master both the definitions and formulas.
Table 5: Simplifying the decision tree
Level Mathematics

Understanding phenomena

Strates




After determining the general characteristics of the study population and the optimal sample
for the reliability of our results, calculating the needed time for the completion of the
investigation, as well as criteria that have allowed us to evaluate the answers by students in
the questionnaires, we went to meet students from Terminale A in various high schools to
gather the information we need. We then performed the processing of the questionnaires,
which led to the results we have analyzed.
III. Analysis of results
The survey we conducted among students in grades Terminale A who have chosen the
physical sciences as a compulsory test bachelor in different schools of Antananarivo has
allowed us to have an idea about the understanding of the course by the students, including
use of mathematical tools and knowledge applications. The survey was conducted between
Wednesday, March 19th, 2014 and Wednesday, April 30th, 2014 in ten schools.
Due to various constraints beyond our control and our organization, we have not been able to
reach the quota of 242 students to investigate that we have set. Indeed, we have been able to
investigate 156 students in Series A2 having chosen the physical sciences as a compulsory
subject, 90 % of the sample size, and 60 students in the A1 series, 88 % of the size of the
sample.
III. 1. Problems
During the field visit, we had to face some problems that prevented us from completing the
number of students to compose our samples.
III. 1. 1. The reluctance of schools
After a presentation of the object of study to the various managers of each facility we visited,
these officials have been reluctant to welcome us. Indeed, they pointed out to us that the
realization of our investigation at the student level of Terminale A disrupts their education
and progress of their schools program. The heads of some schools we approached even
refused to put their students to our availability.




III. 1. 2. The survey period


The survey was conducted in March, a period when the schools from which we had to ask the
students were already in the exam session late in the second quarter, or in review period. The
third quarter will begin at the end of April for the school year 2013-2014, we run the risk of
no longer being received by schools if we postpone the investigation at this time, especially
that the Terminale a is an examination class.
III. 1. 3. A fear of students
Although in all the high schools we visited, we were introduced by officials in each class, and
a few have even participated in educating students about the importance of our work, we
found that many students did not want to answer the questionnaires we distributed. Despite
the fact that the survey was conducted anonymously, the students expressed us concern that
the results they give could have impacts on their schooling, particularly on the judgment of
their teachers and consideration of their school. So we had to reassure them that their
responses will not be disclosed to their teachers or managers of their schools.
III. 1. 4. The difficulty of diversifying the types of schools meeting the sampling
constraints
Given the difficulty completing the required number of A1 series of students who opted for
the physical sciences as a compulsory subject, we have not been able to diversify the types of
institutions (public and private) that we visited. So we had to content ourselves with the data
obtained A1 series of students that we met in some schools. Indeed, despite the fact that a
majority of students are in public schools, we could not reflect this through the results we
have achieved; the eight schools where we found the data for the A1 series, the Lyce
Moderne Ampefiloha is the only public high school where we found candidates who chose
physics as a compulsory subject. The results we obtained could thus be further refined in
going to meet students from other public institutions.
III. 2. Analysis and interpretation of results
After listing the various constraints encountered during the descent to land, which should not
affect the relevance of the interpretation of the results, it is now important to make use of the
results we have obtained in the outcome of the investigation.




After taking a first look at the answers in the questionnaires, we did not take into account the
physical meanings of formulas and mathematical symbols used in our evaluation as we found
that teachers never illustrated the explained phenomena by lessons.
III. 2. 1. Results
For a better overview of the results of the examination of the questionnaires, a classification
according to the original high schools students in the following tables facilitate our analysis.
Table 6: Numbers of students surveyed for each stratum for the series A1
High Schools

Number of
surveyed
students

Workforce
Stratum 1

Workforce
Stratum 2

Workforce
Stratum 3

Workforce
Stratum 4

Saint Vincent de
Paul Ambatonilita

Saint Antoine
Andravoahangy

Saint Joseph
Mahamasina

12

12

60

23

34

100%

38%

57%

0%

5%

Lyce Protestante
Rasalama
Lyce Moderne
Ampefiloha
Lyce Priv
Randrianarisoa
Lyce Arcade
Andravoahangy
Lyce Priv
Ranaivosoa
Total workforce
Percentage


>

^^
^^
^
^^




Table 7: Numbers of students surveyed for each stratum for the series A2

High Schools

Number of
surveyed
students

Workforce
Stratum 1

Workforce
Stratum 2

Workforce
Stratum 3

Workforce
Stratum 4

Saint Vincent de
Paul
Ambatonilita

35

15

10

Saint Antoine
Andravoahangy

22

Saint Joseph
Mahamasina

33

33

Lyce Moderne
Ampefiloha

19

Andranonahoatra
Itaosy

11

11

Jules Ferry

14

14

Lyce Priv
Randrianarisoa
Lyce Arcade
Andravoahangy
Effectifs total

17

17

156

105

20

23

Pourcentage

100%

5%

67%

13%

15%

>

^^
^^
^
^^

In reviewing the data from each of Tables 6 and 7 above, there is certain homogeneity in the
distribution stratum of students surveyed in each school.
From Table 6, just over half of the students surveyed in the A1 series for each school are in
stratum 2, except for the St. Vincent de Paul High School and the Lyce Moderne
Ampefiloha, which coincides with the percentage students who are in this stratum in relation
to the total workforce, which is 57%. Stratum 1 concentrates 38% of the total, and the
proportions of students found in this stratum for 5 of the 8 visited schools approach this



average. Homogeneity is also reflected in stratum 3 that no student records, and stratum 4,
where there are only 3 students on all the 60 students surveyed in eight schools.
According to Table 7 for the A2 series, all students surveyed in half of the visited schools and
a large majority of students in two other schools are in stratum 2. Stratum 1 focuses the
lowest proportion of students. In two denominational schools and a public high school, there
are significant numbers of students who are in strata 3 and 4 compared to the number of
students surveyed in these institutions, but in relation to the total workforce, the percentages
of students found in these two strata remain low.
III. 2. 2. Analysis
The apparent homogeneity that we have seen in the results presented in the two tables above
allows us to suggest that the percentage of employees in each stratum in relation to the total
number may reflect the overall results in every high school despite some discrepancies. From
this, we will base our analysis on these percentages (Weathington, Cunningham & Pittenger,
2010).
Tables 6 and 7 show that nearly half of students in the A1 series and two-thirds of students
A2 series are in stratum 2. These percentages indicate that the majority of students in
Terminale A who chose physical sciences as compulsory bachelor fail to remember the
definitions and properties related to the phenomena but yet manage to retain formulas. So
much for the A1 series for the Series A2, students master the use of formulas they learn but
do not understand the phenomena and resulting applications.
For candidates of the A1 series, we see a significant proportion, 38 % of students in stratum
1, have retained very few taught concepts, which means a failure to learn the physical
sciences for these students.
Only 5% of students in Series A1 and 15 % of students in series A2 were surveyed mastered
both the mathematical tools used in the lessons and the definitions and properties of the
phenomena they study.
Moreover, during our investigation, officials of some schools hosted us at our disposal peak
hours of their classes Terminale A, during which we were able to talk with students to better
enter in contact with the realities about learning the physical sciences. These interviews
enabled us to the conclusion that indeed the practicality of the concepts is never mentioned



