ANSYS Polymat User's Guide
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Table of Contents
Using This Manual ........................................................................................................................................ ix
1. The Contents of This Manual ............................................................................................................... ix
2. The Contents of the ANSYS Polyflow Manuals ....................................................................................... x
3. How to Use This Manual ....................................................................................................................... x
3.1. For the Beginner ......................................................................................................................... x
3.2. For the Experienced User ............................................................................................................ xi
4.Typographical Conventions Used in This Manual .................................................................................. xi
5. Contacting Technical Support ............................................................................................................ xii
1. Getting Started ....................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2. Program Structure ............................................................................................................................ 2
1.3. Overview of Using ANSYS Polymat .................................................................................................... 3
1.3.1. Planning Your ANSYS Polymat Analysis ..................................................................................... 3
1.3.2. Steps for Fitting Material Parameters ........................................................................................ 4
1.4. Starting ANSYS Polymat .................................................................................................................... 5
1.5. Starting ANSYS Polycurve ................................................................................................................. 5
1.6. Sample Session ................................................................................................................................. 5
1.6.1. Problem Description ................................................................................................................ 5
1.6.2. Outline of Procedure ................................................................................................................ 6
1.6.3. Using the NonAutomatic Fitting Method ................................................................................. 7
1.6.3.1. Defining the Experimental Data ....................................................................................... 7
1.6.3.2. Specifying the Curves to be Calculated ............................................................................ 8
1.6.3.3. Defining Numerical Parameters ....................................................................................... 8
1.6.3.4. Defining the Type of Fluid Model ..................................................................................... 8
1.6.3.5. Fitting the Material Parameters ........................................................................................ 9
1.6.3.5.1. Finding the Value of K ............................................................................................. 9
1.6.3.5.1.1. Trying K=1 ..................................................................................................... 9
1.6.3.5.2. Trying Other Values of K ........................................................................................ 10
1.6.3.5.2.1. Finding the Value of n ................................................................................... 11
1.6.3.6. Saving the Parameters to a Material Data File ................................................................. 12
1.6.3.7. Saving the Experimental Data to a File ........................................................................... 12
1.6.3.8. Exiting from ANSYS Polymat .......................................................................................... 13
1.6.4. Using the Automatic Fitting Method ....................................................................................... 13
1.6.4.1. Defining the Type of Fluid Model ................................................................................... 13
1.6.4.2. Fixing the Values of Parameters to Remain Constant ....................................................... 13
1.6.4.3. Reading in the Experimental Data .................................................................................. 14
1.6.4.4. Drawing the Experimental Data Curve ............................................................................ 14
1.6.4.5. Limiting the Range of the Fitting Calculation .................................................................. 14
1.6.4.6. Specifying a Name for the Material Data File ................................................................... 14
1.6.4.7. Performing the Automatic Fitting ................................................................................... 15
2. User Interface ........................................................................................................................................ 17
2.1. Polymat GUI Components ............................................................................................................... 17
2.1.1. The Menu Bar ......................................................................................................................... 18
2.1.2. The Menu Buttons .................................................................................................................. 20
2.1.3. The Menu ............................................................................................................................... 21
2.1.4. The Chart Buttons .................................................................................................................. 22
2.1.5. The Chart Window .................................................................................................................. 22
2.1.6. The Curve Buttons .................................................................................................................. 23
2.1.7. The Curve List ........................................................................................................................ 24
2.1.8. The Curve Settings ................................................................................................................. 24
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2.1.9. The Output Text Window ........................................................................................................ 25
2.2. Polycurve GUI Components ............................................................................................................ 25
3. Reading and Writing Files ..................................................................................................................... 27
3.1. Files Written or Read by ANSYS Polymat and ANSYS Polycurve ......................................................... 27
3.2. Reading Experimental Data ............................................................................................................. 27
3.2.1. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method .............................. 27
3.2.2. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the Automatic Fitting Method ...................................... 29
3.3. Saving Experimental Data ............................................................................................................... 30
3.4. Reading and Writing Material Data .................................................................................................. 31
3.5. Reading CAMPUS Material Property Files ......................................................................................... 31
4. Unit Systems .......................................................................................................................................... 33
4.1. Overview of Units ........................................................................................................................... 33
4.2. Converting to a New Unit System .................................................................................................... 33
4.3. Restrictions on Units ....................................................................................................................... 35
5. Fitting Material Parameters .................................................................................................................. 37
5.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 37
5.2. NonAutomatic Fitting .................................................................................................................... 37
5.2.1. Steps for NonAutomatic Fitting ............................................................................................. 37
5.2.2. Specifying the Curves to be Calculated ................................................................................... 38
5.2.3. Defining Numerical Parameters .............................................................................................. 38
5.2.4. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model ........................................................................................... 40
5.2.5. Defining Initial Values for the Material Parameters ................................................................... 40
5.2.6. Performing the Fitting Analysis ............................................................................................... 41
5.3. Automatic Fitting ............................................................................................................................ 42
5.3.1. Steps for Automatic Fitting ..................................................................................................... 42
5.3.2. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model ........................................................................................... 43
5.3.3. Fixing Values for Selected Material Parameters ........................................................................ 43
5.3.4. Defining Numerical Parameters .............................................................................................. 44
5.3.5. Drawing the Experimental Curves ........................................................................................... 46
5.3.6. Specifying a Name for the Material Data File ........................................................................... 46
5.3.7. Performing the Automatic Fitting Analysis .............................................................................. 46
6. Material Data Parameters ..................................................................................................................... 49
6.1. Overview of Fluid Properties and Flow Characteristics ..................................................................... 49
6.2. Generalized Newtonian Flow ........................................................................................................... 51
6.2.1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 52
6.2.1.1. Equations ...................................................................................................................... 52
6.2.1.2. Inputs ........................................................................................................................... 52
6.2.2. ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity ....................................................................................... 52
6.2.2.1. Constant ....................................................................................................................... 52
6.2.2.2. BirdCarreau Law ........................................................................................................... 53
6.2.2.3. Power Law ..................................................................................................................... 54
6.2.2.4. Bingham Law ................................................................................................................ 55
6.2.2.5. Modified Bingham Law .................................................................................................. 56
6.2.2.6. HerschelBulkley Law ..................................................................................................... 57
6.2.2.7. Modified HerschelBulkley Law ...................................................................................... 58
6.2.2.8. Cross Law ...................................................................................................................... 59
6.2.2.9. Modified Cross Law ....................................................................................................... 60
6.2.2.10. LogLog Law ................................................................................................................ 61
6.2.2.11. CarreauYasuda Law .................................................................................................... 63
6.2.3. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity .................................................................................... 64
6.2.3.1. Arrhenius Law ............................................................................................................... 64
6.2.3.2. Approximate Arrhenius Law ........................................................................................... 65
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6.2.3.3. Arrhenius ShearStress Law ............................................................................................ 66
6.2.3.4. Approximate Arrhenius ShearStress Law ....................................................................... 67
6.2.3.5. Fulcher Law ................................................................................................................... 68
6.2.3.6. WLF Law ........................................................................................................................ 71
6.2.3.7. WLF ShearStress Law .................................................................................................... 73
6.2.3.8. MixedDependence Law ................................................................................................ 74
6.3. Differential Viscoelastic Flow ........................................................................................................... 76
6.3.1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 76
6.3.1.1. Equations ...................................................................................................................... 76
6.3.1.2. Inputs ........................................................................................................................... 76
6.3.2. Differential Viscoelastic Models .............................................................................................. 77
6.3.2.1. UpperConvected Maxwell Model .................................................................................. 79
6.3.2.1.1. Equations ............................................................................................................. 79
6.3.2.1.2. Inputs ................................................................................................................... 79
6.3.2.1.3. Behavior Analysis .................................................................................................. 79
6.3.2.2. OldroydB Model ........................................................................................................... 82
6.3.2.2.1. Equations ............................................................................................................. 82
6.3.2.2.2. Inputs ................................................................................................................... 82
6.3.2.2.3. Behavior Analysis .................................................................................................. 83
6.3.2.3. WhiteMetzner Model .................................................................................................... 84
6.3.2.3.1. Equations ............................................................................................................. 84
6.3.2.3.2. Guidelines for Fitting ............................................................................................. 85
6.3.2.3.3. Inputs ................................................................................................................... 85
6.3.2.3.4. Behavior Analysis .................................................................................................. 86
6.3.2.4. PhanThienTanner Model .............................................................................................. 89
6.3.2.4.1. Equations ............................................................................................................. 89
6.3.2.4.2. Inputs ................................................................................................................... 89
6.3.2.4.3. Behavior Analysis .................................................................................................. 90
6.3.2.5. Giesekus Model ............................................................................................................. 95
6.3.2.5.1. Equations ............................................................................................................. 95
6.3.2.5.2. Inputs ................................................................................................................... 96
6.3.2.5.3. Behavior Analysis .................................................................................................. 96
6.3.2.6. FENEP Model ................................................................................................................ 99
6.3.2.6.1. Equations ............................................................................................................. 99
6.3.2.6.2. Inputs ................................................................................................................. 100
6.3.2.6.3. Behavior Analysis ................................................................................................ 101
6.3.2.7. POMPOM Model [DCPP] ............................................................................................. 106
6.3.2.7.1. Inputs ................................................................................................................. 107
