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SKILL 1: BE SURE THE SENTENCE HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB

Anda tahu bahwa sebuah kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris harus memiliki sebuah subjek dan
sebuah kata kerja. Permasalahan yang umum yang akan kamu temui dalam bagian Struktur
dari TOEFL adalah bahwa didalam kalimat terdapat hilangnya subjek, atau kata kerja atau
keduanya, atau terdapat subjek atau kata kerja tambahan.
Kalimat harus terdiri dari satu subjek dan satu kata kerja
Example:
1

Correct Sentences
The girl will be going to the mall with a her boyfriend

Incorrect Sentences
Last weekend went hiking at the Everest mountain

SKILL 2: BE CAREFUL OF OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS


Sebuah objek dari sebuah preposisi ialah kata benda atau kata ganti yang muncul setelah
preposisi seperti in, at, of, try, behind, on, dan lain-lain untuk membentuk suatu frase
prepositional.
Sebuah preposisi selalu diikuti oleh kata benda (noun) atau kata ganti (pronoun). Dan pahami
objek dari preposisi dan contoh-contoh preposisinya.
Example:
1

Correct Sentences
After her graduations my sister will take a trip by plane

Incorrect Sentences
For the last five years at school has been practicing football

SKILL 3: BE CAREFUL OF APPOSITIVES


Appositives dapat menyebabkan kebingungan dalam bagian Structure dalam TOEFL karena
sebuah appositives dapat menjadi kesalahan bagi subjek pada sebuah kalimat. Appositives
merupakan kata benda yang datang sebelum dan sesudah kata benda lain dan memiliki arti
yang sama. Sebuah kalimat yang sudah memiliki appositives, apabila appositives dihilangkan
maka tidak akan merusak kalimat tersebut karena kalimat masih menjadi kalimat lengkap.
Example:
1

Correct Sentences:
1

The insect, a large cockroach with hairy legs, is crawling across the kitchen

table.
Raisa, one of the best female singer in Indonesia, will hold her concert this

month
Incorrect Sentences:
Last week, my uncle, has visited the museum of geology in Singapore
In the summer, her boyfriend, spending the time in the beach together with my
friend

SKILL 4: BE CAREFUL OF PRESENT PARTICIPLES


Present participles dapat menyebabkan kebingungan dalam bagian Structure dalam TOEFL
karena present participle dapat menjadi kesalahan untuk bagian dari verb. Present participle
merupakan bentuk -ing dari verb. Present participle merupakan bagian dari verb ketika
didampingi oleh beberapa bentuk dari verb be.
Example:
1

Correct Sentences:
The girl now swimming over there is my little sister
The woman working as an english teacher is very beautiful
Incorrect Sentences:
the bird was singing on the tree was often talked with my guests
the man is knocking at my door is our new neighbour

SKILL 5: BE CAREFUL OF PAST PARTICIPLE


Pada sesi ini dibahas mengenai penggunaan Past Participle. Past Participle merupakan pola
kalimat yang sering membingungkan dalam Toefl, karena Past Participle dapat berperan
sebagai kata kerja atau kata sifat dalam suatu kalimat. Past Participle berperan sebagai kata
kerja ketika kata kerja bentuk ketiga (Verb 3) diawali dengan have atau be, kata kerja bentuk
ketiga ini umumnya diakhiri dengan ed, namun ada banyak bentuk kata kerja tak beraturan
(irregular verb) yang lainnya dalam Bahasa Inggris, seperti written, taught, cut, dll.
Sebaliknya, Past Participle dapat berperan sebagai kata sifat ketika kata kerja bentuk ketiga
ini tidak diawali dengan have atau be, namun diikuti dengan kata kerja yang lain.
Example:
2

1
2

Correct Sentences
The boy has stolen the money in the grocery.
Incorrect Sentences
The toys were played by the children of the orphan house have already broken.

