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Diunggah oleh Yuvaraj Tan Hong Leong

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TITLE : Additional Mathematics Enrichment Project

NAME

: 5 SN2

FORM

IC NUMBER : 990824-01-5797

TEACHER : PUAN ZUBAIDAH BINTI OSMAN

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This is a pleasure to know that my project had

been completed on time. For that, I would like to

the backbone for me to complete my project.

Firstly, I would like to thank my Additional

Mathematics teacher, Puan Zubaidah binti Osman for

giving me such a golden opportunity to process this

project. I would also like to thank her for his great

guidance and advice which had helped me throughout

my project.

Next, I would like to thank my parents, Mr.Azahar

and Mrs.Khamisah for allocating their time to help me

to complete this project and for giving me some better

ideas to complete this task.

Also, I would like to express my gratitude to my

classmates Mohamad Zultaufiq bin Zulkefli,Yuvaraj Tan

Hong Leong ,Muhammad Aleef Eqmal, Muhammad

Nasharul Syafeeq Bin Mohd Hanafi and all the others

who are involved directly and indirectly in helping me

to complete my project.

Part1

INTRODUCTION

probability by two famous French mathematicians, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de

Fermat. Antoine Gombaud, Chevalier de Mr, a French nobleman with an

interest in gaming and gambling questions, called Pascal's attention to an

apparent contradiction concerning a popular dice game. The game consisted in

throwing a pair of dice 24 times; the problem was to decide whether or not to

bet even money on the occurrence of at least one "double six" during the 24

throws. A seemingly well-established gambling rule led de Mr to believe that

betting on a double six in 24 throws would be profitable, but his own

calculations indicated just the opposite.

This problem and others posed by de Mr led to an exchange of letters between

Pascal and Fermat in which the fundamental principles of probability theory

were formulated for the first time. Although a few special problems on games of

chance had been solved by some Italian mathematicians in the 15th and 16th

centuries, no general theory was developed before this famous correspondence.

The Dutch scientist Christian Huygens, a teacher of Leibniz, learned of this

correspondence and shortly thereafter (in 1657) published the first book on

probability; entitled De Ratiociniis in Ludo Aleae, it was a treatise on problems

associated with gambling. Because of the inherent appeal of games of chance,

probability theory soon became popular, and the subject developed rapidly

during the 18th century. The major contributors during this period were Jakob

Bernoulli (1654-1705) and Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754).

In 1812 Pierre de Laplace (1749-1827) introduced a host of new ideas and

mathematical techniques in his book, Thorie Analytique des Probabilits.

Before Laplace, probability theory was solely concerned with developing a

mathematical analysis of games of chance. Laplace applied probabilistic ideas

mathematics, and statistical mechanics are examples of some of the important

applications of probability theory developed in the l9th century.

Like so many other branches of mathematics, the development of probability

theory has been stimulated by the variety of its applications. Conversely, each

advance in the theory has enlarged the scope of its influence. Mathematical

statistics is one important branch of applied probability; other applications occur

in such widely different fields as genetics, psychology, economics, and

engineering. Many workers have contributed to the theory since Laplace's time;

among the most important are Chebyshev, Markov, von Mises, and

Kolmogorov.

One of the difficulties in developing a mathematical theory of probability has

been to arrive at a definition of probability that is precise enough for use in

mathematics, yet comprehensive enough to be applicable to a wide range of

phenomena. The search for a widely acceptable definition took nearly three

centuries and was marked by much controversy. The matter was finally resolved

in the 20th century by treating probability theory on an axiomatic basis. In 1933

a monograph by a Russian mathematician A. Kolmogorov outlined an axiomatic

approach that forms the basis for the modern theory. (Kolmogorov's monograph

is available in English translation as Foundations of Probability Theory,

Chelsea, New York, 1950.) Since then the ideas have been refined somewhat

and probability theory is now part of a more general discipline known as

measure theory."There are two types of probability theory.One is discrete

probability distribution and the other is continuous probability distribution. If a

random variable is a discrete variable, its probability distribution is called a

discrete probability distribution. A discrete probability distribution is a

distribution characterized by a probability mass function. This distribution is

commonly used in computer programs which help to make equal probability

of discrete probability distribution are binomial distribution, Poisson

distribution, geometric distribution and Bernoulli distribution. For a random

variable is a continuous variable, its probability distribution is called a

continuous probability distribution. A continuous variable is a variable that can

assume any infinite values that lies within an interval.

