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Chapter 7

H YDRAULICS

INTRODUCTION
The application of hydraulics in rotary drilling is simultaneously simple in concept and difficult to
achieve on the rig. Simplicity results from the purity of the mathematics involved in the study of
hydraulics.
Few components of the overall drilling system offer the possibility of concise, arithmetic
conclusions. Analysis of the various parts of a hydraulics program, however, can lead drilling
engineers to clear conclusions.
Unfortunately, things clear to engineers are not always clear to other drilling personnel.
Consequently, most rigs drill with mediocre bit cleaning (hydraulics). Rig supervisors often are
reluctant to participate in or even accept the thesis that improved hydraulics will always result in
an increase in drilling efficiency.

CLASSIC HYDRAULICS
Various approaches to hydraulics have been developed since early work done circa 1948. To
include a summary of the principal, workable methods would be overly burdensome and
potentially confusing. A simple and practical method exists which is termed "classical" by some
in drilling. Commonly, bit hydraulic horsepower is optimized, or rather maximized, in order to
improve bit cleaning. Hydraulic horsepower can be computed by the following equation:
Hp =

PQ
1,714

Equation 7-1

Bit hydraulic horsepower, Hp bit , then is given by Equation 7-2:

Hpbit =

Pbit Q
1,714

Equation 7-2

In virtually all drilling situations, pump pressure or standpipe pressure is limited by either
equipment design or arbitrarily limited by someone on the rig. In either case, the following
procedure has been used to maximize Hp bit :
1. Write an equation relating Hp bit to the available power in the system.
2. Differentiate the equation with respect to independent variables and set the first
differential equal to zero.
3. Solve the equation developed in Step 2 to see if a maximum or minimum has
resulted.

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7-1

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7

Example 7-1
Given:

Equations 7-1 and 7-2.

Determine:

Derive a general relationship for maximum Hp bit

Solution:

Step 1. From Chapter 6 Pressure Losses in the Circulating System:


Ps = Pc + Pbit

Equation 7-3

Pc = KQ s

Equation 7-4

Hp s = Hp c + Hp bit

Equation 7-5

Also:

Substituting Equation 7-1 into Equation 7-5 yields:

Ps Q
PQ P Q
= c + bit
1,714 1,714 1,714

Equation 7-6

Rearranging and canceling the 1,714:


Pbit Q = Ps Q Pc Q

Equation 7-7

Substituting Equation 7-4 into Equation 7-7:


Pbit Q = Ps Q KQ s +1

Equation 7-8

Step 2. Differentiating and setting equal to zero:


Pbit = 0

Ps (s + 1)KQ s = 0

Minimum

Equation 7-9

Maximum

Equation 7-10

Step 3. Substituting Equation 7-4 into Equation 7-10:

7-2

Ps (s + 1)Pc = 0

Equation 7-11

Ps = (s + 1)Pc

Equation 7-12

1
Pc =
Ps
s + 1

Equation 7-13

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Drilling Practices
Hydraulics

Therefore, a maximum value of hydraulic horsepower at the bit develops when Pc is a defined
fraction of Ps , so long as Ps is also at the maximum selected pressure. If the common value of
s = 1.86 is used, then Hp bit is maximum when:
Pc = 0.35Ps

Equation 7-14

Pbit = 0.65Ps

Equation 7-15

It is then clear that the only way to increase Hp bit in any fixed situation is to increase standpipe
pressure, Ps . It is also clear that any arbitrary decisions to limit pump pressure is also a
decision to limit hydraulic horsepower at the bit (bit cleaning) and is also a decision to reduce
drilling rate. Credit for such a decision should certainly be borne by the individual responsible
for making it.
Hydraulic impact force at the bit can be maximized to promote bit cleaning as a reasonable
alternative to maximizing Hp bit . The procedure used in Example 7-2 in maximizing impact force
is similar to that used in Example 7-1. Equation 7-16 is used to define impact force.
IF =

mVn Q

Equation 7-16

1,932

Example 7-2
Given:

Equation 7-16 and the data in Example 7-1.

