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Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u

We were commonly aware of 50 Hz fundamental frequency in Distribution and Power Transformers which are
commonly used in the chain of Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution network. The main purpose of
transformer is to either step up or step down the voltage level of power at various point of network for efficient
power transmission and distribution.The power at generating stations is generated at low voltage and high current so
as to minimize the ohmic loss in the lines and to transfer the power to the load centers with less power loss
efficiently this low voltage level of power is to be stepped up to reduce line current hence to reduce ohmic loses and
to get better voltage regulation. Since in this journey of power from generating stations to the load centers, due to
line resistance there will be ohmic loss and due to the line impedance there will be voltage fall or poor voltage
regulation. For efficient distribution and supply this high voltage power is again stepped down at desired distribution
and supply voltage level. All the way the frequency of the transformer and power remain constant.

As the name prefaces the operating frequency of these transformers would be typically around few hundred kilo
hertz. The main significance of these transformers is in Switched Mode Power Supplies. The main conceptual idea of
Switched Mode Power Supply is that it is using energy efficient devices to transfer/convert the Power (A.C./D.C) from
the source to the sink/load. One such energy efficient device is High Frequency Pulse Transformer. The switching
frequency of these SMPSs (Switched Mode Power Supply) system will be very high as a concern it reduces the size of
magnetics (like transformer and inductor) and and it reduces the ripple and so on. In later sessions we will be
discussing about complete design of High frequency transformer from fundamentals for a DC-DC converter as an

There are two main core requirements of High Frequency Transformer in the SMPS system.
1. To match the voltage levels of Source and the Load
2. To provide electrical isolation between the power circuits.

The schematic diagram of the Transformer is as shown below,



Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u

We can basically categorize the transformer circuitry as Electrical Circuit and Magnetic Circuit.


EPCOS B66335GX127

The electrical equivalent circuit of a transformer is shown below,

Where primary electric circuit is represented with a current source representing the relation

and secondary electrical circuit is represented with a voltage source representing the relation

The magnetic equivalent circuit is shown taking a Toroid Core as magnetic medium for common flux,



Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u

Where = permeability of the magnetic medium

V1 = primary voltage
V2= Secondary voltage
N1= Primary turns
N2= Secondary turns
Ac = Effective Core Area.
I1 = Primary Current
I2 = Secondary Current
The normal frequency (50HZ) transformer is classified depending on the Core used as 1. Core type transformer 2.
Shell type transformer. Generally Shell type core is preferred for High frequency transformer. The prime reason for
selecting shell type topology of core for high frequency application is the 3rd harmonic components will circulate with
in primary without entering in to the secondary power circuit which is similar to delta connection. Also as the flux
divides in the outer limbs it offers less
core losses. The commonly used shell core is EE - Core. In general CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain Oriented) Silicon Steel
Ferromagnetic material is used as magnetic core for Power transformers and Distribution transformers. How so ever
in some of the distribution transformers Amorphous Core is used. But in High frequency transformers generally
Ferrite Cores are used. Commonly for frequencies less than 5 MHz manganese-zinc ferrites are used above which
nickel-zinc ferrites are of common choice. These ferrites offers very low coercivity, that means the material's
magnetization can easily in reverse direction without dissipating much energy (hysteresis losses), Even they do not
need core lamination to reduce Eddy Current losses as the Powder core itself offers High resistance. Only concern
with ferrites is its operating maximum flux density is limited to maximum of 0.5 T while it is a maximum of 2.2 T
for ferromagnetic cores and 1.8 T for amorphous cores.

Popularly EE Cores is used to form the Shell type High frequency transformer. Its geometric version is as shown



Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u

Where Ac = Effective Core Area of the transformer where the actual magnetic flux passes. Aw = Window Area, which
provides the accommodation to primary winding, secondary winding and a portion of it to the insulation. Deducing a
relation for Ac (Core Area) and Aw (Window Area) :
The high frequency transformers are also called Pulse transformer as the input voltage wave form commonly applied
to it is a pulse train as depicted in the figure below. The flux waveform is also shown in it which is integral of voltage
waveform from the relation

Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

Where Ts = total switching time period

Let, a1 = area of primary winding

a2 = area of secondary winding
J = Current density of copper
Kw = window space factor.
N1, N2, I1, I2 = No. of turns and current corresponding to primary and secondary



Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u

As discussed earlier Window area of a transformer provides accommodation for primary and secondary winding. But
entire window area is not used for the winding a portion of it is used for insulation therefore a factor Kw is introduced
which is called window space factor or window utilization factor.

From equation 1 and equation 2,

V1 = 48 V, V2 = 400 V and I2 = 3 A. High Frequency (50 kHz) Application. Now we need to design transformer for
above application,
Assumptions: Let the Bm= 0.2 T, J= 3 A/mm2, Kw= 0.35.
From the equation (3) that we have derived, there substituting all the values and finding the value of window and
core area.

After we derive this value, from the data sheets of the Core we need to select the appropriate core. A typical data for
ETD Cores is given below,

ETD 29/16/10


ETD 34/17/11






Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u

ETD 39/20/13


ETD 44/22/15


ETD 49/25/16
ETD 54/28/19
ETD 59/31/22




From the above table we can conclude that ETD 49/25/16 is the required core for our application.

NOTE: The Core Area (Ac) Value is taken from the ETD/49/25/16 Core

Generally for copper conductor the current density J is taken as 3A / mm2.

Once on calculating the mean length of the turn from the geometry of ETD/49/25/16 core the resistance is derived
from formulae,

For ETD 49/25/16 core mean length of a turn = 83 mm

Primary Resistance = 10 , Secondary resistance = 629



Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u

Note: The value of le and Ac is taken from the core magnetic characteristics as shown in the below for
ETD49/25/16 Core. The value of r/ e is taken from core material characteristics. For instance let the core
material is ungapped N27 material. The data for
ETD 49/25/16 Core is shown below.

This completes the



Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u

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Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u

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Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u



Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u



Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer | Electrical4u