PART 2

NAME

MARKS

(%)

LEE JING YEAN

ONG XIN ROU

TEO YI YUN

ALIFAH ILYANA BINTI ABDULLAH

CHIN JUN NAN

AYU NUR ATHIRAH BT. MOHD JAMRI

MEENA A/P SHANMUGANATHAN

JUSTIN DE SILVA A/L PATRICK

AIN SHUHADA BINTI ARMAN NASUTION

NUR AMIRA ATIQA BINTI MOHD SALLEH

KARTHIKAH A/P THESAN

KONG ZHONG HING

MUHAMMAD ALEEF EQMAL BIN MOHD KHAIRUDIN

LORINA MENTI ANAK BANGSA

HANIS NADHIRAH BINTI MAZLAN

MUHAMMAD NASHARUL SYAFEEQ BIN MOHD HANAFI

YUVARAJ TAN HONG LEONG

NURHAFIZAH BT. SHAFIE

MUHAMMAD LUQMAN BIN NOR AZAHAR

MOHAMAD ZULTAUFIQ BIN ZULKEFLI

INTAN NUR SYAKIRIEN BT MUHARI

MEAN

STANDARD

DEVIATION

71

70

58

46

41

26

24

21

21

20

19

16

15

14

13

11

9

5

3

3

3

3

=

=

20665

= 512

- 541.4929

22

=

(i)

22

23.27

77

19.95

x-

= 20 23.27

19.95

= - 0.164

Probability = 0.4348

Number of students scored

= ( 1 0.4348 ) x

2763

= 1561.65

district

=1562 STUDENTS

1.

Conduct workshops to teach

students exam answering

techniques.

2.

Conduct extra classes to help

the students

3.

Provide free exercise books to

students

4.

Make it compulsory for students

to do at least one additional

mathematics question per day.

taking Addmaths in Pasir Gudang

District is 2763

(ii)

f(x)

0.3

0

z

z = 0.525

0.525 = k 23.27

K =33.74

19.9

5

REFLECTION

REFLECTION

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS

Add Maths

You start from

Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

Then you expand to

Squares, cubes, square roots, and cube roots

And now your are in

Logarithms, differentiation and integration.

I will fill you in my life

I will be with you forever

No life for me without you

I love you, ADD MATHS!!!

REFLECTION

So let's get on the path...

Get our books, papers, pencils and supplies...

And then we'll think....

We'll puzzle and we'll struggle

But we'll keep on working...

REFLECTION

focused on 9, the digit that sits

in the billionth decimal place of pi,

ratio of circumference to width

of the yellow circle that parted the clouds

and he said mathematics is like

hot peppers

takes over what they enter.

TABLE OF CONTENT

N

O

1.

TITLE

2.

PART 1

-HISTORY OF PROBABILITY

-THEORY OF DISCRETE PROBABILITY

DISTRIBUTION

-THEORY OF CONTINUOUS PROBABILITY

DISTRIBUTION

PART 2

3.

PART 3

4.

PART 4

5.

FURTHER EXPLORATION

PAGE

6.

REFLECTION

7.

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

To put it in a nutshell, it is crystal that I had acquired a lot of beneficial

knowledges and advantages by doing this project. I had learn a lot about

probability, trigonometry , linear programming and progression. These will

knowledge definitely be very useful for my future. I had learn on how to do

accurate estimations, the basic calculations used in banks for interest and many

more.