Determine:

Derive a relationship for maximizing impact force, IF , at the bit.

Solution:

Step 1. Equation 7-17 can be used to calculate the pressure drop across
the bit nozzles.
Pbit =

mVn2

Equation 7-17

1,120

Substituting Equation 7-3 and 7-4 into Equation 7-17 yields:

mVn2

= Ps KQ s

1,120

Equation 7-18

Rearranging Equation 7-18:

P KQ s
Vn = s
m

1,120

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1
2

Equation 7-19

7-3

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7

Substituting Equation 7-16 into Equation 7-19:

Q P KQ s
IF = m s
m
1,932
1,120

1/ 2

Equation 7-20

Simplifying:

IF = APs Q 2 AKQ s + 2

1/ 2

Equation 7-21

where A is a constant equal to:


A=

m
3,333

Step 2. Differentiating and setting equal to zero:

d (IF ) d APs Q 2 AKQ s + 2


=
dQ
dQ

0=

1
APs Q 2 AKQ s +2
2

1/ 2

] [2AP Q (s + 2)AKQ ]
1/ 2

s +1

0 = 2 APs Q A(s + 2)KQ s +1


0 = 2 APs Q A(s + 2)Pc Q

Step 3.
0 = 2Ps (s + 2)Pc

2
Pc =
Ps
s + 2

Equation 7-22

Using the common value s = 1.86 then maximum impact force


occurs when:
Pc = 0.52Ps

Equation 7-23

Pbit = 0.48Ps

Equation 7-24

Similar to bit horsepower, the maximum impact force possible is seen to be dependent upon the
maximum standpipe pressure used. Figure 7-1 shows a plot of horsepower and impact force
versus flow rate. At some flow rate, the horsepower and impact force are a maximum. The

7-4

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Drilling Practices
Hydraulics

maximum surface pressure in Figure 7-1 is 3,000 psi. Note that the maximum impact force will
always be at a higher flow rate than the maximum horsepower.
1400

1200
IMPACT FORCE

1000

Hp or IF

800

600

400
HORSEPOWER
200

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Flow Rate, Q
Figure 7-1. Plot of

Hp and IF versus Flow Rate showing Maximums

Example 7-3 illustrates methods for hydraulics planning and compares the results for two values
of allowable standpipe pressures. In the planning phase, pressure losses are calculated at
various depths and nozzle sizes are determined for various depth ranges.

Example 7-3
Given:

Hole size is 8"


Interval to be drilled is from 9,000 ft. to 16,000 feet.
Drill pipe is 4", 16.60 ppf, with XH connections
The inside diameter is 3.826"

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7-5

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7

Drill collars are 6 by 2" and 600 feet long.


Mud Properties are m = 16 ppg , PV = 25 , Yp = 12
Both Mud Pumps are Emsco F-800's
F-800 Pump data. The rated speed is 150 spm
Table 7-1. Liner Ratings and Output Volumes for an F-800 Pump

Determine:

Solution:

LINER SIZE

MAX Ps

GPS

6"

2,120

3.88

6"

2,490

3.30

5"

2,965

2.78

5"

3,590

2.29

Nozzle sizes to be used at 9,000, 12,000 and 15,000 feet using two
cases.
Case 1:

Save old pump, Maximum Ps = 2,500 psi and maximum


spm =110.

Case 2:

Pump is as good as manufacturer says it is, run according


to design parameters (150 spm and liner rating).

Case 1 :
In Case 1 the maximum surface pressure will be 2,500 psi.
The liner with a 2,500 psi rating is 6 inches. The maximum flow rate is
calculated as follows:
Qmax = (3.30 gps )(110 spm ) = 363 gpm

First, calculate the pressure losses in the circulating system using the
equations given in Chapter 6: "Pressure Losses in the Circulating
System." Since this is for planning purposes, the pressure losses in the
surface connections will be ignored. Calculate the pressure losses in the
drill pipe. The length of drill pipe at a total depth of 9,000 feet will be
8,400 feet. (Total depth less the length of the drill collars.) Assume a
flow rate of 200 gpm.

