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IS/IEC 60534-2-1 (1998): Industrial-Process Control Valves,


Part 2: Flow Capacity, Section 1: Sizing Equations for
Fluid Flow Under Installed Conditions [ETD 18: Industrial
Process Measurement and Control]

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ISIIEC 6053421 : 1998


[Superseding IS 10189 (P8r121Sec 1): 1992)

'J.f!? rft l/ If] 'iCb

~-l;HJ)~ f1~~ol cHc;q


1{JTJ

2 llCm eP1tIT

~ 1 ~1~(1 ~ ~ ~ ~ $" fll'~11 $" flafilii't'OI

Indian Standard

INDUSTRIAL-PROCESS CONTROL VALVES


PART 2 FLOW CAPACITY
Section 1 Sizing Equations for Fluid Row Under Installed Conditions

ics

23.060.40; 25.040.40

BIS2008

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


MANAK BHAVAN. 9 BAHADUA SHAH ZAFAA MARG
NEW DELHI 110002
September 2008

Price Group 13

Industrial Process Measurement and Control Sectional Comm ittee, ETD 18

NATIONAL FOREWORD
This Indian Standard (Part 2/Sec 1) which is identical with IEC 60534-2-1 : 1998 'Industrial -process
control valves - Part 2-1: Flow capacity - Sizing equat ions for fluid flow under installed conditions '
issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian
Standards on the recommendation of the Industrial Process Measurement and Control Sectional
Committee and approval of the Electrotechnical Division Council.
This standard supersedes IS 10189 (Part 21Sec 1) : 1992 'Industrial process control valves: Part 2
Flow capacity, Section 1 SiZing equations for incompressible fluid flow under installed conditions '.
The text of IEC Standard has been approved as suitable for publicat ion as an Indian Standard without
deviations. Certain conventions are, however, not identical to those used in Indian Standards .
Attention is particularly drawn to the Ionowinq;
a) Wherever the words 'International Standard' appear referring to this standard, they should
be read as 'Indian Standard'.
b) Comma (,) has been used as a decimal marker, while in Indian Standards, the current
practice is to use a point (.j as the decimal marker .
In this adopted standard , reference appears to certain International Standards for which Indian
Standards also exist. The corresponding Indian Standards, which are to be substituted in their
respective places, are listed below along with their degree of equivalence for the editions indicated :
tmernetionel Standard

Corresponding Indian Standard

Degree of
Equivalence

lEG 60534-1 : 1987 Industrial-precess


control valves - Part 1: Control valve
terminology and general considerations

IS/IEC 60534-1 : 1987 Industrial-process


control valves : Part 1 Control valve
terminology and general considerations

Identical

IEC 60534-2-3 : 1997 Industrial-process


control valves - Part 2: Flow capacity Section 3: Test procedures

IS/IEC 60534-2-3 : 1997 Industrialprocess control valves : Part 2 Flow


capacity, Section 3 Test procedures

do

For the purpose 01 dec iding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with , the
final value, observed or calculated , expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in
accordance With IS 2 : 1960 'Rules lor rounding off numerical values (revised)' . The number of
;"gOlhcan! places retained in the rounded off value should be same as that of the specified value in
this standard.

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

Indian Standard
INDUSTRIAL-PROCESS CONTROL VALVES
PART 2

FLOW CAPACITY

Section 1 Sizing Equations for Fluid Flow Under Installed Conditions

Scope

Th is part of lEG 60534 includes equat ions for predict ing the flow of compress ib le and
incompre ssible fluids th rough control va lves .
The equat ions for incompre ssible flow are based on standard nycroovnam equat ions lor
Newtonian incomp ressible fluids. They are not Intended for use when non -Newton ian fluids,
fluid mixtures , slurries , or liquid-solid conveyance systems are encountered.
At ve ry low ratios of pressure differentiAl to absolute inlet pressure (/\plp ~ ) . compressible fluids
behave simi lar ly to incompressib le fluids . Under such condit ions, the sizing equat ions for
compress ible flow can be traced to the standard hydrodynam ic equations for Newtonian
incompressible fluids . However, Increasing values of lip/p , result '" compress ib ility effects
wh ich requ ire that the basic equations be modified by appropriate correction factors . The
equat ions for compressible flu ids are for use with gas or vapour and are not Intended for use
with rnultrphase streams such as gas-liqu id . vapour-Iiqutd or gas-solid mixtures .
For compressible flu id appl ications , th is part of lEG 60534 IS va lid for valves with xr :S 0,84
(see tab le 2) . For va lves with xr > 0,84 (e.g. some multistage valves), greater Inaccuracy of
flow predict ion can be expected.
Reasonable accuracy can only be maintained for control valves If Kylrl < 0.04 (Cy /rfl < 0 .0 47).

Normative references

The folloW ing normative documents contain provis ions WhiCh, through reference In trus text ,
const itute provisions of this part of lEG 60534. At the time of publicat ion . the ad itrcns Ind icated
were valid. All normative documents are sub ject to revision , and part ies to agreements based
on this part of lEG 60534 are encouraged to investigate the possib uity of applying the most
recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. Members of lEG and ISO ma inta in
reg isters of currently valid International Standards .
lEG 60534-1 :1987, Industrial-process control valves - Part 7: Control valve termmology and
general considerations
lEG 60534-2-3 :1997, Industrial-process control valves - Part 2: Flow capacIty - Section 3: Test
procedures

ISIIEC 6053~2-1 : 1998

Definitions

For the purpose of this part of IEC 60534, definitions given in lEe 60534-1 apply with the
addition of the following:

3.1
valve style modifier Fd
The ratio of the hydraulic diameter of a single flow passage to the diameter of a circular
orifice, the area of which is equivalent to the sum of areas of all identical flow passages at a
given travel. It should be stated by the manufacturer as a function of travel. See annex A .

Installation

In many industrial applications, reducers or other fittings are attached to the control valves . The
effect of these types of fittings on the nominal flow coefficient of the control valve can be
significant. A correction factor is introduced to account for this effect. Additional factors are
introduced to take account of the fluid property characteristics that influence the flow capacity
of a control valve.
In sizing control valves, using the relationships presented herein, the flow coefficients calculated
are assumed to include all head losses between points f!. and S , as shown in figure 1.

Pressu re
tap

- /1
\

Flow

I,

12

Pres sure
/ tap

,
i

16
A

0
~ Control valve wIth or without attached fillings
. .

t, .. two nomInal pipe dIameters


/2 " IIX nomInal pipe diameters

Figure 1 - Reference pipe section for sizing

IS/lEe 60534-2-1

1998

Symbols

,-----~---------------_._--

Symbol

Unl\

Description

._----+--------------~'--~
\.' a ':cus {see E: C 60~34

.s ee

note 4 i

v a-iocs (see iCC

60~.i4

(see note 04 !

mterna: u.arneter alIne plp:C,g

mm

D.

Internal o.arneter of upstream piping

mm

interna l diameter of oownSlream piping


Orifice d iameter

, ;s('('

Valve style modifier :see annex AI


F

i.rqu.o cntica: pressure rat io tactor

LiqUid pressure recovery factor of a contra, va ve wi!nCUr attached fillings

(see note

4\

4:

como -oeo t.cuio pressure recovery facto' anc " 'Plcg geometry tacto- of a
co~:ro;

Fp

~o!e

vaive

~'1:n

attacheu

u!ngs

PIPing qeometry factor

F",

Reynolcs number facto'

soec.uc heat ratio factor

M
N

Nurner.cat constants (see table 1)

p.

:nlet absoiute static pressure measured at POint A (see figure 1)

"Pa

01

bar (See oo:e 2}

Absolute tnermocvnarmc cr.t.ca pressure

Reduced pressure (p./Pcl

o;

Absolute vapour pressure of the liquid at .nret temperature

\p

Differential pressure uetwcen upstream ana cownstr ear- pressure taps


(V - lJ?i

Vournetnc flaw rate rs ec note 5)

.nict aosoiute temperature

Absolute tnerrr-ouynarrvc cru.ca: temperature


Reouced temperatu'e I L! L\

Aosotute reference temperature for stancare eeo-c metre


Mass fiow rate

Ratro of pressure differential to Inlet acsowre pressure (.\plp.1


Pressure ddferentlal rat.o factor of a contro: valve Without attached f,!t'''9s
at choked ffow
Pressure dlfferent'a! -at.o facto' of a centro: valve W'!"1 attached t,ttlngs at
cnoked flOW
'
y

ExpanSion factor

K''1em,,:'c ViSCOSIty

:'

SpecifiC heat 'alia

(see noll! 4)

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

Velocity head loss coelhcient of a red uce r, expander or other li ltin g


attached to a contro l valve or valve trim

,r .