SKILL 6: USE SENTENCE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY (PATTERN ONE)


Sesi ini membahas mengenai Connector (Conjunction) pada Pola Pertama. Dalam Bahasa
Inggris, terdapat banyak kalimat yang memiliki lebih dari satu klausa (klausa adalah
kelompok kata yang terdiri dari subjek dan kata kerja). Ketika terdapat dua klausa dalam satu
kalimat, maka kedua klausa tersebut harus dihubungkan dengan Connector yang tepat. Dalam
pola ini, Connector yang digunakan adalah and, but, or, dan so, Connector ini diletakkan di
antara kedua klausa tersebut dengan tujuan untuk menghubungkan keduanya menjadi sebuah
kalimat yang utuh.
Example:
1

Correct Sentences
Education is one of the most important things that everybody must have, but some
people in our country still cannot afford it.
Incorrect Sentences
She studied hard last night, so was able to pass the exam easily.

SKILL 7: USE SENTENCE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY (PATTERN TWO)


Kata Penghubung (Connector)
Kata Penghubung (Connectors)
After

Although

Because

Before

Provided

Since

Unless

Until

When

Whenever

Where

Wherever

While

If

Though

Whether

Pola Kalimat
2 kalimat dihubungkan dengan kata penghubung berada di tengah kalimat
S + V + Connectors + S + V
3

2 kalimat dihubungkan dengan kata penghubung berada di awal kalimat, diperlukan


tanda baca koma (,) pada kalimat pertama
Connectors + S + V + (,) + S + V
Example:
1

Correct Sentences
o I am sleeping when you are studying
o Because you study, i leave
Incorrect Sentences
o I am sleeping when you will study
o Because you study i leave (tanpa koma)

SKILL 8: USE SENTENCE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY (PATTERN THREE)


Kata Penghubung (Connector)

Kata Penghubung (Connectors)


How

What Whether

If

When Which

That Where While

Kata penghubung pada pola ketiga ini merupakan kata penghubung yang berubah menjadi
kalimat kata benda (Noun Clause). Kata Penghubung yang diikuti oleh kalimat (S + V) .
Selanjutnya, Noun Clause terbagi dalam 3 kategori, yaitu:
1

Noun Clause as Object of Verb


S + V + Connectors + S + aux.verb + V

Noun Clause menjadi objek bagi Verb sebelumnya.


2

Noun Clause as Object of Preposition


S + V + Preposition + Connectors + S + aux.verb + V

Noun Clause menjadi objek ketika ditempatkan setelah preposition


3

Noun Clause as Subject

Connectors + S + aux.verb + V + aux.verb + V


Noun Clause menjadi subjek karena ditempatkan sebelum Auxiliary Verb/Verb
Example
1

Correct Sentences
She knows what will he do
She knew about what will he do
Correct Sentences
She knew about what have been done
She Knows what does

SKILL 9: USE SENTENCE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY (PATTERN FOUR)


Kata penghubung dalam pola kalimat ini adalah :
What

Which

Who

Whatever

Whichever

Whoever

Di dalam pola ini terdapat dua klausa dimana kedua klausa ini dihubungkan oleh kata
penghubung atau connectors. Disini connectors memiliki 2 fungsi, fungsi pertama adalah
sebagai subjek di salah satu sebuah klausa dan tentu saja sebagai penghubung antara dua
klausa.
Example :
1.

Correct Sentences:
Whoever is playing basketball must clean the court.
2. Incorrect Sentences:
Whoever is played basketball must clean the court.

SKILL 10: USE SENTENCE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY (PATTERN FIVE)


Kata penghubung dalam pola kalimat ini adalah:
That

Which

Who

Pola kalimat dalam skill 10 ini tidak jauh berbeda dengan pola kalimat dalam skill 9. Hanya
saja dalam beberapa situasi kata penghubung atau connectors juga memiliki arti yang sama
dengan objek dalam klausa pertama.
Example :
Correct Sentences : The man is drinking the soda that is on the refrigerator.
Incorrect Sentences : The man is drinks the soda that is on the refrigerator.
Dalam situasi tertentu connectors hanya memiliki sebuah fungsi yaitu menghubungkan 2
klausa.
Example :
Correct Sentences : The man is drinking the soda that he put on the refrigerator.
Incorrect Sentences : The man is drinking the soda that he had put on the refrigerator.
Catatan: kata penghubung who harus ditempatkan di sebuah kalimat yang menampilkan
sebuah situasi dimana who ini harus bisa memiliki 2 fungsi yaitu sebagai subjek dan juga
penghubung. Apabila who hanya memiliki satu fungsi saja maka secara langsung kalimat
tersebut adalah salah karena dapat menyebabkan adanya subjek ganda.