Pdp =

Pdp =

7-6

7.68 10 5 m 0.81Q 1.81PV 0.19 l


D 4.83

7.68 10 5 (16 )

(200 )1.81 (25 )0.19 (8,400 ) = 252 psi


(3.826 )4.83
0.81

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Drilling Practices
Hydraulics

Calculate the pressure losses in the drill collars:

( )

7.68 105 m

Pdc =

0.81 1.81

PV 0.19l

D 4.83

7.68 10 5 (16 )

Pdc =

(200 )1.81 (25 )0.19 (600 ) = 233 psi


(2.25 )4.83
0.81

Calculate the pressure losses in the drill collar annulus. The rheology
constants n and k must be calculated first.
2PV + Yp

n = 3.32 log
PV + Yp

(2)(25) + 12
n = 3.32 log
= 0.7743
25 + 12
k=

k =

PV + Yp
511n

25 + 12
5110.7743

= 0.3567

Calculate the annular velocity around the drill collars.

24.5Q

v =

(D

v =

(24.5)(200 )

2
h

(8.5

D p2

6.5 2

) = 163 fpm

Calculate pressure losses in the drill collar annulus.


n

2n + 1
kl

3n 300 (Dh D p )

Pdca

2.4v
=

Dh D p

Pdca

(2.4)(163 ) (2)(0.7743 ) + 1
=

8.5 6.5 (3)(0.7743 )

0.7743

(0.3567 )(600 )
300(8.5 6.5 ) = 20 psi

Calculate the pressure losses in the drill pipe annulus.


v =

( 24.5)(200 )

(8.5

4.5 2

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) = 94fpm
7-7

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7

( 2.4)(94 ) ( 2)(0.7743 ) + 1
Pdpa =

8.5 4.5 (3)(0.7743 )

0.7743

(0.3567 )(8,400 )
300 (8.5 4.5 ) = 55 psi

Calculate the pressure at the surface.

Pc = Pdp + Pdc + Pdca + Pdpa

Pc = 252 + 233 + 20 + 55 = 560 psi


The same calculations are made at one other flow rate. In this case, a
flow rate of 500 gpm was selected. Any reasonable flow rate will suffice.
Table 7-2 shows the calculated results at 9,000 feet.
Table 7-2. Pressure Losses at 9,000 ft

PC =

Pdp +

Pdc +

Pdca +

Pdpa

200

560

252

233

20

55

500

2,734

1,321

1,226

57

130

The same calculations are made at 12,000 and 15,000 feet. The results
of those calculations are presented in Table 7-3 and Table 7-4.
Table 7-3. Pressure Losses at 12,000 ft

PC =

Pdp +

Pdc +

Pdca +

Pdpa

200

669

342

233

20

74

500

3,252

1,793

1,226

57

176

Table 7-4. Pressure Losses at 15,000 ft

PC =

Pdp +

Pdc +

Pdca +

Pdpa

200

777

431

233

20

93

500

3,771

2,265

1,226

57

223

The point where Hp bit is maximum is defined by Equation 7-14 and


Equation 7-15 when the maximum surface pressure is used. In Case 1,

7-8

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Drilling Practices
Hydraulics

the maximum surface pressure is 2,500 psi. Calculate the pressure


losses in the circulating system and at the bit when the bit horsepower is
maximized.
Pc = 0.35Ps
Pc = (0.35 )( 2,500 ) = 875 psi
Pbit = 0.65Ps
Pbit = (0.65 )( 2,500 ) = 1,625 psi

The same calculations are made where impact force is maximized using
Equation 7-23 and Equation 7-24.
Pc = 0.52Ps
Pc = (0.52 )( 2,500 ) = 1,300 psi
Pbit = 0.48Ps
Pbit = (0.48 )( 2,500 ) = 1,200 psi