Not only that, through this project work, I learnt the value of being

rational and to think wisely before making any decisions. I also managed to skill

in by using new and various methods to solve problems involving calculations.

In contradiction with the above statements, I also learnt that I must

always be careful and vigilant when I am into calculations especially calculation

that involves big numbers.

very crucial, vital and imperative to have a better future. This is indeed a golden

opportunity for me to do this project ! Thank You.

Part 4

i.

the initial principal and also on the accumulated

interest of previous periods of deposit or loan.

Compound interest can be thought as interest on

interest , and will make a deposit or loan grow at a

faster rate that a simple interest, which is interest

calculated on the principal amount. The rate at

which compound interest accrues depends on the

frequency of compounding. The higher the number

of compounding periods, the greater the

compound interest.

ii.

DEPOSIT YEAR

(RM)

1000

201

MONTH

INTEREST

BANK BALANCE

(RM)

4.17

1004.17

500

500

201

7

201

8

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

4.18

4.20

4.22

4.24

4.25

4.27

4.29

4.31

4.33

4.34

4.36

6.46

1008.35

1012.55

1016.77

1021.01

1025.26

1029.53

1033.82

1038.13

1042.46

1046.80

1051.16

1557.63

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

6.49

6.52

6.54

6.57

6.60

6.63

6.65

6.68

6.71

6.74

6.77

8.88

1564.12

1570.63

1577.18

1583.75

1590.35

1596.97

1603.63

1610.31

1617.02

1623.76

1630.52

2139.40

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

8.91

8.95

8.99

9.03

9.06

9.10

9.14

9.18

9.22

2148.31

2157.26

2166.25

2175.28

2184.34

2193.44

2202.58

2211.76

2220.98

35

36

9.25

9.29

Formula :

A =P

r

k

nt

( )

1+

P = The initial deposit or loan amount

r = The annual interest rate

n = The number of times the interest is compounded per year

t = The number of years the money is invested

A=

1000 1+

0.05

12

( 12 ) (1)

= RM 1051.16

Second Year ( 2017 )

2230.98

2239.52

A=

(1051.16+500) 1+

0.05

12

( 12 ) (1 )

= RM 1630.52

Third Year ( 2018 )

A=

(1630.52+500) 1+

0.05

12

( 12 ) (1)

= RM 2239.52

FINAL ANSWER : RM2239.52

PART 5

HISTORY OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING

LEONID KANTOROVICH

The problem of solving a system of linear inequalities dates back at least as far

as Fourier, who in 1827 published a method for solving them, and after whom

the method of FourierMotzkin elimination is named.

The first linear programming formulation of a problem that is equivalent to the

general linear programming problem was given by Leonid Kantorovich in 1939,

who also proposed a method for solving it. He developed it during World War

II as a way to plan expenditures and returns so as to reduce costs to the army

and increase losses incurred by the enemy. About the same time as Kantorovich,

the Dutch-American economist T. C. Koopmans formulated classical economic

problems as linear programs. Kantorovich and Koopmans later shared the

1975 Nobel prize in economics. In 1941, Frank Lauren Hitchcock also

formulated transportation problems as linear programs and gave a solution very

similar to the later Simplex method; Hitchcock had died in 1957 and the Nobel

prize is not awarded posthumously.

During 19461947, George B. Dantzig independently developed general linear

programming formulation to use for planning problems in US Air Force. In

1947, Dantzig also invented the simplex method that for the first time efficiently

tackled the linear programming problem in most cases. When Dantzig arranged

meeting with John von Neumann to discuss his Simplex method, Neumann

had been working in game theory was equivalent. Dantzig provided formal

proof in an unpublished report "A Theorem on Linear Inequalities" on January

5, 1948. Postwar, many industries found its use in their daily planning.