by teachers, and in fact, most students do not develop any argument but repeat lessons "by
heart".
Analysis of the responses in the questionnaires allows us to confirm the fact that students do
not show any imagination, despite the instructions before each visited class, according to
which it is important to write applications and other events in everyday life, we find that the
students did that get on in the answers they gave. Indeed, the definitions and properties on
which we have based the convergence threshold for the variable "general culture" are
systematically repeated, that is to say by heart, in the very terms of the course.
III. 2. 3. Interpretation:
Following the results of Tables 6 and 7 above and the comments we made during
observations and counting of questionnaires, we can say that most of the students of class A
Terminale happen to remember the different formulas to be taught during physical sciences ;
the repetition of the definitions and various properties related to studied phenomena is largely
due to the fact that students in literary classes tend to learn the lessons by heart instead of
trying to understand the phenomena be told through these lessons. And even if students
master the formulas taught in courses and know how to use them in solving exercises, the
question remains about the utility of the acquisition of these formulas. Indeed, being in
Terminale A, learned formulas in physics lessons will have no importance for students
beyond their time at school, and they forget easily. For example, the derivative of a sinusoidal
function is used only to determine the speed of a vibrating item; it is useful to students in any
other field. Similarly, students do not grasp the true physical meaning of various concepts
such as speed or wavelength, but just merely repeat the calculations they are accustomed to
do after a few years; and this repetition prevents the development of reasoning.
It must be emphasized that the surveyed teachers fail to show to students the applications of
knowledge they acquire, either through laboratory experiments that should allow students to
visualize phenomena, or through illustrations in the daily life. Indeed, courses are rather
theoretical; the exploitation of experience in the construction of the lesson is difficult, given
the lack of laboratory equipment that constitutes a major handicap in physics education in
Madagascar. In addition, teachers are not fully involved in student motivation by failing to
extend the course to the observation of phenomena related to the lesson and applications from
the knowledge acquired by students. Because of this fact, one question always comes from




students: what is physics? Indeed, physics knowledge they acquired have no use when the
students arrive in university or confront the workplace.

The context in which students undertake their learning, the difficulty of the concepts taught in
physics and gaps in the implementation of the teaching of this material were the problems
identified by Raharisoa (2007) and Ranaivoarison (1990). Indeed, these problems discourage
students from Terminale A to engage in learning physics. For our part, we found that students
arrive to retain the current formulas learned, but the shortcomings lie in their inability to
connect the knowledge they gain with their environment, hence their lack of interest in
learning physics. These works on learning the physical sciences in Terminale A agree that
students are not motivated to learn the material that experiences to illustrate the courses
cannot be implemented because of the lack of teaching materials in high schools, and they are
not interested in the taught concepts in that applications in everyday life are not highlighted
by the teachers.




Chapter 4: PROPOSAL FOR NEW THEMES IN THE PROGRAM

On the one hand, the evaluation of an education system encourages to change a curriculum
considering the shortcomings, such as the rule of transmissive methods, the knowledge
acquisition insignificantly scope and the restitution of knowledge beyond the training period ;
on the other hand, the school is required to change its mission, goals, and thus the content of
its programs to allow students to use their knowledge according to their needs and their
socio- economic environment (Miled, 2005a, 2005b).
Given the identified problems following the study by Raharisoa (2007) on the lack of interest
of students in Terminale A towards physics, deficiencies raised by Ranaivoarisoa (1990) after
the analysis she has performed on the program, and the state of knowledge retained by
students, established as part of this paper, it is important to offer solutions to help improve the
teaching and learning of physical sciences in Terminale A.
To do this, an update of the curriculum of physical sciences in Terminale A is necessary to
guide students toward a better understanding of current issues domestically as well as
internationally, and may be related to the discipline.
With the aim to provide innovation in the physical sciences program in Terminale A, it would
be time to propose new topics to be included in the program. The definition of principles for
the development of an educational curriculum is also essential to ensure that the program
implementation is effective. Finally, we will reach the goal of this paper which is the
proposal of a curriculum for the teaching of physical sciences in Terminale A.

I. The concepts to be introduced


The aim of our work is to contribute to a possible innovation in the physical sciences program
in Terminale A. An innovation is a change leading to the introduction of new elements
(Demeuse, 2013). In this context, we propose to introduce two themes : renewable energy
which constitute a global innovation and can be adapted to the local situation, and the use of
transition metals in mineral resources, whose exploitation has been a great development in
Madagascar which is thus at the heart of an international strategic issue.




I. 1. Renewable energy
Global warming has impacts in many areas, including agriculture and food, water reserves,
and directly affects the life of every human being. Therefore, no country is spared the adverse
effects thereof and should participate in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions.
At a time when global warming is one of the major concerns of humanity, the United Nations
Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), launched by UNESCO in
March 2005, recommended reform operations of all the world's education systems to guide
curriculum to promote sustainable development; science and technology education provided
to students should contribute to the global effort to raise awareness about this global project.
In this global context, the promotion of renewable energy has an interest. Indeed, the energy
sources currently used are mostly from oil exploitation; yet, the use of petroleum products
leads to carbon dioxide emissions, a greenhouse gas, contributing to global warming.
To contribute to this awareness on the responsibility of every citizen and opportunities in
Madagascar, we believe it is important to spread knowledge on renewable energy by their
introduction into the physics program FODVVHV Terminale A.
I. 1. 1. Generalities
Renewable energy is a source of energy that constitutes itself or is recovering faster than it is
used; this type of energy is inexhaustible. However, sources of energy which renewal is
infinitely slower than consumption, such as oil, are not renewable.
Thus, solar energy is inexhaustible in human time scale, as well as energy derived from it:
wind energy, hydropower based on the water cycle, the biomass produced by photosynthesis
and part of the marine energy. It is the same for energy due to gravity, called tidal energy, or
internal geodynamics, called geothermal energy.
Provided by the sun, the wind, the heat of the Earth, the waterfalls, the tides or the growth of
plants, renewable energy generates no or little waste and pollutant emissions to the
atmosphere during their operation. These are the energies of the future.




I. 1. 2. Renewable energy families


a) Solar photovoltaic
Solar panels consist of photovoltaic cells generate electricity from sunlight. They supply
isolated sites or general distribution network. The obtained energy can be stored in batteries
and used as the night. The integration to architecture is the future of photovoltaics in
industrialized countries.
b) Solar thermal
The low temperature solar collectors produce hot water; they can also be used for heating,
conveniently by the soil. Tens of millions of square meters of sensors are installed
worldwide. The so-called solar collectors "high temperature" produce electricity and heat
steam through an intermediary: a few large plants of this type exist in the world. Greenhouses
and sensors also allow walls to store heat in the home.
c) Wind energy
Wind turbines, moved by the wind, produce tens of millions of megawatt-hours. Useful in
remote locations, this electricity also powers large distribution networks. Mechanical turbines
are used to pump water in many countries.
d) Hydraulic
Small hydro-power plants means not exceeding 10 MW; large dams can supply several cities
according to their ability. Turbines installed on streams use the driving force of the falls to
generate electricity. It is injected into the network or feeds for sites that are not connected.
Ocean currents, waves and tides can be exploited through tidal power plants. The hydraulic
sector is the second source of renewable energy in the world after solar energy.
e) Biomass
Biomass (plant mass) combines wood, straw, corn cobs, biogas and biofuels :
- wood energy accounts for 14% of global energy consumption; from waste from the forest or
wood industries, it is burned in boilers to produce heat.
- biogas is produced from the fermentation of organic waste within biodigester or biogas
devices ; its combustion produces heat, but also electricity from cogeneration.



- biofuels derived from crops (jatropha, wheat, sugarcane ...); biodiesel and ethanol are the
most common. They are blended with gasoline or diesel fuel for use as transportation fuel.
f) Geothermal
This energy uses heat from the basement. With medium or low temperature, we use heat
pumps to heat houses, while the high temperature produces electricity through an
intermediary steam.
I. 1. 3. The interest of their exploitation
By using renewable energy, we fight against the greenhouse effect including reducing
discharges of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Developing around the world, renewable
energy allows managing intelligently local resources and creating jobs. Furthermore, the use
of renewable energy reduces costs for the consumption of petroleum products.
Nowadays in Madagascar, renewable energy is underused. Yet the country has great potential
in this area. Indeed, being a tropical country, Madagascar is hit by sunlight all year long.
Coastal areas, mountains and hills of the central highlands are ideal areas to develop wind
parks. In addition, we have many rivers on which we can build hydroelectric plants. Finally,
organic waste can be recovered to extract biogas, which also recycles and turns them into
fertilizer and compost.
I. 2. Use of transition metals from some exploited minerals in Madagascar
Currently, we are witnessing the development of mining projects. Indeed, Madagascar has an
impressive mining potential. However, most of the time, we do not know the chemical
constituents from mining products can be used both for high technology applications, and the
construction of the tools we use in everyday life. We therefore believe that it is essential that
students of class Terminale A acquire some knowledge about the purpose of these resources
so that they can enter the issue of their operation.
Given the variety of mineral resources that abound the country, we cannot make an inventory
of all chemicals that constitute them. So we selected the three mining products as we
considered currently the most impressive in the field of mining, namely cobalt and nickel
which are extracted in Ambatovy, and ilmenite which is exploited in Tolagnaro.




I. 2. 1. Use of cobalt
Cobalt is especially used as an alloy, such as:
x

magnetic alloys, such as the permanent magnet actuators, motors and generators, and
metal films deposited on recorded videotapes

resistant alloys to heat, mainly used for aircraft engine parts, such as turbine blades
and deflectors

resistant alloys to wear, among others stellite, used to manufacture cutting tools for
the hardfacing

Special alloys such as Vitallium, dental alloy, the Elgeloy, an alloy used to make the
springs and some alloys for surgical implants.

Cobalt is also used in the composition of magnetic steels and stainless steels. It is used in
electroplating for its appearance, its hardness and oxidation resistance.
Several cobalt compounds are base of blue pigments for porcelain, glass, pottery, tiles,
enamels, and for some printing inks.
Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12 and is an essential element of human and animal
nutrition. It is also used in radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer by exploiting its
radioactive properties.
I. 2. 2. What is the nickel?
Unknown to the general public, because rarely used pure, but alloying with other products,
nickel is indispensable to our daily lives. This metal, with a rich combination of properties
and infinitely recyclable, is indeed mainly used for stainless steel development because
without nickel, steel rust. End uses are so varied and cover all areas of modern life
a) Stainless steel or "stainless"
x

Food safety and hygiene:

Stainless steel is a material which has excellent hygienic properties. It is used to make
household equipment (sinks, cutlery, pots, dishes...), household appliances (washing




machines, microwave ovens, catering kitchens), production tools for the food industry and
also pharmaceuticals, surgical equipment...

Figure 2: Eating utensils and washing machine made with stainless steel
x

Construction:

The stainless steel is used for its aesthetic qualities, its low maintenance cost, and for its life
duration: lifts, ramps, street furniture, water cisterns, decoration and building accessories.

Figure 3: Building whose frame is made with stainless steel


x

Transport: trains, planes, ships (bodywork and interior fittings), tankers, catalytic
converters in automobiles.

a) Nickel-based alloys
x

Superalloys :

The development of modern aviation (reactors) heavily relied on the development of


superalloys which use metal with high nickel content (greater than 45%) in combination with
other metals (particularly cobalt and chromium). The 99.99% Nickel metal is used in
fasteners landing gear, aircraft wings and turbines, because of the unique properties of nickel.




Figure 4: Turbine airplane made with nickel


Superalloys have the ability to retain good mechanical properties in spite of very stable
temperatures increasingly higher operating reactors. These superalloys are also used for gas
turbines, used to produce energy, and in some applications in oil and nuclear generation.
x

Nickel/iron alloys:

Production and transportation of industrial gas and liquefied natural gas at very low
temperatures require the use of certain nickel/iron alloys. Other nickel/iron alloys are used in
measuring equipment, TV screens, and semi-conductors.
x

Nickel base alloys resistant to corrosion:

These alloys are used in chemical industries and in environmental protection facilities
(treatment of smoke and gas, water treatment...).
x

Electroplating (coating with pure metal):

Nickel provides a glossy appearance and resistance to atmospheric corrosion (taps, hardware,
tubes...).

Figure 5: Valve coated with a layer of nickel


x

Allies and steel foundry: Automotive and mechanical construction.




Rechargeable batteries: emergency batteries, phones, laptops, electric and hybrid cars.

Figure 6: Automotive battery made with an alloy of lithium and nickel


x

Currencies:

In many countries, there are coins made from pure nickel (5 cents US) or copper alloys
containing nickel (parts 1 and 2 euro).

Figure 7: 1 euro coin made with a copper alloy containing nickel


I. 2. 3. Use of ilmenite
Located mainly in Fort Dauphin and Ranobe in the district of Toliara II, ilmenite is an
important titanium ore and, to a lesser extent, iron; it is mainly used as a pigment and
opacifier for all kinds of substances such as paint. Indeed, famous titanium white shot
ilmenite is used as opacifier for all colors, paper, plastics, fabrics, ceramics, medicines,
toothpaste, pastry and confectionery, creams solar, and synthetic resins. Titanium pulled
ilmenite can also substitute for steel, especially for car bodies and ship hulls, because it is
also resistant but twice lighter than this one.

In order to make a modest contribution to a possible innovation in the physical sciences


program in Terminale A, we propose to introduce the two themes outlined above, which are
renewable energy and the use of metal transition contained in the mineral resources of



Madagascar. Before introducing a curriculum that could be used for the introduction of these
themes in the program of physical sciences in Terminale A, it is first necessary to define a
conceptual framework from which we will design said curriculum.

II. Conceptual framework for curriculum development


The curriculum is rooted in the Anglo-Saxon educational systems. It is used to implement
training programs. Since the early 2000s, the term "curriculum" is used in the Frenchspeaking world to describe how to formalize a reflection on a program with certain scale
(Demeuse, 2013).
The proposed themes in the previous paragraph invite first to base the teaching curriculum
that we will elaborate on the reference social practices; content introduced in the themes are
also from a didactic transposition of basic scientific knowledge. Then, it is essential to clarify
the principles to guide the development of that curriculum. Finally, this framework will
define the different elements that should constitute the curriculum.
II. 1. The reference social practices
The construction of a curriculum depends on the relationship you want to establish between
school activities, designed to enable the student to acquire skills, and reference social
practices through which the student displays his skills (Martinand, 2003). Indeed, common
sense knowledge, action knowledge, implicit knowledge, and professional knowledge are
linked to social practices. Reference social practices meet the expectations of the political and
social, economic and technical system. A curriculum based on reference social practices is
therefore to consider aspects of the environment in which the student is, which can be
exploited in the construction of knowledge. This approach aims to prepare students to face
life in all its dimensions through the use of skills he gained in the classroom (Perrenoud,
2003).
II. 2. Didactic transposition
The prescribed contents in the curriculum are an image of the dignified culture to be
transmitted, with cutting, codification, formatting for this didactic intention (Perrenoud,
1998). It is now working with two sources of didactic transposition: first of, scholarly
knowledge, on the other, social practices. Indeed, the achievements of the student are based