6.3.2.7.2. Behavior Analysis ................................................................................................ 107
6.3.2.8. Leonov Model ............................................................................................................. 110
6.3.2.8.1. Inputs ................................................................................................................. 112
6.3.2.8.2. Identification of Model Parameters and Functions ................................................ 113
6.3.2.8.3. Behavior Analysis ................................................................................................ 113
6.3.3. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity .................................................................................. 117
6.3.4. Multiple Relaxation Times for Differential Viscoelastic Flows .................................................. 117
6.4. Integral Viscoelastic Flow .............................................................................................................. 120
6.4.1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 120
6.4.1.1. Equations .................................................................................................................... 120
6.4.1.2. Inputs .......................................................................................................................... 121
6.4.2. Integral Viscoelastic Models .................................................................................................. 122
6.4.2.1. DoiEdwards Model ..................................................................................................... 123
6.4.2.2. KBKZ Model ................................................................................................................. 124
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6.4.2.3. Influence of Damping Functions and Their Parameters ................................................. 125
6.4.2.3.1. Oscillatory Shear Flow ......................................................................................... 125
6.4.2.3.2. Simple Shear Flow ............................................................................................... 126
6.4.2.3.3. Extensional Flow ................................................................................................. 127
6.4.2.3.4. Transient Shear Flow ........................................................................................... 131
6.4.3. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity .................................................................................. 134
6.5. Simplified Viscoelastic Model ........................................................................................................ 134
6.5.1. Equations ............................................................................................................................. 135
6.5.2. Identification of Model Parameters and Functions ................................................................. 136
6.5.3. Inputs .................................................................................................................................. 136
6.5.4. Behavior Analysis ................................................................................................................. 137
7. Rheological Properties ........................................................................................................................ 141
7.1. Steady Simple Shear Flow ............................................................................................................. 141
7.2. Steady Extensional Flow ................................................................................................................ 143
7.3. Oscillatory Shear Flow ................................................................................................................... 145
7.4. Transient Shear Flow ..................................................................................................................... 145
7.5. Transient Extensional Flow ............................................................................................................ 147
8. Defining and Plotting Curves .............................................................................................................. 149
8.1. Overview ...................................................................................................................................... 149
8.1.1. Definitions of Terms .............................................................................................................. 149
8.2. Working with Curves ..................................................................................................................... 150
8.2.1. Defining Experimental Data Curves ....................................................................................... 150
8.2.2. Reading Curve Files .............................................................................................................. 151
8.2.3. Deleting a Curve .................................................................................................................. 151
8.2.4. Modifying a Curve Definition ................................................................................................ 151
8.2.5. Saving a Curve ..................................................................................................................... 151
8.2.6. Moving or Copying a Curve .................................................................................................. 151
8.2.7. Modifying Curve Display Attributes ...................................................................................... 152
8.3. Adding, Removing, and Modifying Charts ...................................................................................... 152
8.3.1. Adding and Removing a Chart .............................................................................................. 152
8.3.2. Modifying the Title and Legend ............................................................................................ 154
8.3.3. Modifying the Range and Scaling ......................................................................................... 155
8.3.4. Modifying the Axis Attributes ............................................................................................... 155
9. Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models ..................................................................................................... 157
9.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 157
9.2. The Weissenberg Number ............................................................................................................. 158
9.3. Viscometric and Rheometric Measurements .................................................................................. 158
9.3.1. Oscillatory Properties ........................................................................................................... 158
9.3.2. SteadyState Shear Viscosity ................................................................................................. 158
9.3.3. First NormalStress Difference ............................................................................................... 159
9.3.4. Transient Uniaxial Elongational Viscosity ............................................................................... 159
9.4. General Strategy for Fitting ........................................................................................................... 159
9.4.1. Weighting Measured Data .................................................................................................... 159
9.4.2. Assigning a Value to a Parameter .......................................................................................... 159
9.4.3. Using Identical or Independent NonLinear Parameters ......................................................... 161
9.4.4. Relaxation Time vs. Relaxation Spectrum in Extrusion, Fiber Spinning, and Film Casting .......... 161
9.4.5. Relaxation Time vs. Relaxation Spectrum in Blow Molding and Thermoforming ...................... 162
9.4.6. Relaxation Time vs. Relaxation Spectrum in Pressing .............................................................. 162
9.5. Guidelines for Extrusion ................................................................................................................ 162
9.5.1. Important Effects ................................................................................................................. 162
9.5.1.1. 2D Extrusion ................................................................................................................ 162
9.5.1.2. 3D Extrusion ................................................................................................................ 163
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9.5.2. Recommended Experimental Data ....................................................................................... 163
9.5.3. Recommended Models and Parameters ................................................................................ 163
9.6. Guidelines for Fiber Spinning ........................................................................................................ 164
9.6.1. Important Effects ................................................................................................................. 164
9.6.1.1. 2D Fiber Spinning ........................................................................................................ 164
9.6.1.2. 3D Fiber Spinning ........................................................................................................ 165
9.6.2. Recommended Experimental Data ....................................................................................... 165
9.6.3. Recommended Models and Parameters ................................................................................ 165
9.7. Guidelines for Film Casting ............................................................................................................ 166
9.7.1. Important Effects ................................................................................................................. 166
9.7.2. Recommended Experimental Data ....................................................................................... 166
9.7.3. Recommended Models and Parameters ................................................................................ 166
9.8. Guidelines for Blow Molding and Thermoforming .......................................................................... 167
9.8.1. Important Effects ................................................................................................................. 167
9.8.2. Recommended Experimental Data ....................................................................................... 167
9.8.3. Recommended Models and Parameters ................................................................................ 168
9.8.3.1. 2D and 3D Blow Molding and Thermoforming .............................................................. 168
9.8.3.2. Blow Molding and Thermoforming with Shell Models ................................................... 169
9.9. Guidelines for Pressing .................................................................................................................. 169
9.9.1. Important Effects ................................................................................................................. 169
9.9.2. Recommended Experimental Data ....................................................................................... 170
9.9.3. Recommended Models and Parameters ................................................................................ 170
9.10. Empirical Rules and Principles ..................................................................................................... 170
9.10.1. CoxMerz Rule .................................................................................................................... 171
9.10.2. Gleissle Mirror Relationships ............................................................................................... 171
9.10.3. First Normal Stress Difference Relationships ........................................................................ 172
9.10.4. TimeTemperature Equivalence ........................................................................................... 172
10. Examples ........................................................................................................................................... 177
10.1. Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model ........................................................... 177
10.1.1. Experimental Data .............................................................................................................. 177
10.1.2. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS Polymat .................................................................................... 178
10.1.2.1. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type ............................................................................ 178
10.1.2.2. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters ....................................... 178
10.1.2.3. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves .............................................. 179
10.1.2.4. Step 4: Run the Fitting Calculation .............................................................................. 180
10.1.2.5. Results ....................................................................................................................... 181
10.2. Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model ........................................................... 181
10.2.1. Experimental Data .............................................................................................................. 182
10.2.2. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS Polymat .................................................................................... 184
10.2.2.1. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type ............................................................................ 184
10.2.2.2. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters ....................................... 185
10.2.2.3. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves .............................................. 186
10.2.2.4. Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation .................................... 189
10.2.2.5. Results ....................................................................................................................... 189
10.3. Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model ................................................................ 190
10.3.1. Experimental Data .............................................................................................................. 191
10.3.2. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS Polymat .................................................................................... 192
10.3.2.1. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type ............................................................................ 193
10.3.2.2. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters ....................................... 193
10.3.2.3. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves .............................................. 194
10.3.2.4. Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation .................................... 196
10.3.2.5. Results ....................................................................................................................... 196
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10.4. Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model ................................................................... 197
10.4.1. Experimental Data .............................................................................................................. 198
10.4.2. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS Polymat .................................................................................... 201
10.4.2.1. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type ............................................................................ 201
10.4.2.2. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models .................................................................... 202
10.4.2.3. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves .............................................. 202
10.4.2.4. Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation .................................... 205
10.4.2.5. Results ....................................................................................................................... 206
Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................. 209
Index ........................................................................................................................................................ 211
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Using This Manual
This preface describes the following:
1.The Contents of This Manual
2.The Contents of the ANSYS Polyflow Manuals
3. How to Use This Manual
4.Typographical Conventions Used in This Manual
5. Contacting Technical Support
1. The Contents of This Manual
The ANSYS Polymat Users Guide tells you what you need to know in order to use ANSYS Polymat. The
first chapter gives you an overview of ANSYS Polymats capabilities and how ANSYS Polymat relates to
other ANSYS Polyflow modules, information about starting ANSYS Polymat, and a sample session, and
the second chapter contains information about the user interface. The third and fourth chapters contain,
respectively, information about file import/export and unit systems. The fifth chapter provides information
about fitting material parameters to experimental data, and the sixth chapter describes the material
data that needs to be defined for each type of model. The seventh chapter discusses the rheological
properties that can be computed and plotted for different types of kinematics. The eighth chapter describes how to use ANSYS Polymat to define and plot curves. The ninth chapter presents some guidelines
for fitting, while the tenth (and last) chapter presents several examples of automatic fitting. An index
allows you to look up material relating to a particular subject. The idea is to help you find answers to
your questions quickly and directly, whether you are a firsttime user or an experienced user.