Upst ream veloci ty head loss coefficient of filt ing

Downstream verocrty head loss coefficient of fitting

,2

Inlet Bernou lli coef ficient


Outlet Bernou lli coefficient
NOTE 1 - To determine the units fo r the numencal constants . aimensiona l ana lys is may be perfo rmed on the
appropriate equations using the units given in table 1.
NOTE 2 - 1 bar

= t()2 kPa = 105 Pa

NOTE 3 - 1 cent istoke = 10-6 m 2/s


NOTE 4 - These values are travel- related and shou ld be stated by the man ufacturer.
NOTE 5 - Volumetric flow rates in cubic metres per hour, identi.fied by the symbol O. refer to standard cond itions .
The standard cubic metre is taken at 1013,25 mbar and either 273 K or 288 K (see table 1) .

Sizing equations for incompressible fluids

The equat ions listed below identify the relationsh ips between flow rates, flow coefficients ,
related installation factors , and pertinent service conditions for control valves hand ling
incompressible fluids. Flow coefficients may be calculated using the appropriate equation
selected from the ones given below. A sizing flow chart for incompressible fluids is given in
annex B.
6.1

Turbulent flow

The equations for the flow rate of a Newtonian liquid through a control valve when operating
under non-choked flow cond itions are derived from the basic formula as given in lEG 60534-1 .

6.1.1
6.1.1 .1

Non-choked turbulent flow


Non-choked turbulent flow without attached fittings

The flow coefficient shall be determined by

C=E..~P1IPO
N,

tip

(1)

NOTE 1 - The numencal constant N. depends on the units used in the gene ral sizing equation and the type of flow
COefficient K. or

c...

NOTE 2 - An e.ample of siZing a valve with non-choked turbulent flow without attached fittings is given in annex D.

6.1.1.2

Non-choked turbulent flow with attached fitting.

: Applicable if tip <


~

r(Flp I F )2(P1 - Fr: x Pv )Jl ~


p

I..

The fiow coefficrent shall be dete rmined as follows:

C=--.9-~P11 Po
N1 Fp

I1p

!'\IOTE - ~efe r 10 ~ , for tne plp,ng geometry factor Fp .

(2)

ISJ1EC 60534-2-1 : 1998


6.1 .2

Choked turbulent flow

The maximum rate at wrucn fl ow will pass throug h a co ntrol va lve at c hoked flow cond it ions
shal l be ca lculated from the fOllowing equations :

6.1.2.1

Choked turbulent flow without attached fittings

[APPlicable If so ~ '1. (I' , - fl; .. 1', )]


2

T he flow coefficient sha ll be de te rm ined as lo llows '

C ",- -

p, / Po

NO TE - A n e xa mp le

6.1.2.2

Of S IZing

(3)

I---'---=--

N. f'c

P, - fl; x Pv

a va lve w:I '1 cn ok eo flo w w .tno ut a nac t-ec fittin g s

IS

g'ver

. r"

a n n(>~

Choked turbulent flow with attached fittings

i-Applicable If sp ~ ( '1.P ! Fp ) 2 ( p~ - ~ x Pv) ':


L

The follOWing equat ion shall be used to calculate the flow coetfic ient :

C -=c - -

N,'1.p

6.2

p, / Po
F} x Pv

J --'----'--'--='--

p,

(4)

Non-turbulent (laminar and. transitional) flow

T he equations for the flow rate of a Newton ian liqUid thro ug h a contro l va lve when operating
under non -t urbulent flow cond itions are der ived from the baSIC formu la as given In lEG 60534 - 1.
This equation IS applicable If Rev < 10 000 (see equatton (28))

6.2.1

Non-turbulent flow without attached fittings

The flow coelt.c ient shall be calculated as follows :

C -- - 0N, 11:1
6.2.2

Jp,!
Po'
-.'\1'

(5)

Non-turbulent flow with attached fittings

For non-turbulent flow, the effect of close-co upled reduce rs or othe r !low distu rbing f lttlOgs IS
unkn own . Wh ile there is no inf o rma tion on the lamina r or transm o na t fl ow behaviour of contro l
va lves Installed between pipe reducers , the user of such valves IS acv.sec to utilize the
appropr ia te equat ions fo r line -Sized va lves In the ca lcu lat io n of tne Fo. fact or Th is should resu lt
in conserva tive flow coefficients since addit iona l turbulence created by reducers and expanders
Will further delay the onset of laminar flow. Therefore , It wil l tend to Increase the respective F R
factor for a given va lve Reynolds numbe r

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

Sizing equations for compressible fluids

The equat ions listed below ident ify the relationships between flow rates , flow coefficients .
related installation factors , and pert inent service cond itions for cont rol valves ha ndling
compressible fluids . Flow rates for compress ible fluids may be encountered in either mass or
vol ume units and thus equat ions are necessary to handle both situations . Flow coefficients may
be calculated using the appropriate equat ions selected from the following. A sizing flow chart
for compressible fluids is given in annex B.

7.1

Turbulent flow

7.1.1
7.1.1 .1

Non-choked turbulent flow


Non-choked turbulent flow without attached fittings

The flow coe ffic ient shall be calculated using one of the fo llowing equations :
(6)

(7)

(8)
NOTE 1 - Refer 10 8.5 lor deta ils of the expans ion factor Y.
NOTE 2 - See annex C lor values 01 M.

7.1.1 .2

Non-choked turbulent flow with attached fittings

[Applicable if x < Fy XTP

The flow coefficient shall be determined from one of the following equations:

(9)

c-

w ~T, Z
Na Fp P1 Y xM

(10)

(11 )
NOT E ~ - ReIe r to 8 1 l or the piping geometry factor Fr> .

/li O~= 2 - Ar examo:e 01 s,z,n9 a valve wil n non-c"'oked turbulent flow with attached !ittings is given in annex D.

7.1.2

Choked turbulent flow

The maximum rate at Wh ich flow will pass through a control valve at choked flow condit ions
shall be calculated as follows :

ISIIEC 60534-21 : 1998


7 .1.2 .1

Choked turbulent flow without attached fitt ings

[ Applicable"

X?

Fy

XT ]

The flo w coe ff ic.ent sha ll be ca lc u la ted fro m one of tn e !OilOWln g eq uat .o ns .
(12 )

( 13)

( 14 )

7.1.2.2

Choked turbulent flow with attached fittings

lApplicable if X ? F.( XTP 1


T he flo w coeff icient sha ll be determ ined us ing one o f the to uo w.n q eq ua t ions

c :. .

(15)

. 0.667 Ns FpJFy
W

7 .2

p , p,

iT. /

C. z; 0,667 Ns Fp p,
C>:

X TP

VFy
--

0,667 N g Fp p,

x TP

._-

MT,Z
Fy

x,p

( 16)

(17)

Non-turbulent (laminar and transitional) flow .

The equatio ns fo r th e f low ra te of a Newtonian fl u id th roug h a con tro l va lve w he n operating


under non -t u rbu lent flow cond it io ns a re de rived from the bas ic formu la as give n rn lEe 60534 - 1
These equat io ns are appl icab le If Rev < 10 000 (see equat ion (28)) In trus s-ubclause density
correct ion of the gas IS given by (p , + P2)/2 due to non-Isen trop ic expans ion

7 .2 .1

Non-turbulent flow without attached fittings

T he flo w coe ff icient sha ll be calcu la ted fro m one of th e foil OlfJlng equa t ions

W
C=--N27 Ii:.