on certain academic knowledge, but enlargement of the transposition to other components of


culture points out that the transposition of academic knowledge is only a particular case; a
reference social practice allows the acquisition of a useful skill in the life of the student. The
teacher creates the conditions for the development of student skills, mobilizing cognitive
resources (information, theories, concepts, relationship to knowledge, methods, techniques,
procedures, skills, and attitudes).
II. 3. The development of curriculum principles
Some guidelines have been posed by Roegiers (2011) in the development of a training
curriculum: the consideration of the problems of the education system, the definition of a
student's output profile, the formulation of evaluable statements, and identification of
resources mobilized by each jurisdiction.
II. 3. 1. Consideration of the education system problems
The revision of a curriculum is primarily intended to provide appropriate responses after a
preliminary identification of the problems of teaching-learning process. These problems can
be of various kinds, such as lack of student motivation, the lack of teaching materials, the
relative low importance of learning for students.
II. 3. 2. Defining an output profile
The output profile anticipates the changes undergone by the student in learning. The output
profile includes the values we wish to instill in the student and provides the types of
situations which he will face in everyday life and in the workplace. It highlights the relative
importance of the knowledge that the student has acquired.
II. 3. 3. Evaluable statements formulation
It should be clear criteria and evaluation indicators. It is also possible to provide longer-term
objectives, which are not within the immediate but call for a change in behavior and vision of
the student. In programs constructed in accordance with contents materials, contents should
be converted in specific objectives.
II. 3. 4. Identification of resources mobilized by each jurisdiction
Based on the reference social practices, development of laboratory experiments and use of
sophisticated learning materials are no longer required. Now, the materials used for learning



are from the immediate environment of the student, and depend only on the type of activities
proposed by the teacher. The design of textbooks should also be part of this perspective;
failing to produce, the adaptation of general and educational books content published by
organizations independent from developing curriculum structures is always possible,
depending on the needs of its implementation.
II. 4. The components of a curriculum
The curriculum defines the finalization of educational action system; in addition to the
content that the student must take ownership, it encompasses the notions of purpose and
competence, and specifies the means to deploy and teaching methods to be applied (Depover,
2006).
II. 4. 1. Aims of education
In a curriculum, the aims of education refer to what will be expected of learners, without
being prescriptive about how the teacher will organize to achieve results. Education must be
oriented towards what the student will perform on the basis of content that will be the subject
of learning. The curriculum must also enter the educational action in a long-term perspective,
and take into account the economic, social, cultural and political context that gives it meaning
and confirms the relevance of its content.
II. 4. 2. Skills to master
The text of the curriculum must introduce the knowledge to acquire, the skills to mobilize and
the teacher's role in the learning process. The concept of competence is comprehensive and
refers to the results of educational work in a long-term perspective, but mostly it is to
describe situations where the various mobilized expertise will be implemented. Entry through
situations will favor design of both global and interdisciplinary learning. Set a skill is to
articulate a set of skills to support a situation or a complex task directly related to the
professional, social or family insertion of the learner.
II. 4. 3. Means to use
The modern design of the curriculum is more restrictive since it is generally considered as
limited to the purpose specification of education, long, medium and short term to the
exclusion of any indication of the means to be implemented to achieve those purposes.
Besides the curriculum produced by official bodies, we should find other documents that will



support its implementation such as teacher guides, manuals, multimedia documents,


computer media.
II. 4. 4. Methods to implement
Another item on curriculum specification terms is to contain or not methodological
references. It is generally considered that a modern curriculum should not include an explicit
indication to learning. Nevertheless, the structure of the curriculum can direct pedagogical
approaches that will be mobilized thereafter. Thus, an articulated curriculum around a limited
number of skills generally conveys a conception of learning centered on the rediscovery and
didactic approaches promoting learner autonomy. In this context, the teacher only facilitates
learning.

In reviewing a curriculum, it is not enough to present the new themes that it is proposed to
address. The key lies in the definition of basic principles that will develop a new curriculum.
To introduce new themes proposed to bring innovation in the curriculum of physical sciences
in classes Terminale A, it is necessary to combine both academic knowledge that we want to
instill in students and the principles of curriculum development.

III. Proposition of curriculum


Based on the arguments mentioned above (Ch. 2, IV) and the various problems previously
identified (chap. 3), we believe it would be better to remove section on periodic phenomena
as well as chapters on light interference and the photoelectric effect from the physics program
of Terminale A. In addition to the new concepts that we have previously shown to be
introduced in the new program, the chapters on the history of the evolution of optics and
theories of mechanics are essential in that they allow students to have an overview of the
evolution of physics, the more they help them better understand the philosophy of science.
As mentioned in the previous paragraph, the design of a new curriculum is not only to
provide knowledge to teach. It is first necessary to define the student's output profile, then to
set out the objectives and finally organizing the teaching of proposed themes.




III. 1. Student output profile


In literary section, the teaching of physical sciences should enable student to acquire essential
scientific and civic culture in a world where scientific activity and technological development
permeate daily life and social choices, in order to make him fit better understand the
problems that may have a direct connection with his daily life. Moreover, in his future career,
student may face situations decision-making that will impact the future of the country and
even internationally. The knowledge he acquires in physics course should help him
understand the scientific aspects of social issues so he can make good decisions. As a result,
the cultural aspect will be favored in the content of physical sciences curriculum for grades
Terminale A.
III. 2. General objectives of teaching physical sciences
At the end of the class Terminale A, the student should be able to:
- identify the different types of renewable energy;
- determine the transition metals that are found in the mineral resources of Madagascar;
- briefly explain the history of the evolution of optics and mechanics
III. 3. Organization of teaching
Considering the basic principles for the development of a curriculum, defined in paragraph II,
teaching physics we propose to introduce in Terminale A is organized around three themes:
renewable energy, metal transition contained in the mineral resources in Madagascar, the
story of the evolution of optics and mechanics. The following table illustrates this
organization.




Knowledge

Reference practices

Mobilized resources

Teacher roles

of

renewable

energy.

given type of renewable

operational resources of a

energy and determine the

each type of renewable

the mode of operation of

- Explain qualitatively

energy.

sources

- Identify the different

fossil fuels.

between

energy and

Distinguish

renewable

by renewable energy.
(2013)

Les

nergies establish the link

economically

7KH GLIIHUHQW W\SHV RI

fossil

for

each

type

of

- Solar photovoltaic

IV I.1.):

renewable energy (see Section

means

of operation and operating

renewable energy, their mode

fuels.

to

(disturbance

of

the

fuels

and
global warming.

(France): fossil

The

educational

Limoges

film

by

be
introduce the course.

can

used

exploit

operation

the

explain

teacher

devices

renewable

production

with

energy

of

to should illustrate the

The

renewable energy.

to

devices

production of electric power in Madagascar

to
(France): qualitatively

Andriamparany (2009) on the

Author.

utilisation.

Les nergies renouvelables et leur try

- Refer back to C.R.D.P. (2010). - The teacher will

Paris

that, firstly, Madagascar is a tropical - Animations and thematic files in

of energy can be exploited in all areas in

emphasized. However, these two types

favorable winds, wind energy must be

heat; in coastal areas and those with

can be used to produce electricity and

- In highly sunny regions, solar energy

and drought, desertification ...).

increased intensity of cyclones, floods

climatic seasons and cultural calendar,

environment

which he meets in his immediate Dunod.

and their operations on climate change GpOHFWULFLWp

'HILQLWLRQ RI UHQHZDEOH

energy compared

environmentally.

both

the disadvantages of their use, everyday life, and report the impact of renouvelables pour la production between the use of

natural gas, coal, firewood), take stock of fossil fuels encountered in D.