The following provides a brief description of the content of each chapter:
Getting Started (p. 1) describes ANSYS Polymats capabilities and the way in which it interacts with
other ANSYS Polyflow modules and thirdparty materialdata packages. It also gives an overview of the
setup steps, and presents a sample session.
User Interface (p. 17) describes the graphical user interface.
Reading and Writing Files (p. 27) contains information about the files that ANSYS Polymat and ANSYS
Polycurve can read and write.
Unit Systems (p. 33) describes the unit systems available in ANSYS Polymat.
Fitting Material Parameters (p. 37) provides instructions for fitting material parameters to experimental
data.
Material Data Parameters (p. 49) describes the material parameters that need to be defined for each type
of model.
Rheological Properties (p. 141) discusses the rheological properties that can be computed for different
types of kinematics.
Defining and Plotting Curves (p. 149) describes how to define experimental data and plot experimental
and computed data curves.
Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models (p. 157) presents guidelines for selecting an appropriate viscoelastic
model and fitting the related parameters for several common applications.
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Using This Manual
Examples (p. 177) presents examples of nonisothermal generalized Newtonian, differential viscoelastic,
and integral viscoelastic fluids.
2. The Contents of the ANSYS Polyflow Manuals
The manuals listed below form the ANSYS Polyflow product documentation set. They include descriptions
of the procedures, commands, and theoretical details needed to use ANSYS Polyflow products.
The Polyflow User's Guide explains how to use ANSYS Polydata and ANSYS Polyflow to set up and
solve a problem.
The Polyflow Tutorial Guide contains a number of example problems with complete detailed instructions, commentary, and postprocessing of results.
The Polyflow in Workbench User's Guide explains how to use the ANSYS Polyflow application within
ANSYS Workbench.
The Polymat User's Guide explains how to use the ANSYS Polymat module for material property
evaluation.
The Polystat User's Guide explains how to set up a MIXING task in ANSYS Polydata and how to
use the ANSYS Polystat module for statistical postprocessing of results.
The GAMBIT manuals teach you how to use the GAMBIT preprocessor for geometry creation and mesh
generation.
The CFDPost User's Guide explains how to use CFDPost to examine your results.
The ANSYS Polyflow Examples Manual provides overviews of solutions to a variety of problem types.
For details on how to access the ANSYS Polyflow manuals, see ANSYS Polyflow Documentation in the
separate Polyflow User's Guide.
3. How to Use This Manual
Depending on your familiarity with computational fluid dynamics and ANSYS, Inc. software, you can
use this manual in a variety of ways.
3.1. For the Beginner
The suggested readings for the beginner are as follows:
For an overview of ANSYS Polymats capabilities and how it interacts with other modules and thirdparty
packages, read Getting Started (p. 1).
For information about how to start ANSYS Polymat, see Getting Started (p. 1). In this chapter you will
also find a sample session that illustrates how to use the automatic and nonautomatic fitting methods
in ANSYS Polymat.
To learn about the user interface, read User Interface (p. 17).
For information about reading and writing files, see Reading and Writing Files (p. 27).
To learn how to convert to a different unit system, see Unit Systems (p. 33).
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Typographical Conventions Used in This Manual
For information about using the different fitting methods available in ANSYS Polymat, see Fitting Material
Parameters (p. 37).
To find out what material parameters need to be defined for each type of fluid model, see Material Data
Parameters (p. 49). For guidelines on selecting models and setting parameters, see Guidelines for Viscoelastic
Models (p. 157).
To find out which rheological properties can be computed for your flow, see Rheological Properties (p. 141).
To learn how to define curves for experimental data and plot experimental and computed data curves,
see Defining and Plotting Curves (p. 149). This chapter also includes fitting guidelines for several
common applications.
For several examples of how to use ANSYS Polymat for different types of flows, see Examples (p. 177). This
chapter also includes fitting guidelines for several common applications.
Depending on the characteristics of your particular problem, and the tools you want to employ, use the
table of contents and the index to find the relevant material for review.
3.2. For the Experienced User
If you are an experienced user who needs to look up specific information, there are two different tools
that allow you to use the ANSYS Polymat Users Guide as a reference manual. The table of contents, as
far as possible, lists topics that are discussed in a procedural order, enabling you to find material relating
to a particular procedural step. There is also an index that allows you to access information about a
particular subject.
4. Typographical Conventions Used in This Manual
Several typographical conventions are used in this manuals text to facilitate your learning process.
Different type styles are used to indicate graphical user interface menu items, button and other GUI
control labels, and text inputs that you enter (for example, in the Create a New Curve dialog box,
enter samplecurve for Name).
A menu selection is indicated like this:
Material Data
indicates that the Material Data menu item should be selected from the Polymat menu.
A mini flow chart is used to indicate selections from the menu bar. For example,
File Exit
indicates that the Exit item should be selected from the File pulldown menu in the ANSYS Polymat menu bar.
The word before an arrow invoke the pulldown menu (or submenu) and the final word indicates the
item you should select from that pulldown menu.
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5. Contacting Technical Support
Technical Support for ANSYS, Inc. products is provided either by ANSYS, Inc. directly or by one of our
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company to determine who provides support for your company, or go to www.ansys.com and select
Contact ANSYS > Contacts and Locations.
If your support is provided by ANSYS, Inc. directly, Technical Support can be accessed quickly and efficiently from the ANSYS Customer Portal, which is available from the ANSYS Website (www.ansys.com)
under Support > Customer Portal. The direct URL is: support.ansys.com.
One of the many useful features of the Customer Portal is the Knowledge Resources Search, which can
be found on the Home page of the Customer Portal.
Systems and installation Knowledge Resources are easily accessible via the Customer Portal by using
the following keywords in the search box: Systems/Installation. These Knowledge Resources
provide solutions and guidance on how to resolve installation and licensing issues quickly.
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Chapter 1: Getting Started
This chapter provides an introduction to ANSYS Polymat, an overview of how to use it, and instructions
for starting it. In addition, a sample session is presented.
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Program Structure
1.3. Overview of Using ANSYS Polymat
1.4. Starting ANSYS Polymat
1.5. Starting ANSYS Polycurve
1.6. Sample Session
1.1. Introduction
ANSYS Polymat is an interactive graphical program that allows you to visualize material data, including
steady shear viscosity and steady elongational viscosity. ANSYS Polymat computes material properties
from constitutive equations and numerical parameters, for isothermal and nonisothermal generalized
Newtonian, differential viscoelastic, and integral viscoelastic fluids. It can also compare them with experimental curves (i.e., fitting). The inputs for the model selection and parameters are similar to those
in ANSYS Polydata.
Figure 1.1: Fitting to Experimental Data (p. 1) shows an example of fitting. The shear viscosity and
shear stress for a KBKZ fluid with 6 relaxation modes and a Wagner damping function are plotted
Figure 1.1: Fitting to Experimental Data
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1.2. Program Structure
ANSYS Polymat is part of the ANSYS Polyflow package, which includes the following products and
modules. Figure 1.2: Basic Program Structure (p. 2) shows the organizational structure of these components.
