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Anatomy of the Brain

2 Major Divisions of Nervous System


1. CNS-Central Nervous System
- brain and spinal cord
2. PNS Peripheral Nervous System
- nerves
- conduct impulses from the CNS to the
receptor organs

Regions of the Brain


Cerebrum (Cerebral hemispheres)
Diencephalon
Brain stem
Cerebellum

Figure 7.12b
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I. Cerebrum (Cerebral Hemispheres)


Largest part of the
brain
Paired (left and
right) superior part
of the brain
Cerebral cortex
Enclose most of
the other regions of
the brain
Figure 7.13a
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Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)


Gyri
- elevated ridges
ex. Cingulate gyrus
Precentral gyrus
Postcental gyrus

Figure 7.13a
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Sulcus
- shallow groove
ex. Central sulcus

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Fissures (deep grooves)


- divide the cerebrum into
lobes
Less numerous
ex. Longitudinal fissure
Lateral fissure
Transverse fissure

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Lobes of the Cerebrum


Surface lobes of the cerebrum
Frontal lobe
- involved in planning, problem
solving, decision making
- controls behavior and emotions
Parietal lobe
- controls sensation (touch, smell
and taste)
Occipital lobe
- controls reception and perception
of visual information
- perceives shapes and colors
Temporal lobe
- involved in olfactory and
auditory sensations
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Cerebral areas involved in


special senses
Gustatory area (taste)
- located at the parietal
lobe
Visual area
- located at the posterior part of
the occipital lobe
Auditory Area
- found at the temporal lobe
Olfactory Area
- located at the medial temporal
lobe
Figure 7.13c
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Layers of the Cerebrum


Gray matter
Outer layer
Composed
mostly neurons

Figure 7.13a
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Layers of the Cerebrum


White matter
Fiber tracts inside
the gray matter

-transmit impulses
Example: corpus
callosum connects
hemispheres

Figure 7.13a
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II.Diencephalon
Sits on top of the
brain stem
Enclosed by the
cerebral
hemispheres
Made of

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Epithalamus
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a. Thalamus
Surrounds the third
ventricle
Transfers impulses to
the correct part of the
cortex for localization
and interpretation
Interthalamic adhesion
- serves as connection bet.
right and left thalamus

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Corpus callosum
- fiber tract
- connects the two
cerebral hemispheres
Septum pellucidum
- bet. Corpus callosum
and fornix
- membranous partition
- separates right and left
lateral ventricles
Fornix
- involved in memory
formation and recall

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b.Hypothalamus
Inferior to the
thalamus
Most inferior part of
diencephalon
Maintains
homeostasis
Controls body
temperature,
hunger and thirst
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infundibulum
- funnel shaped stalk
- extends from the floor
of the hypothalamus
to the pituitary gland
Pituitary
gland/hypophysis
- hangs from the
anterior floor of the
hypothalamus
- produces hormones
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Mammillary body
- posterior to pituitary
gland
- reflex center involved
in olfaction (sense of
smell)

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c. Epithalamus
Small area superior and
posterior to the
thalamus
Forms the roof of the
3rd ventricle
Houses the pineal gland
and choroid plexus of
third ventricle

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Pineal body
- part of endocrine
system that may
influence the onset of
puberty

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Choroid plexus
- knots of capillaries
within each ventricle
-covered with
ependymal cells
- forms the
cerebrospinal fluid

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Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

III. Brain Stem


About the size of a
thumb in diameter
3 inches long
connects the spinal
cord to the brain
Parts of the brain
stem
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla
oblongata
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a.Midbrain
Superior to the pons
Extends from the
mammillary body to
the pons inferiorly

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Important Parts of Midbrain:


Corpora
quadrigemina
- rounded protrusions
- superior and
inferior colliculi
- Reflex centers for
vision and hearing

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Cerebral aqueduct
- tiny canal that
connects 3rd ventricle
to the 4th ventricle

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Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

b.Pons
The bulging center
part of the brain stem

Inferior to the
midbrain
Superior to the
medulla oblongata
controls breathing
swallowing and
balance

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c.Medulla Oblongata
The lowest part of the
brain stem
Merges into the spinal
cord
Contains important
control centers
Heart rate control
Blood pressure
regulation
Breathing
Swallowing
Vomiting

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IV. Cerebellum
Inferior to the occipital
lobe
2 hemispheres
Outer cortex (gray
matter)
Inner region of white
matter (arbor vitae)
Provides precise timing
for skeletal muscle
activity
Controls balance/
equilibrium
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Meninges
Dura mater
Double-layered
external covering
Thickest and
strongest layer

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Meninges
Arachnoid layer
Middle meninx
Web-like

Pia mater
Internal layer
Delicate layer that
adheres to the
surface of the brain
and spinal cord
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Ventricles and Location of the


Cerebrospinal Fluid

Figure 7.17ab
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Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)


Formed in the 4 ventricles of brain
Lateral (#1 and 2) 3rd 4th ventricle
Formed in choroid plexuses
By filtration and secretion of blood plasma
In specialized capillary networks (covered by ependymal
cells) in walls of ventricles

Pathway
Through 4 ventricles central canal of spinal cord
and within subarachnoid space
Reabsorbed through arachnoid villi into blood in
superior sagittal sinus
Cushions brain and provides nutrients

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings