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Assalamualaikum wr. Wb.

Good afternoon my friends.


At 1st, lets thanks to Allah, who gave us His bless so that we can still in good
healthy and can join in this course today.
Then, sholawat and salam to our prophet Muhammad, who teachs us a knowledge
so that we can different good and bad.

Okay, in this afternoon, we would like to present our project which the title is HIV
and its prevention.
Where I, Uli Martha Hasibuan as presentator, Erfandi Junandar as 2 nd answerer, and
as our moderator.

Slide 1
As an introduction, we will explain that:
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus
family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in
humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening
opportunistic infections.
So, HIV is the virus, and AIDS is the disease.

Slide 2
Origins.
HIV is thought to have originated in non-human primates in sub-Saharan Africa and
was transferred to humans late in the 19th or early in the 20th century.
Then the virus spread and contaminating most of continent in this world.
From picture 1, it shows us that the adult hiv prevalence for sub Saharan Africa is
about more than 25 %. Then following by other country with less than that
prevalence. For Indonesia, the adult hiv prevalence is about 0,1 0,5 %.
The 2nd picture shows us that the most estimated people with hiv is in sub Saharan
Africa, north America and u.s for about more than 1.000.000 people. For Indonesia,
it is about 100.000 500.000 people.

Slide 3
This is the empirical data from UNAIDS in 2007.

As you see, the most estimated adult prevalence of hiv infection is in sub Saharan
Africa for 20.9 24.3 million people with 1.6 million child and adult death.
Next is in south and south east Asian including indonesia for about 3.3 5.1 million
adults in hiv infection with 270.000 child and adult death.
And so on.
With the sum in worldwide is 30.6 36.1 estimated adult in hiv infection with 1.9
2.4 million child and adult death.

Slide 4
Structure.
HIV is different in structure from other retroviruses. It is roughly spherical with a
diameter of about 120 nm, around 60 times smaller than a red blood cell, yet large
for a virus.
This is, in turn, surrounded by the viral envelope that is composed of two layers of
fatty molecules called phospholipids taken from the membrane of a human cell
when a newly formed virus particle buds from the cell. Embedded in the viral
envelope are proteins from the host cell and about 70 copies of a complex HIV
protein that protrudes through the surface of the virus particle. [68] This protein,
known as Env, consists of a cap made of three molecules called glycoprotein (gp)
120, and a stem consisting of three gp41 molecules that anchor the structure into
the viral envelope.
The body of the virus consist of viral RNA, protease and integrase enzyme on it, and
reverse-transcriptase enzyme which surrounded by capsid and protected by matrix.

Slide 5
Transmissions.
HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the
bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid,
preseminal fluid, and breast milk. This transmission can involve anal, vaginal or oral
sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange between
mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding or other exposure to
one of the above bodily fluids.
As conclusion, hiv transmitted by
1. sexual contact
2. blood product
3. perinatal transmission

Slide 10

The gross cycle of HIV are:


HIV enters macrophages and CD4+ T cells by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its
surface to receptors on the target cell followed by fusion of the viral envelope with
the cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell.
Entry to the cell begins through interaction of the trimeric envelope complex (gp160
spike) and both CD4 and a chemokine receptor (generally either CCR5 or CXCR4,
but others are known to interact) on the cell surface.
After HIV has bound to the target cell, the HIV RNA and various enzymes, including
reverse transcriptase, integrase, ribonuclease, and protease, are injected into the
cell. the viral single-strand RNA genome is transcribed into double-strand DNA,
which is then integrated into a host chromosome.
Shortly after the viral capsid enters the cell, an enzyme called reverse transcriptase
liberates the single-stranded (+)RNA genome from the attached viral proteins and
copies it into a complementary DNA (cDNA) molecule. Together, the cDNA and its
complement form a double-stranded viral DNA that is then transported into the cell
nucleus. The integration of the viral DNA into the host cell's genome is carried out
by another viral enzyme called integrase.
During viral replication, the integrated DNA provirus is transcribed into mRNA,
which is then spliced into smaller pieces. The full-length RNA is actually the virus
genome; it binds to the Gag protein and is packaged into new virus particles

Slide 11
For more information about the infection process, lets see this video.

Slide 12
There are no medicine exactly to cure the HIV. As conclusion, we just only can
prevent ourself with this action:
1. in sexual contact
During sexual contact, use condom. Use a latex condom for male and polyurethane
condom for female.
2. contamination blood product
Use as gloves, masks, protective eyeware or shields, and gowns, etc to prevent
from contaminating bloods.
3. drugs
Dont use drugs and avoid needle-exchange.
4. Education
Health education and sex education can improve our knowledge and control our sex
behaviour.

Okay, that is our presentation. Sorry if our presentation is not good. Then, we will go
to the next session, question session.

We divided this session in 2. At 1st, we are pleased to 2 person to ask, and in the 2 nd,
we are pleased 2 person to ask, too.
So, if you have a question, please stand up and introduce yourself.