ANSYS Polyflow, the solver
ANSYS Polydata, the preprocessor for problem definition
GAMBIT, the preprocessor for geometry modeling and mesh generation
ANSYS Polymat, the preprocessor for material data specification
ANSYS Polystat, the statistical postprocessor for quantitative comparison of flows
ANSYS Fluent/CFDPost, the graphical postprocessor for examining results
filters (translators) for import of meshes from CAD/CAE packages such as PATRAN and Ideas, and export
of meshes and results to these and other programs
Figure 1.2: Basic Program Structure
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Overview of Using ANSYS Polymat
ANSYS Polyman is an environment that allows you to manage your ANSYS Polyflow projects and start
the modules and products listed above from a single entry point. See Starting ANSYS Polymat (p. 5)
for details.
You can create your geometry and mesh using GAMBIT. See the GAMBIT documentation for details.
ANSYS DesignModeler and ANSYS Meshing can also be used to create geometries and meshes for ANSYS
Polyflow. It is also possible to create meshes for ANSYS Polyflow using POLYCEM/POWERMESH, and
POLYMESH (preprocessors that were used before the introduction of GAMBIT), as well as PATRAN and
Ideas thirdparty CAD/CAE packages and other software packages that support these file formats.
Once your mesh is created, you can read it into ANSYS Polydata and set up the simulation. In ANSYS
Polydata, you will define the physical models, material properties, boundary and process conditions,
numerical parameters, etc. When you have completed the problem definition, you will save it to a data
file, which can be used to run ANSYS Polyflow.
In conjunction with the problem specification in ANSYS Polydata, you can use the ANSYS Polymat preprocessor for some preliminary material property analysis. ANSYS Polymat allows you compute material
properties based on experimental or other data. The result of the ANSYS Polymat calculation is material
property data that is passed to ANSYS Polydata through a material data file. The use of ANSYS Polymat
is optional; it is generally used when you need to determine complex material property data for your
model.
ANSYS Polyflow is the central solver. It computes a solution based on the problem definition specified
in the data file that you created in ANSYS Polydata, and saves the solution to a results file. You can also
start an ANSYS Polyflow calculation from a previous results file. Such a restarting procedure is useful,
for example, in nonlinear problems where you want to save CPU time.
When you have completed your calculation in ANSYS Polyflow, you can use the graphical postprocessor
ANSYS Fluent/CFDPost to examine your results. Other postprocessing packages that can be used to
examine ANSYS Polyflow results are CFViewPF, ANSYS Polyplot, V3DMSH, DataVisualizer, PATRAN,
and Ideas.
In addition to the graphical postprocessors, a statistical postprocessor called ANSYS Polystat is also
available. ANSYS Polystat allows you to interactively analyze properties calculated along particle trajectories and perform statistical calculations that can be used to predict mixing efficiency and other macroscopic flow properties. ANSYS Polystat operates on a set of trajectories created by ANSYS Polyflow for
a mixing task.
1.3. Overview of Using ANSYS Polymat
This section describes the following topics:
1.3.1. Planning Your ANSYS Polymat Analysis
1.3.2. Steps for Fitting Material Parameters
1.3.1. Planning Your ANSYS Polymat Analysis
When you are planning to use ANSYS Polymat to determine the appropriate material parameters for
your model, you should first give consideration to the following issues:
Definition of the modeling goals: What specific results are required from the model and how will they be
used? What degree of accuracy is required from the model?
Choice of models: Is the flow isothermal or nonisothermal? If it is nonisothermal, can you simplify the
problem to examine the isothermal material behavior first?
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Careful consideration of these issues before beginning your ANSYS Polymat analysis will contribute
significantly to the success of your modeling effort. When you are planning a CFD project, take advantage
of the customer support provided to all ANSYS Polymat users.
1.3.2. Steps for Fitting Material Parameters
To use ANSYS Polymat to fit material parameters to your data, you will follow the basic procedural steps
below:
1.
Start ANSYS Polymat.
2.
Decide if you want to use an automatic or nonautomatic procedure.
3.
Follow the appropriate procedure, as described below.
For the nonautomatic procedure:
a. Read or define the experimental data curve.
b. Specify which curves you want to calculate (shear viscosity, shear stress, etc.).
c. Define the numerical parameters for the curve calculation.
d. Select the fluid model that matches your experimental data best, and define initial values for the
associated material parameters.
e. Vary the value of one material parameter at a time and draw the resulting data curve, until you
find the combination that results in a curve most similar to your experimental curve.
f.
When you are satisfied with the curve fitting, save the material parameters to a material data file,
which you can read into ANSYS Polydata during your problem definition.
For the automatic procedure:
a. Select the fluid model that matches your experimental data best, and specify whether or not you
want to fix any of the associated material parameters to a constant value.
b. Specify the experimental data curves: type of data, temperature (if needed), and filename.
c. Draw the experimental curves.
d. Specify the name of the material data file to which ANSYS Polymat should save the material
parameters when the fitting is complete.
e. Define the numerical parameters for the curve fitting.
f.
Have ANSYS Polymat perform the fitting calculation by varying each of the nonfixed material
parameters until the best combination is determined. By default, the computed curves are displayed
on the same plot as the experimental data curves to allow for comparison.
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1.4. Starting ANSYS Polymat
The installation process (described in the separate installation instructions for your computer type) is
designed to ensure that the requested program is launched when you follow the instructions below.
If it is not, consult your computer systems manager or your technical support engineer.
On Linux systems, all programs are started by typing the appropriate command from the command
line of an xterm window. On Windows systems, you will type the appropriate command in an MSDOS
Command Prompt window.
To start ANSYS Polymat, type
polymat
You can also start ANSYS Polymat from the Programs menu in ANSYS Polyman. First, select a .mat
file, and then select the Programs/Others/Polymat menu item or type <Ctrl>M. See the ANSYS
Polyflow Users Guide for details about ANSYS Polyman.
It is also possible to launch ANSYS Polymat from within ANSYS Polydata, by selecting the Curve Fitting
menu item in ANSYS Polydatas Material data menu.
1.5. Starting ANSYS Polycurve
ANSYS Polycurve is a limited version of the ANSYS Polymat user interface that can be used if you simply
want to visualize data curves, without generating a material data file.
On Linux systems, all programs are started by typing the appropriate command from the command
line of an xterm window. On Windows systems, you will type the appropriate command in an MSDOS
Command Prompt window.
To start ANSYS Polycurve, type
polycurve
1.6. Sample Session
To demonstrate the use of ANSYS Polymat to perform a simple fitting task, a sample session is provided
in this section. You can follow (or just read) the instructions here to gain some insight into how ANSYS
Polymat is used.
1.6.1. Problem Description
1.6.2. Outline of Procedure
1.6.3. Using the NonAutomatic Fitting Method
1.6.4. Using the Automatic Fitting Method
1.6.1. Problem Description
Consider a fluid for which you have the following experimental data for the shear viscosity vs. the shear
rate:
Shear Rate (1/s)
Shear Viscosity (Pas)
0.01
4000
0.10
900
1.00
200
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Shear Rate (1/s)
Shear Viscosity (Pas)
10.00
50
100.00
10
1000.00
This data is displayed on a loglog plot in Figure 1.3: LogLog Plot of Shear Viscosity vs. Shear Rate (p. 6).
Figure 1.3: LogLog Plot of Shear Viscosity vs. Shear Rate
With a little experience, you can easily identify which viscous behavior the fluid seems to obey. In particular, for this case, you can observe that the viscous behavior of the fluid seems to follow the powerlaw model, which is one of the generalized Newtonian models available in ANSYS Polymat.
1.6.2. Outline of Procedure
In this sample session, you will use ANSYS Polymat to find the correct parameters for the powerlaw
model for the fluid with the behavior described in Problem Description (p. 5). There are two fitting
methods available in ANSYS Polymat, and you will use both of them in this example. In the first (nonautomatic) method, you will change the value of one parameter at a time until you find the best fit. In
the second (automatic) method, ANSYS Polymat will calculate the best fit for you. Each of these methods
is outlined in Steps for Fitting Material Parameters (p. 4) and described in more detail in Fitting Material Parameters (p. 37).
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Using the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. 7) shows how to perform the fitting in this example using
the nonautomatic method, and Using the Automatic Fitting Method (p. 13) shows how to perform
automatic fitting.
