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K 12 Grade 11
Second Semester

80 hours/sem

Research Skills

For each of the skills,

give yourself a grade on
a scale of 1(low) to 10

Which skills do you

consider yourself to be
best at?

What is research?

Searching for a theory, for testing theory for problem


It means a problem was identified and it needs solution

or improvement

A systematic controlled, empirical, and critical

investigation of hypothetical propositions about the
presumed relations among natural phenomenon
(Kerlinger, 1973)

Systematic collection and interpretation of data to

illuminate, describe or explain new facts and
relationships (Treece, 2002)

Why conduct research?

(Importance of research in daily life)


Efficiency and Effectiveness in the profession

The primary reason for conducting research is to

foster optimum care for life. The scientific profession
exists to provide service to society based on accurate
knowledge. The scientific method is conceived to be
the most objective, systematic way of obtaining these

2. Worth and Value of Research to

Education/Profession and to
Scientific knowledge is indispensable to
mans survival, Research helps professionals
deliver quality education services. It provides
proofs or evidences to validate and justify
the professional existence in the society.


Identifying, Implementing and Evaluating

Effective Decisions and actions in Life

Scientific researches assess individuals or

groups plan of actions as basis for accurate
inventions and decisions in life.

4. Research, has the Potential for providing Quality

life. It is concerned with the following tasks:
a. The systematic study of problems or
phenomena, using the scientific process of
assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating
b. Appropriateness of Technology use

c. Identifying interventions that can help

individuals respond to change
d. The initiation and assessment of change as a
result of new knowledge or technology

Reasons for Conducting Research

1. Gathers data or information on life situations
or conditions about which little knowledge is
Identify research gap in different areas

. Provides scientific knowledge from which

theories emerge and develop.

Consequently, theories derived from research findings serves as
bases and guide to scientific practice and future researches.

Helps correct, clarify and validate perceptions.

Knowledge is never absolute, its value is either diminishing or

increasing depending on the extent of its use. However, this knowledge must
be continuously tested and validated through research.

Provides theoretical and scientific basis for

scientific practice.

Research helps improve science and technology practice,

firms up the credibility of ones profession; defines the
accountability of scientific practice, and documents the cost
effectiveness of science and technology.

Defines the parameters of research and

identifies its boundaries.

Research helps expand knowledge and use of the technology

process in life situations. This consists of assessment, planning
actions or intervention, evaluation and documentation of life

Documents the social relevance and efficacy of

scientific practices to people and environment

Research enables men to verify the strengths and weaknesses of

certain modalities of education and their implications in the process of
meeting the needs and problems of people;

7. Describes the characteristics of the

phenomenon/situation about which little knowledge is
More issues and concerns about technology, climate change, and food
security, and health care arise as technology advances.

8. Predicts probable outcomes of scientific

decisions in relation to life comfort and well
Research makes it easy for professionals to forecast the
effects or consequences of certain actions and helps anticipate

Provides knowledge for purposes of problem

solving and decision making.
Knowledge that relate to social, economic, political,
cultural and technological phenomena may have serious
implications to life and social practice as it is used in deciding
better ways of solving problems.

10. Develops

and evaluates theories and

concepts, and practices these for clarity and
validity of scientific actions.
Research helps knowledge grow and develop, determines its
significance in order to modify or develop new ones, and or revise these
knowledge, based on current research findings.

11. Prevents undesirable human reactions.

Research predicts outcome and potential problems, hence it
requires the balancing of phenomena that will generate positive results
and control undesirable outcome; and

12. Develops a considerable degree of

Professional undertakings are intended to achieve desired men
behaviors. Adequate knowledge sustains self-confidence that
makes work easier and lighter, unburdened with uncertainties and
doubtful consequences of actions intended to restore mens
comfort and makes life easier.

General and Specific Purposes of

Specifically, research aims to do the following
Description Research describes phenomenon.

Refers to services rendered by professional and non- professional

nursing personnel to respond to the health needs and problems of individuals,
families, groups, and communities, intended to bring comfort and ease to

2. Exploration

Research explores the phenomenon.

What factors influence, affect or relate to the adjustment of salary
increase among teachers?
3. Explanation Research seeks clarification of a prevailing
situation to answer questions that ask why a phenomenon occurred.
Why does climate change occur ?

4. Prediction and Control

Research anticipates

possible psychology and physiological reactions to nursing

Incidence of low performance in math in young learners is
expected to increase with the millennium age

Criteria for Choice of Research

* Significance

of the Problem
*Problem Research ability
*Feasibility of the problem
*Potentials of the Researchers

Ethical Principles and Guidelines for


Informed Consent

The participants must be fully informed about the nature of

research, its purposes and potential risk and benefits.

2. Beneficence and Nonmaleficence

This is a fundamental ethical principle in research, which means,
to do good and to do no harm to study participants.

3. Respect for Human Dignity

The rights of the study participants must be well protected and

4. Justice and Fairness

Study participants deserve fair and equitable treatment before,
during and after the study period. The researcher should provide
equal chances in the selection process, must comply with agreements
in regard to procedures, techniques or benefits due to participants.

5. Intellectual honesty and respect

Giving acknowledgment/recognition or due respect to the
original/previous work of art.

INTRODUCTION (Background of the Study)

It is a brief statement of the origin of the problem. It is an account

describing the circumstances which suggested the research. It may
include a justification of the selection of the study. It gives brief
origin of the problem.
Parts lead paragraph, body, rationale
Parts of the Body:
Effect 1

Effect 2

Effect 3

Core Problem

Cause 1

Cause 1a

Cause 2

Cause 3


Coconut is one of the most important crops in Laguna covering 45% of the cultivated land. Aside
from producing 60% of countrys coconut oil requirement, the coconut industry also provides
direct or indirect employment to almost one third of the countrys population (Bustos, 2002).
Despite the importance of the sector to the countrys economy, modernization of the coconut
industry has not taken place. Over the years, coconut production continues to decline
resulting to decreasing income of coconut farmers and reduction in the local supply of fresh
coconut and coconut oils. Recently, export of coconut products were also disrupted.
The decline in yield is primarily due to failure of farmers to replace aging and unproductive stand
of palms with new varieties of coconut palms (Marcelo, 2010). These can be attributed to
farmers low access to needed inputs as well as their lack of technical skills in applying new
varieties and farm inputs. The low market price of coconut further tends to discourage
farmers to plant new coconut palms.
The present situation is further aggravated by the presence of a viral disease called cadangcadang or yellow mottle, which kills millions of coconut trees each year. Majority of these
affected coconuts are traditional varieties as they are less resistant to the virus. Moreover,
farmers rarely apply plant protection measures.
Considering the potential of the coconut farming to fuel industry, the Philippine Coconut
Authority has proposed for a loan to International Bank to improve the performance of the

Problem Analysis presented in the Introduction

(Coconut Industry of Pangasinan)
Export of coconut product
were disrupted
Declining income of coconut farmers

Reduction of fresh coconut & oil


Cococnut increasingly
affected by virus/disease

Farmers do not plant new coconut

have low
access to


are not

It is for these reasons that the researchers would like to relate the factors that
may trigger smoking. The researchers would also like to arrest the onset of
smoking to help the parents at home and teachers in school identify young
smokers so as to prevent smoking at a specific age bracket. Thus, this
correlates of smoking.
Hurlock (1998) implied that young students often result to smoking when they are
not busy and preoccupied. Often times students experiment on new
adventures. They experiment and experience the sensual effects of smoking
cigarette. Fifty percent of the young smokers reported that they enjoyed
smoking at the beginning. However, when they realized the bad effects of
smoking in their bodies it is already difficult to evade in the system.
In the school students find their friends or peers. Some are good and some are
bad. Peer pressure is one factor that enhances vices among young students. It
is also noted that peer pressure could encourage smoking among young
students (Enriquez, 1999).