For the horsepower method and the impact force method, the pressure
losses in the circulating system, Pc , will be 875 psi and 1,300 psi,
respectively. Figure 7-2 can be plotted with the previously determined
data. It is a plot of flow rate versus pressure losses in the circulating
system. The pressure losses in the circulating system include all
pressure losses except pressure drop across the bit. The graph is used
to determine the flow rate at, which Pc is equivalent to 875 and 1,300 psi.
In the graph, plot the pressure losses at 9,000, 12,000 and 15,000 feet
from Table 7-2 through Table 7-4. Plot the pressure losses in the
circulating system where horsepower and impact force will be maximized.
In addition, the maximum flow rate can be placed on the graph. The point
where the Pc line for horsepower and impact force crosses the Pc line for
each depth is the desired flow rate.
The desired flow rates can also be determined mathematically. The slope
of the Pc line can be determined from the information in Table 7-2.

s=

s=

Log (P2 ) Log (P1 )


Log (Q2 ) Log (Q1 )

Equation 7-25

Log (2,734 ) Log (560 )


= 1.7304
Log (500 ) Log (200 )

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7-9

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7

For the horsepower method, the flow rate where Pc is equal to 875 psi
can be calculated.

1.7304 =

Log (875 ) Log (560 )


Log (Q2 Log (200 ))

Q2 = 259 gpm

10000

15,000'
12,000'
294

Circulating Pressure Loss, psi

270

9,000'
325

Pc Max IF = 1300
1000

Pc Max Hp = 875

214

259

234

Q Max = 363
100
100

1000
Flow Rate, Q

Figure 7-2. Plot of Flow Rate versus Circulating Pressure Loss for Case 1

7-10

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Drilling Practices
Hydraulics

This can be done for each depth using both method: impact force and
horsepower. Table 7-5 and Table 7-6 show the results for Case 1.
Table 7-5. Results based on Horsepower Method for Case 1

DEPTH

Pc

Pbit

NOZ's

Hp bit /in2

IF/in2

9,000

875

1,625

259

10,10,11

4.32

12.74

12,000

875

1,625

234

10,10,9

3.91

11.51

15,000

875

1,625

214

10,9,9

3.58

10.56

Table 7-6. Results based on Impact Force Method for Case 1

DEPTH

Pc

Pbit

NOZ's

Hp bit

IF

9,000

1,300

1,200

325

12,12,13

4.02

13.76

12,000

1,300

1,200

294

12,12,12

3.63

12.44

15,000

1,300

1,200

270

12,11,11

3.33

11.40

The nozzle sizes are calculated based on Pbit and the flow rate as follows
using the equation from Chapter 6: Pressure Losses in the Circulating
System:

Pbit =

( )

9.14 10 5 m Q 2
An2

For the horsepower method at 9,000 feet:

1,625 =

9.14 10 5 (16)(259 ) 2
An2

An = 0.2457in2
Nozzle diameters are available in 32nd's of an inch and most bits are run
with three nozzles. Equation 7-26 can be used to calculate the average
nozzle diameters with any number of nozzles.

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7-11

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7

Sn =

1,304 An
Nn

Equation 7-26

The average nozzle diameter would then be:


Sn =

(1,304 )(0.2457 ) = 10.33


3

The required nozzles would be 10,10,11.


Case 2:
The same calculations are made for Case 2 as Case 1
except that the maximum surface pressure will now be 3,590 psi. The
maximum flow rate with 5 inch liners will be:
Qmax = ( 2.29 gps )(150 spm ) = 343 gpm

The pressure losses in the system would remain the same, so Table 7-2
through Table 7-4 are applicable for Case 2 also. However, Pc for both
methods will be different because they are a function of the maximum
surface pressure.
For the horsepower method:
Pc = (0.35 )(3,590 ) = 1,256 psi
Pbit = (0.65 )(3,590 ) = 2,334 psi

For the impact force method:


Pc = (0.52 )(3,590 ) = 1,867 psi
Pbit = (0.48 )(3,590 ) = 1,723 psi

Figure 7-3 is a graphical plot of the data for Case 2. Table 7-7 and Table
7-8 show the results of the analysis.
Table 7-7. Results for Case 2 based on HorsePower Method

7-12

DEPTH

Pc

Pbit

NOZ's

Hp bit /in2

IF/in2

9,000

1,256

2,334

319

11,11,10

7.65

18.82

12,000

1,256

2,334

288

10,10,10

6.91

17.01

15,000

1,256

2,334

264

10,10,9

6.34

15.60

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Drilling Practices
Hydraulics

The jet sizes are calculated the same way as in Case 1. Note in Figure
7-3 that the circulation rate at 9,000 and 12,000 feet exceed the
maximum flow rate with 5 inch liners. Therefore, Table 7-8 shows the
maximum flow rate of 343 gpm at these depths.
Table 7-8. Results for Case 2 based on Impact Force Method

DEPTH

Pc

Pbit

NOZ's

Hp bit /in2

IF/in2

9,000

1,378

2,212

343

11,11,11

7.79

19.72

12,000

1,637

1,953

343

11,11,12

6.87

18.52

15,000

1,867

1,723

333

11,12,12

5.89

16.71

10000

15,000'
362
12,000'
333

401

Circulating Pressure Loss, psi

9,000'

Pc Max IF = 1867
Pc Max Hp = 1256
1000

264

319

288

Q Max = 343
100
100

1000
Flow Rate, Q

Figure 7-3. Plot of Flow Rate versus Circulating Pressure Loss for Case 2

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7-13

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7

Comparison of the results computed for Case 1 and Case 2, leads to several noteworthy
conclusions for the 5" liner situation:
1. Case 2 results in a bit horsepower gain from 3.58 Hp/in2 to 6.34 Hp/in.2 at 15,000
feet. This represents an increase of 77%.
2. Case 2 requires a total output of only 555 HP at 15,000 feet. (P=3,590 psi, Q=265
GPM) for maximized Hp bit . This would require only 77% of rated input power or 617
HP at 90% mechanical efficiency.
3. Dependent upon depth of the drilling operations, Case 2 represents increases in
impact force of 42% to 47% over Case 1.
4. Any gains seen in Case 2 are realized without exceeding design limits of the rig's
pumps. If the contractor pays for a stated capacity and the operator contracts for a
stated capacity, how can either reasonably justify using less? Remember, 77% of
rated capacity is all that is needed to gain a significant level of bit hydraulic
horsepower in this example.
The method defined above as being "classical" can be summarized as follows:
1. On a log Q versus log P plot, mark equipment limitations, i.e., maximum volumes for
liners selected. If used, an arbitrarily selected maximum standpipe pressure should
also be shown.
2. Predict pressure/volume behavior at various depths of interest. The depths used can
be arbitrarily selected or selected based on anticipated trips from the bit program.
3. Mark lines representing the desired system pressure loss, Pc , which is dependent
upon the hydraulic design criterion (maximized Hp bit or maximized IF ).
4. From the intercepts of desired Pc and Pc 's predicted, determine flow rates, Q, to be
used at various depths.
5. The difference between the selected maximum pressure, Ps , and the desired
circulating pressure, Pc , is the bit nozzle pressure loss, Pbit , to be used at a specific
depth and circulating rate. Select nozzles that most nearly provide the Pbit needed
at the Q selected for each bit run.
Hydraulic slide rules or charts provided by bit manufacturers have simplified hydraulics
planning. Approximately one hour of engineering time would be required to plan hydraulics for a
typical 15,000 foot well with the use of charts or hydraulic slide rules. Hand-held calculators and
computers can reduce the planning time to approximately 15 minutes for a typical 15,000 ft.
well. Further, the use of well written programs with such calculators places the power for good
planning in the hands of rig personnel. The industry no longer must tolerate mediocre
hydraulics in drilling operations.

