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# SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN

## TAMAN DESA JAYA

TITLE : Additional Mathematics Enrichment Project

NAME
: 5 SN2

## : MUHAMMAD LUQMAN NOR AZAHAR

FORM

IC NUMBER : 990824-01-5797
TEACHER : PUAN ZUBAIDAH BINTI OSMAN

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This is a pleasure to know that my project had
been completed on time. For that, I would like to

## express my gratitude to some of them who had been

the backbone for me to complete my project.
Firstly, I would like to thank my Additional
Mathematics teacher, Puan Zubaidah binti Osman for
giving me such a golden opportunity to process this
project. I would also like to thank her for his great
my project.
Next, I would like to thank my parents, Mr.Azahar
and Mrs.Khamisah for allocating their time to help me
to complete this project and for giving me some better
Also, I would like to express my gratitude to my
classmates Mohamad Zultaufiq bin Zulkefli,Yuvaraj Tan
Nasharul Syafeeq Bin Mohd Hanafi and all the others
who are involved directly and indirectly in helping me
to complete my project.

Part1
INTRODUCTION

## A gambler's dispute in 1654 led to the creation of a mathematical theory of

probability by two famous French mathematicians, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de
Fermat. Antoine Gombaud, Chevalier de Mr, a French nobleman with an
interest in gaming and gambling questions, called Pascal's attention to an
apparent contradiction concerning a popular dice game. The game consisted in
throwing a pair of dice 24 times; the problem was to decide whether or not to
bet even money on the occurrence of at least one "double six" during the 24
throws. A seemingly well-established gambling rule led de Mr to believe that
betting on a double six in 24 throws would be profitable, but his own
calculations indicated just the opposite.
This problem and others posed by de Mr led to an exchange of letters between
Pascal and Fermat in which the fundamental principles of probability theory
were formulated for the first time. Although a few special problems on games of
chance had been solved by some Italian mathematicians in the 15th and 16th
centuries, no general theory was developed before this famous correspondence.
The Dutch scientist Christian Huygens, a teacher of Leibniz, learned of this
correspondence and shortly thereafter (in 1657) published the first book on
probability; entitled De Ratiociniis in Ludo Aleae, it was a treatise on problems
associated with gambling. Because of the inherent appeal of games of chance,
probability theory soon became popular, and the subject developed rapidly
during the 18th century. The major contributors during this period were Jakob
Bernoulli (1654-1705) and Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754).
In 1812 Pierre de Laplace (1749-1827) introduced a host of new ideas and
mathematical techniques in his book, Thorie Analytique des Probabilits.
Before Laplace, probability theory was solely concerned with developing a
mathematical analysis of games of chance. Laplace applied probabilistic ideas

## to many scientific and practical problems. The theory of errors, actuarial

mathematics, and statistical mechanics are examples of some of the important
applications of probability theory developed in the l9th century.
Like so many other branches of mathematics, the development of probability
theory has been stimulated by the variety of its applications. Conversely, each
advance in the theory has enlarged the scope of its influence. Mathematical
statistics is one important branch of applied probability; other applications occur
in such widely different fields as genetics, psychology, economics, and
engineering. Many workers have contributed to the theory since Laplace's time;
among the most important are Chebyshev, Markov, von Mises, and
Kolmogorov.
One of the difficulties in developing a mathematical theory of probability has
been to arrive at a definition of probability that is precise enough for use in
mathematics, yet comprehensive enough to be applicable to a wide range of
phenomena. The search for a widely acceptable definition took nearly three
centuries and was marked by much controversy. The matter was finally resolved
in the 20th century by treating probability theory on an axiomatic basis. In 1933
a monograph by a Russian mathematician A. Kolmogorov outlined an axiomatic
approach that forms the basis for the modern theory. (Kolmogorov's monograph
is available in English translation as Foundations of Probability Theory,
Chelsea, New York, 1950.) Since then the ideas have been refined somewhat
and probability theory is now part of a more general discipline known as
measure theory."There are two types of probability theory.One is discrete
probability distribution and the other is continuous probability distribution. If a
random variable is a discrete variable, its probability distribution is called a
discrete probability distribution. A discrete probability distribution is a
distribution characterized by a probability mass function. This distribution is
commonly used in computer programs which help to make equal probability