T.
'
L\ti, p, .. P2 1M

(18)

c=-Q-I MT, N 22 FR VtJ.p{p, P2 )

(19)

-t-

NO TE - A n e xa mple of s ,z ,ng a va lve Wit t] sma -! no w Ir ,rT; ' 5 give n ,.. a n " cx D

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998


7.2.2

Non-turbulent flow with attached fittings

For non-turbulent flow , the effect of close -coupled reducers or other flow-disturbing fitt ings is
unknown . While there is no information on the laminar or transitional flow behaviour of contro l
valves installed between pipe reducers, the user of such valves is advised to utilize the
appropriate equations for "line-sized valves in the calculat ion of the FR factor. This should result
in conservative flow coefficients since additional turbulence created by reducers and expanders
will further delay the onset of lam inar flow . Therefore, it will tend to increase the respective FR
factor for a given valve Reynolds number .

Determination of correction factors

8.1

Piping geometry factor Fp

The piping geometry factor F p is necessary to account for fitt ings attached upstream and/or
downstream to a control valve body. The Fp factor is the ratio of the flow rate through a control
valve installed with attached fittings to the flow rate that would result if the control valve was
installed without attached fitt ings and tested under identical cond itions which will not produce
choked flow in either installation (see figure 1). To meet the accuracy of the Fp factor of 5 %,
the Fp factor shall be determined by test in accordance with IEC 60534-2-3.
When est imated values are permissible , the following equation shall be used :
(20)

In this equat ion, the factor t{ is the algebraic sum of all of the effective velocity head loss
coeff icients of all fittings attached to the control valve . The velocity head loss coefficient of the
control valve itself is not included .
(21)

'6

In cases where the piping diameters approaching and leav ing the control valve are different,
coefficients are calculated as follows :
the

(22)
If the inlet and outlet fittings are short -length, commercially available, concentric reducers the
" and
coefficients may be approximated as follows:
'

'2

Inlet reducer:

(23)

Outlet reducer (expander) :

(24)

Inlet and outlet reducers of equa l size:

(25)

ISIIEC 605342-1 : 1998


The F p values calculated with the above C factors generally lead to the selection of valve
capacities slightly larger than required This calculation requires Iteration Proceed by
calculating the flow coefficient C for non-choked turbulent flow
.

Next , establish C, as touows:

C, =c1,3C

(26)

USing C, from equation (26), determine F p from equation (20) If both ends of the valve are me
same Size, F p may Instead be determined from figure 2. Then. determine If
(21)

If the condition of equation (27) .s satisfied. then use the C esraousneo from ecuanon (26)
If the condition of equation (27) IS not met, then repeat the above procedure by again
increasing C, by 30 %. This may require several Iterations untl! tne conc.uon required ,r.
equation (27) is met An Iteration method more SUitable for como ... iers can be found In annex B
For graphical approxrmat.ons of Fp , refer to figures 2a and 2b

8.2

Reynolds number factor FR

The Reynolds number factor FR IS required when non-turbulent now conditions are estabusheo
through a control valve because of a low pressure differential. a high VISCOSity, a very smal l
flow coefficient. or a combination thereof.
The FR factor is determined by diViding the flow rate when non-turbulent flow conditions
by the flow rate measured In the same Installation under turbulent conditions

ex.s:

Tests show that FR can be determined from the curves given In figure 3 uSing a valve Reynolds
number calcuiated from the follOWing equation

(28)

Tnis calculation will require Iteration. Proceed by calculating the liow coett.crent C for turnulent
flow The valve style modifier Fd converts the geometry of the orlflce(s) to an equivalent
Circular single flow passage See table 2 for typical values and annex A for details To meet
a deviation of :': 5 % for Fd , the Fd factor shall be determined by test In accordance With
ire 60534-2-3
NOTE _. Equations InvolVing

F,. are not applicable

Next. establish C, as per equation (26)


Apply C, as per equation (26) and determine F Q from equations (30) and (31) for full Size tr.-ns
or equations (32) and (33) for reduced trirns. In either case, usmg the lower of the two FR
values, determine If
C

-<C
Fi:< -

(29)
I

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998


If the cond ition of equat ion (29) is satis fied , then use the CI established from equation (26) . If
the cond ition of equation (29) is not met , then repeat the above procedure by aga in inc reasi ng
C, by 30 %. This may require several iterations until the cond ition requ ired in equat ion (29) is
met.

For full size trim where C/cJ2 ~ 0 ,016 N 18 and Rev ~ 10, calculate FR from the follow ing
equat ions :

( 0,33 fi.v2 1
( Rev
c: -1+ ,
Ilog - - ,
n,1I4 ) 10 ( 10 000 )

'R-

(30)

for the trans itional flow regime ,


where
(30a)

or
0,026 r::o:-R
---",n, ne;
Fi..

C- _
'H

(not to exceed FR = 1)

(31 )

for the laminar flow regime -.


NOTE' - Use the lower value of FA from equa tions (30) and (3 1). If Be; < , 0, use only equation (31).
NOTE 2 - Equallon (3 1) IS applicable to fUlly developed laminar flow (straignt lines in figure 3) . The relat ionships
expressed in equat ions (30) and (31) are based on test data wit h valves at rated travel and may not be fully
accurate at lower valve travels .
NOTE 3 - In equations (30a) and (31 ). C,IrP must not exceed 0,04 when Ky is used or 0,047 when Cy is used .

For reduced trim valves where q/cP- at rated travel is less than 0 ,016 N'8 and Rev ~ 10,
calculate FA from the following equations :

112"

=1+ ! 0.33fi.

"21/ 4

110

Rev !
g,o l 10000)

(32)

for the trans itional flow regime ,


where
(32a)
or
C- _ 0,026 r::r;;:-R
'H ---","2

ne;

fi

(not to exceed FR = 1)

for the lam inar flow reg ime .


NOTE I - Select the lowest value from ec uancns (32) and (33) . II Re; < 10, use only equation (33) .
NOT E 2 - Equation (33)

IS

applicable

10

fully deve loped la minar flow (straighllines in figure 3).

10

(33)

ISIIEe 60534-21 : 1998


8.3

Liquid pressure recovery factors F L or FLP

8.3.1

Liquid pressure recovery factor without attached fittings F L

F L IS the liquid pressure recovery factor of the va lve without attached fittings . This factor
accounts for the influence of the valve Internal geometry on the valve capacity at choked f low
It :s defined as the ratio of the actual maximum flow rate under choked flow conditions to a
theoret ical , non-choked flow rate which WOuld be ca lculated If the pressure different ial
usee was the difference between the va lve Inle! pressure and the apparent vena contracts
pressure at choked flow cond itions The facto r F_ may be determined from tests In accorda nce
With l Ee 60534-2-3 . Typ ica l va lues of FL vers us percent of rated flow coet uc ie nt are shown m
f igur e 4 .

8.3.2

Combined liquid pressure recovery factor and piping geometry factor


with attached fittings FL P

FLP is the combined liq uid pressure recovery factor and piping geometry facto r for a contro l
valve with attached fitt ings. It IS obtained in the same manner as FL'

To meet a ceviat ron of :5 % for F LP F L ? ::i'lel:: be dete rrruned by ! e ~ t l n g


va lues are permissible . the fo llowing equa tron sna u be used :

Fl.P : -;========

When est imated

(34 )

Here .[~, is the velocity head loss cceffrcient . .:, ~ ':8 ' . of the fitting attached upstream of the
valve as measured between the upstream pressure tap and tne control valve body .nie t

8.4

Liquid critical pressure ratio factor FF

FF is the liqu id critica l pressure ratio factor . Th rs fActor IS the rat io of the apparent vena
comrecte pressure at choked flow cond it io ns to t he vapour press ure of the liq Uid at mle t
te mpe rature . At vapour pressures near ze ro . llus Iac tu r
Values of FF may be determined from the cu rve
equation :

F1:
8.5

In

IS

0 .96 .

f ig ur e 5 or aporox rmatec f ro m the fo llOWing

~ 0,96 - 0,28 rP:

vP:

(35)

Expansion factor Y

T he expansion factor Y acco unts for the change In ce ns ity as the f lUid passes from the valve
Inle t tc the vena contracta (the location Just downstream of the o nnce whe re the Jet stream
area is a m in imum) . It also accounts for the c hange If' the vena contracta area as the press ure
d ifferential is varied v
Theoretically, Y is affected by all of the followmg :

of port area tc body inlet area ;

a)

ratio

b)

shape of the flow path ;

c)

pressure differential ratio X;

d) Reynolds number:
e) specific heat ratio .,.