SKILL 11: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH QUESTION WORDS
Terdapat 2 fungsi yang dimiliki oleh kata Tanya seperti when, where, why, what, dan how.
Pertama, kata tersebut berada pada awal pertanyaan. Dalam hal ini, letak dari subjek dan verb
dibalikkan. Kedua kata tanya tersebut dapat digabung dengan dua klausa. Dalam hal ini,
subjek dan verb tidak dibalikkan.
Example
1. Correct Sentences
Not even the bank president knows when the vault will be opened.
2. Incorrect Sentences
Only the pilot can tell you how far can the plane go on one tank of fuel.

SKILL 12 : INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB AFTER PLACE EXPRESSIONS


Setelah kata keterangan tempat seperti Here, There, dan Nowhere, subjek dan verb dapat
dibalikkan. Subjek dan verb juga dapat dibalikkan setelah preposisi.
Example
1. Correct Sentences:
In the cave was a treasure of gems and jewels.
2. Correct Sentences
To the north the stream is that the settlers will have to ford .

SKILL 13: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB AFTER NEGATIVES


Jika ekspresi negatif seperti as no, not, or never diletakkan di awal kalimat, maka Subjek dan
Verb nya dibalikkan. Beberapa kata dalam bahasa inggris seperti hardly, barely, scarcely, dan
only, berperan sebagai kalimat negatif ketika mereka merujuk pada waktu. Jika salah satu dari
kalimat ini berada pada awal kalimat, Objek dan Verb nya juga dibalikkan.
Example:
1. Correct Sentences : Not once did I miss the opportunity.
2. Incorrect Sentences : Never the girl wrote a love letter to her boyfriend.
Exercise:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Never the boy wrote to his sisters. ( I )


On no occasion did they say that to me. ( C )
Steve did not win the prize, nor did he expect to do so. ( C )
Only once in my life gone I have to New York City. ( I )
Did he go out the house at no time. ( I )
Seldom their secretary has made such mistakes. ( I )
No sooner had she hung up the phone than it rang again. ( C )
Sheila did not arrive lat for work, nor she left early. ( I )
Barely had he finished the exam when the graduate assistant collected the papers.

(C)
10. The police did not arrive in time to save the girl, and neither did the paramedics. ( C )

Review Exercise (Skills 11-13)


7

1. Not once did the judge listen to what the lawyers were suggestitng. ( C )
2. On the island in the middle of the stream is the house that I want to buy. ( C )
3. The town council is not sure why have the land developers changed their plans. ( I )
4. Never in the world I believed that this would happen. ( I )
5. Nowhere in the country can you purchase that magazine. ( C )
6. Where can I find the nearest bus stop? ( C )
7. It is impossible to know how the fire got started. ( C )
8. Hardly ever it snows in this section of the country. ( I )
9. Did the scientist explain what he put in beaker? ( C )
10. Down the hall to the left the offfices are that need to be painted. ( I )

TOEFL EXERCISE (SKILLS 11-13):


1. Rarely ___ located near city lights or at lower elevations.
(A) Observatories are
(B) Are
(C) In the observatories
(D) Are observatories
2. There are geographic, economic, and cultural reasons why ____ around the world.
(A) Diets differ
(B) Do diets differ
(C) Are diets different
(D) To differ a diet
3. Located behind___ the two lacrimal glands.
(A) Each eyelid
(B) Is each eyelid
(C) Each eyelid are
(D) Each eyelid which is
4. Nowhere ____ more skewed than in the auto industry.
(A) That retail trade figures
(B) Retail trade figures
(C) Are retail trade figures
(D) Retail trade figures are
5. In the U.S. ___ approximately 4 million miles of roads, streets, and highways.
(A) There
(B) Is
(C) Because of
(D) There are
6. Potassium has a valance of positive one because it usually loses one electron when
___ with other elements.
(A) Does it combine
(B) It combines
(C) In combining
(D) Combination
7. The economic background of labor legislation will not be mentioned in this course,
___ be treated.
(A) Trade unionism will not
8

(B) Nor trade unionism will


(C) Nor will trade unionism
(D) Neither trade unionism will
8. In the Morgan Library in New York City ____ of Medieval and Renaissance
manuscripts.
(A) A collection is
(B) In a collection
(C) Is a collection
(D) Which is collection
Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.
A 9. Only for a short period of time a cheetah will run at top speed.
A

B 10. The Kern River flows from the high Sierras into the San Joaquin valley, where is the
A

water diverted into an irrigation system.