Getting hooked to smoking is a problem to most parents

and teachers. Young students are still ignorant of the effects
of smoking to their health. Students feel happy when they
smoke with their friends however, sensitivity to smoke
becomes an allergy to the smoke. Burgers disease is one of
the diseases caused by smoking aside from lung cancer and
eighty percent of the smokers are reported that they suffer
from sore throat (Lim, 2005)
Smoking is generated as one of the deadliest vices that can
cause many kinds of diseases. An article from the Daily
Inquirer (May 2, 2009) reported that 60% of the young
students in high school who are smokers usually have low
memory and performance in academic subjects. And day by
day there is an increasing trend of young smokers aged 1417.


Mango is one of the most important crops in Pangasinan covering 45% of the cultivated land. Aside from producing 60% of
countrys mango requirement, the mango industry also provides direct or indirect employment to almost one third of
the countrys population (Bustos, 2002; Mercado,2009).
Despite the importance of the sector to the countrys economy, modernization of the mango industry has not taken place.
Over the years, mango production continues to decline resulting to decreasing income of mango farmers and
reduction in the local supply of fresh mango and mango products. Recently, export of mango products were also
disrupted (Aquino, 2013, de Vera, 2013) and low production of its by products.

The decline in yield (TV Patrol May 23, 2013) is primarily due to failure of farmers to replace aging and unproductive
mango trees with new varieties of mango (Marcelo, 2010). These can be attributed to farmers low access to needed
inputs as well as their lack of technical skills in applying new varieties, farm inputs and development of products. The
low market price of mango and its varieties further tends to discourage farmers to plant new mango trees.
The present situation is further aggravated by the presence of a viral disease and pests (Marcelo, 2010), which decrease
mango yield each year. Majority of these affected carabao and indian mango trees are traditional varieties as they
are less resistant to the virus and pests. Moreover, farmers rarely apply plant protection measures and develop
products from indian mangoes.
Considering the potential of the mango industry, the Pangasinan State University has proposed a project to improve the
performance of the industry particularly on the development of its products. It is this purpose that this study was
conducted to improve product development of indian mango industry in Region 1.

Problem Analysis presented in the Introduction

Export of mango product
were disrupted
Declining income of mango farmers

Reduction of fresh mango


Mango increasingly
affected by pest,
apply plant

Farmers do not plant new mango

rarely apply


prices are
to farmers

Water is an essential resource and is a free commodity which unknowingly is

setting its price. Water quality is an urgent issue even in developed nations
of the world. The study determined the microbiological qualities of water
supply from twenty deep wells of selected public elementary schools of the
third congressional district of Pangasinan 1. The descriptive research design
was used and employed the use of standard laboratory procedure. Statistical
used are frequency counts, percentages, Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U
test, t-test and Pearson Correlation. Findings revealed that total bacterial
counts is higher during dry season than during wet season. There is a
moderately positive correlation between total bacterial counts and taste.
During wet season water with a taste of slightly bitter has a higher number
of total bacterial counts than that of slightly fishy or tasteless. E. coli is not
detected in the microbiological analyses during wet and dry season. Based
on laboratory analysis , all the twenty deep well water samples did not pass
the standard for drinking water as per standard methods of detection and
values for microbiological quality during dry season. Ten out of the twenty
deep well water samples passed the standard for drinking water during wet

The Research Process

Data Collection

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research

Quantitative research

Qualitative research

*Associated with tradition (there is

reality out there that can be
studied and known)

*Associated with Naturalistic inquiry

( reality is not a fixed entity but
rather a construction of individual
participating in research)

* Gathers numerical values as its

* Investigates concepts, constructs
and variables
*Uses deductive reasoning
*Uses control (imposing condition so
that biases are minimized and
validity and precision are
*Gathers empirical evidence (from
objective reality collected through
*Takes place both in natural as well
as in laboratory setting

* Gathers narrative description as

its data
*Investigates phenomena, and
*Use subjectivity that enriches the
analytical insights
*Gather information, insights that
lead to search for further evidence
*Takes place in the field

Types of Qualitative Research

Types of Quantitative Research

*Descriptive research Objective is accurate
depiction of the characteristics of a person,
situation or groups and or frequency with
which certain phenomenon occurs.