11

ISIIEC 60534--21 : 1998


The influence of items a), b), c) . and e) IS accounted fo r by the pressure differential ratio factor
XI, which may be established by air test and wh ich is discussed in 8.6.1 .
The Reyno lds number is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces at the control ~alve orifice . In the
case of compressible flow . its value is beyond the range of Influence since turbulent flow
almost always exists .
The pressure differential ratio xT is influenced by the specific heat ratio of the flu id .

Y may be calculated using equation (36) .

Y=1

(36)

The value of x for calculation purposes shall not exceed Fy xT If x > Fy xT. then the flow
becomes choked and Y = 0.667. See 8.6 and 8.7 for info rmation on x, XT and Fy.

8.6
8.6.1

Pressure differential ratio factor xT or xTP


Pressure differential ratio factor without fittings xT

XI is the pressure differential ratio factor of a control valve installed without reducers or other
fittings. If the inlet pressure P1 is held constant and the outlet pressure P2 is progress ively
lowered . the mass flow rate through a valve will inc rease to a max imum lim it. a cond it ion
referred to as choked flow : Further reduct ions in P2 will produce no further increase in flow
rate .
This lim it is reached when the pressure differential x reaches a value of Fy XT. The limi ting
value of x is defined as the crit ical differential pressure rat io. The value of x used in any of the
sizing equations and in the relat ionsh ip for Y (equation (36) shall be held to this limit even
though the actual pressure differential rat io is greater. Thus. the numerical value of Y may
range from 0,667. when x = Fy XI, to 1,0 lor very low differential pressures.
The values of XI may be establ ished by air test. The test procedure for this determination is
covered In lEe 60534-2-3 .
NOTE - Representallve values of it T for several types of control valves with full size trim and at full rated open ings
are lI,ven in tab le 2 Caution should be exerCised rn the use of this informahon. When precise values are requ ired ,
they shOuld be obtained by test .

8.6.2

Pre.aure differential ratio factor with attached fittings Xlp

If a control valve is installed with attached fittings , the value of XT will be affected.

To meet a deviation of :%:5 % for XIp, the valve and attached fitt ings shall be tested as a unit.
When estimated values are perm iss ible , the following equation shall be used :

(37)

NOTE .- Values lor Ns are given ,n table 1

In the above relat ionship. xT IS the pressure differential rat io factor for a control valve installed
Without reducers or other fittings . ;, is the sum of the inlet velocity head loss coefficients
(;1 + ;61) of the reducer or other fitling attached to the inlet face of the valve .

12

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998


If the In le t f itti ng IS a short -length , comme rc ially ava ilable red uc e r, the va lue of ; may be
es t imated us rnq equat ion (23) .

8 .7

Specific heat ratio factor F r

The factor XT IS based on air near atmospheric pressure as the flowing fluid With a spec.t.c heat
ratio of 1 .40 . If the spec.tic heat rat io for the flowing flUid IS not 1,40 , the tacro r F; IS used to
ad jus t XT . Use th e to llow mq equatio n to calculate the spec if ic heal rano tactcr
.
(3 8 )
NOT:: - See " nnex C :o r valu e s o f ) ar-c F ,

8.8

Compressibility factor Z

Severa : of the s iz ing equat ions do not conta in a term for the ac tua l ce nsuy O' l ne t iu .o a t
upstream conditions Instead. the dens ity IS Inferred from the .nle: pressure and temperature
based on the laws of Idea l gases. Under some cond itions . rea l gas benav .ou r can dev iate
marked ly f rom th e idea l. In these cases . the compres s rh itnv f,qr.IO' 7 sha ll be ,r'1'od uCed to
c om pen sate fo r the discrepancy. Z IS a function of bo th th e reduc e d p ress ur e and re d uce d
tempera tu re (see approp riate refe rence books to determine Z) Red uced pressu re 0 , IS c e trneo
as the rau o 0: t he actua l In let abso lute press ure to th e abso lute th erm odyn aou c c ru.ca :
press ure for t he flUId In quest ion . T he reduced tempe rature T. IS deh ned s .m uar .v Th at is

o, ~. E!.
Pc

NOTE - See a nnex

Cia, va .ues of P, and "

13

(39 \

ISIIEC 60534--2-1 : 1998


Table 1 - Numerical constants N
Formulae unit

Fl ow coefficient C

C.

px&p

d,D

1 )( 10- '

8,6 5 x 10- 2

m31h

kPa

kg/ m 3

8 ,65 x 10- '

m3/ h

bar

kg/m 3

No,

1.60 x

10- 3

2 ,14 x 10- 3

mm

N.

7 ,07 )( 10-2

7.60 x 10- 2

m 3/h

m 2/s

1,80 x 10- 3

2.4 1 x 10 - 3

mm

Ne

3 ,16

2 ,73

kg/h

kPa

k gl m 3

3.16 x 10 '

2 ,73 x 10 '

kg/h

bar

kg/m 3

K.

Constllnt

N,

Ne
Ng

1,10

9.48 x 10-'

kglh

kPa

1.10 x 102

9,48 )( 10 '

kg/ h

ba r

2 ,46 )( 10 '

2,12 )( 10'

kPa

2.12 x

10 3

m 3 /h

10 3

m 3/h

bar

2.25

10 '

m 3/h

kPa

2.25 x 10 3

m 3/h

bar

mm

mm

mm

<t. = 0 C)

2 ,46 )(

Ng

2,60 )( 10 '

<fa =

15 C)

2 .60 x 10 3

Nu

1.05)( 10- 3

1.2 1 x 10- 3

N'e
N,g

8 ,65 x 10-'

1.00

2,5

2 ,3

~2
It. = 0 C)

1,73)( 10'

~2

lfa '" 15
~,

'C)

10 '

m 31h

kPa

1:5 0 x

10 3

m 3/h

bar

1.84 x 10 '

1.5 9

10 '

m 3/ h

kPa

1,59 x 10 3

mJl h

bar

1,84 x 10 3

kPa

bar

mm

1.73 x

10 3

1, 5 0

7.75

10- 1

6 .70 )( 10- '

kg/h

7 ,75

10- '

6 ,70 x 10- 1

kg/h

5 .58 x 10'

6.00 x 10 '

NOTE - Use of the num encal cons tants prov ided in this table toge ther with the prac tical metric units specified in the
ta ble will yield flow coeffic ien ts in th e units in whic h they are defined .

14

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1i98


Table 2 - Typica' va lues of valve style modifier Fd liquid p ressure recovery
factor Fl. and pressure differential ratio tactor Xf at full rated travel 1)
Valve type
G lobe ,
s ingle po rt

Tr im type

Flow d irec tion

0 .9

070

0 ,48

4 V -po rt plug

Open or c lose

09

0 ,70

04 1

6 V -po rt plug

Ope n or c lose

0 ,9

0.70

0 ,30

Co nto ureo plug (urea r an d


equa l pe rce ntage )

Op e n
C lo s e

0 9
0 .8

0 72
0 55

046
1,00

60 eou a l diame te r
d rill ed cage

hole

O utwa rc 3 ' o r

0 ,9

068

0 .13

120 eq ua l d' a'l'l el e r


o n noc c age

nore

09

0 ,6 8

0 .09

O utw a rd 3 ; o r
lnwa ro 3l

Ported plu g
_. _ ~

- .

_ __
..

.'--

~.

--

I
I
I

IOw a ra 31

~_

Contoured plug
G lobe . ang l e

Fa

Open or clos e

O utwa rd
In war d 3

C ha racte rized cag e 4 -port


G lobe ,
do ub le po rt

.,

FL

2)

3 v -po rt olu g

'

..

Co nto ured plug (nn ear an d


~aual perc entage)

Ope n
C lo s e

C na ra c te nzeo cag e 4 -po r:

O utwa r d
i nw a ro 3

3;

Inl e t be tween
sea ts
... . ..-. . . - -_ - -_..._.- "-_._.'.- E 'lhe r a vec uo n

0'

..

