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Judul Asli: Chapter 07 Hydraulics

Diunggah oleh Abrar Hassan

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- 48_50p-4t
- Quizes
- Useful Formulas
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- introduction to Drilling Technology
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- Drilling Hydraulics
- XTRA MATH CHALLENGE'11.doc
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- Rig Selections 296
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H YDRAULICS

INTRODUCTION

The application of hydraulics in rotary drilling is simultaneously simple in concept and difficult to

achieve on the rig. Simplicity results from the purity of the mathematics involved in the study of

hydraulics.

Few components of the overall drilling system offer the possibility of concise, arithmetic

conclusions. Analysis of the various parts of a hydraulics program, however, can lead drilling

engineers to clear conclusions.

Unfortunately, things clear to engineers are not always clear to other drilling personnel.

Consequently, most rigs drill with mediocre bit cleaning (hydraulics). Rig supervisors often are

reluctant to participate in or even accept the thesis that improved hydraulics will always result in

an increase in drilling efficiency.

CLASSIC HYDRAULICS

Various approaches to hydraulics have been developed since early work done circa 1948. To

include a summary of the principal, workable methods would be overly burdensome and

potentially confusing. A simple and practical method exists which is termed "classical" by some

in drilling. Commonly, bit hydraulic horsepower is optimized, or rather maximized, in order to

improve bit cleaning. Hydraulic horsepower can be computed by the following equation:

Hp =

PQ

1,714

Equation 7-1

Hpbit =

Pbit Q

1,714

Equation 7-2

In virtually all drilling situations, pump pressure or standpipe pressure is limited by either

equipment design or arbitrarily limited by someone on the rig. In either case, the following

procedure has been used to maximize Hp bit :

1. Write an equation relating Hp bit to the available power in the system.

2. Differentiate the equation with respect to independent variables and set the first

differential equal to zero.

3. Solve the equation developed in Step 2 to see if a maximum or minimum has

resulted.

7-1

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

Example 7-1

Given:

Determine:

Solution:

Ps = Pc + Pbit

Equation 7-3

Pc = KQ s

Equation 7-4

Hp s = Hp c + Hp bit

Equation 7-5

Also:

Ps Q

PQ P Q

= c + bit

1,714 1,714 1,714

Equation 7-6

Pbit Q = Ps Q Pc Q

Equation 7-7

Pbit Q = Ps Q KQ s +1

Equation 7-8

Pbit = 0

Ps (s + 1)KQ s = 0

Minimum

Equation 7-9

Maximum

Equation 7-10

7-2

Ps (s + 1)Pc = 0

Equation 7-11

Ps = (s + 1)Pc

Equation 7-12

1

Pc =

Ps

s + 1

Equation 7-13

Drilling Practices

Hydraulics

Therefore, a maximum value of hydraulic horsepower at the bit develops when Pc is a defined

fraction of Ps , so long as Ps is also at the maximum selected pressure. If the common value of

s = 1.86 is used, then Hp bit is maximum when:

Pc = 0.35Ps

Equation 7-14

Pbit = 0.65Ps

Equation 7-15

It is then clear that the only way to increase Hp bit in any fixed situation is to increase standpipe

pressure, Ps . It is also clear that any arbitrary decisions to limit pump pressure is also a

decision to limit hydraulic horsepower at the bit (bit cleaning) and is also a decision to reduce

drilling rate. Credit for such a decision should certainly be borne by the individual responsible

for making it.

Hydraulic impact force at the bit can be maximized to promote bit cleaning as a reasonable

alternative to maximizing Hp bit . The procedure used in Example 7-2 in maximizing impact force

is similar to that used in Example 7-1. Equation 7-16 is used to define impact force.

IF =

mVn Q

Equation 7-16

1,932

Example 7-2

Given:

Determine:

Solution:

Step 1. Equation 7-17 can be used to calculate the pressure drop across

the bit nozzles.

Pbit =

mVn2

Equation 7-17

1,120

mVn2

= Ps KQ s

1,120

Equation 7-18

P KQ s

Vn = s

m

1,120

1

2

Equation 7-19

7-3

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

Q P KQ s

IF = m s

m

1,932

1,120

1/ 2

Equation 7-20

Simplifying:

IF = APs Q 2 AKQ s + 2

1/ 2

Equation 7-21

A=

m

3,333

=

dQ

dQ

0=

1

APs Q 2 AKQ s +2

2

1/ 2

] [2AP Q (s + 2)AKQ ]

1/ 2

s +1

0 = 2 APs Q A(s + 2)Pc Q

Step 3.