7-14

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Drilling Practices
Hydraulics

MAXIMIZING HYDRAULICS USING FIELD DATA


Classical hydraulics will remain useful to the overall drilling operations. Such utility will be
indispensable in the planning phase of drilling, as well as in lending conceptual clarity to the
methods of increasing bit cleaning. Once drilling operations have commenced, however,
additional work can fine-tune the hydraulics plan.
Precise determination of hydraulics parameters is frustrated by the inability to quantify variables.
Hole diameter is not precisely known. Pipe diameters and roughness values vary form joint-tojoint. Significantly, mud rheology changes with temperature, pressure, and shear rate. The
changes in rheology are difficult to know and almost impossible to include in a mathematical
analysis. Fortunately, application of Ken Scott's1 principals elucidates the dilemma.
Earlier, it was shown that the frictional pressure losses in a system are functions of flow rates,
rheological values, hole and pipe diameters, lengths of pipes and mud densities. If, however,
the flow rate, Q , is considered to be the only variable which can be changed rapidly and at will,
then the system pressure loss is frequently written as Equation 7-4.
Pc = KQ s

Equation 7-4 was used in the derivation of Pc versus Ps ratios for maximum Hp bit and for
maximum IF . If Equation 7-4 is written in logarithmic form, then Equation 7-27 results:
Log Pc = Log K + sLog Q

Equation 7-27

Historically, the value of s has been taken to be 1.86. This value may have been statistically
correct over many situations when it was given to the industry decades ago; however, the use of
s = 1.86 often results in errors that can be avoided if s can be determined correctly. That the
value of s is easy to determine on the rig is shown in Example 7-4.
Example 7-4 also demonstrates a method of improving hydraulics performance on the rig as a
result of improved knowledge of the flow characteristics of a specific rig at a certain time.

Example 7-4
Given:

Rig is drilling at 8,430 feet and is preparing to trip for bit. The following
information is given:
Hole size = 9"
Bit is STC F3 w/ 3x18/32" nozzles
Drill collars are 7" by 2" and 582 feet long
Drill pipe is 4", Grade E, 16.6 ppf, with 4" XH connections
The inside diameter of the pipe is 3.826 inches
Mud Properties: m = 12 . 0 ppg , PV = 20 , Yp = 18

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7-15

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7

Circulating rate while drilling 500 gpm at 3,000 psi


The maximum allowable surface pressure is 3,000 psi
The following Ps versus Q data is also given:
Table 7-9. Pressure and Flow Rate Data for Example 7-4

Ps

(gpm)

(psi)

500

3,000

300

1,345

Determine:

The flow rate, nozzle sizes and pressures for the next bit run.

Solution:

First determine the bit nozzle pressure losses from given data.
The area of the nozzles is:
2
S1

2
2
S3
S2
An = +

+
4 32
32
32

An =

Equation 7-28

2
2
18
18
+ + = 0.7455 in 2
4 32
32
32

2
18

Calculate the pressure drop across the bit nozzles at the two flow rates
given in Table 7-9.

Pbit =

Pbit =

Pbit =

9.14 10 5 m Q 2
An2

9.14 10 5 (12)(500 )

(0.7455 )2

9.14 10 5 (12)(300 )

(0.7455 )2

= 493 psi

= 178 psi

The pressure losses in the circulating system, Pc , can be calculated as


shown in Table 7-10.
Next, the slope of the Pc versus Q line must be determined.