0 .9
085

0 .75
0 .70

0 ,4 1
0.4 '

09

0 .75

0 28

_._--_... ..-

,
I

._-f- .
070

0 ,32

0 ,9
0 ,8

072
0 65

0 46
1.00

0 ,9
085

0 ,6 5
0 .6 0

0 ,4 1
0 ,4 1

0 .85

i
I

G lobe , sma ll
How tri m

Ye nl u "

C lo s e

0 .5

0 ,20

1 00

vnorcn

Ope n

0 ,98

0 .8 4

0 ,7 0

Flat s ea t (s hor t travel)

C rose

-_._- --

0 .85

---0 .70 I

' a peree need le

O pe n

0 .95

0 .84

._ ,

1
I
~-'- . ' -' "

-- ' - --

!i2. .fC0L
i

Or
Ro tary

B utte rfly
(c en tred sha ft)

I Ec ce runc so ne ncat p lug

O pe n
C la sp

Ecc en tn c coni c al PIUQ


S w,ng ,thro ug h (70 <)
SWI'1g-1h roug h (60 ' )
Fl ute d van e (70')

1----Bu tterfly
(ecc e ntnc sha lt )
8a ll

O ffs et seat /70 ' !

i
I
I

1
!

0 ,8 S
0 ,6 8

0 ,6 0
0 40

0 ,4 2
0 ,< ;>

Op e n
Close

0 ,77
0 ,79

0 ,5 4
0 .55

0 ,44
0 ,044

E,I'1e '

0 .6 2

0 ,35

0 ,5 7

0.4;>

o SO

E i th e r

0 ,7 0

E ,!"cr

0 .6 7

0 .38

E it he r

0 ,6 7

0 .35

--- f------...

- - --

.
,

03 0
_....,- -_.

--

1-'- -

--

!
I

-'- - 1
i
- _.._--- ---0 .30

- ~ -I

a S7

I
i

Ful~

no :e j 70' i

Se g m e nted bal '

t;he'

~er

-'

0,74

0 ,42

0 .99

0,60

0 ,30

096

Th ese va lues a re l y p' ca: only actua l va lue s sn at be s ta le d by the -na "1ufact",re r
FlOW tends tc op el" 0 - " OS E :r (: Jalve I e P uS !' : '1e c losur e m em be r awa y lrom o r to wa rd s the se at
Outwa rd means flOW
centre

". ) 'T'

ce'1\' e of ca ge tc ovts .oe

15

a nd ," ware "' ears t 'ow fr om ou ts rc e o f c a ge

:0

ISilEe 60534-2-1 : 1998


1,0

diD

0.9

0.8

0,1

....

0.1

~
s

0,'

0.6

g)

0 _5

"a.

it

0,7

0.4

0,6 ~-----+-----+-------jl------+-------f
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
Ct/cI(using K v)

NOTE 1 - Pipe diame te r 0 is the same size at both ends 01 the valve (see equatio n (25)) .
NOTE 2 - ReIer to annex E for example 01 the use 01 these curves .

Figure 2a - Pip ing geometry factor Fp fo r KylrfJ.

16

ISIIEC 60534-21 : 1998

1,0

LA..

r--".I!!!!

0,9

s
e~0

01
01

0,8

c:

'Q.

ii:

0,7

0.6
0,00

0,01

0.03

0 .02
C. I 11' (usIn g C.)

!\I0TE 1 - Pipe c iame ter 0


NO T E 2 - Re fer to annex

IS

the same size at bolt' ends 01 IN' va lve (see ecu at .or' I n ) l

~ fo r

exam ple Of tne use 0 ' !nl'se c c rve s

Fig ure 2b - Pip ing geometry factor Fp for Cyld'J

17

0.04

O .O~

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

1.110

; i
!

"
!' t
i ~

'

,!!

, . :, , : '

: :!!' i:
i

I;.l-!' ......

Yf iM1l

A"/~ l l l :

WTNJ !V '/I iY iUV

: : ! ! Jhlll/ lA"i 1(11

,~~"n l..lo~
! J--t1 ~ ~ !
'

i; !Ii i!

I I ! Ii!

, : 1 , 1,

I I !I '

ll I

I I I'
I I
I:
I

.I

! I

I I I I':

1IIl:" :
,;

',f.

if :

!! !

:l;

0,01

.L...
1

! I

' ;

; ; l ;

: i i i II i
!

Ii '1'

,:

j!

II ' j

II I

II
'i
! ; II
:I ii ii . i: IIIiii
,
r r i : til
! I III i i
..L_.........i-......

: ::

II',

......_

i..l..i~'__

II

I II

III I

I I I II

Curve 1

IS

for CJtP " 0,016 N'8

Curve 2 is for CJtP " 0.023 N'8


Curve 3

IS

for C/tP " 0,033 N' 8

Curve 4 is for C/tP " 0,047 N'8


NOTE - Curves are based on Fe being approx imately 1.0 .

Figure 3 - Reynolds number factor FR

18

II

......~.u.l.&.._._...........................

100

10

1.000

10.000

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

1.00
~

l..L

z-c:>

2
0 ,90

=====:::::=--;----------:-

a>

e!
e!

0.80

:J

(JJ
(JJ

<lJ

0,70

C.
."Q
:J
CT

0.60

.--- --;:~
-

.-

. . .

_- -- -

::i

0,50
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percent of rated C

Figure 4a - Double seated globe valves and cage guide globe valves (see legeno )

1,00

....

o
U
s

0 ,90

e-

c:l

>

0.80

e
c:l

:;
~

CJ

0.70

a.
~

:5

0.60

0,50

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Percent 0' rated C

Figure 4b - 'Butterfly valves and con toured small flow valve (see legend )

19

100

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

1,00

Ii:

U 0,90

e
CD
>

0,80

s
~

:::J

Ul
Ul

0,70

Q.

0,60

"0

'5

a
::;

8
0.50
20

10

30

40

50

60

70

90

80

100

Percent of rated C
Figure 4c - Contoured globe valves, eccentric spherical plug valves,
and segmented ball valve (see legend)

u:

1,00

,----,----.,..--~T-

,Ii

.....

0,90

>

13

~...

0,80

0,70

-t-

::l

Z!
~

0.
~

r-'--'----i---l

II
I

i--

f-----...

::l

go

...J

0,60

1::>

~
Gl

I
I

I!

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

i
i

I
I

;,
i

II
I

0,50
0

80

90

100

Percent of rated C
Figure 4d - Eccentric conical plug valves (see legend)
Legend
, Double seated globe valve, v-port plug
2
3
4
5
6
7

Portell cage gUided globe valve (llow-to-open


and flow-to-close)
Double seated globe valve, centcured plug
Offset seat butterfly valve
SWing-through butterfly valve
Contoured small 1iOw valve
Single port, equal percentage, contoured globe
valve, now-to-ooen

B
9

Single port, equal percentage, contoured globe


valve, tlow-tc-close
Eccentric spherical plug valve, llow-to-open

10
11
12
12

Eccentric spherical plug valve, flow-to-close


Segmented ball valve
Eccentric conical plug valve, flow-la-open
Eccentric conical plug valve, flow-to-close

NOTE - These values are typical only, actual values shall be stated by the manufacturer,

Figure 4 - Variation of FL with percent of rated C

20

ISIIEC 60534-2-1

1.00

- ..__ ... ~ . .- -

0 ,80 .

- . ._

0.60 _ . --

1998

. - - - -. -

. ~- -.

. .- - - -- - --- - ..-

0.50 _._ - - - - - 0 ,00

0 ,10

0,20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

Absolute vapour pressure


AbSOlute thermodynamic cntica ' preasure

Figure 5 - Liquid critical pressure ratio factor FF

21

0.80

0.90

1.00

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

Annex A
(informative)
Derivation of valve style modifier Fd

All var iables in this annex have been defined in this part except for the following :

Ao
dH
dr

hydraulic diameter of a single flow passage, millimetres;

do

equivalent circular diameter of the total flow area. millimetres;

Do

diameter of seat orifice (see figures A.1 and A.2), millimetres;

Iw

wetted perimeter of a single flow passage, millimetres;

No

number of independent and identical flow passages of a tr im, dimensionless;

angular rotation of closure member (see figure A.2), degrees;

f}

maximum angular rotation of closure member (see figure A.2), degrees;

'61

velocity of approach factor, dimensionless;

Jl

discharge coefficient..dimens ionless.

area of vena contracta of a single flow passage , mill imetres squared;


inside diameter of annular flow passage (see figure A.1) , millimetres;

The valve style modifier Fd' defined as the ratio dHldo at rated travel and where Cjld2 > 0,016 N18
may be derived from flow tests using the following equation:

(A.1 )

For valves having Cjld2 S 0,016 N 1s , Fd is calculated as follows:

(A.2)

N OTE Va lues for N-;s ar-d N J } a re listed ,n tab le A 1

The test for dete rmining Fd

IS

cove red in lEe 60534 -2-3.