- Define what is meant Introduction: fossil fuels (oil, - As an introduction, the student will - Refer back to Freris, L., & Infiel, - The teacher will

Skills

Theme: Renewable energy

Table 8: Organization of the teaching of the themes proposed

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Environmental

benefits:

EHQHILWV RI WKHLU

operations :

will

problems.

that

solve

electricity

(2002)

which of using renewable

wind and a full wind turbine

supply contains activities on education of energy.

Windpower

Be

aware

of

costs, and thus the price of reduction of greenhouse.


electricity.

under Ecology.

problems and propose (asthma, lung cancer ...).


it will reduce its charcoal consumption information that can be used to
Economic
advantages:
solutions
through
and firewood for cooking, which will enrich the course, in the page
savings
on
the
purchase
of
knowledge on renewable
reduce the pressure exerted on our dedicated to renewable energy,
fuels; decrease in production forests and contribute to gas emission the Energy section of the found
energy.

simulator.
the reducing greenhouse gases that - Organic waste produced by
global
warming; households, and feces of human and - The S.I.E.NE. (Information
importance of energy in cause
society,
identifying reduction of pollution and animal origin can be used for biogas Service on Digital Education) also
energy-related societal disease risks that may arise production. If a household has digester, posts on its website plante.info

renewable energies.

argue for the use of

to

potential for production of 7.800MW. of operation of a wind turbine can environmental and

the

- The teacher will

hydropower is a long term investment of

gained

operated.

- Madagascar, has many rivers with - A training sequence in the mode highlight

and at any time.

hand, the wind can blow at any place les-energies-renouvelables) can be other media.

Despite the high cost of installation, be developed through the website economic benefits

operated

or

knowledge

be

animations,

diagrams,

according to the potential - Hydropower


of a locality or region.
- Biomass
- List the benefits of their
operations and use the - Geothermal

can

parts of the island, and on the other (http://www.cea.fr/jeunes/themes/

- Wind power

renewable energy that

website photos,

country, so time can be sunny in all CEA

- Determine the type of - Solar thermal energy

Knowledge

Reference practices

Mobilized resources

Teacher roles

of

chemical families.

To

identify

Establish

et

alliages. viewed

and

and - Chemical properties :

conductivity

the thermal

pastry

fabrics,
and

medicines,

confectionery,

ceramics,

sunscreens, whose

toothpaste, current

Use

knowledge

chemicals.

to

the

from

composition by

studied

in

the

various

regions

of for

nickel,

students

for

argue - Cobalt: alloys and composition - The use of transition metals in high-tech for titanium.


scientific

cobalt, (e.g.

rare

earth

vitamin new farms in the future

foods chemicals are subject to

- Gradually, as more

metals: contributions.

through

it is recommended that

toothpaste or lipstick Ambatofinandrahana),

titanium is in ilmenite operated Tolagnaro and B12

gained - Nickel : alloys and stainless steel Ranobe.

(see Section IV I.2.):

these mineral resources of Madagascar Madagascar: nickel and cobalt at Ambatovy; containing

used in everyday life 8VH RI WUDQVLWLRQ metals in the operated

made

of

products the knowledge acquired

- Discussed transition metals in this theme are "stainless"vspoons

electron orbitals (d), high atomic hulls vessels.

- Identify the materials bonds.

transition metals.

class

table

electrical "; titanium is used to make paper, plastics, - Ask students to bring - Teachers will value

in

periodic

electronic structure of - Electronic structure: presence of synthetic resins, paint, car bodywork and contains one of the consistent

properties

physicochemical

chemicals used in everyday products : nickel mtaux

des the

forme et applications and electron shells, and

- Physical properties: hardness, is in the composition of cookware " stainless Paris (France): Dunod. Second.

some mining resources transition metals :

of Madagascar.

daily experiences of the population.

&RPPRQ IHDWXUHV RI WKH - Mineral resources are used to extract industrielles

the family of transition metals.

chemical elements forming the the scientific aspect that can be related to the Proprits, mise en structure of the atom

chemical elements in

table.

and chemical symbol,

mineral resources in Madagascar and the M. (2012). Matriaux the notions of chemical

elements in the periodic *HQHUDO LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH economic issues connected to incite discuss mtalliques :

families

- Distinguish between 5HPLQGHU FKHPLFDO HOHPHQWV - The current boom in the exploitation of - Consult Colombi, - The teacher will recall

Skills

Theme: Transition metals in mineral resources exploited in Madagascar

to

radiation

blue industries

Knowledge

nickel

and

cobalt

in

become aware of the value of our natural

Reference practices

Theme: History of the development of optics and mechanics

- Titanium : bleach, substituting resources.

steel

(e.g.

therapy, aeronautics) should encourage students to

electroplating,

nutritional element.

their pigments,

steel,

Mobilized resources

course by an update.

the teacher complete his

philosophy of science.

- quantum mechanics

that will enable them to understand the

- classical mechanics

each mechanics.

between Hstory of the evolution of presentation will be taken as a written record.

heading Physics, Terminale A section.

the form of presentation. The outline of the online courses related to this topic, under the

- This chapter will give students the baggage

Distinguish

optics

domains of validity of mechanics:

optics.

- Summarize the history of History of the evolution of - Students will then present their research in - The library of EDUCMAD program goes

Skills

operations.

related

about economic issues of

III. 4. Hours
The following distribution is only an indication, based on an hourly volume of 2 hours per
week and a minimum of 25 weeks for one school year, without wanting to force the teachers,
or impede their initiative:
- Number of weeks: 25
- Annual number of hours: 2 hours / week x 25 weeks = 50 hours
- Chapter distribution :
x

Chapter 1: Renewable energy : 20 hours

Chapter 2: The transition metals contained in mineral resources exploited in


Madagascar : 20 hours

Chapter 3: History of the development of optics and mechanics : 10 hours



GENERAL CONCLUSION
The study conducted in the context of this paper was to identify issues related to learning the
physical sciences by the students of class Terminale A. Work was then carried out in order to
overcome the deficiencies in education and learning physics in Terminale A, namely the
development of a training curriculum corresponding to the contents of an innovative program
that we want to implement, within certain basic principles.
At first, a comparison of the physical sciences program in Terminale A with physics
education in literary sections in other countries has been made. The objectives of the specific
teaching of science in class First L in France are to develop scientific literacy to the literary
student and help him to build his skills. The analysis of the physics education in American
schools encourage to implement active methods, encouraging student participation in the
construction of the course.
Physics teaching in classes Terminale A has already been the subject of study by Raharisoa
who expressed disinterest of students from Terminale A towards the physical sciences, and
the work of Ranaivoarisoa, raising the current program is one of the obstacles to better
learning of the subject. For our part, our study has focused on the state of knowledge acquired
by students in Terminale A at the end of the courses of physics.
So we developed a methodology that allowed us to determine the useful sample size in our
study, the length of the field visit for its implementation, and evaluation criteria of the
students during the processing of the questionnaires. Indeed, from the data obtained in the
Ministry of Higher Education, we found through chi-square tests that the percentages of
candidates choosing the physical sciences as compulsory testing depend neither the year of
the bachelor exam nor province of origin of the student, which allowed us to conduct the
survey of Antananarivo schools during the school year 2013-2014. With an accuracy of 5%, a
level of confidence of 95 % and a 10% correction, the sample should include 68 students in
A1 Series and 174 students in A2 Series.
It is thus emerged from the results we have achieved that students who choose physics as a
compulsory test bachelor learn by heart the concepts covered in the course, including
formulas for solving exercises. Moreover, they fail to identify phenomena explained through
the taught lessons. Indeed, the lack of teaching materials does not allow the teacher to
implement the necessary experience to better assimilation of the course by the students.