C

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (SKILLS 1-13):


1. As an emergency measure, __by the Governor to curtail rail way xpenditure.
(A) Because it proposed
(B) Was proposed
(C) Because of the proposal
(D) It was proposed
2. ___ twelve million immigrants entered the U.S. via Ellis Island.
(A) More than
(B) There were more than
(C) Of more than
(D) The report listed
3. ___variety of flowers in the show, from simple carnations to the most exquisite roses.
(A) A wide
(B) There was a ride
(C) Was there
(D) Many
4. ___that Emily Dickinson wrote, only twenty four were given titles and only sevn were
published during her lifetime.
(A) Of the 1,800 poems
(B) There were 1,800 poems
(C) Because the 1,800 poems
(D) The 1,800 poems
5. The wedges ___ dart board are worth from one to twenty points each.
(A) They are on a
9

(B) Are on a
(C) Are they on a
(D) On a
6. Alpha Centauri appears to the nakd ye to be a single star, ___in reality a triple star
system.
(A) It is
(B) When it is
(C) While is
(D) When is it
7. ___producing many new movies for release after the new season begins.
(A) His company is
(B) his companies
(C) the company
(D) why the company is
8. The Dewey Decimal System, currently used in libraries throughout the world, ___all
written works into ten classes according to subject.
(A) Dividing
(B) Divides
(C) It would divide
(D) Was divided
Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct
C

9. Based on recommendations propos in the annual report, the board does not want to

delay
A

its judgement, nor it wants to report its findings publicly.


C

B 10. Because the project depends on what happens at the federal level, so the city and the
A

country may have to wait until the budget cutting ends.


D

SKILL 14: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

10

Jika dalam suatu kalimat terdapat Subjek berbentuk Singular diikuti dengan Objek berbentuk
Plural, maka Verb yang digunakan haruslah Singular mengikuti Subjek di awal bukan
mengikuti Objek dan begittu pun sebaliknya.
Masalah partikular terjadi ketika Subjek dari kalimat itu berupa kata-kata seperti all, most,
some, atau part yang diikuti oleh preposisi of. Dalam situasi ini, subjek (all, most, some, atau
part) bisa menjadi Singular atau Plural tergantung dari kata apa yang mengikuti preposisi of.
Example:
(Correct): The foods on the table are* delicious
(Incorrect): The bags on the shopping mall is* all expensive
Exercise:
1. The climbers on the sheer face of the mountain need to be rescued. ( C )
2. The introgation, conducted by three police officers, have lasted for several hours. ( I )
3. All of the students in the class taught by Professor Roberts is required to turn in their
term papers next Monday. ( I )
4. The tenants in the apartment next to mine is giving a party this evening. ( I )
5. The President, surrounded by Secret Service Agents, is trying to make his way to
podium. ( I )
6. All of the witnesses in the jury trial, which lasted more than two weeks, have
indicated that they believed the defendant was guilty. ( C )
7. Some of the animals from the zoo was released into the animal preserve. ( I )
8. The buildings destroyed during the fire are being rebuilt at the taxpayers expense.
(C)
9. Because of the seriousness of the companys financial problems, the board of
directors have called an emergency meeting. ( C )
10. Manufacture of the items you requested have been discontinued because of lack of
profit on those items. ( C )

SKILL 15: MAKE INVERTED VERBS AGREE


Dalam bahasa Inggris terkadang kita melihat Subject datang setelah Verb. Hal ini dapat
terjadi setelah question words (Skill 11), setelah place expressions (Skill 12) dan setelah
negative expression (Skill 13). Ketika Subject dan Verb terbalik maka dapat menjadi sulit
menemukan subject dan verb.
11

Example:
1
2

In front of the class was my boyfriend waiting for me. (C)


Often has the children played at the kindergarten yard. (I)

EXERCISE 15
1
2

Only once this morning were the letters delivered by the campus mail service. (I)
The computer programmer was unaware that there was so many mistakes in the

3
4

program he had written. (C)


South of the town stands some tall trees and a pleasant picnic area. (I)
Seldom in the history of television has two new comedies been so successful in one

season. (I)
Around the corner and to the right are the rooms that have been assigned to that