1.6.3. Using the NonAutomatic Fitting Method
This section demonstrates how to use ANSYS Polymat to perform nonautomatic fitting.
1.6.3.1. Defining the Experimental Data
Start ANSYS Polymat by typing polymat, as described in Starting ANSYS Polymat (p. 5). You will use
the ANSYS Polymat graphical user interface (which is described in User Interface (p. 17)) to set up your
model.
Click the
curve button to open the Create a New Curve dialog box (Figure 1.4: The Create a New
Curve Dialog Box (p. 7)).
Figure 1.4: The Create a New Curve Dialog Box
Enter Viscosity for Name; this will act as the name of your data curve. Next, enter the coordinates
of each of the 6 data points listed in Problem Description (p. 5) in the appropriate X and Y column
of each numbered row, as shown in the previous figure. Finally, click OK to close the dialog box and
plot the data points in the chart.
The curve list (Figure 1.5: The Curve List (p. 8)) will now contain a single curve: Viscosity.
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Figure 1.5: The Curve List
1.6.3.2. Specifying the Curves to be Calculated
Next, in order to fit a model to your experimental data curve, you will select the curves to be calculated.
In this case, it is just the shear viscosity curve that is to be fitted, but in other cases you will usually
have multiple data curves available.
Click the Rheometry menu button (located near the top left side of the application window) to open
the Load Curves (Part I) menu. The Shear Viscosity curve is selected by default, so you can simply
select Upper level menu to return to the main menu.
1.6.3.3. Defining Numerical Parameters
There are several parameters you can modify to control the calculation of the model curves. Click the
Numerics menu button to open the Numerical Parameters menu. For this example, you will keep the
default settings (loglog plot, 100 data points, etc.), so you can simply select Upper level menu to return
to the main menu. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 38) for details about these parameters.
1.6.3.4. Defining the Type of Fluid Model
To define the type of fluid model you want, select the Select Fluid Model menu item in the ANSYS
Polymat menu.
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Select Fluid Model
The default selection is for an isothermal Generalized Newtonian model, so you can simply select
Upper level menu to return to the main menu.
1.6.3.5. Fitting the Material Parameters
Now you can choose the powerlaw model and set initial values for its parameters. In the ANSYS Polymat menu, select Material Data.
Material Data
Then choose Shearrate dependence of viscosity.
Shearrate dependence of viscosity
In the resulting menu, select Power law.
Power law
As described in Power Law (p. 54), the viscosity depends on the shear rate
law:
=
as follows in the power
(1.1)
The parameters K, , and n are called, respectively, fac, tnat, and expo in the ANSYS Polymat interface.
Each has a default value of 1. The parameter K corresponds to the shear viscosity obtained at a shear
rate = . In view of this, the same viscous behavior can be described by means of various sets of
K, pairs.
Before doing any fitting, you need to estimate the minimum and maximum shear rates occurring in
the flow being simulated. You will try to fit the powerlaw model to the experimental curve in that
range of values. For this example, the minimum and maximum shear rates are considered to be 0.1 and
10 s1.
As a first step, you will try to determine the value of K that matches at least one experimental data
point, say, at a shear rate of 1. For this, consider =1 and n=1 (the default values). has been taken as
the inverse of the selected shear rate, = , so that the argument of the power law is 1. You will change
the value of K until the viscosity curve matches the experimental data at the point (1, 200).
1.6.3.5.1. Finding the Value of K
1.6.3.5.1.1. Trying K=1
First, try keeping K=1 (the default value). Click the Draw menu button. ANSYS Polymat will use your
initial values to compute a shear viscosity curve; this computed curve will then be drawn in the same
chart that displays the experimental data points you added previously.
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Figure 1.6: Computed Viscosity Curve for K=1
1.6.3.5.2. Trying Other Values of K
Now you can try other values of K and have ANSYS Polymat compute the viscosity curves for those
values.
To modify the value of K, click the Modify fac menu item in the ANSYS Polymat menu and set the new
value using the dialog box that opens.
Modify fac
Set K=50, and click the Draw menu button to update the chart with the new curve. Repeat for K=500
and K=200. Figure 1.7: Computed Viscosity Curves for Various Values of K (p. 11) shows all of the curves
for the various values of K. The curve for K=200 matches the point (1, 200), so this is the value you will
keep for K.
10
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Figure 1.7: Computed Viscosity Curves for Various Values of K
1.6.3.5.2.1. Finding the Value of n
Now that you have determined the best value for K, you can begin to determine the best value for n,
keeping K=200 and =1. Changing the value of n will rotate the computed curve around the point
=
.
To modify the value of , click the Modify expo menu item in the ANSYS Polymat menu and set the
new value using the dialog box that opens.
Modify expo
Try setting n to 0.7, 0.5, and 0.3, and click the Draw menu button to update the chart with the new
curve after each change in n. Figure 1.8: Computed Viscosity Curves for Various Values of n (p. 12) shows
all of the curves for the various values of n. The curve for n=0.3 matches the experimental data (in the
range from 0.1 to 10 s1), so this is the value you will keep for n.
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Figure 1.8: Computed Viscosity Curves for Various Values of n
Thus the fitted values of the parameters are K=200, n=0.3, and =1. A change in will necessarily lead
to a change in K.
1.6.3.6. Saving the Parameters to a Material Data File
Once you are satisfied with the parameters, you can save them to a material data file. Click Upper level
menu three times to return to the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu. Then click Save in a Material Data
File.
Save in a Material Data File
In the resulting dialog box, specify a name for the material data file (e.g., sample.mat) and click Open.
When asked if you want to define or check the system of units, click No.
1.6.3.7. Saving the Experimental Data to a File
Since you are going to be using the same experimental data to practice using the automatic fitting
method, it will save you some time if you can reuse these experimental data, instead of redefining them.
To save the experimental data, first select the Viscosity from the curve list on the right side of the application window. Then click the
curve button, which is located above the curve list. In the dialog
box that opens, specify a name for the curve file (sample.crv) and click Save.
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1.6.3.8. Exiting from ANSYS Polymat
Once you have saved the material data file, you can end the ANSYS Polymat session by clicking Exit
from the File dropdown menu, located at the top left side of the application window.
File Exit
1.6.4. Using the Automatic Fitting Method
This section demonstrates how to use ANSYS Polymat to perform automatic fitting. You will read in the
experimental data from the curve file saved at the end of the nonautomatic procedure.
1.6.4.1. Defining the Type of Fluid Model
Start a new session of ANSYS Polymat by typing polymat, as described in Starting ANSYS Polymat (p. 5).
The first step is to define the type of fluid model you want. Click the Select Fluid Model menu item in
the ANSYS Polymat menu.
Select Fluid Model
The default selection is for an isothermal Generalized Newtonian model, so you can simply select
Upper level menu to return to the main menu.
1.6.4.2. Fixing the Values of Parameters to Remain Constant
Now you can choose the powerlaw model and fix values for any parameters that you do not want to
be involved in the fitting calculation. In the ANSYS Polymat menu, click Material Data.
Material Data
Then click Shearrate dependence of viscosity.
Shearrate dependence of viscosity
In the resulting menu, click Power law.
Power law
By default, all parameters (K, , and n) are subject to modification during the fitting calculation. Since
you are interested in fitting the curve for the case where =1, you can fix the value of so that it remains
constant during the fitting calculation.
To fix the value of , first click the Fix menu button. Click OK when ANSYS Polymat informs you that
fixing is enabled. Click Modify tnat and click OK to keep the default value of 1.
Modify tnat
Then click tnat is a fixed value to specify that is to remain constant during the fitting calculation.
tnat is a fixed value
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Click Upper level menu, and then click the Fix menu button again to disable fixing.
Click Upper level menu three more times to return to the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
1.6.4.3. Reading in the Experimental Data
In the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu, click Automatic fitting.
Automatic fitting
Then click Add experimental curves.
Add experimental curves
Click Add a new curve.
Add a new curve
Click Enter the name of the curve file and, in the resulting dialog box, select the file sample.crv
you created previously and click OK.
Enter the name of the curve file
Click Upper level menu twice to return to the Automatic Fitting menu.
1.6.4.4. Drawing the Experimental Data Curve
In the Automatic Fitting menu, click Draw experimental curves to plot the experimental data points
in the chart.
Draw experimental curves
1.6.4.5. Limiting the Range of the Fitting Calculation
As discussed in the nonautomatic procedure, the range of shear rates that is of interest is from 0.1 to
10. To limit the range for the fitting calculation, begin by clicking Numerical options for fitting in the
Automatic Fitting menu.