## random selections between a number of choices. The most common applications

of discrete probability distribution are binomial distribution, Poisson
distribution, geometric distribution and Bernoulli distribution. For a random
variable is a continuous variable, its probability distribution is called a
continuous probability distribution. A continuous variable is a variable that can
assume any infinite values that lies within an interval.

PART 2

NAME

MARKS
(%)

## CHEN YUEN YEE

LEE JING YEAN
ONG XIN ROU
TEO YI YUN
ALIFAH ILYANA BINTI ABDULLAH
CHIN JUN NAN
AYU NUR ATHIRAH BT. MOHD JAMRI
MEENA A/P SHANMUGANATHAN
JUSTIN DE SILVA A/L PATRICK
NUR AMIRA ATIQA BINTI MOHD SALLEH
KARTHIKAH A/P THESAN
KONG ZHONG HING
MUHAMMAD ALEEF EQMAL BIN MOHD KHAIRUDIN
LORINA MENTI ANAK BANGSA
MUHAMMAD NASHARUL SYAFEEQ BIN MOHD HANAFI
YUVARAJ TAN HONG LEONG
NURHAFIZAH BT. SHAFIE
INTAN NUR SYAKIRIEN BT MUHARI

MEAN

STANDARD
DEVIATION

71
70
58
46
41
26
24
21
21
20
19
16
15
14
13
11
9
5
3
3
3
3

=
=

20665

= 512

- 541.4929

22
=

(i)

22

23.27
77

19.95

## Probability of students with less than 20 marks

x-

= 20 23.27
19.95
= - 0.164
Probability = 0.4348
Number of students scored
= ( 1 0.4348 ) x
2763

= 1561.65
district
=1562 STUDENTS

## PROGRAMMES TO ACHIEVE TARGETS

1.
Conduct workshops to teach
techniques.
2.
Conduct extra classes to help
the students
3.
Provide free exercise books to
students
4.
Make it compulsory for students
to do at least one additional
mathematics question per day.

District is 2763

(ii)

## Minimum marks for students in elite group

f(x)

0.3

0
z

z = 0.525
0.525 = k 23.27

K =33.74

19.9
5

REFLECTION
REFLECTION

You start from
Then you expand to
Squares, cubes, square roots, and cube roots
Logarithms, differentiation and integration.

## You have no full stop

I will fill you in my life
I will be with you forever
No life for me without you

REFLECTION

## Well, it's time for add math

So let's get on the path...
Get our books, papers, pencils and supplies...
And then we'll think....
We'll puzzle and we'll struggle
But we'll keep on working...

REFLECTION

## A mathematician left the convention

focused on 9, the digit that sits
in the billionth decimal place of pi,
ratio of circumference to width
of the yellow circle that parted the clouds
and he said mathematics is like
hot peppers

## with strong flavour that

takes over what they enter.

TABLE OF CONTENT
N
O
1.

TITLE

2.

PART 1
-HISTORY OF PROBABILITY
-THEORY OF DISCRETE PROBABILITY
DISTRIBUTION
-THEORY OF CONTINUOUS PROBABILITY
DISTRIBUTION
PART 2

3.

PART 3

4.

PART 4

5.

FURTHER EXPLORATION

PAGE

6.

REFLECTION

7.

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION
To put it in a nutshell, it is crystal that I had acquired a lot of beneficial
probability, trigonometry , linear programming and progression. These will
knowledge definitely be very useful for my future. I had learn on how to do
accurate estimations, the basic calculations used in banks for interest and many
more.
Not only that, through this project work, I learnt the value of being
rational and to think wisely before making any decisions. I also managed to skill
in by using new and various methods to solve problems involving calculations.
In contradiction with the above statements, I also learnt that I must
always be careful and vigilant when I am into calculations especially calculation
that involves big numbers.