Alternatively, Fa can be ca lculated by the follow ing equa tion:

d....

Fe =-'- '
do

(A. 3)

The hydrau lic diameter d H of a single flow passage is determ ined as follows :

(A.4)
22

ISllEC 60534-21 : 1998


The equivalent Circular diameter do of the total flow area

IS

given by the fOlloWing equation.

(A.5)

Fd may be estimated with sufficient accuracy from dirnensrons given


drawings

In

manufacturers '

The valve style modifier for a single-seated. parabolic valve plug (flow tending to open) (see
figure A.1) may be calculated from equation (A.3).
From Darcey's equation, the area A o IS calculated from the following equation
(A6)
NOTE - Values

for N n are listed In table A 1

Therefore, since No = 1,

do

~ ~4;

/4

N 23 C F

(A 7)

1r

4.40

dc.> - .,
/""

4 N?3 e FL
1r(00 + d,)

(A 8)

From above,
(A3)

ir 4N23 ct; ' j

i ~(i5a-~-d,) J

~4N2~.
1,13[N23 C FL

(A 9)

o+d,
where d, varies with thft flow coefficient. The diameter d.
N2 3
F L = 0 0 2 . At low
values, d,'" Do, therefore

IS

assumed

10

be equal to zero when

d =00

The maximum Fd is 1,0.

23

N23 C FL
- - Dc

- -

(A10)

ISIIEC 60534--2-1 : 1998

For swing-through butterfly valves (see figure A.2).


The effective orifice diameter is assumed to be the hydraulic diameter of one of the two jets
emanat ing from the flow areas between the disk and valve body bore; hence No = 2.
The flow coeffic ient C at choked or sonic flow cond itions is given as:
O,125n Do 2(JL1 +JL2)(

~)
(A.12)

'61

Assuming the velocity of approach factor '61 = 1, mak ing Jl.1


equation (A.S) into equation (A.12) yields equation (A. 13) .

Aa =:

= 0,7 and JL2 = 0,7 and substituting

0,55 Do 2(1-~na )
Sln{j

(A.13)

No
and since {j = 90 0 for swing-through butterfly valves ,

Aa

0,55 Do (1-sinq)

(A.14)

No
However, since there are two equal flow are~s in parallel,

Aa =:0,275 Do2 (1-sina)

(A.15)

and

do=i4~NO
=0,837 Do ,J,-sina
r

4.40
O,59nDo

=0,59 Do (1-sina)
NOTE - 0,59

It

(A.16)

(A.17)

Do is taken as the wetted perimeter I. of each semi -circ le allowing for jet contraction and hub .

(A.3)
which results in

Fd = 0,7.J1-s ina

24

(A.18)

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998


Table A.1 - Numerical constant N
Flow coefficient C

FormUlae unit

Constant

K.

C.

N 23

1,96 xl0'

1.70 x 10'

mm

N26

1,28 x 10 7

9,00

m 3/ h

mm

m 2/s

m 3/ h

m 2/s

mm

X 10 4

N3 1

2,1

N 32

1,4 x 10 2

1,9

10 6

X 10 4

1,27 x 10 2

NOT E - Use of the numerical constant provided in thi s tab le together with th e pract ica l metric uruts spec if ied
the tab le will yie ld flow coefficients in the units in wh ich they are def ined .

,P ii
\

Figure A.1 - Single seated , parabolic plug (flow tending to open)

Figure A.2.- swing-through butterfly valve

25

''1

ISilEe 60534--2-1 : 1998

Annex B
(informative)
Control valve sizing flow charts

8 .1 Incompruaible ftulda

5electFL
using valve type

and size'
When in doubt, use inlel
pipe size as valve size

CalculateFF
using eq. (35)

No

Yes

Choked flow
CalculateC
using eq. (3)

Non-choked flow
CaicuiateC
using eq. (1)

Calculate FIe.. using eq. (28)


Use Casc,
Use Fd from table 2

No

No

I
!
I
~
(contrnued)

I
I
I

vesaJ
I

Use

Use

calculated C

calculated C

26

C =C
'

ISllEC 6()534.2-1 : 1998

8.1 Incompreuible fluids (conlinue<l)

(connnued)

Non-turbulent flow
Estab lish C. = 1.3 C
Calculate Rev
uSing eq (28)

L
I

Calculate FR as lower ,

va lue of eq . (32) alia ' No


eq .(33 )
[If Rev < 10. use FA
from (33)J
, - -._

--L.

i Calculate FA as lower

value of eq (30) and

Ii ll: ue; .. i G. use F


eq(31)

fro m (31)]

'--------6
I

No

l"crease C
by300fc
_

Yes

~astlow

\,

,- coetnceot
---_. .----'

27

'_ _1

ISIIEC 605~2-1 : 1998

B.2 Compreulble fluids

Select ~
using valve type

and size "


When in doubt , use inlet
pipe size as valve size

Calculate F
using eq. (38)

No

Yes

Choked flow

Non-choked flow
Calculate Y
using eq. (36)
Calculate C
using (6) , (7) or (8) ,

Y= 0,667
Calculate C using
eq. (12), (13) or
(14)

Calculate Rev using

eq. (28)

Use Cas C.
Use Fa from table 2

No
Calculate
Fp(C,)
~(C)

No

Calculate C
using eq . (15) . (16)
or (17)

Yes

I
j

(continued)

(
\ ,
Use
calcula ted C
\'---- - - - --)

28

Use
ca lculated C

Calculate C
using eq . (9), (10)
or (11)

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

B.2 Compressible fluids (cont inued)

(continued)

Ncn-turnutent flow
Establish C, = 1.3 C
Calculate Re.
us ing eq (28)

)..
Calculate FR as lower
va lue of eq. (32j and
eq .(33 )
[If
< 10 , use F R
from (33)]

- 0

'NO
~
~~
.
Clci> 0 .O i6 N,y

Re.

__--,i

Yes

Calculate FR as lower
value of eq (30) and
eq .(3 1)
[If Re; < 10 . use fo R
from (3')]

I
I

L.------+l6
T

--

...-~--,

No

ClF" =< C
I

29

Yes

Increase C
by 30 %

I
I
.
1

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

Annex C
(informative)
Physical constants
Symbol

Gaa or vapour
Acetylene

1)

F,

Pc 2)

Tc 3)
309

C 2H 2

26,04

7
1,30

0 ,929

6140

28,97

1,40

1,000

3n1

133

17,03

1,32

0 ,943

11 400

406

39,948

1,67

1 ,191

4870

151

Air
Ammonia

NH 3

Argon

Benzene

CeHe

78,11

1,12

0,800

4924

562

lsobutane

C..H,

58,12

1,10

0 ,784

3638

408

n-Butane

C..H,o

58 ,12

1,11

0 ,793

3800

425

Isobutylene

C..He

56,11

1,11

0 ,790

4 000

418

Carbon dioxide

CO 2

44,01

1,30

0 ,929

7387

304

Carbon monoxide

CO

28,01

1,40

1,000

3496

133

Chlorine

C~

70,906

1,31

0,934

7980

417

Ethane

~HlI

30 ,07

1,22

0 ,871

4884

305

Ethylene

~H4

28 ,05

1,22

0,871 .

5040

283

Fluo rine

F2

18,998

1.36

0 ,970

5215

144

Freon 11 (trichloromonofluormelhane)

CCI 3F

137.37

1,14

0 ,811

4409

471

Freon 12 (dich lorodifluoromethane)

CCI 2F2

120,91

1,13

0.807

4114

385

Freon 13 (chlorotrifluoromethane)

CCIF

104,46

1,14

0 ,814

3889

302

Freon 22 (chlorodifluoromethane)

CHCIF 2

80.47

1,18

0 ,848

49n

389

Helium

He

4 ,003

1,68

1,188

229

5,25

nHeptane

C 7H ,e

100,20

1,05

0,750

2736

540

Hydrogen

H2

2.016

1,41

1 ,007

1297

33,25

Hydrogen chloride

HCI

36 ,46

1,4 1

1,007

8319

325

Hydrogen fluoride

HF

20.01

0,97

0 .691

6485

481

Methane

CH..