Numerical options for fitting
Then click Modify the window of shear rates and, when prompted, enter 0.1 for the minimum shear
rate and 10 for the maximum.
Modify the window of shear rates
Click Upper level menu to return to the Automatic Fitting menu.
1.6.4.6. Specifying a Name for the Material Data File
Before you run the automatic fitting, you need to provide a name for the file where ANSYS Polymat will
save the results of the fitting calculation. You can read this material data file into ANSYS Polydata when
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you are setting up the flow simulation, or read it into a later ANSYS Polymat session to examine the
curves again or perform further fitting.
To define the filename for the material data file, click Enter the name of the result file in the Automatic Fitting menu.
Enter the name of the result file
Specify the name auto.mat in the Enter the name of the mat file dialog box that opens, and click
Open.
1.6.4.7. Performing the Automatic Fitting
Click the Run fitting... menu item in the Automatic Fitting menu.
Run fitting...
ANSYS Polymat will automatically compute the shear viscosity curve, save the results to the auto.mat
file, and update the chart to show the computed and experimental curves. Figure 1.9: Automatically
Computed Viscosity Curve (p. 15) shows the resulting chart.
Figure 1.9: Automatically Computed Viscosity Curve
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You can view calculated parameter values by clicking the View listing of fitting menu item in the
Automatic fitting menu.
View listing of fitting
The values of the parameters for this sample session are as follows: K=208.0, =1, and n=0.3723. These
values are close to those you determined using the nonautomatic procedure, but the automatic procedure has provided a slightly more accurate result with much less effort from you.
You can end the ANSYS Polymat session by clicking Exit from the File dropdown menu, located at the
top left side of the application window.
File Exit
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Chapter 2: User Interface
This chapter describes the ANSYS Polymat and ANSYS Polycurve graphical user interfaces.
2.1. Polymat GUI Components
2.2. Polycurve GUI Components
2.1. Polymat GUI Components
The Polymat graphical user interface (GUI) is made up of nine main components: the menu bar, menu
buttons, menu, chart buttons, chart window, curve buttons, curve list, curve settings, and output text
window. When you use the GUI, you will be interacting with one of these components (or a dialog box
opened by one of these components) at all times. Figure 2.1: The ANSYS Polymat GUI Components (p. 18)
is a sample screen shot showing all of the GUI components. These components allow you to create 2D
graphics that visualize the rheological properties of various fluid models and fit them to experimental
data. The nine GUI components are described in detail in the subsequent sections.
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User Interface
Figure 2.1: The ANSYS Polymat GUI Components
2.1.1. The Menu Bar
The menu bar (Figure 2.2: The Menu Bar (p. 19)) provides pulldown menus.
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Polymat GUI Components
Figure 2.2: The Menu Bar
The File pulldown menu provides the following selections:
Options opens the Polymat Options dialog box, which you can use to modify the font used for the
comments (that is, the notes at the top of the menu), the menu items, and the output text window.
Exit closes the Polymat application.
The Help pulldown menu provides the following selections:
Current Menu opens the Online Help window, shown in Figure 2.3: The Online Help Window (p. 19).
This window provides information about the currently displayed menu.
Figure 2.3: The Online Help Window
If you want to see more information about a particular topic, click the Index link in the Online Help
window. The Online Help window will display the Polyflow Reference Manual : Index (Figure 2.4: The
Polyflow Reference Manual : Index (p. 20)), which provides an alphabetical list of topics. Click the
topic of interest to view the available information. Click OK to close the window when you are done
using the help system.
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User Interface
Figure 2.4: The Polyflow Reference Manual : Index
Polymat User's Guide... opens the Polymat User's Guide in the ANSYS help viewer. Note that the
ANSYS help viewer provides access to other ANSYS documentation as well.
Accessing PDF Help can be used to open the ANSYS help viewer to the section of the Polyflow User's
Guide that describes how to access PDF files of the documentation (Accessing the PDF Files of the
Documentation).
About... opens a window that displays installation details, including the version numbers of the ANSYS
products you have installed.
2.1.2. The Menu Buttons
The menu buttons (Figure 2.5: The Menu Buttons (p. 20)) perform commonly executed actions and
open menus.
Figure 2.5: The Menu Buttons
The following menu buttons are available:
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Polymat GUI Components
Numerics opens the Numerical Parameters menu, where you can define the numerical parameters used
to calculate the rheological curves.
Rheometry opens the Load Curves (Part I) menu where you can specify which rheological curves you
want to compute and display (for example, shear viscosity, shear stress).
Draw displays all curves (selected in the Load Curves (Part I) menu) in the chart window. These curves
are generated based on the current data you have entered.
Fix turns on or off the fixing of material data parameters for the automatic fitting method. See Fixing
Values for Selected Material Parameters (p. 43) for details.
2.1.3. The Menu
The menu (Figure 2.6: The Menu (p. 21)) is where you will select the menu items used to set up your
analysis. The available menus are accessed via menu buttons or menu items.
Figure 2.6: The Menu
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User Interface
2.1.4. The Chart Buttons
The chart buttons (Figure 2.7: The Chart Buttons (p. 22)) perform actions in the chart window and
provides help for plotting curves.
Figure 2.7: The Chart Buttons
The following chart buttons are available:
) adds a new chart tab in the chart window.
The New Chart button (
The Auto Range button (
the data points.
The Save... button (
Save As dialog box.
) adjusts the scale of the axes of the current chart tab to show all of
) allows you to save an image of the current chart to a file using the
The Import... button (
box.
) allows you to import a curve file using the Import curve file dialog
2.1.5. The Chart Window
The chart window (Figure 2.8: The Chart Window (p. 23)) shows the experimental or computed curves.
The chart window can display multiple chart tabs, and is updated by the Draw menu button or by the
various curve buttons. See Defining and Plotting Curves (p. 149) for details.
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Polymat GUI Components
Figure 2.8: The Chart Window
You can translate the view of the curves by clicking the left mouse button in a chart and dragging the
mouse. You can revise the magnification of the view, by hovering your mouse over the chart and rotating
the scroll wheel of your mouse. You can also zoom in by positioning the mouse at the corner of the
area to be magnified, holding down the middle mouse button, and dragging the mouse to create a
rectangle; when you release the middle mouse button, the area within the rectangle will fill the chart.
2.1.6. The Curve Buttons
The curve buttons (Figure 2.9: The Curve Buttons (p. 23)) allow you to take action related to curve data.
Figure 2.9: The Curve Buttons
The following curve buttons are available:
button allows you to create a curve, by inputting coordinates in the Create a New Curve dialog
The
box that opens.
The
button deletes the curve selected in the curve list.
The
button allows you to save the data associated with the curve selected in the curve list to a file,
via the Save curve dialog box that opens.
button allows you to move or copy the curve selected in the curve list to another chart, via the
The
Move or Copy Curve(s) dialog box that opens.
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User Interface
The
button allows you to edit the curve selected in the curve list, via the Edit <name> dialog box
that opens (where <name> is the name of the selected curve).
2.1.7. The Curve List
The curve list (Figure 2.10: The Curve List (p. 24)) displays the created curves, and allows you to select
curves when taking action with a curve button.
Figure 2.10: The Curve List
2.1.8. The Curve Settings
The curve settings (Figure 2.11: The Curve Settings (p. 24)) allow you to manipulate the lines and
markers displayed for the curve selected in the curve list.
Figure 2.11: The Curve Settings
The curve settings includes the following controls:
The Line dropdown list allows you to specify whether a line is displayed between the plotted points
of the curve selected in the curve list, and provides options for the kind of line.
The Color button displays the currently selected color for the line drawn by the Line dropdown list, and
when clicked, allows you to change the color via the Color dialog box that opens.
The Thickness numberentry box allows you to specify the thickness of the line drawn by the Line dropdown list.
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Polycurve GUI Components
The Marker dropdown list allows you specify the plotted points of the curve selected in the curve list.
2.1.9. The Output Text Window
The output text window (Figure 2.12: The Output Text Window (p. 25)) displays information on the
progress of Polymat and possible warnings and errors.
Figure 2.12: The Output Text Window
2.2. Polycurve GUI Components
The Polycurve graphical user interface (Figure 2.13: The ANSYS Polycurve GUI (p. 26)) is made up of six
main components: the chart buttons, chart window, curve buttons, curve list, curve settings, and output
text window. These components behave in the same manner as those in Polymat, as described in the
previous sections. Polycurve is essentially a limited version of Polymat, with an additional Exit chart
button (
) that can be used to close the application, as well as an additional Help chart button
(
) that opens the ANSYS help viewer to the section of the Polymat User's Guide that describes
how to define and plot curves (that is, Defining and Plotting Curves (p. 149)). Note that the ANSYS help
viewer provides access to other ANSYS documentation as well.
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User Interface
Figure 2.13: The ANSYS Polycurve GUI
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Chapter 3: Reading and Writing Files
This chapter describes the different types of files that are used during an ANSYS Polymat session. Information in this chapter is presented in the following sections:
3.1. Files Written or Read by ANSYS Polymat and ANSYS Polycurve
3.2. Reading Experimental Data
3.3. Saving Experimental Data
3.4. Reading and Writing Material Data
3.5. Reading CAMPUS Material Property Files
3.1. Files Written or Read by ANSYS Polymat and ANSYS Polycurve
During an ANSYS Polymat session, you will generally need to read and write several kinds of files.
Table 3.1: Files Written and Read by ANSYS Polymat and ANSYS Polycurve (p. 27) lists the files that
ANSYS Polymat and ANSYS Polycurve can read and/or write. You can use this table to get an overview
of the files you may be using, to find out which codes write a particular file, and to see where to look
for more information on each file.
Table 3.1: Files Written and Read by ANSYS Polymat and ANSYS Polycurve
File Type
Created By
Used By
Default
Name or
Suffix
See...
Experimental
Data Curve
ANSYS Polycurve,
assorted
ANSYS Polymat,
ANSYS Polycurve
.crv
Reading Experimental
Data (p. 27), Saving Experimental Data (p. 30)
Material Data
ANSYS Polymat,
ANSYS Polydata
ANSYS Polymat,
ANSYS Polydata
.dat
Reading and Writing
Material Data (p. 31)
CAMPUS Data
CAMPUS
ANSYS Polymat
.cmp
Reading CAMPUS Material Property Files (p. 31)
3.2. Reading Experimental Data
This section describes the following topics:
3.2.1. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method
3.2.2. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the Automatic Fitting Method
3.2.1. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting
Method
If you are using the nonautomatic fitting method in ANSYS Polymat, you will need to read a file containing the curve data. Note that it is also possible to define the experimental data curve within ANSYS
Polymat, as described in Working with Curves (p. 150). If the data is available in a file, however, it will
be quicker to simply read the file.
The format of curve files (which is the same as the format of Polyflow probe files) is as follows:
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Reading and Writing Files
#
Title or name of the current curve
#
#
#
x1 y1
x2 y2
etc.
The first five lines contain an optional header containing the curve name. The remaining lines are a set
of points that define the curve. On each line there is one pair of
values, with up to 14 characters
per value (including the sign at the beginning of a negative number) and 7 digits after the decimal
point, separated by a blank space. An excerpt from a sample curve file is shown below:
#
Shear viscosity: 1
#
#
#
1.0000000e03 2.5178512e+04
1.2045038e03 2.2103666e+04
1.4508285e03 1.9404324e+04
1.7475284e03 1.7034652e+04
2.1049045e03 1.4954349e+04
2.5353641e03 1.3128096e+04
3.0538556e03 1.1524868e+04
3.6783805e03 1.0117430e+04
4.4306209e03 8.8818760e+03
5.3366995e03 7.7972090e+03
6.4280746e03 6.8449990e+03
7.7426359e03 6.0090786e+03
To read experimental data files into ANSYS Polymat, follow this procedure:
1.
28
Click the
chart button to open the Import curve file dialog box (Figure 3.1: The Import
curve file Dialog Box (p. 29)), which you can select the appropriate file.
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Reading Experimental Data
Figure 3.1: The Import curve file Dialog Box
2.
Repeat the previous step to import additional experimental data curves.
3.
If you want to remove a curve file you after it has been imported, you can click it in the curve list in
Polymat and click the
curve button.
3.2.2. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the Automatic Fitting Method
If you are using the automatic fitting procedure in ANSYS Polymat, you will need to read your experimental curve data directly into ANSYS Polymat. The format of the curve file is provided in Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. 27), and the procedure for reading
it is as follows:
1.
In the Automatic Fitting menu, click the Add experimental curves menu item.
Add experimental curves
2.
Select Add a new curve.
Add a new curve
3.
Specify the name of the file containing the data curve.
Enter the name of the curve file
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Reading and Writing Files
Note that, for a viscoelastic model, you will need to define three types of curves: viscosity/shearrate, storage modulus, and loss modulus. You can also define an optional transient uniaxial extensional viscosity curve. You can specify the curves in any order; the type of the curve you read in
will be defined in the next step.
4.
If the flow is viscoelastic, specify which type of curve this is.
Modify the curve type
If the file you just read in contains the viscosity vs. shearrate curve, click steady shear viscosity;
if it contains the storage modulus vs. frequency curve, click storage modulus G; if it contains the
loss modulus vs. frequency, click loss modulus G"; if it contains the transient extensional viscosity
curve, click transient extensional flow; and if it contains the first normal stress difference vs. shear
rate curve, click 1st Normal Stress Difference.
For a transient extensional flow, you must also specify some flow characteristics such as:
Mode (uniaxial, biaxial, planar)
Whether the curve is extensional viscosity vs. time or stress vs. strain (ln(1/lo)), where lo is the initial
length of the fiber and l is its current length.
Whether the fiber is stretched at constant strain rate or at constant stretch velocity.
5.
If the flow is nonisothermal, specify the temperature at which the data were measured.
Modify the temperature
6.
If the flow is viscoelastic and the file you just read in contains the transient extensional viscosity curve,
= , where lo is the initial length of the fiber and V is the
specify the initial strain rate ( =
initial extension viscosity.
Modify the initial strain rate (V/lo)
7.
Return to the upper level menu.
Upper level menu
The curve name will be added to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
8.
If you need to modify any of the settings for a previously defined curve, click its name in the List of
Experimental Curves menu. If you want to delete a curve, click Remove a curve. Then select the name
of the curve to be deleted, or click Remove all curves to delete all the curves that have been defined.
9.
Repeat the steps above if you have additional curves to define.
3.3. Saving Experimental Data
If you want to save experimental data from ANSYS Polymat, follow the steps below. The format of the
curve file is described in Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. 27).
1.
30
Plot the data curve, as described in Reading Curve Files (p. 151).
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Reading CAMPUS Material Property Files
2.
In the curve list, click the data curve you want to save.
3.
Click the
opens.
curve button, and specify a name for the experimental data file in the browser that
3.4. Reading and Writing Material Data
To save a material data file so you can use it in setting up a problem in ANSYS Polydata, click the Save
in a Material Data File menu item in the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
Save in a Material Data File
Note that ANSYS Polymat will save a material data file automatically after it performs automatic fitting.
See Automatic Fitting (p. 42) for details.
If you have saved a material data file from ANSYS Polymat (or from ANSYS Polydata), you can read it
into ANSYS Polymat by clicking the Read a Material Data File menu item.
Read a Material Data File
Reading in an existing material data file is a convenient way to start a related fitting analysis. For example,
you can use the relaxation times and corresponding partial viscosities of a given model to perform a
fitting analysis to find nonlinear parameters. You can also read in an existing material data file in order
to draw the property curves for the model (e.g., viscosity vs. shear rate) and possibly compare them
with experimental data.
3.5. Reading CAMPUS Material Property Files
If you have a file containing material properties from the CAMPUS material database (version 3.0 or
later), you can import this material data into ANSYS Polymat by clicking the Load a Campus File menu
item in the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
Load a Campus File
The following properties can be read from the CAMPUS file:
density of melt
thermal conductivity of melt
heat capacity of melt
curve(s) of viscosity vs. shear rate at a given temperature
viscosity model parameters
Note that all data in a CAMPUS file are in the MKS unit system. See Unit Systems (p. 33) for information
about converting to a new unit system.