Moreover, teachers do not illustrate the application of knowledge they transmit, discouraging
students to be interested in physics.
The results of these researches on learning the physical sciences in Terminale A meet on the
fact that students are not motivated to learn the material. The students challenge to connect
ideas introduced in physics course with the environment in which they operate, the lack of
limitations on the teaching methods to be implemented, and the need for an update are major
gaps identified in the teaching of physics in Terminale A.
In order to update physics program in Terminale A, taking account of scientific advances in
relation to current societal issues is necessary in order to provide students a scientific culture
to better understand the world around them and thus enter academia with knowledge that will
be useful to them and already preparing them to the situations they will face in their future
lives.
We suggest to introduce two current topics in the curriculum of physical sciences in classes
Terminale A, namely renewable energy and the use of transition metals from mining
resources exploited in Madagascar, allowing them to have to both a global view of their
interest and a local approach to the problems associated with them while maintaining the
chapters on the history of the evolution of optics and mechanics in the current program.
In order to conduct an effective implementation of the teaching of proposed themes and to
optimize student learning through the acquisition of skills appropriate to the content
discussed, it was first necessary to define a conceptual framework for the development of a
curriculum. We therefore put forward the idea that the curriculum should be based on the
reference social practices and didactic transposition of knowledge as needed responsive to the
output profile of the student that wants to form. Then we laid the principles on which we
wanted to build our draft curriculum. Finally, we explained the different sections that should
compose a curriculum.
From this conceptual framework, so we tried to develop a curriculum that is expected to
implement the teaching and learning of the proposed themes in the classes of Terminale A.
This curriculum was developed by considering that it will encourage students in literary
classes to focus on the physical sciences.
In the curriculum we offer, the acquisition of skills is by engaging the student in the learning
process, the teacher's role is that of facilitator summarizes the process of coaching student


and mediator between him and matter. The curriculum is based primarily on the social
practices of reference, from which students construct their own knowledge through
discovery.
The innovation of this curriculum is also in the provision of educational resources that can be
exploited for teaching and learning of the proposed themes, including digital tools available
on the internet, and general and educational resources that can enhance documentation.
However, available resources are not exhaustive, and the possible application of the
curriculum will open up new fields of research in meeting the educational needs and textbook
materials.

Appendix 1: Specific curriculum of sciences in 1st L class in France


Theme : Visual representation
Concepts and contents
)URPWKHH\HWRWKHEUDLQ

Due skills

- The eye : optical system and image - Exploit the visibility of an object.
- Wear a critical look at a design vision from

formation :

- Visibility terms of an object; historical the study of a document.


approach to the design of the vision.

- Describe the model of the reduced eye and

- Model of the eye

match with the actual eye.

- Converging thin lenses, diverging thin - Recognize the convergent or divergent


lenses

nature of a thin lens.

- Characteristic features of a converging thin - Symbolically represent a convergent or


lens: optical center, optical axis, focus, focal divergent thin lens.
length.

- Graphically determine the position, size and

- Geometric construction of the image of a direction of the image of a plane object given
small plane object given by a converging by a converging lens.
lens.

- Model the accommodation of the lens.

- The eye : accommodation, defects and - Recognize the nature of the defect in one
eye from the fields of vision and vice versa.

corrections

Formation of images on the retina ; need of - Associate with each default one or more
accommodation

possible correction modes.

- Punctum proximum and far point.

- Exploit relationship between vergence and

- Defects of the eye: myopia, hyperopia and focal length.


presbyopia.
- Principle of correction of these defects by
thin lenses or by changing the curvature of
the cornea; vergence.
- Determine the roles of photoreceptors and

Photoreceptors to the visual cortex

- The vision of the world depends on the anatomical


properties of the photoreceptors in the retina.

organization

of

the

visual

pathways in the perception of an image.

- The comparative study of retinal pigments - Connect certain diseases and certain genetic
can place Human among the Primates.

abnormalities in visual impairment; certain

- The visual nerve message borrows nerve characteristics of vision.


pathways to the visual cortex.

- Justify the place of man in the Primates from


the comparison of opsins or genes encoding
them.

Visual perception and visual areas :


-

Functional

imaging

of brain

allows - Explain from functional exploration results

identifying and observing specialized areas in of brain or clinical case study, the concept of
the recognition of colors or shapes, or functional specialization of visual areas.
movement.

- Establish cooperation relations between

Plasticity and brain areas :

brain areas, plasticity of connections and

- Recognition of a written word requires reading activity.


collaboration between visual areas, memory,
and language- related structures.

- Find and exploit information on pigments,

Colors and arts

dyes and their use in the arts.

- Dyes and pigments.

- Practicing an experimental approach to

- Historical approach.

determine the presence of different dyes in a

- Influence of one or more parameters on the mixture.


color of certain chemical species.

- Distinguish between subtractive and additive

- Subtractive synthesis; additive synthesis.

synthesis.

- Application to painting and color printing.

- Practicing an experimental approach to


highlight the influence of certain parameters
on the color of chemical species.

7KHFKHPLVWU\RISHUFHSWLRQ
- Highlight the chemical nature of the

- Synaptic transmission :

Perception is based on the transmission of transmission of nerve messages between two


nerve electrical impulses, between neurons at neurons by linking documents, including
synapses

via

chemical

substances electron micrographs.

neurotransmitters.
Chemical disturbances of perception
Some

hallucinogens

disrupt

- Explain the mode of action of hallucinogens


visual (e.g. LSD or "acid") by the similarity of their

perception. Their action is due to the molecular structure with that of certain
similarity of their molecular structure with neurotransmitters in the brain which they
that of certain neurotransmitters in the brain replace.



which they replace.


Their

- Explain the action of a drug in the disruption

consumption

leads

to

overall of nervous communication it induces and the

functioning disorders of the body, highly dangers of its use as an individual and societal
addictive and the unpredictable "flashback".

perspective.

Theme : Feeding Humanity


Concepts and contents
Toward sustainable agriculture in the
world

Due skills

- Compare the part of human intervention in

- Collective feeding practices and global the functioning of an ecosystem and an agrosystem.

perspectives :

Agriculture is the creation and management - Show that eaten meat or plant product does
of

agro-systems

to

provide

products not have the same environmental impact.

(including food) necessary for humanity. In


an agro-system, the overall efficiency of
production with respect to material and
energy consumption determines the choice of
an animal or plant food in a sustainable
development perspective.

- Compare energy balances and material


(including water) of an ecosystem and
different agro-ecosystems (crops, livestock)
from data collected in the field or in databases
and processed by software calculation or
simulation.

- An agriculture to feed people :


The export of biomass, soil fertility, the
search yields and improving the quality of
productions pose the problem of inputs in

- Explain, from simple results of crosses, the


principle of genetic selection ("hybrid vigor"
and "homogeneity of the F1").

crops (fertilizers, pesticides, etc.); water


resources; the improvement of animal breeds - Connect the progress of science and
and plant varieties through genetic selection, technology

and

their

impact

on

the

genetic manipulation, cuttings or cloning; environment over time.


energy cost and violence to the environment.
The choice of cultivation techniques must
reconcile

production,

sustainable

- Study the impact on health or the


environment of agricultural practices (driving
a farm or a culture).

management of the environment and health.