0 = 2Ps (s + 2)Pc

2

Pc =

Ps

s + 2

Equation 7-22

occurs when:

Pc = 0.52Ps

Equation 7-23

Pbit = 0.48Ps

Equation 7-24

Similar to bit horsepower, the maximum impact force possible is seen to be dependent upon the

maximum standpipe pressure used. Figure 7-1 shows a plot of horsepower and impact force

versus flow rate. At some flow rate, the horsepower and impact force are a maximum. The

7-4

Drilling Practices

Hydraulics

maximum surface pressure in Figure 7-1 is 3,000 psi. Note that the maximum impact force will

always be at a higher flow rate than the maximum horsepower.

1400

1200

IMPACT FORCE

1000

Hp or IF

800

600

400

HORSEPOWER

200

0

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Flow Rate, Q

Figure 7-1. Plot of

Example 7-3 illustrates methods for hydraulics planning and compares the results for two values

of allowable standpipe pressures. In the planning phase, pressure losses are calculated at

various depths and nozzle sizes are determined for various depth ranges.

Example 7-3

Given:

Interval to be drilled is from 9,000 ft. to 16,000 feet.

Drill pipe is 4", 16.60 ppf, with XH connections

The inside diameter is 3.826"

7-5

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

Mud Properties are m = 16 ppg , PV = 25 , Yp = 12

Both Mud Pumps are Emsco F-800's

F-800 Pump data. The rated speed is 150 spm

Table 7-1. Liner Ratings and Output Volumes for an F-800 Pump

Determine:

Solution:

LINER SIZE

MAX Ps

GPS

6"

2,120

3.88

6"

2,490

3.30

5"

2,965

2.78

5"

3,590

2.29

Nozzle sizes to be used at 9,000, 12,000 and 15,000 feet using two

cases.

Case 1:

spm =110.

Case 2:

to design parameters (150 spm and liner rating).

Case 1 :

In Case 1 the maximum surface pressure will be 2,500 psi.

The liner with a 2,500 psi rating is 6 inches. The maximum flow rate is

calculated as follows:

Qmax = (3.30 gps )(110 spm ) = 363 gpm

First, calculate the pressure losses in the circulating system using the

equations given in Chapter 6: "Pressure Losses in the Circulating

System." Since this is for planning purposes, the pressure losses in the

surface connections will be ignored. Calculate the pressure losses in the

drill pipe. The length of drill pipe at a total depth of 9,000 feet will be

8,400 feet. (Total depth less the length of the drill collars.) Assume a

flow rate of 200 gpm.

Pdp =

Pdp =

7-6

D 4.83

7.68 10 5 (16 )

(3.826 )4.83

0.81

Drilling Practices

Hydraulics

( )

7.68 105 m

Pdc =

0.81 1.81

PV 0.19l

D 4.83

7.68 10 5 (16 )

Pdc =

(2.25 )4.83

0.81

Calculate the pressure losses in the drill collar annulus. The rheology

constants n and k must be calculated first.

2PV + Yp

n = 3.32 log

PV + Yp

(2)(25) + 12

n = 3.32 log

= 0.7743

25 + 12

k=

k =

PV + Yp

511n

25 + 12

5110.7743

= 0.3567

24.5Q

v =

(D

v =

(24.5)(200 )

2

h

(8.5

D p2

6.5 2

) = 163 fpm

n

2n + 1

kl

3n 300 (Dh D p )

Pdca

2.4v

=

Dh D p

Pdca

(2.4)(163 ) (2)(0.7743 ) + 1

=

0.7743

(0.3567 )(600 )

300(8.5 6.5 ) = 20 psi

v =

( 24.5)(200 )

(8.5

4.5 2

) = 94fpm

7-7

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

( 2.4)(94 ) ( 2)(0.7743 ) + 1

Pdpa =

0.7743

(0.3567 )(8,400 )

300 (8.5 4.5 ) = 55 psi

The same calculations are made at one other flow rate. In this case, a

flow rate of 500 gpm was selected. Any reasonable flow rate will suffice.

Table 7-2 shows the calculated results at 9,000 feet.