16,04

1.32

0 .943

4600

191

Methyl chlonde

CH 3CI

50 .49

1.24

0 ,889

6677

4 17

17,74

1.27

0 .907

4 634

203

Natural 0"')
Neon

Ne

20,179

1,64

1,171

2726

44 ,45

Nit riC OXide

NO

63,01

1,40

1,000

6485

180

Nitrogen

N2

28 ,013

1.40

1,000

3394

126

Oc ta ne

CeH ' e

114.23

1.66

' ,186

25 13

569

Oxygen

32 ,000

1,40

1.000

5 040

155

72,15

1,06

0,757

3374

470

Propane

0"
C5 H' 2
C 3 He

44 ,10

1,15

0 ,82 1

4 256

370

Propylene

C3 Hs

Pentane

Sat urated steam


Sulphur d!oxlde

502

Supe rhea ted stea m

..

2'

42 ,08

1,14

0,8 14

4600

365

18,01 6

1.25 , .32 14 )

0 .893 0 ,943 <:

22 119

647

64.06

1,26

0,900

7822

430

18,01 6

1,31 5

0 ,939

22 119

647

Cons taets a re for f:ulds (exceo: for steam) at amb rent tem paratu ra and atmospheric pres sure.
Press ure U'lJ! S are kPa (aosotute)

J: '7' empera tu r e urvts a'e

rn K

' I Rep resen taltve values : exac t cna racte nsncs require know ledge of exact constituen ts .

30

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

Annex 0
(informative)
Examples of sizing calculations

Example 1: Incompressible flow - non-choked turbulent flow without attached fittings


Process data :
Fluid:

water

Inlet temperature :

T,

Density:

= 363

Vapour pressure :

= 965 ,4 kg /m 3
Pv = 70 ,1 kPa

Thermodynam ic critical pressure:

Pc = 22 120 kPa

Kinematic viscosity :

v = 3.26 x 10- 7 m 2/s

Inlet absolute pressure :

Flow rate :

= 680 kPa
P2 = 220 kPa
Q = 360 m 3/h

Pipe size :

0, = 02 = 150 mm

Outlet absolute pressu re :

p,

P,

Valve data:
Va lve style :

globe

Tr im :

parabolic plug

Flow direction :

flow-to-open

Valve size :

Liqu id pressure recovery factor:

= 0.90 (from table 2)


Fd = 0,46 (from table 2)

Va lve sty le modifie r:

>

150 mm

FL

Calculations :

Fr = 0,96

- 0,28

{P; = 0.944

~p;

where
Pv = 70,1 kPa ;

Pc = 22 120 kPa.
Next, determine the type of flow:

fi. 2 (p,- F,: x Pv )=497.2 kPa

31

(35 )

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998


which is more than the differential pressure (L\P = 460 kPa); therefore, the flow is non-choked,
and the flow coefficient C is calculated using equation (2):

c=E-~P'/PO =1~ m3/hfor ;


Nt

(1)

Ap

where
Q

=360 m3/h;

N1 = 1

10-1 from table 1;

p,/Po = 0,965;
t.p

=460 kPa .

Next, calculate Rev:

Rev =N4 F..II Q [ Ii2 q 2 +1]

vJq Ii

114

~04

=2,967x106

(28)

where
~

= 1,60 X 10-3 from

table 1;

N4 = 7,07 x 10-2 from table 1;


Fd = 0,46;
Q = 360 m3 /h;
v = 3.26 x 10-7 m 2/s ;

= C = Ky = 165 m3/h;

FL = 0,90;
0= 150 mm.

Since the valve Reynolds number is greater than 10 000, the flow is -turbulent, and the flow
coE\tficient C as calculated above is correct.

Exampl. 2: Incomprlble flow - choked flow without .ttached fitting.


Proc data:
Fluid:

water

Inlet temperature :

T, = 363 K

Density:

p, = 965,4 kg/m 3

Vapour pressure :

Pv = 70 ,1 kPa

Thermodynamic critical pressure:

Pc = 22120 kPa

Kinematic viscos ity:

v = 3,26

Inlet absolute pressure:

P, = 680 kPa

10- 7 m 2 /s

Outlet abso lute pressure :

P2 = 220 kPa

Flow rate :

Q = 360 m 3/h

Pipe size:

0 1 = O2 = 100 mm

32

ISIIEC 60534-21 : 1998


Valve data:
Valve style :

ball valve

Tr im :

segmented ball

F low direct ion :

flow -to -ope n

Valve s ize :

Liqu id pressure recovery factor :

= 100 mm
Fl = 0 ,60 (from

Valve style mod if ier :

Fe = 0.98 (from table 2)

table 2)

Calculations:

Fi= '" 0.96-0,28

Jf =

0,944

(35 )

where

Pv = 70 ,1 kPa;

Pc = 22120 kPa.
Next, determine the type of flow :

fi

(p, -

f1: x Pv) '" 221

kPa

wh ich is less than the different ial pressure (."iP = 460 kPa) ; the refore . tne flow
the flow coefficient C is calculated us inq equation (3) :

IS

choked and

where

= 360 m 3/h;
N, = 1 x 10- 1 from
Q

table 1;

FL = 0.60 ;

p,/Po = 0 ,965 ;
P, = 680 kPa.

FF = 0,944;

Pv = 70,1 kPa.
Next, calculate Rev:
(28 \

where

N2 = 1.60 x 10-3 from (able 1;

N4 = 7,07 x 10-2 from table 1 ;

F = 0,98;
Q = 360 m 3 /h;

v = 3 ,26 x 10-7 m 2/s;

C: =

C = K v = 238 m3 /h ;

FL = 0.60;

0= 100 mm.

33

ISIIEC 60534-21 : 1998


Since the valve Reynolds number is greater than 10 000, the flow is turbulent and no more
.
correction is necessary.

Example 3: Comprullble flow - non-choked flow with attached fittings


Proceu data:
Fluid:

carbon dioxide

Inlet temperature:

T,

Molecular mass :

M = 44,01 kg/kmol

Kinematic viscosity:

v = 1,743 x 10-5 m2/s

Specific heat ratio:

Compressibility factor:

Z= 0,988

Inlet absolute pressure:

p,

Outlet absolute pressure:

1'2= 310kPa

Flow rate:
Inlet pipe size:

= 3 800 standard m3/h at 101,325 kPa and 0 C


0, = 80 mm

Outlet pipe size :

~='OOmm

Reducers:

short length , concentric

=433 K
1,30

=680 kPa

V.lve data :
Valve style:

rotary

Tr im:

eccentric rotary plug

Flow direct ion:

flow -to-open

Valve size :

d= 50 mm

Pressure differential ratio factor :

Xl" == 0,60 (from table 2)

liquid pressure recovery factor:

FL = 0,85 (from table 2)

Valve style modif ier :

Fd = 0,42 (from table 2)

calculations:

F.y = - r = 0 929
1,40

where

r>

1.30.

and with this:


lip
x = - =0.544

p.,

34

(38)

ISIIEe 60534-2-1 : 1998


wh ich is less than Fr XT = 0 ,557 ; therefore . the f low IS non -choked and the f low coo tt rc.e m
ca lcu lated from equatio n (11). Next , Y IS calculated f ro m eouauon (36 ),
X_

Y=1-_
3Fy

'5

(36 )

=0,674

xT

whe re

x = 0 ,544 ;
F.,= 0 ,929 ;
xT = 0 ,60 .

c=

Ng Fp P, Y

~Mr:
Z =62.7m 3 I h for
--'-

(11 )

K,

whe re

Q = 3 800 m 3/h
N g = 2 ,46 x 10' for ts = 0 DC from table'

ass ume F p = 1

p,

= 680 kPa

= 0 ,674

M = 44 ,0 1 k g/ kmol

= 433

T,
Z

= 0 .988

.~ .,..