- Quality of soil and water

- Exploit document and implement a protocol


to understand the interactions between the

- Soil: middle of the field of trade.

ground and an ionic solution in terms of ion


-

Fertilizers

and

pesticides;

chemical exchange.

composition.
- Implement an experimental protocol to
- Spring water, mineral water, tap water; assay compared a species present in fertilizer
chemical composition of water consumption.

or a plant protection product.

- Potability physicochemical criteria of water.

- Conduct a qualitative analysis of water.

- Treatment of water supplies.

- Find and exploit information about the


potability of water; the processing of natural
waters; softening of hard water.

4XDOLW\ DQG IRRG VDIHty : the content of


our plates :
- Biology of microorganisms and food - Explain from experimental data and
preservation :

documentary

Some conservation techniques are based on


knowledge of the biology of microorganisms,

conditions

role
on

of
the

physico-chemical
development

of

microorganisms.

some of which are pathogenic and are - Explain conservation advice to consumers.
designed to prevent their development.
- Food preservation, health and food
craving:

- Explain from experimental data and


documentary

Food preservation skips backward expiration conditions

role
on

of
the

physico-chemical
development

of

date while preserving their wholesomeness microorganisms.


and nutritional value and taste. Conservation
techniques can alter the taste and nutritional

- Explain conservation advice to consumers

qualities of foods and sometimes cause - Identify the advantages and disadvantages
physiological disorders in the consumer.

for the consumer to certain treatments applied


in the context of food preservation.
- Using scientific arguments to confirm or
deny certain statements conveyed in the


media or in advertisements for the action of


certain foods on health.

- Food Preservation

- Implement a protocol to highlight the


- Effect of oxygen in the air and light on oxidation of food.
certain foods.

- Distinguish physical transformation and

- Role of the light and the temperature in the

chemical reaction.
- Involve a state change to a conservation

oxidation of natural products.

process.
- Food Preservation-Physical and chemical - Extract and organize information to reflect
process.

changes in food preservation methods and


analyzing the formulation of a food product.

- Eating every day: such emulsions


- Simplified lipid structure.
-

Cash

surfactant;

- Interpret the role of a surface species in the

hydrophilic

part, stabilization of an emulsion.

hydrophobic part.

- Practicing an experimental approach to

- Micelle formation.

highlight the physicochemical conditions for a


successful culinary emulsion.

Theme : Female-Male
Concepts and contents
Support joint and responsible sex life :

Due skills

Increasingly precise knowledge of natural - Put in time and in society chronology of the
hormones controlling human reproductive appearance of birth control methods.
functions

has

gradually

allowed

the - Identify the modes of action of synthetic

development of synthetic molecules that molecules

and

explain

biological

allow control of procreation increasingly mechanisms on which they are based.


adapted with fewer side effects.
These synthetic molecules are used in :
- Regular contraception ("the pill");
- Emergency contraception ;
- Medical abortion.

They are also used in assisted reproduction -

Explain

chemical

medical

practices

techniques (LDCs) which allow or facilitate implemented in the event of impairment of


fertilization and / or pregnancy in cases of fertility of the couple.
sterility or infertility.

Link

advice

on

health,

screening,

STIs, infertility causes, and spread in the vaccination and condom use to modes of
population can be avoided by appropriate contamination and spread of STIs.
individual behavior.

- Discuss the limits of reproductive control


methods based on law, ethics and the state of
medical knowledge.

%HFRPHDPDQRUZRPDQ
The

establishment

of

structures

and - Characterize from different information at

functionality of sexual devices is achieved different scales a male individual or female.


over a long period from fertilization to - Explain, from medical data, the stages of
puberty,

through

embryonic

and

fetal differentiation of the sexual organs during

development.

embryonic development.
- Differentiate, from the biological data of
confrontation and social representations
which notes: sexual identity, roles as
individuals and their gendered stereotypes in
society, which fall within the social space;
sexual orientation which falls under the

/LYLQJVH[XDOLW\

privacy of individuals.

- Sexual behavior in mammals is controlled,


among others, by hormones and reward - Establish the influence of hormones on
system.

sexual behavior of mammals.

- During evolution, hormonal influence in - Identify the brain structures involved in


the

control

of

reproductive

behavior reward

processing

decreases, and correspondingly the reward experimental data.


system becomes dominant in sexuality of
man and generally hominoid primates.
- The affective and cognitive factors,
especially cultural background, have a major
influence on human sexual behavior.



from

medical

and

Theme: The energy challenge


x

Concepts and contents


Human activities and energy -

Exploit

Due skills
documents and/or

experimental

illustrations to highlight different forms of energy.

needs :

- Energy requirements generated by - Know and use the relationship between power
human activity: industry, transport, and energy.
- Find and exploit information on devices in daily

household uses.

- Quantification of these needs: power, life and industrial facilities to take a critical look at
their energy consumption and to understand the

energy.

power of orders of magnitude.


x

Use

of

available

energy - Find and exploit information for: combine the


characteristics times at different energy resources;

resources :

- Energy resources and associated distinguish between renewable and non- renewable
features periods (training duration and energy resources; identify use of these resources
estimated time operating reserves).

issues.

- Non-renewable resources: fossil (coal, - Implement a protocol to separate components of a


petroleum,
(Uranium

natural

gas);

fissile mixture of two liquids by fractional distillation.

isotopes

fissile - Use the symbolic representation to distinguish

isotope).

isotopes.

- Renewable Resources.

- Schematize an energy chain to interpret the

- The sun, a radiation source.

energy transformations in terms of conversion and

- Energy conversion.

degradation.

- Thermal power plant using fossil or - Identify different forms of energy involved in a
nuclear fuel.

power plant using fossil or nuclear fuel.

- Combustion reaction.

- Interpret the equation of a nuclear reaction using

- Fission reaction.

the symbolic notation the core

- Fusion reaction.

- From examples of equations of nuclear reactions,

- The Sun, the seat of nuclear fusion distinguish fission and fusion.
reactions.

- Exploit the information of a document to

- Use of renewable resources.

compare: the energies involved in nuclear reactions


and in chemical reactions; the use of different
energy sources.

Optimizing the management - Find and use information to understand: the need
and use of energy:

to store and transport energy; the use of electricity

- Transport and storage of energy.

as

- Electrochemical battery and fuel cell.

radioactive waste management.

energy transfer

- By-products of the nuclear industry.

- Analyze radioactive decay curve.

- Radioactive decay.

- Demonstrate critical thinking: discuss the

- Greenhouse effect.

advantages and disadvantages of operating an


energy

resource,

environmental impact.

mode;

including

the

in

problem

terms

of

of

Appendix 2: Official Skills Program sciences in the United States, according to the sciences
California standards
Investigation & Experimentation - Grades 9th to 12th
- Select and use appropriate technology (sensors and computer interfaces, spreadsheets...) for
tests, collect data, find relationships and view the results.
- Identify sources of unavoidable experimental errors.
- Identify possible reasons for getting the outlier, including sources of error and the
experimental conditions.
- Formulate explanations by using the experimental evidence and logic.
- Solve scientific problems using quadratic equations and simple trigonometric, exponential
or logarithmic functions.
- Distinguish between hypothesis and theory.
- Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and other theories as scientific
representations of reality.
- Read and interpret topographic and geological maps.
- Analyze situations, periods or time intervals which characterize natural phenomena (e.g.
relative age of rocks, location of planets over time, succession of species in an ecosystem).
- Know the problems of statistical variation and the need for controlled experiments.
- Know the cumulative nature of scientific evidence.
- Analyze situations and solve problems that involve more than a science.
- Research on social issues related to science, in literature and analyzing data, and
communicate results (e.g. irradiated food, animal cloning, and choice of energy sources).
- Know that when observation is not in agreement with a recognized scientific theory, this
observation is sometimes distorted or doctored (e.g. UFO), and that the theory is sometimes
wrong (e.g. Ptolemaic model for the movement of stars).