Table 7-2. Pressure Losses at 9,000 ft

PC =

Pdp +

Pdc +

Pdca +

Pdpa

200

560

252

233

20

55

500

2,734

1,321

1,226

57

130

The same calculations are made at 12,000 and 15,000 feet. The results

of those calculations are presented in Table 7-3 and Table 7-4.

Table 7-3. Pressure Losses at 12,000 ft

PC =

Pdp +

Pdc +

Pdca +

Pdpa

200

669

342

233

20

74

500

3,252

1,793

1,226

57

176

PC =

Pdp +

Pdc +

Pdca +

Pdpa

200

777

431

233

20

93

500

3,771

2,265

1,226

57

223

Equation 7-15 when the maximum surface pressure is used. In Case 1,

7-8

Drilling Practices

Hydraulics

losses in the circulating system and at the bit when the bit horsepower is

maximized.

Pc = 0.35Ps

Pc = (0.35 )( 2,500 ) = 875 psi

Pbit = 0.65Ps

Pbit = (0.65 )( 2,500 ) = 1,625 psi

The same calculations are made where impact force is maximized using

Equation 7-23 and Equation 7-24.

Pc = 0.52Ps

Pc = (0.52 )( 2,500 ) = 1,300 psi

Pbit = 0.48Ps

Pbit = (0.48 )( 2,500 ) = 1,200 psi

For the horsepower method and the impact force method, the pressure

losses in the circulating system, Pc , will be 875 psi and 1,300 psi,

respectively. Figure 7-2 can be plotted with the previously determined

data. It is a plot of flow rate versus pressure losses in the circulating

system. The pressure losses in the circulating system include all

pressure losses except pressure drop across the bit. The graph is used

to determine the flow rate at, which Pc is equivalent to 875 and 1,300 psi.

In the graph, plot the pressure losses at 9,000, 12,000 and 15,000 feet

from Table 7-2 through Table 7-4. Plot the pressure losses in the

circulating system where horsepower and impact force will be maximized.

In addition, the maximum flow rate can be placed on the graph. The point

where the Pc line for horsepower and impact force crosses the Pc line for

each depth is the desired flow rate.

The desired flow rates can also be determined mathematically. The slope

of the Pc line can be determined from the information in Table 7-2.

s=

s=

Log (Q2 ) Log (Q1 )

Equation 7-25

= 1.7304

Log (500 ) Log (200 )

7-9

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

For the horsepower method, the flow rate where Pc is equal to 875 psi

can be calculated.

1.7304 =

Log (Q2 Log (200 ))

Q2 = 259 gpm

10000

15,000'

12,000'

294

270

9,000'

325

Pc Max IF = 1300

1000

Pc Max Hp = 875

214

259

234

Q Max = 363

100

100

1000

Flow Rate, Q

Figure 7-2. Plot of Flow Rate versus Circulating Pressure Loss for Case 1

7-10

Drilling Practices

Hydraulics

This can be done for each depth using both method: impact force and

horsepower. Table 7-5 and Table 7-6 show the results for Case 1.

Table 7-5. Results based on Horsepower Method for Case 1

DEPTH

Pc

Pbit

NOZ's

Hp bit /in2

IF/in2

9,000

875

1,625

259

10,10,11

4.32

12.74

12,000

875

1,625

234

10,10,9

3.91

11.51

15,000

875

1,625

214

10,9,9

3.58

10.56

DEPTH

Pc

Pbit

NOZ's

Hp bit

IF

9,000

1,300

1,200

325

12,12,13

4.02

13.76

12,000

1,300

1,200

294

12,12,12

3.63

12.44

15,000

1,300

1,200

270

12,11,11

3.33

11.40

The nozzle sizes are calculated based on Pbit and the flow rate as follows

using the equation from Chapter 6: Pressure Losses in the Circulating

System:

Pbit =

( )

9.14 10 5 m Q 2

An2

1,625 =

9.14 10 5 (16)(259 ) 2

An2

An = 0.2457in2

Nozzle diameters are available in 32nd's of an inch and most bits are run

with three nozzles. Equation 7-26 can be used to calculate the average

nozzle diameters with any number of nozzles.