Dantzig's original example was to find the best assignment of 70 people to 70

jobs. The computing power required to test all the permutations to select the

best assignment is vast; the number of possible configurations exceeds the

number of particles in the observable universe. However, it takes only a moment

to find the optimum solution by posing the problem as a linear program and

applying the simplex algorithm. The theory behind linear programming

drastically reduces the number of possible solutions that must be checked.

The linear programming problem was first shown to be solvable in polynomial

time by Leonid Khachiyan in 1979, but a larger theoretical and practical

breakthrough in the field came in 1984 when Narendra Karmarkar introduced a

new interior-point method for solving linear-programming problems.

IN REAL LIFE

Solve the business problems :With linear programming we can easily solve business problem. It is very

benefited for increase the profit or decrease the cost of business.

Easy work of manager under limitations and condition :Linear programming solve problem under different limitations and conditions , so

It is easy for manager to work under limitations and conditions . It helps manager

to decide in different limitations.

Use in solving staffing problems:With linear programming , we can calculate the number of staff needed in

hospitals ,mines , hotels and other type of business.

Helpful in profit planning :Today linear programming is used for good profit planning and to select best

advertising media

With linear programming we can select best advertising media among a numbers

of media.

Solve the diet problems :With linear programming you can solve the diet problems with minimum cost. It is

very useful for hospitals .There are different elements like vitamins, proteins,

carbohydrates and so on. You can select best quantity of them with minimum cost.

VARIOUS FIELD

Transportation Problem

A company has a stock of goods allocated in m storehouses. The goods are to be

delivered to customers, each of which is requesting a certain quantity of the goods.

(It is supposed that the quantity of the goods in the storehouses is sufficient to

cover the customers requests.) The transportation cost of one unit of the goods

from the storehouse no. i to the customer no. j is c ij for

i = 1, 2, , m and j = 1, 2, , n. The goal is to make up a transportation plan so

that the requests of the customers are met and the total transportation costs are

minimal.

Minimization of production costs

A company produces n different kinds of goods. It has received orders from

customers to supply certain quantity of each kind of the goods. The company

produces the goods by m activities (processes). Each of the activities

no. 1, 2, , m produces all the kinds of the goods no. 1, 2, , n in a certain ratio.

(For example, the distillation of crude oil yields petrol, oil, paraffin oil, asphalt,

The production of iron in the blast furnace yields iron as well as slag, which can be

used in building industry. And so forth.) The unit production costs of the i-the

activity are c i. The goal is to make up an optimal production programme, i.e., to

determine the production level of the activities, so that the orders of the customers

are met and the total production costs are minimal.

Maximization of profit

A company performs n activities. It produces n kinds of goods, provides n kinds of

services, and so forth. The company sells its activities (products, services). Each

unit of the j-th activity sold yields a profit of c j for j = 1, 2, , n. The company

needs m kinds of resources to run its activities. Each of the resources (in the given

period of time) is available only in a certain amount. The goal is to make up an

optimal programme of the activities so that the resources are not overdrawn and

the total profit is maximized.

Equations

1.

2.

3.

4.

3x + y 12

x + y 10

3x + 2y 18

x + y < 10

3x + y = 12

x

12

x + 2y = 10

x

y

0

5

2

4

6

0

3x + 2y = 18

x

y

0

9

6

0

2

6

x + y = 10

x

y

3

7

0

10

10

0

Coordinates : ( 10,0 ) , ( 4,3 ) , ( 2,6 ) , ( 1,9 )

3(10) + 5(0) = RM 30.00

RM 36.00

3(2) + 5(6) =

RM 48.00

3(1) + 5(9) =

b) The expensive cat food = RM 48.00

t

F(t

)

0

0

1

2

3

241 900 180

0

4

270

0

5

6

7

335 3600 335

9

9

PART 3

8

270

0

9

10 11 12

180 900 241 0

0

(i)

Number of customers = 3600

= 11.06 a.m.

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