*Correlational research-Express the

interrelationship among variables of interest
without any active intervention by the

*Quasi-experimental researchconducted to determine the effects of

treatment or independent variables on
the dependent or outcome variables. It
lacks the control of the design, sample
or setting.
*Experimental research- it examines the
cause and effect relationship between
independent and dependent variables
under highly controlled conditions

*Phenomenological research- concerned with

lived experience of human. It is an approach
to thinking about what life experiences of
people are like and what they mean.

*Grounded theory research- seeks to describe

and understand the key social psychological
and structural processes that occur a social
setting. A major component is the discovery of
a core variable that is central in explaining
what is going on in that social scene.
*Ethnographical research- the primary
research tradition within anthropology, which
provides a framework for studying the
meanings, patterns, and experiences of a
defined cultural group in a holistic fashion.
*Historical research- narrative description or
analysis of events that occurred in the remote
or recent past.

*Case studies- in Depth examination and

analysis of people or group of people in
relation to nursing issues or problems that are
important to the client and the researcher.
*Field studies- natural investigations done in
the community, such as in nursing home,
housing projects and clinical wards.

Other types of research according to purpose

Basic Research
*To widen the knowledge base
*Formulation or refinement of
*For discovery of general

Applied Research
*To finding solutions for existing
*Focuses on factors which can be
changed by intervention to achieve
a desired goal
*For solving problems

Exploratory Research
*Begins with phenomenon of

interest then investigates the

full nature of the phenomenon,
Explanatory Research
the manner in which it is
manifested and the other
factors to which it is related.*The goal is to
understand the
underpinnings of
specific natural
phenomena and to
explains systematic
relationships among

Suggested topics
*information about the quality of HEIs, schools, review centers as source for
improved student/parent choice.
*the information system of schools to reach out to their students
*organizational capabilities of an institution
*tracer studies, employment experience of graduates
*profiling and typology of (schools, HEIs) in the following __________
*socio-economic profile of students in the public schools, vendors, profile of
labor force in different barangays (learn to use secondary data from NSO,
NEDA) any competent agencies
*evaluation of projects conducted in the school or any agency
*partnership between institutions and industries or agencies in the
* Food security
* poverty alleviation
*effect of global warming on education sector
*Gender studies

*improving schooling for language minorities

**Multilingual language instruction in the classroom
* Multicultural classroom
* Mapping of reading programs of different schools,
* evaluation of schools materials that may encourage
reading or any cognitive development
*Multi language teaching
*Childrens language development in a multi language or
multicultural environment
*association of Reading, language and play
* childrens language development
* educating children with special needs in speech or
language difficulties.


in computer games, TV shows its effects

on reading and English communication
*development of standardized English test or
English proficiency test for First Year, 2nd, 3rd,
4th year.
*employment status of ABE graduates 20______
*Effectiveness of mother tongue language users
in their English communication
*Culture in the farming community in ______
*Culture of drivers (or groups)

*Income and Expenditure pattern of employees

*Profile of vendors in Bayambang
*Business opportunities in Bayambang
*Problems affecting socio economic progress
*Factors behind the socio- economic growth of jobless people
*Commodity flow for priority products in ____
*Reluctance of local entrepreneurs to tap the export market
*Determining the competitiveness of recreational facilities in
*Values and attitudes of _____ students towards
*Energy conservation measures in _______
*Assessment of policy implementation of RA___ (solid waste

*Role of community organizations in the developmental

*Educational institution and business partnership in
*Manpower and instructional capabilities of PSU or (any
SUC or private higher education institution)
*Assessment of impact of government projects ______ to
job generation
*Effectiveness of law enforcement of traffic rules in
*Barangay budgetary allocations on basic social services
*Training needs analysis of different sectors in Bayambang

is best learned by doing it,
not copying it.

you have not done anything in research
unless you have written and
communicated it.
The future of the world is in our
hands. Research improves the
quality of life.