## Next, I managed to acquire that learning Additional Mathematics is truly

very crucial, vital and imperative to have a better future. This is indeed a golden
opportunity for me to do this project ! Thank You.

Part 4
i.

## Compound interest is an interest calculated on

the initial principal and also on the accumulated
interest of previous periods of deposit or loan.
Compound interest can be thought as interest on
interest , and will make a deposit or loan grow at a
faster rate that a simple interest, which is interest
calculated on the principal amount. The rate at
which compound interest accrues depends on the
frequency of compounding. The higher the number
of compounding periods, the greater the
compound interest.

ii.

DEPOSIT YEAR
(RM)
1000

201

MONTH

INTEREST

BANK BALANCE
(RM)

4.17

1004.17

500

500

201
7

201
8

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

4.18
4.20
4.22
4.24
4.25
4.27
4.29
4.31
4.33
4.34
4.36
6.46

1008.35
1012.55
1016.77
1021.01
1025.26
1029.53
1033.82
1038.13
1042.46
1046.80
1051.16
1557.63

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

6.49
6.52
6.54
6.57
6.60
6.63
6.65
6.68
6.71
6.74
6.77
8.88

1564.12
1570.63
1577.18
1583.75
1590.35
1596.97
1603.63
1610.31
1617.02
1623.76
1630.52
2139.40

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

8.91
8.95
8.99
9.03
9.06
9.10
9.14
9.18
9.22

2148.31
2157.26
2166.25
2175.28
2184.34
2193.44
2202.58
2211.76
2220.98

35
36

9.25
9.29

Formula :
A =P

r
k

nt

( )
1+

## A = The future value of the investment/loan, including interest

P = The initial deposit or loan amount
r = The annual interest rate
n = The number of times the interest is compounded per year
t = The number of years the money is invested

## First Year ( 2016 )

A=

1000 1+

0.05
12

( 12 ) (1)

= RM 1051.16
Second Year ( 2017 )

2230.98
2239.52

A=

(1051.16+500) 1+

0.05
12

( 12 ) (1 )

= RM 1630.52
Third Year ( 2018 )

A=

(1630.52+500) 1+

0.05
12

( 12 ) (1)

= RM 2239.52

PART 5
HISTORY OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING

LEONID KANTOROVICH
The problem of solving a system of linear inequalities dates back at least as far
as Fourier, who in 1827 published a method for solving them, and after whom
the method of FourierMotzkin elimination is named.
The first linear programming formulation of a problem that is equivalent to the
general linear programming problem was given by Leonid Kantorovich in 1939,
who also proposed a method for solving it. He developed it during World War
II as a way to plan expenditures and returns so as to reduce costs to the army
and increase losses incurred by the enemy. About the same time as Kantorovich,
the Dutch-American economist T. C. Koopmans formulated classical economic
problems as linear programs. Kantorovich and Koopmans later shared the
1975 Nobel prize in economics. In 1941, Frank Lauren Hitchcock also
formulated transportation problems as linear programs and gave a solution very
similar to the later Simplex method; Hitchcock had died in 1957 and the Nobel
prize is not awarded posthumously.
During 19461947, George B. Dantzig independently developed general linear
programming formulation to use for planning problems in US Air Force. In
1947, Dantzig also invented the simplex method that for the first time efficiently
tackled the linear programming problem in most cases. When Dantzig arranged
meeting with John von Neumann to discuss his Simplex method, Neumann

## immediately conjectured the theory of duality by realizing that the problem he

had been working in game theory was equivalent. Dantzig provided formal
proof in an unpublished report "A Theorem on Linear Inequalities" on January
5, 1948. Postwar, many industries found its use in their daily planning.
Dantzig's original example was to find the best assignment of 70 people to 70
jobs. The computing power required to test all the permutations to select the
best assignment is vast; the number of possible configurations exceeds the
number of particles in the observable universe. However, it takes only a moment
to find the optimum solution by posing the problem as a linear program and
applying the simplex algorithm. The theory behind linear programming
drastically reduces the number of possible solutions that must be checked.
The linear programming problem was first shown to be solvable in polynomial
time by Leonid Khachiyan in 1979, but a larger theoretical and practical
breakthrough in the field came in 1984 when Narendra Karmarkar introduced a
new interior-point method for solving linear-programming problems.

## IMPORTANCE OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING

IN REAL LIFE

Solve the business problems :With linear programming we can easily solve business problem. It is very
benefited for increase the profit or decrease the cost of business.

Easy work of manager under limitations and condition :Linear programming solve problem under different limitations and conditions , so
It is easy for manager to work under limitations and conditions . It helps manager
to decide in different limitations.
Use in solving staffing problems:With linear programming , we can calculate the number of staff needed in
hospitals ,mines , hotels and other type of business.
Helpful in profit planning :Today linear programming is used for good profit planning and to select best
With linear programming we can select best advertising media among a numbers
of media.
Solve the diet problems :With linear programming you can solve the diet problems with minimum cost. It is
very useful for hospitals .There are different elements like vitamins, proteins,
carbohydrates and so on. You can select best quantity of them with minimum cost.

## USES OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING IN

VARIOUS FIELD

Transportation Problem
A company has a stock of goods allocated in m storehouses. The goods are to be
delivered to customers, each of which is requesting a certain quantity of the goods.
(It is supposed that the quantity of the goods in the storehouses is sufficient to
cover the customers requests.) The transportation cost of one unit of the goods
from the storehouse no. i to the customer no. j is c ij for
i = 1, 2, , m and j = 1, 2, , n. The goal is to make up a transportation plan so
that the requests of the customers are met and the total transportation costs are
minimal.
Minimization of production costs
A company produces n different kinds of goods. It has received orders from
customers to supply certain quantity of each kind of the goods. The company
produces the goods by m activities (processes). Each of the activities
no. 1, 2, , m produces all the kinds of the goods no. 1, 2, , n in a certain ratio.
(For example, the distillation of crude oil yields petrol, oil, paraffin oil, asphalt,
The production of iron in the blast furnace yields iron as well as slag, which can be
used in building industry. And so forth.) The unit production costs of the i-the
activity are c i. The goal is to make up an optimal production programme, i.e., to
determine the production level of the activities, so that the orders of the customers
are met and the total production costs are minimal.
Maximization of profit
A company performs n activities. It produces n kinds of goods, provides n kinds of
services, and so forth. The company sells its activities (products, services). Each
unit of the j-th activity sold yields a profit of c j for j = 1, 2, , n. The company
needs m kinds of resources to run its activities. Each of the resources (in the given
period of time) is available only in a certain amount. The goal is to make up an

optimal programme of the activities so that the resources are not overdrawn and
the total profit is maximized.

Equations
1.
2.
3.
4.

3x + y 12
x + y 10
3x + 2y 18
x + y < 10

3x + y = 12
x

12

x + 2y = 10
x
y

0
5

2
4

6
0

3x + 2y = 18
x
y

0
9

6
0

2
6

x + y = 10
x
y

3
7

0
10

10
0

## ii. Objective Function, k = 3x + 5y

Coordinates : ( 10,0 ) , ( 4,3 ) , ( 2,6 ) , ( 1,9 )
3(10) + 5(0) = RM 30.00
RM 36.00

3(2) + 5(6) =

RM 48.00

3(1) + 5(9) =

## a) The cheapest cat food = RM 27.00

b) The expensive cat food = RM 48.00

t
F(t
)

0
0

1
2
3
241 900 180
0

4
270
0

5
6
7
335 3600 335
9
9

PART 3

8
270
0

9
10 11 12
180 900 241 0
0

(i)

## (ii) Peak hour = 3.00 p.m.

Number of customers = 3600

= 11.06 a.m.