7-11

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

Sn =

1,304 An

Nn

Equation 7-26

Sn =

3

Case 2:

The same calculations are made for Case 2 as Case 1

except that the maximum surface pressure will now be 3,590 psi. The

maximum flow rate with 5 inch liners will be:

Qmax = ( 2.29 gps )(150 spm ) = 343 gpm

The pressure losses in the system would remain the same, so Table 7-2

through Table 7-4 are applicable for Case 2 also. However, Pc for both

methods will be different because they are a function of the maximum

surface pressure.

For the horsepower method:

Pc = (0.35 )(3,590 ) = 1,256 psi

Pbit = (0.65 )(3,590 ) = 2,334 psi

Pc = (0.52 )(3,590 ) = 1,867 psi

Pbit = (0.48 )(3,590 ) = 1,723 psi

Figure 7-3 is a graphical plot of the data for Case 2. Table 7-7 and Table

7-8 show the results of the analysis.

Table 7-7. Results for Case 2 based on HorsePower Method

7-12

DEPTH

Pc

Pbit

NOZ's

Hp bit /in2

IF/in2

9,000

1,256

2,334

319

11,11,10

7.65

18.82

12,000

1,256

2,334

288

10,10,10

6.91

17.01

15,000

1,256

2,334

264

10,10,9

6.34

15.60

Drilling Practices

Hydraulics

The jet sizes are calculated the same way as in Case 1. Note in Figure

7-3 that the circulation rate at 9,000 and 12,000 feet exceed the

maximum flow rate with 5 inch liners. Therefore, Table 7-8 shows the

maximum flow rate of 343 gpm at these depths.

Table 7-8. Results for Case 2 based on Impact Force Method

DEPTH

Pc

Pbit

NOZ's

Hp bit /in2

IF/in2

9,000

1,378

2,212

343

11,11,11

7.79

19.72

12,000

1,637

1,953

343

11,11,12

6.87

18.52

15,000

1,867

1,723

333

11,12,12

5.89

16.71

10000

15,000'

362

12,000'

333

401

9,000'

Pc Max IF = 1867

Pc Max Hp = 1256

1000

264

319

288

Q Max = 343

100

100

1000

Flow Rate, Q

Figure 7-3. Plot of Flow Rate versus Circulating Pressure Loss for Case 2

7-13

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

Comparison of the results computed for Case 1 and Case 2, leads to several noteworthy

conclusions for the 5" liner situation:

1. Case 2 results in a bit horsepower gain from 3.58 Hp/in2 to 6.34 Hp/in.2 at 15,000

feet. This represents an increase of 77%.

2. Case 2 requires a total output of only 555 HP at 15,000 feet. (P=3,590 psi, Q=265

GPM) for maximized Hp bit . This would require only 77% of rated input power or 617

HP at 90% mechanical efficiency.

3. Dependent upon depth of the drilling operations, Case 2 represents increases in

impact force of 42% to 47% over Case 1.

4. Any gains seen in Case 2 are realized without exceeding design limits of the rig's

pumps. If the contractor pays for a stated capacity and the operator contracts for a

stated capacity, how can either reasonably justify using less? Remember, 77% of

rated capacity is all that is needed to gain a significant level of bit hydraulic

horsepower in this example.

The method defined above as being "classical" can be summarized as follows:

1. On a log Q versus log P plot, mark equipment limitations, i.e., maximum volumes for

liners selected. If used, an arbitrarily selected maximum standpipe pressure should

also be shown.

2. Predict pressure/volume behavior at various depths of interest. The depths used can

be arbitrarily selected or selected based on anticipated trips from the bit program.

3. Mark lines representing the desired system pressure loss, Pc , which is dependent

upon the hydraulic design criterion (maximized Hp bit or maximized IF ).

4. From the intercepts of desired Pc and Pc 's predicted, determine flow rates, Q, to be

used at various depths.

5. The difference between the selected maximum pressure, Ps , and the desired

circulating pressure, Pc , is the bit nozzle pressure loss, Pbit , to be used at a specific

depth and circulating rate. Select nozzles that most nearly provide the Pbit needed

at the Q selected for each bit run.

Hydraulic slide rules or charts provided by bit manufacturers have simplified hydraulics

planning. Approximately one hour of engineering time would be required to plan hydraulics for a

typical 15,000 foot well with the use of charts or hydraulic slide rules. Hand-held calculators and

computers can reduce the planning time to approximately 15 minutes for a typical 15,000 ft.

well. Further, the use of well written programs with such calculators places the power for good

planning in the hands of rig personnel. The industry no longer must tolerate mediocre

hydraulics in drilling operations.