6
7
8

program. (C)
Here is all the facts that you asked me to collect from various sources. (I)
In the plant located across the street was the missing parts needed since yesterday. (I)
It is unbelievable that there have been so many murders in such a peaceful

neighborhood. (C)
Nowhere else in the country are water skiers able to spend so many months in the

water. (C)
10 In the parking lot south of the stadium was the cars that were about to be towed. (I)

SKILL 16: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER CERTAIN WORDS


Beberapa kata dalam bahasa Inggris selalu grammatikal tunggal, bahkan mereka sulit
memiliki makna jamak. Anda harus sangat berhati-hati dari Subject/ Verb dengan kata-kata
berikut:
Anybody

everybody

nobody

somebody

each

Anyone

everyone

no one

someone

every [ + noun ]

Anything

everything

nothing

something

Kata ini dapat memiliki arti jamak, tetapi secara gramatikal mereka tunggal dan
mereka harus memiliki verb tunggal.
Example:
12

1
2

My father said that everything is gonna be fine when we believe in ourselves. (C)
Make sure that each of your homework have been done before the deadlines. (I)

EXERCISE 16
1
2
3

It is impossible to belive that somebody actually admire that man. (I)


Each of the doctors in the building needs to have a separate reception area. (C)
The president felt that no one were better suited for the position of chief staff advisor.

4
5
6

(I)
Everybody participating in the fund raiser are to turn in the tickets by 8:00. (I)
Because of the low number of orders, nothing has to be done now. (C)
Every time someone take unnecessary breaks, precious moments of production time

are lost. (I)


Anybody who goes to the top of the Empire State Building is impressed with the

view. (C)
Every man, woman, and child in this line are required to sign the forms in order to

complete the registration process. (C)


9 It is nice to belive that anything is possible if a person tries hard enough. (C)
10 The company reiterated to reporters that nobody have been dismissed because of the
incident. (I)

REVIEW EXERCISE (SKILLS 14-16)


1. The contracts signed by the company has been voided because a number of
stipulations were not meet. (I)
2. Ten miles beyond the river was farmlands they had purchased with their life savings.
(I)
3. Only the most expensive jewels in the safe were taken by the thief. (C)
4. Each package that is not properly wrapped have to be returned to the sender. (I)
5. The proposal brought so much new work to the partnership that there was not enough
hours to complete all of it. (I)
6. The box of ribbons for the IBM computer have been misplaced. (I)
7. It is disconcerting to belive that every possible candidate has been rejected for one
reason or another. (C)
8. The advice offered by the team of lawyers was that he should turn himself in. (C)
9. Only once have there been more excitment in this city about a sporting event. (I)
10. If nobody have brought that car from the dealer, then you should return and make
another offer. (I)
Toefl Exercise (Skill 14-16)
1. Among bees _____ a highly elaborate form of communication.
13

(A) Occur
(B) Occurs
(C) It occurs
(D) They occur
2. _____ heated by solar energy have special collectors on the roofs to trap sunlight.
(A) A home is
(B) Homes are
(C) A home
(D) Homes

Choose the letter underlined word or group of words that is not correct.
3. Each number in a binary system are formed from only two symbols.
A
B
C
D
4. Scientist at the medical center is trying to determine if there is a relationship
A
B
C
between saccharine and cancer.
C
5. On the rim of the Kilauea volcano in the Hawaiian Islands are a hotel called the
A

Volcano House.
6. The great digital advances of the electronic age, such as intergrated circuitry and
A
B
microcomputer, has been planted in tiny chips.
C

7. There are many frequently mentioned reasons why one out of four arrests involve
A
B
C
D
a juvenile.
8. Keplers Laws, principles outlining planetary movement, was formulated based
A

on observations made without a telescope.