Q.54 4

Nov" calculate Rev uSing equation '(28 ):

(28 )

whe re

N2

= , ,60 x

10-3 from tab le 1

N4 = 7 .07 x 10- 2 from table '


Fa = 0,42
Q

= 3800

m 3 /h

v = 1.743 x 10- 5 m 2 /s
C, = C = K; = 62 ,7 m 3 / h

F,--

= 0 .85

0 = 80 mm
Sir-ce the va lve Reyno1ds number IS greater tna n 10000 the flow
New . ca lculate the e ffec t of tne .n ie t and out le t red uce rs o n C.

35

IS

turbu ient

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998


Since both reducers are concentric, short length, the velocity head loss coefficients can be
calculated as follows:

.'1 =0,5 [1-(dI0,)2]2 =0,186

(23)

where

d= 50 mm
0 1 = 80 mm
(24)
where

d= 50 mm
~=

100

mm

and the Bernoulli coefficients are :

(22)
where

mm
0 1 = 80 mm

50

(22)
where

d= 50 mm
02 = 100 mm
The effective head loss coefficient of the inlet and outlet reducers is:

(21)
where

;1

'2

= 0,186
= 0,563

'6 1 = 0,847
;62 = 0,938

Now, the effect of the reducers is calcu lated by iteration, starting with Ci

= C and

Fp (1 )

= 1:
(20)

where

.1:; = 0,658
N 2 = 1.60 x 10- 3 from tab le 1

C,

= 62 .7 m 3/h

d = 50 mm

36

ISIIEe 6053421 : 1998


Since F p(2)/Fo(1) = 0,891/1 < 0,99, one more Iteration step shall be done
7 = 70 .4 m 3.I h
62,_
C2 -- ' - -Cc = _
Fp(2 ) 0,891
(20)

where

J.;s = 0,658
N2 = 1,60 x 10- 3 from table 1

C2 = 70,4 m3 /h
d= 50 mm
Now, Fp(3)/Fp(2) = 0,868/0,891 > 0.99 so Fp13) will be used as F o for the final calculation

(37)

where
XT

= 0,60

Fp = 0,868

;1 = S1 + SB1 = 1,033
Ns = 1,80 x 10-2 from table 1

C2 = 70,4 m 3/h
d - 50 mrn
and with trus F;

xTP

= 0,582, which

IS

greater than x = 0,544

Finally, C results from equation (11) as follows:


C",

N g Fp p. Y

~MT, Z
x

where
Q = 3 800 m 3/h

Ng = 2,46;-: 10' for ts = 0 C from table 1


Fp = 0,868

P1 = 680 KPa
Y= 0,674
M = 4401 kg(Kmol

T1 = 433

Z= 0,388

x = 0,544

37

=72,2m 3/h for

( 11)

ISIIEC

60~2-1

: 1998

Example 4: Compressible flow - small flow trim sized for gas flow
Process data:
Fluid:

argon gas

Inlet temperature:

T, = 320 K

Inlet absolute pressure:

p, = 2,8 bar (absolute)

Outlet absolute pressure:

P2 = 1,3 bar (absolute)

Flow rate:

Molecular mass:

M= 39,95

Kinematic viscosity:

v = 1,338 x 10-5 m2 /s at 1 bar (absolute) and 15C

Spec ific heat ratio :

1'= 1,67

Specific heat ratio factor:

Fy = 1,19

= 0,46 standard m3/h at

1 013,25 mbar and 15C

Valve data: '


tapered needle plug

Trim:
Liqu id pressure recovery factor:

FL = 0,98

Pressure differential rat io factor:

XT = 0,8

Or ifice diameter:

0 0 = 5 mm

Valve size:

d= 15 mm

Interna l diameter of PIping:

0= 15 mm

Calculation:
The first step is to check the Reynolds number Rev :
(28)

Th is requi res input of C1 which has to be determ ined . Since x F y XT . the flow coeff icient can
be est imated by first uSlOg the choked flow equat ion (14) to calcu late C. the n multiplying C
by 1,3 in accordance with the iteration procedure of 8. 1.
C=

Q
~M
r.' -Z = 0.0127 for C;
-0,667 Ng PI Fy xr

whe re

0 = 0,46 m 3 /h
Ng = 2 ,25 x 10 3 for ts = 15 C from table 1
p ~ = 2.8 ba r

M = 39 .95 kg/km ol
T1

= 320

Z= 1
F y = 1,19

xr = 0.8
38

( 14 )

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998


C j = 1,3C=O,0165 for C;

(26)

where
C = 0,0127 for C;

Nex t, est imate Fd from the equat ion

In

table 2 :

where
C

FL

= q = 0,016 5 for c;
= 0,98

N'9 = 2,3 from tab le 1

Do = 5 mm
Calculate Rev as follows :

:=

1202

(28 )

where
N 2 = 2 ,12 x 10-3 fr om table 1
N4

= 7 ,6

x 10- 2 from table 1

F d = 0 ,058

= 0,46

-e

m3 / h

1,338 x 10 - 5 m 2/s

F l = 0 ,98

q = 0,0165 for C;
D = 15 mm
Determ ine if Cld2 < 0 ,016 N'A:

Cld 2 = 7 .333 x 10- 5


0.016 N'8 = 0 .016

Cld2 < 0 ,016 N'8


where
N '8 = 1.00 from table 1
C=0 ,0165

= 15

mm

S ince the Reynolds number IS below 10 OUO . the flow is non-turb ulent ; hence flow coeff icient
equation (19) has to be used . Since Ctd? <: 0 .016 N'8 and Rev> 10. ca rcutate FR from both
equat ions (32) and (33} and use the lowe r value .
(32a)
where
N3 3

= 55 ,8 from

table 1

C, = 0 ,016 5 for C;
Rev = 1 202

15 mm

39

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : 1998

)
( 0 33 fi.1/2 I110910 (Rev
c: -1+'
- - =0,727
'R -

\.

~'/4

(32)

\.10 000

~ = 1+(O,296) (-0,920)=0,727
where

FL = 0,98
n2 = 1,478

Rev = 1 202

~ = 0,026 J~ RBy

=1,12

(33)

fi.

NOTE - FA is limited to 1.

where

FL = 0,98

nz = 1,478
Rev = 1 202
Use FR = 0,727 , the lower of the two calculated values .

Q
c=-N22~

(MT, ) =0,018 for c;

(19)

.<c
~
,

(29)

p,+P2

where
Q = 0,46 m3/h
~2 = 1,59 x 10 3 fC;>r ts = 15C from table 1

FA = 0 ,73
M = 39,95 kg/kmol
T 1 = 320 K

tip = 1 ,5 bar

p, = 2,8 bar
P2 = 1,3 bar
Check :

0,0127 =0018>00165
0,727'
,
Since C/F~ is not less than C" repeat the ite ration process by inc reasi ng C, by 30 % .
New C = 1.3

q = 0.021

whe re

C, = 0,016 5

40

IS/lEe 60534-2 1 : 1 '398

Fd

N". 'C,=

r.,

' J 067

'- !:--_
"

F2 2
- --4 -1 '

Dc

'

C, = 0 ,021 4 for C,

F,- == 0,98
N 1 9 = 2 ,3 from table 1

Dc == 5 mm

RD"'V --

N F.

4r;;-;=:c

v"j C, F:

1' . 4

1 202

N20

whe re

N 2 == 2 ,14 x 10- 3 from ta ble 1

N 4 == 7,6 x 10 - 2 f rom taoIe 1


Fd

0,067

=:

Q == 0 ,46 m 3/;

v == 1,338 x 10- 5 m 2 /s

Fe- == 0,98
C == 0 ,02 14
"_

&.....;

1k."""~
<oJ . . . . . ,

S in ce the value of Rev rema ins the same as previously calc urateo F", re ma .r s at G ," .
Tnerefore , the calcu lated C w ill remain at 0,018 and any t rim With a rated C of 0018 0' ~'G ' ~
fo r Cv is app rop ria te

41

ISIIEC 60534-2-1 : ~998

Annex E
(informative)
Bibliography

Baumann , H.D., "A unifying Method for Sizing Throttling Valves Under Laminar or Trans itional
Flow Conditions", Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 115, No.1, March 1993, pp. 166 -168

42

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