7-16

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Drilling Practices
Hydraulics

s=

Log (P2 ) Log (P1 )


Log (Q2 ) Log (Q1 )

s=

Log (2,507 ) Log (1,167 )


= 1.4969
Log (500 ) Log (300 )
Table 7-10. Calculation of Circulating Pressures

Ps

- Pbit

= PC

500

3,000

493

2,507

300

1,345

178

1,167

The value of Pc where horsepower and impact force are a maximum


must be determined. From Equation 7-13:
1
Pc =
Ps
s + 1
1

Pc =
(3,000 ) = 1,201psi
1.4969 + 1
Pbit = Ps Pc
Pbit = 3,000 1,201 = 1,799 psi

From Equation 7-22 for impact force:


2
Pc =
Ps
s + 2
2

Pc =
(3,000 ) = 1,716 psi
1.4969 + 2
Pbit = Ps Pc
Pbit = 3,000 1,716 = 1,284 psi

The data in Table 7-10 and the above calculations can be used to
construct Figure 7-4. This figure can be used to determine the flow rate
where horsepower or impact force will be a maximum. Alternatively, the
flow rates can be calculated as in Example 7-3. The nozzles sizes are
also determined as in Example 7-3. Table 7-11 shows the results of
maximizing the hydraulics on the drilling rig.

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7-17

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7
Table 7-11. Results of Example 7-3

Pc

Pbit

Ps

NOZ's

Hp bit /in2

Vn

IF/in2

Hp t

Before Trip

500

2,507

494

3,000

175

18,18,18

2.03

215

9.42

875

Max. Hp

306

1,201

1,799

3,000

107

10,10,11

4.53

410

10.99

536

Max. IF

388

1,716

1,284

3,000

136

12,12,13

4.11

346

11.78

679

Circulating Pressure Loss, psi

10000

388
306

Pc Max IF = 1716
Pc Max Hp = 1201
1000
100

1000
Flow Rate, Q

Figure 7-4. Plot of Flow Rate versus Circulating Pressure Loss for Example 7-4

As seen from Example 7-4, improving the hydraulics parameters on the rig results in the
following improvements:
1. Bit hydraulic horsepower per square inch, Hp bit /in2, is increased by 123% (2.03 Hp
to 4.53 Hp) while simultaneously reducing total pump output power by 39% (875 Hp
to 536 Hp).
2. By adjusting for maximum impact force, a gain of 25% is realized (9.42 lbf /in2 to
11.78 lbf /in2) while reducing total pump power by 22% (875 Hp to 679 Hp).

7-18

Copyright 2003 OGCI/PetroSkills. All rights reserved

Drilling Practices
Hydraulics

3. In this example, rig personnel were working their heart out to do a good job, but they
were not getting full benefits of their efforts.
Over the past 40 years, various methods of hydraulics planning and conceptual developments
have been published and discussed. Some of the work has been good; some has been either
incorrect or of little value to the industry. The methods described in this chapter have been
effective under a variety of applications. Properly applied, these procedures are totally
satisfactory for all situations.

NOMENCLATURE
A
An

Constant

Area of the nozzles, in2

D
Dh
Dp

Inside diameter of pipe or drill collar, inches

Diameter of hole, inches

Outside diameter of pipe or drill collar, inches

Hp

Horsepower, Hp

Hp bit

Horsepower at the bit, Hp

Hp c

Horsepower in circulating system, Hp

Hp s

Horsepower at the surface (pump hydraulic horsepower), Hp

Hp t

IF

Total horsepower required at the pump fluid end, Hp


Impact force, lbf

Constant

Power Law constant

Length of pipe or drill collars, feet

Nn

Number of nozzles in the bit

Power Law constant, normally the slope of shear stress-shear rate diagram
on log-log plot

P
P1

=
=

Pressure, psi
Circulating pressure loss corresponding to flow rate Q1 , psi

P2

Circulating pressure loss corresponding to flow rate Q2 , psi

Pbit

Pc

Pressure drop at the bit (through jet nozzles), psi


Pressure loss in the circulating system ( Ps Pbit ), psi

Pdc

Pressure loss in the drill collars, psi

Pdca
Pdp

Pressure loss in the drill collar annulus, psi

Pressure loss in the drill pipe, psi

Pdpa

Pressure loss in the drill pipe annulus, psi

Ps

Pressure at the surface (standpipe pressure), psi

PV

Plastic viscosity, cp

Copyright 2003 OGCI/PetroSkills. All rights reserved.