Appendix 3: Physical sciences program of class Terminale A in Madagascar


Part 1: Periodic Phenomena
Goal: The student must be able to interpret the phenomenon of mechanical interference
Specific objectives

Contents

The student must be able to:

Sinusoidal functions

- define a sinusoidal function

- Study of sinusoidal functions of the form :

graphically

represent

sine   

function and a phasor

  

- determine the sum of two sine


functions with same period by the
method of Fresnel

- Phasor
- The sum of two sinusoidal functions of period :
Fresnel construction

- define a periodic sinusoidal motion


- define and calculate the speed of
propagation and wavelength

Sinusoidal periodic movement


- Haste
- Wavelength

- define the double frequency of a - Progressive wave in a one-dimensional


wave : temporal and spatial
environment: double periodicity of the phenomenon
- position the vibrating point in - Examples of propagation: along a rope; along a
phase and out of phase
spring; to the surface of the water; propagation of a
sound wave.
- state the principle of superposition
of small movements

&RPSRVLWLRQ RI WZR VLQusoidal

vibratory

movements of the same period and same direction.


Mechanical interference.

interpret the phenomenon of

mechanical interference

- Movement resulting from the superposition of two

position the

vibrating

points considered vibrations.

maximum and remaining at rest


- show that the sound is produced by
a vibrating movement
- interpret how sound travels from

Vibrational nature of sound.


- The different sound frequencies : audible sound ;
ultrasound; infrasound

the sound source to the ear


- calculate the speed of sound in an

- Simplified expression of the speed of sound in an


ideal gas

ideal gas

Part 2: Theories of light


General objectives: The student must be able to:
- Interpret the phenomenon of light interference
- Interpret the photoelectric effect
- Briefly explain the origin of the different theories of light
Specific objectives

Contents

The student must be able to:

Wave nature:

- Show the wave nature of light

- Light interference

- To define and calculate the fringe

- Ultra-violet radiations

- Define the wavelength areas of the ultraviolet, - Infrared radiation


infrared and X-radiation
- X-ray
- To define and interpret the photoelectric effect
Particle Nature:
- Define and calculate the work function , the
- Photoelectric effect
photoelectric threshold and maximum kinetic
energy of the electron
+istorical development of optics

- Summarize the different theories of optics




Part 3: Theories of mechanics


Goal: The student must be able to briefly explain the origin of the different theories of
mechanics
Specific objectives

Contents

The student must be able to distinguish the areas of +istory of the evolution of
validity of each mechanical

mechanics:
- Classical mechanics
- Quantum mechanics

Appendix 4: Tables showing data obtained concerning candidates for the bachelor Series A
the last three years in the six provinces and nationally
Statistics of candidates for the A1 series Bachelor
2011
Province

2012

Registered
Total
%
registered in Physics

2013

Registered
Total
%
registered in Physics

Registered
Total
%
registered in Physics

Antananarivo 2761

581

21,04 3423

868

25,36 3357

799

23,80

Antsiranana

1381

297

21,50 1651

490

29,68 1721

439

25,50

Fianarantsoa

869

233

26,81 1138

309

27,15 1053

261

24,78

Mahajanga

476

93

19,53 651

129

19,81 803

141

17,56

Toamasina

861

176

20,44 1070

250

23,36 1086

272

25,04

Toliara

646

115

17,80 739

157

21,24 573

132

23,03

National

6994

1495

21,19 8672

2203

24,43 8593

2044

23,29

Statistics of candidates for the A1 series Bachelor


2011
2012
Province

Total
Registered
%
registered in Physics

Total
Registered
%
registered in Physics

2013
Total
Registered
%
registered in Physics

Antananarivo 32961

13698

41,55 37598

16274

43,28 39899

17851

44,74

Antsiranana

6597

2523

38,24 7965

3293

41,34 8923

3648

40,88

Fianarantsoa

10631

4563

42,92 11898

5156

43,33 14182

6118

43,14

Mahajanga

6119

2390

39,06 8551

2962

34,64 10273

3223

31,37

Toamasina

10359

4824

46,57 12169

6088

50,03 14280

6896

48,29

Toliara

6256

2453

39,21 7930

3575

45,08 9289

4106

44,20

National

72923

30451

41,26 86111

37348

42,95 96846

41842

42,10

c) What are the possible positions of the vibrating point that can be distinguished?

phenomenon?

b) What phenomenon do we observe? What are the characteristics of this

3. Two vibratory movements are represented by two different sine functions.


a) How do we take the sum of two sine functions?

b) How do you define the double periodicity of such a movement?

2. A periodic sinusoidal motion is characterized by the speed and wavelength.


a) What is the speed? What is the wavelength ?

d) A sinusoidal function can be represented by a Fresnel vector. How do we represent


a sinusoidal function by a phasor?

c) What is the derivative of a sinusoidal function?

b) What are the components of a sinusoidal function? What do they mean?

1. A periodic phenomenon is defined by a sinusoidal function.


a) What is meant by periodic phenomenon? Give examples.

Appendix 5: Questionnaire on the content of physical science curriculum of the Terminale A


Part 1 : Periodic phenomena



c) What is meant by energy - threshold, threshold frequency, work function?

b) What property of light does the photoelectric effect put it in evidence?

3. a) What is the photoelectric effect ? Explain the phenomenon.

b) What is a path difference?

2. a) What is a fringe ?

d) State the principle of light interference.

c) What property of light does it put in evidence?

b) What is a light interference? Explain the phenomenon.

1. a) What is a monochromatic light ?

Part 2 : Theories of light

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m



Name : RATSIMBATOHA
Surname : Zo Andraina
E-mail address: zo-andraina@live.fr 
Phone numbers: (+261) 32 64 001 63 (+261) 33 11 935 87 (+261) 34 19 426 16
CURRENT SITUATION OF THE TEACHING OF PHYSICS
TERMINALE A IN MADAGASCAR - PROPOSED INNOVATIONS

IN CLASS

Abstract: This paper is to provide an educational curriculum for physical science class
Terminale A, including new themes. Based on the concept of academic motivation, the work
was first involved comparing the program with science education in France and the United
States, raising the need for an update. The identification of problems related to learning
physics in Terminal A was done through the study of the disinterest of students towards this
matter and analysis of current program before an investigation that contributed to the state of
knowledge actually used by students in physics courses outcome. The chi-square tests used in
the methodology showed that the percentages of candidates choosing physics as a
compulsory subject do not depend on the year or the province. We conducted our survey of
establishments that meet the established statistical criteria, an accuracy of 5 %, a level of
confidence of 95 % and a 10% correction. It emerged from this survey that students do not
understand the significance and usefulness of knowledge they gain in the classroom, which
de-motivates them to learn the material; the requirement of a good level of mathematics and
the non-involvement of teachers to show the applications of knowledge are the problems
identified. The given innovation is the introduction of new chapters on renewable energy and
the use of transition metals in the mining resources of Madagascar.
Key words : physics educational program, Terminale A, curriculum, proposition of
innovations
Directeur de mmoire : Mrs RAZAFIMBELO Judith
Full Professor