D
9. Only with a two-thirds vote by both houses are the U.S. Congress able to override
A
B
C
a Presidential veto.
B
10. Of all the evidence that has piled up since Websters paper was published, there
A
B
is no new ideas to contradict his original theory.
C
D

Toefl Review Exercise (Skill I-16)


14

1. ______ several unsuccessful attempts, Robert Peary reached the North Pole on April
6, 1909.
(A) After
(B) He made
(C) When
(D) His
2. The musical instrument _____ is six feet long.
(A) Is called the bass
(B) It is called the bass
(C) Called the bass
(D) Calls the bass
3. One problem with all languages _____ they are full of irregularities.
(A) When
(B) So
(C) Is that
(D) And
4. Seldom ______ of economic cycles been helpful in predicting turning points in
cycles.
(A) Psychological theories
(B) Psychological theories have
(C) Have Psychological theories
(D) Psychologist have theories
5. Hospital committees _____ spent weeks agonizing over which artificial kidney
candidate would receive the treatments now find that the decision is out of their
hands.
(A) Once
(B) That once
(C) Have
(D) Once had

Choose the letter of the underlined words that is not correct.


6. A quantitative analysis, using both the computer and quantitative techniques, are
A
B
C
used to optimize financial decisions.
D
7. The worker was told to replace the ribbon when was used up.
A
B
C
D
8. Five miles beyond the hills were a fire with its flames reaching up to the sky.
A B
C
D
9. Kettledrums, what were first played on horseback, were incorporated into the
A
B
C
D
orchestra in the eighteenth century.
10. When is a flag hung upside down, it is an internationally recognized symbols of
A
B
C
D
distress.
15

SKILL 17 : FORM THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE CORRECTLY


Permasalahan pada beberapa kalimat Comperative dan Superlative adalah kalimat
comparative dan superlative disusun secara tidak benar. Maka dari itu kita harus mengerti
bagaimana cara untuk meyusun kalimat tersebut sehingga dapat menjawab pertanyaan yang
berkaitan.
Kalimat comparative dibentuk menggunakan er, more, atau than. Penggunaan er pada kata
sifat yang singkat, contohnya tall, dan penggunaan more pada kata sifat yang lebih panjang,
contohnya beautiful.
1. Contoh kalimat (benar)
- Sherina looks happier without Domsek.
2. Contoh kalimat (salah)
- Reza is bigger of the class.
Kalimat superlative dibentuk dengan the, -est, most dan terkadang memakai in atau of. Dalam
superlative penggunaan est pada kata sifat yang singkat, contohnya tall, dan penggunaan
most pada kata sifat yang lebih panjang, contohnya beautiful.
Kata sifat yang lebih panjang, contohnya beautiful.
1. Contoh kalimat (benar)
- International Law is the hardest subjek in Internasional Relations major.
2. Contoh kalimat (salah)
- This table is the longest table than teachers table in the class.

EXERCISE 17
1. oxygen is abundanter than nitrogen. ( I )
2. the directions to the exercise say to choose the most appropriate response.( C )
3. The lesson you are studying now is the most importantest lesson you will have. ( I )
4. Fashions this year are shorter and more colorful than they were last year.( C )
5. The professor indicated that Anthonys research paper was long than the other students
paper. ( I )
16

6. Alaska is the coldest than all the states in the United States. ( C )
7. The workers on the day shift are more rested than the workers on the night shift.( C )
8. She was more happier this morning than she had been yesterday. ( I )
9. The quarterback on this years football team is more versatile than the quarterback on last
years team. ( C )
10. I prefer to live in the dormitory that in the closest to the school. ( C )

SKILL 18: USE THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE CORRECTLY


Permasalahan lain dalam penggunaan kalimat comperative dan superlative adalah keduanya
dapat dipergunakan dengan tidak tepat. Comperative dan superlative memiliki perbedaan
penggunaan. Comparative digunakan untuk membandingkan dua hal.
1
2

Contoh kalimat (benar)


- The history class is larger than the math class
Contoh kalimat (salah)
- Marry is more intelligent of the class. (seharusnya, the most intelligent).
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EXERCISE 18
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Harvard is probably the most prestigious university in the United States.


Mary is more intelligent of the class.
The engineers hired this year have more experience than those hired last year.
The graduate assistant informed us that the first exam is the most difficult of the two.
He bought the more powerful stereo speakers that he could find.
The afternoon seminar was much more interesting than the morning lecture.
The food in this restaurant is the best of the restaurant we visited last week.
The plants that have been sitting in the sunny window are far healthier than the other

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plants.
9. The photocopies are the darkest that they have ever been.
10. The first journal article is the longest of the second article.

REVIEW EXERCISE (SKILLS 17-18):


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1.

The coffee is more stronger today than it was yesterday


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C
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2.
3.
4.
5.