7-14

Drilling Practices

Hydraulics

Classical hydraulics will remain useful to the overall drilling operations. Such utility will be

indispensable in the planning phase of drilling, as well as in lending conceptual clarity to the

methods of increasing bit cleaning. Once drilling operations have commenced, however,

additional work can fine-tune the hydraulics plan.

Precise determination of hydraulics parameters is frustrated by the inability to quantify variables.

Hole diameter is not precisely known. Pipe diameters and roughness values vary form joint-tojoint. Significantly, mud rheology changes with temperature, pressure, and shear rate. The

changes in rheology are difficult to know and almost impossible to include in a mathematical

analysis. Fortunately, application of Ken Scott's1 principals elucidates the dilemma.

Earlier, it was shown that the frictional pressure losses in a system are functions of flow rates,

rheological values, hole and pipe diameters, lengths of pipes and mud densities. If, however,

the flow rate, Q , is considered to be the only variable which can be changed rapidly and at will,

then the system pressure loss is frequently written as Equation 7-4.

Pc = KQ s

Equation 7-4 was used in the derivation of Pc versus Ps ratios for maximum Hp bit and for

maximum IF . If Equation 7-4 is written in logarithmic form, then Equation 7-27 results:

Log Pc = Log K + sLog Q

Equation 7-27

Historically, the value of s has been taken to be 1.86. This value may have been statistically

correct over many situations when it was given to the industry decades ago; however, the use of

s = 1.86 often results in errors that can be avoided if s can be determined correctly. That the

value of s is easy to determine on the rig is shown in Example 7-4.

Example 7-4 also demonstrates a method of improving hydraulics performance on the rig as a

result of improved knowledge of the flow characteristics of a specific rig at a certain time.

Example 7-4

Given:

Rig is drilling at 8,430 feet and is preparing to trip for bit. The following

information is given:

Hole size = 9"

Bit is STC F3 w/ 3x18/32" nozzles

Drill collars are 7" by 2" and 582 feet long

Drill pipe is 4", Grade E, 16.6 ppf, with 4" XH connections

The inside diameter of the pipe is 3.826 inches

Mud Properties: m = 12 . 0 ppg , PV = 20 , Yp = 18

7-15

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

The maximum allowable surface pressure is 3,000 psi

The following Ps versus Q data is also given:

Table 7-9. Pressure and Flow Rate Data for Example 7-4

Ps

(gpm)

(psi)

500

3,000

300

1,345

Determine:

The flow rate, nozzle sizes and pressures for the next bit run.

Solution:

First determine the bit nozzle pressure losses from given data.

The area of the nozzles is:

2

S1

2

2

S3

S2

An = +

+

4 32

32

32

An =

Equation 7-28

2

2

18

18

+ + = 0.7455 in 2

4 32

32

32

2

18

Calculate the pressure drop across the bit nozzles at the two flow rates

given in Table 7-9.

Pbit =

Pbit =

Pbit =

9.14 10 5 m Q 2

An2

9.14 10 5 (12)(500 )

(0.7455 )2

9.14 10 5 (12)(300 )

(0.7455 )2

= 493 psi

= 178 psi

shown in Table 7-10.

Next, the slope of the Pc versus Q line must be determined.

7-16

Drilling Practices

Hydraulics

s=

Log (Q2 ) Log (Q1 )

s=

= 1.4969

Log (500 ) Log (300 )

Table 7-10. Calculation of Circulating Pressures

Ps

- Pbit

= PC

500

3,000

493

2,507

300

1,345

178

1,167

must be determined. From Equation 7-13:

1

Pc =

Ps

s + 1

1

Pc =

(3,000 ) = 1,201psi

1.4969 + 1

Pbit = Ps Pc

Pbit = 3,000 1,201 = 1,799 psi

2

Pc =

Ps

s + 2

2

Pc =

(3,000 ) = 1,716 psi

1.4969 + 2

Pbit = Ps Pc

Pbit = 3,000 1,716 = 1,284 psi

The data in Table 7-10 and the above calculations can be used to

construct Figure 7-4. This figure can be used to determine the flow rate

where horsepower or impact force will be a maximum. Alternatively, the

flow rates can be calculated as in Example 7-3. The nozzles sizes are

also determined as in Example 7-3. Table 7-11 shows the results of

maximizing the hydraulics on the drilling rig.