7-19

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7

Q1

Flow rate, gpm


Flow rate corresponding to circulating pressure loss P1 , gpm

Q2

Flow rate corresponding to circulating pressure loss P2 , gpm

Qmax

Maximum Flow rate, gpm

S1

Diameter of nozzle 1, 32nd's of an inch

S2

Diameter of nozzle 2, 32nd's of an inch

S3

Diameter of nozzle 3, 32nd's of an inch

Sn

Average nozzle size, 32nd's of an inch

Slope of pressure versus flow rate on log-log paper

Vn

Nozzle velocity, ft/sec

v
Yp

=
=

Average fluid velocity, fpm


Yield point, lbf/100 ft2

Mud weight, ppg

SI UNITS
The equations given in the chapter are converted to SI units below

PQ
60

Equation 7-1:

Hp =

Equation 7-2:

Hp bit =

Equation 7-16:

IF =

Pbit Q
60

Equation 7-30

mVnQ

Equation 7-31

60

Equation 7-17:

Pbit =

Equation 7-26:

Sn =

Equation 7-28:

An =

7-20

Equation 7-29

mVn2

Equation 7-32

1,810

1.27 An
Nn

[(S )
4

+ (S 2 )2 + (S3 )2

Equation 7-33

Equation 7-34

Copyright 2003 OGCI/PetroSkills. All rights reserved

Drilling Practices
Hydraulics

NOMENCLATURE FOR EQUATIONS IN SI UNITS


A
An

Constant

Area of the nozzles, mm2

D
Dh
Dp

Inside diameter of pipe or dill collar, mm

Diameter of hole, mm

Outside diameter of pipe or drill collar, mm

Hp

Horsepower, kWatts

Hp bit

Horsepower at the bit, kWatts

Hp c

Horsepower mm circulating system, kWatts

Hp s

Horsepower at the surface (pump hydraulic horsepower), kWatts

Hp t

Total horsepower required at the pump fluid end, kWatts

IF

Impact force, Nt

Constant

Consistency index, Pa secn

Length of pipe or drill collars, meters

Nn

Number of nozzles mm the bit

Power Law constant, normally the slope of shear stress-shear rate diagram
on log-log plot

P
P1

=
=

Pressure, kPa
Circulating pressure loss corresponding to flow rate Q1 , kPa

P2

Circulating pressure loss corresponding to flow rate Q2 , kPa

Pbit

Pc

Pressure drop at the bit (through jet nozzles), kPa


Pressure loss mm the circulating system ( Ps Pbit ), kPa

Pdc

Pressure loss mm the drill collars, kPa

Pdca
Pdp

Pressure loss mm the drill collar annulus, kPa

Pressure loss mm the drill pipe, kPa

Pdpa

Pressure loss mm the drill pipe annulus, kPa

Ps

Pressure at the surface (standpipe pressure), kPa

PV
Q

Plastic viscosity, Pa sec

Q1

Flow rate, cubic meters per minute


Flow rate corresponding to circulating pressure loss P1 , cubic meters per

minute
Flow rate corresponding to circulating pressure loss P2 , cubic meters per

Q2

minute
Qmax

Maximum Flow rate, cubic meters per minute

S1

Diameter of nozzle 1, mm

Copyright 2003 OGCI/PetroSkills. All rights reserved.

7-21

Drilling Practices
Chapter 7

S2

Diameter of nozzle 2, mm

S3

Diameter of nozzle 3, mm

Sn

Average nozzle size, mm

Slope of pressure versus flow rate on log-log paper

Vn

Nozzle velocity, m/sec

v
Yp

Average fluid velocity, meters per minute

Yield point, Pa

Mud weight, kg per cubic meter

REFERENCE
1

Scott, K. F.; "A New Practical Approach to Rotary Drilling Hydraulics," SPE 3530, 1971.

7-22

Copyright 2003 OGCI/PetroSkills. All rights reserved