The tree that was struck by lightning had been the tallest of the two trees we had.
He will buy the most fuel-efficient car that he can afford.
The business department is bigger of the departments in the university.
The Bijoux Theatre is better that the Fox because the seat at the Bijoux are larger and

6.

more comfortable.
I really do not want to live in the southeast because it is one of the most hot areas in

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the United States.


7. Tonights dinner was more filling than last nights.
8. It is preferable to use the most efficient and most effective method that you can.
9. The janitor was asked if he could make the building a little more warm.
10. The house is now the cleanest it has ever been.

Toefl Exercise (skills 17-18)


1. The speed of light is (B) much faster than the speed of sound.
2. The use of details is (D) the most common method of developing a controlling idea, and
almost all students employ this method.

Choose the letter underlined word or group of words that is not correct.
C

3.

Certain types of snakes have been known to survive fasts more as a year long.

4.

A
B
The widely used natural fiber of all is cotton.

5.

A
B
C
D
Climate, soil type, and availability of water are the most critical factors than
A

selecting the best type of grass for a lawn.


B
C

6.

D
The leek, a member of the lily family, has a mildest taste than the onion.

7.

A
B
C D
The Monarch butterfly migrates from Canada and the northern U.S to warmest areas
A

8.

in California, Florida, and Mexico.


Peter Abelard, a logician and theologian, was the controversialist teacher of his age.

9.

A
B
C
D
Protein molecules are the most complex than the molecules of carbohydrates and
A

lipids.
10. The grizzly bear, which can grow up to eight feet tall, has been called a more
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dangerous animal of North America.

Toefl Review Exercise (1-18)


1. (A) Gallaudet College, a liberal artd college specifically for deaf people, is located in
Washington, D.C.
2. (D) There were several varieties of dogs at the show, including spaniels, poodles, and
collies.
3. Willian Sydney Porter (A) Using the pen name OHenry in his 250 works of fiction.
4. (D) A bond is a long term loan in which the borrower agrees to pay a fixed rate of
interest over the life of the debt.
Choose the letter underlined word or group of words that is ot correct.
D

5.

The coyote is somewhat smaller in size that a timber wolf.

6.

A
B
C D
The weather reports all showed that there were a tremendous storm front moving in.

7.

A
B
C
Seldom cactus plants are found outside of North America.

8.

A
B
C
D
In a basketball game a player what is fouled receives one or two free throws.

9.

A
B
C
D
Until recently, California was largest producer of oranges in the U.S.

A
B
C
D
10. An understanding of engineering theories and problems are impossible until basic

arithmetic is fully mastered.


C

SKILL 19: USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH COORDINATE CONJUNCTION


Kata penghubung digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua komponen yang sifatnya sama,
seperti tempat yang sama, status yang sama, waktu yang sama, dan lain-lain.
Example:
1

I went to supermarket but I didnt buy anything. (C)

Bryan is a smart student and he never forget to drink a cup of milk every morning. (I)

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EXERCISE 19:
1

She held a jobs as a typist, a housekeeper, and in a restaurant. (I)

The report you are looking for could be in the file or on the desk. (C)

He was angry not at what you said but your manner. (I)

The speaker introduced himself, told several intersting anecdots, and he finished with the
emotional plea. (C)

You should know when the program starts and how many units you must complete to
finish it. (C)

The term paper he wrote was rather short but very impressive. (C)

She suggested taking the plane this evening or that we go by train tomorrow. (I)

The dean or the assistant dean will inform you of when and where you should apply for
your diploma. (I)

There are papers to file, reports to type, and those letters should be answered. (I)

10 The manager needed a quick but through response. (C)


SKILL 20: USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH COMPARISON
Kata pembanding yang digunakan untuk membandingkan persamaan atau perbedaan harus
digunakan untuk objek yang derajatnya sebanding.
Example:
1

He completed his assignment faster than me. (C)

Her face is beautiful than what she did to me last day in the class. (I)

EXERCISE 20:
1

His research for the thesis was more useful than hers. (C)

Dinning in a restaurant is more fun tham to eat at home. (I)

I want a new secretary who is as efficient as the previous one. (C)

What you do today should be the same as did yesterday. (C)

The lesson is more difficult than we had before. (C)

You have less homework than they do. (I)

What you do has more effect than what you say. (C)

Music in your country is quite similar to my country. (I)