7-17

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

Table 7-11. Results of Example 7-3

Pc

Pbit

Ps

NOZ's

Hp bit /in2

Vn

IF/in2

Hp t

Before Trip

500

2,507

494

3,000

175

18,18,18

2.03

215

9.42

875

Max. Hp

306

1,201

1,799

3,000

107

10,10,11

4.53

410

10.99

536

Max. IF

388

1,716

1,284

3,000

136

12,12,13

4.11

346

11.78

679

10000

388

306

Pc Max IF = 1716

Pc Max Hp = 1201

1000

100

1000

Flow Rate, Q

Figure 7-4. Plot of Flow Rate versus Circulating Pressure Loss for Example 7-4

As seen from Example 7-4, improving the hydraulics parameters on the rig results in the

following improvements:

1. Bit hydraulic horsepower per square inch, Hp bit /in2, is increased by 123% (2.03 Hp

to 4.53 Hp) while simultaneously reducing total pump output power by 39% (875 Hp

to 536 Hp).

2. By adjusting for maximum impact force, a gain of 25% is realized (9.42 lbf /in2 to

11.78 lbf /in2) while reducing total pump power by 22% (875 Hp to 679 Hp).

7-18

Drilling Practices

Hydraulics

3. In this example, rig personnel were working their heart out to do a good job, but they

were not getting full benefits of their efforts.

Over the past 40 years, various methods of hydraulics planning and conceptual developments

have been published and discussed. Some of the work has been good; some has been either

incorrect or of little value to the industry. The methods described in this chapter have been

effective under a variety of applications. Properly applied, these procedures are totally

satisfactory for all situations.

NOMENCLATURE

A

An

Constant

D

Dh

Dp

Hp

Horsepower, Hp

Hp bit

Hp c

Hp s

Hp t

IF

Impact force, lbf

Constant

Nn

Power Law constant, normally the slope of shear stress-shear rate diagram

on log-log plot

P

P1

=

=

Pressure, psi

Circulating pressure loss corresponding to flow rate Q1 , psi

P2

Pbit

Pc

Pressure loss in the circulating system ( Ps Pbit ), psi

Pdc

Pdca

Pdp

Pdpa

Ps

PV

Plastic viscosity, cp

7-19

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

Q1

Flow rate corresponding to circulating pressure loss P1 , gpm

Q2

Qmax

S1

S2

S3

Sn

Vn

v

Yp

=

=

Yield point, lbf/100 ft2

SI UNITS

The equations given in the chapter are converted to SI units below

PQ

60

Equation 7-1:

Hp =

Equation 7-2:

Hp bit =

Equation 7-16:

IF =

Pbit Q

60

Equation 7-30

mVnQ

Equation 7-31

60

Equation 7-17:

Pbit =

Equation 7-26:

Sn =

Equation 7-28:

An =

7-20

Equation 7-29

mVn2

Equation 7-32

1,810

1.27 An

Nn

[(S )

4

+ (S 2 )2 + (S3 )2

Equation 7-33

Equation 7-34

Drilling Practices

Hydraulics

A

An

Constant

D

Dh

Dp

Diameter of hole, mm

Hp

Horsepower, kWatts

Hp bit

Hp c

Hp s

Hp t

IF

Impact force, Nt

Constant

Nn

Power Law constant, normally the slope of shear stress-shear rate diagram

on log-log plot

P

P1

=

=

Pressure, kPa

Circulating pressure loss corresponding to flow rate Q1 , kPa

P2

Pbit

Pc

Pressure loss mm the circulating system ( Ps Pbit ), kPa

Pdc

Pdca

Pdp

Pdpa

Ps

PV

Q

Q1

Flow rate corresponding to circulating pressure loss P1 , cubic meters per

minute

Flow rate corresponding to circulating pressure loss P2 , cubic meters per

Q2

minute

Qmax

S1

Diameter of nozzle 1, mm

7-21

Drilling Practices

Chapter 7

S2

Diameter of nozzle 2, mm

S3

Diameter of nozzle 3, mm

Sn

Vn

v

Yp

Yield point, Pa

REFERENCE

1

Scott, K. F.; "A New Practical Approach to Rotary Drilling Hydraulics," SPE 3530, 1971.

7-22

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