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The collection of foreign journals in the university library is more extensive than the high
school library. (C)

10 How to buy a used car can be as difficult as buying a new car. (C)

SKILL 21 : USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS


Both dan And
Menyatakan kedua-duanya (dalam bentuk positif), mengikuti verb jamak.
E.g : Both Anna and Jacqueline are students.
Not only dan But also
Menyatakan tidak hanya tapi juga, verbnya tergantung dengan kata setelah But Also
Apabila kata benda setelah but also tunggal, maka verb tersebut juga tunggal.
E.g : Not only Susan will take a vacation but also she will visit her relative in London.
Either dan Or
Menyatakan salah satunya, mengikuti verb tunggal.
E.g : Either Susan will take a vacation or she will visit her relative in London.
Neither dan Nor
Antonym dari both dan and, menyatakan tidak kedua-duanya (dalam bentuk negatif)
E.g : Susan shops neither in the mall nor in the market.
EXERCISE 21 :
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2

According to the syllabus, you can either write a paper or you can take an exam. ( I )
It would be both noticed and appreciated if you could finish the work before you

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4
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leave.( C )
She would like neither to see a movie or to go bowling. ( I )
Either the manager or her assistant can help you with your refund. ( C )
She wants not only to take a trip to Europe but she also would like to travel to Asia.

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7
8
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(C)
He could correct neither what you said nor you wrote. ( C )
Both the tailor or the laundress could fix the damage to the dress. ( C )
He not only called the police department but also called the fire department. ( C )
You can graduate either at the end of the fall semester or you can graduate at the end

of the spring semester. ( C )


10 The movie was neither amusing nor was it interesting. ( C )
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REVIEW EXERCISE (SKILLS 19-21) :


1. After retirement he plans on travelling and playing a lot of golf. (C)
2. She was both surprised by and pleased with the seminar.
3. Sam is always good-natured, generous, and helps you. (I)
4. When we arrived, when we left, and on our return, we were cheered by the crowds. (C)
5. I searched in the closet, under the bed, and behind the sofa. (C)
6. He exercised not only in the morning, but he also exercised every afternoon. (I)
7. Working four days per week is much more relaxing than working five days per week. (C)
8. He indicated when to leave and that I should take the car. (C)
9. Either you have to finish the project, or the contract will be cancelled. (C)
10. The courses that you are required to take are more important than the courses that you
choose. (C)

TOEFL Exercise (Skills 19-21)


1. Truman Capotes In Cold Blood is neither journastically accurate (D) nor completely
fictitious.
2. Vitamin C is necessary for the prevention and (C) cure of scurvy.
3. A babys development is influenced by both heredity and (D) environment.
4. Because bone loss occurs earlier in women than (A) men do, the effects of osteoporosis
are more apparent in women.

Choose the letter underlined word or group of words that is not correct.
5. Fire extinguishers can contain liquified gas, dry chemical, or watery.
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6. The U. S. Congress consists of both the Senate as well as the House of Representatives.
A

7. The prison population, now at an all-time high, is higher than any state.
A

8. When the Liberty Bell cracked in 1846, there was far more damage than it had cracked
A

he first time in 1835.


D
9. Manufacturers may use food additives for preserving, to color, to flavor, or to
A

nutritionally fortify foods.


C

10. A bankruptcy may be either voluntary nor involuntary.


A

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (SKILLS 1-21)


1. The growth of hair (B) is a cyclical process, with phases of activity and inactivity.
2. The fire (D) that they believe to have started in the furnace under the house.
3. In roman numerals, (B) letters of alphabet are symbols for numeric values.
4. The legal systems of most countries can be classified (B) either as common law or civil
law.
5. One difference between mathematics and language is that mathematics is precise (B)
while language is not.
6. Your criticism of the three short stories should not be less than 2,000 words, nor (A)
should it be more than 3,000.

Choose the letter underlined word or group of words that is not correct.
7. The General Sherman Tree, the largest of all the giant sequoias, are reputed to be the to
A

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be the worlds largest living thing.


D
8. The most largest single use of lead is in the plates of electrical storage batteries.
A

9. The skeleton of a shark is made of cartilage rather than having bone.


A

10. At least one sample of each of the brands contains measureable amounts of aflatoxin, and
A

there is three which exceed the maximum.


C

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