A sample CAMPUS file is shown below:
########
#GE Plastics Europe
#CAMPUS Version 4.1
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Reading and Writing Files
#July 1999
#ENDURAN 7062
BEGIN DENSITY_OF_MELT
#kg/m3 1600
ENDOF DENSITY_OF_MELT
BEGIN THERMAL_CONDUCTIVITY_OF_MELT
#W/(m K)
0.29
ENDOF THERMAL_CONDUCTIVITY_OF_MELT
BEGIN SPEC_HEAT_CAPACITY_OF_MELT
#J/(kg K)
1500
ENDOF SPEC_HEAT_CAPACITY_OF_MELT
BEGIN VISCOSITY_CURVES
260 Enduran7062_260.crv
270 Enduran7062_270.crv
280 Enduran7062_280.crv
ENDOF VISCOSITY_CURVES
BEGIN CARREAU_WLF
#K1
#Pa s
138.652
#K2
#s
0.0005006
#K3
0.678041
#K4
#C
270
#K5
#C
187.121
BEGIN FORMULA
#
# viscosity = F(g*H(T)) * H(T)
#
# F(g) = K1 / ( 1 + K2 * g ) ** K3
#
# H(T) = exp [ 8.86 * (K4K5)/(101.6+K4K5)  8.86 *
(TK5)/(101.6+TK5)]
#
ENDOF FORMULA
ENDOF CARREAU_WLF
########
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Chapter 4: Unit Systems
Information about unit systems for ANSYS Polymat is presented in this chapter.
4.1. Overview of Units
4.2. Converting to a New Unit System
4.3. Restrictions on Units
4.1. Overview of Units
By default, all material data inputs to ANSYS Polymat are in the international MKS (meter, kilogram,
second) unit system. You can, however, change to a different unit system, such as the CGS (centimeter,
gram, second) system. You can also specify different units for individual quantities (length, mass, time,
temperature, or electric current), rather than using a standard system of units. This allows you to customize the units to match your data, thus simplifying the setup procedure by eliminating the need to
convert the units yourself.
For example, if your viscosity data is in poise (g/scm) instead of Pas (kg/sm), you should change the
length units from meters to centimeters and the mass units from kilograms to grams.
4.2. Converting to a New Unit System
If you want to change to a new unit system for material data, rather than the default MKSA + Kelvin
system (e.g., if you want to change to CGSA + Celsius, or keep MKSA but use Fahrenheit for temperature
instead of Kelvin), then follow the steps below.
1.
Select Change system of units in the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
Change system of units
ANSYS Polymat will show a menu that includes the current units for length, mass, time, temperature,
and electric current.
2.
Specify the system of units that you are currently using for material data. By default, the current system
is MKSA + Kelvin unit for temperature. If you have been entering inputs using a different unit system
(e.g., if you have been entering values based on a mass unit of grams instead of kilograms), then you
need to modify the current system to ensure that your past inputs are converted properly to the new
unit system.
a.
Select Define current system of Units
Define current system of Units
(Note that this menu item is called Modify current system of Units if you have selected it
before.)
The new menu presents a set of common systems of units. Select the system that corresponds
to your system of units. The standard systems are:
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Unit Systems
American #1, using inch, pound, second, Ampere and Fahrenheit units
American #2, using feet, pound, second, Ampere and Fahrenheit units
Metric #1, using millimeter, gram, second, milliAmpere and Celsius units
Metric #2, using centimeter, gram, second, Ampere and Celsius units (CGSA + Celsius)
Metric #3, using meter, kilogram, second, Ampere and Celsius units (MKSA + Celsius)
Metric #4, using meter, kilogram, second, Ampere and Kelvin units (MKSA + Kelvin, the
default system)
b.
If none of the options corresponds to your case, select each quantity to be modified and choose
its correct unit.
c.
When you are done defining units, select Upper level menu and review the current system of
units.
Your current system of units will be named user defined system in the comment part
of the menu if it does not correspond to a standard system. If you want to return to a standard
system, then select it in the menu.
3.
Specify the system of units to which you want to convert your inputs (and continue to use for subsequent
inputs after the conversion).
a.
Select Define new system of Units.
Define new system of Units
(Note that this menu item will be called Modify new system of Units if you have selected it
before.)
The new menu presents the same set of common systems of units as described above. If one
of the common systems corresponds to your system, then select it.
4.
b.
If none of the options corresponds to your case, select each quantity to be modified and choose
its unit.
c.
When you are done defining units, select Upper level menu and review the new system of units.
Your new system of units will be named user defined system in the comment part of the
menu if it does not correspond to a standard system. If you want to return to a standard system,
then select it in the menu.
Convert from the current system of units to the new system.
RUN
ANSYS Polymat will convert the units, and open a separate window to report the progress and any
errors or other messages.
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Restrictions on Units
5.
Press the Return key on your keyboard to close the window. ANSYS Polymat will then ask you to confirm
that you want to change to the new unit system.
6.
Click Yes to accept the new unit system (or click No to return to the original system of units).
The new system is now the current system. All future inputs in the Material Data menu will be in the
new unit system.
4.3. Restrictions on Units
Note the following restrictions on units:
All experimental data curves must have the same units.
The unit conversion described in Converting to a New Unit System (p. 33) is performed only for quantities
in the Material Data menu in ANSYS Polymat. Other parameters (data curves, numerical parameters,
temperature at which a viscosity curve is to be computed, etc.) must be in the new unit system; they will
not be converted for you.
If you save a material data file in a new unit system (e.g., CGSA + Celsius) and you use it in an ANSYS
Polydata session where MKSA + Kelvin units are being used, be sure to convert the material data to MKSA
+ Kelvin in ANSYS Polydata, as described in the ANSYS Polyflow Users Guide.
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Chapter 5: Fitting Material Parameters
This chapter explains how to use the automatic and nonautomatic fitting methods available in ANSYS
Polymat.
5.1. Introduction
5.2. NonAutomatic Fitting
5.3. Automatic Fitting
5.1. Introduction
ANSYS Polymat offers two types of fitting for material data: a nonautomatic method and an automatic
method. The nonautomatic method allows you to perform an indepth analysis of the properties of a
fluid material. If you use the nonautomatic method, you can easily perform a sensitivity analysis of the
basic viscometric and elongational properties with respect to several nonlinear parameters. The automatic method is useful for cases where you are primarily interested in directly obtaining the material
parameters for a given fluid. Both methods are available for almost all types of models: generalized
Newtonian, differential viscoelastic, integral viscoelastic, and simplified viscoelastic.
There are, however, the following limitations:
For the simplified viscoelastic model, only the Newtonian part of the model can be fitted (the rheometric
curves evaluated by ANSYS Polymat are not recognized by the additional viscoelastic term of the model).
For the new differential viscoelastic Leonov model, the fitting is not allowed because the computation of
the rheometric curves are not yet implemented.
The procedures you need to follow to use the nonautomatic and automatic methods are presented in
NonAutomatic Fitting (p. 37) and Automatic Fitting (p. 42), respectively. Details about the inputs for
individual fluid models (for example, BirdCarreau law) are provided in Material Data Parameters (p. 49),
descriptions of the rheological properties for which you can perform fitting are provided in Rheological
Properties (p. 141), and information about controlling the graphical display of the data curves is provided
in Defining and Plotting Curves (p. 149).
5.2. NonAutomatic Fitting
This section explains how to use the nonautomatic fitting method in ANSYS Polymat.
5.2.1. Steps for NonAutomatic Fitting
5.2.2. Specifying the Curves to be Calculated
5.2.3. Defining Numerical Parameters
5.2.4. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model
5.2.5. Defining Initial Values for the Material Parameters
5.2.6. Performing the Fitting Analysis
5.2.1. Steps for NonAutomatic Fitting
The steps for nonautomatic fitting are as follows:
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Fitting Material Parameters
1.
Read the experimental data curve(s) or define the experimental data curve(s) in the ANSYS Polymat.
See Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. 27) and Working
with Curves (p. 150).
2.
Specify which curves you want to calculate (shear viscosity, shear stress, etc.). See Specifying the Curves
to be Calculated (p. 38) for details.
3.
Define the numerical parameters for the curve calculation. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 38)
for details.
4.
Select the fluid model that matches your experimental data best, and define initial values for the associated material parameters. See Selecting the Type of Fluid Model (p. 40) and Defining Initial Values
for the Material Parameters (p. 40) for details.
5.
Vary the value of one material parameter at a time and draw the resulting data curve, until you find
the combination that results in a curve most similar to your experimental curve. See Performing the
Fitting Analysis (p. 41) for details.
6.
When you are satisfied with the curve fitting, save the material parameters to a material data file, which
you can read into ANSYS Polydata during your problem definition. See Reading and Writing Material
Data (p. 31) for details about saving a material data file.
5.2.2. Specifying the Curves to be Calculated
After you have read or defined your experimental data curve(s), you will need to specify which curves
you want ANSYS Polymat to calculate during the fitting. See Rheological Properties (p. 141) for details
about the types of curves that are available. To access the Load Curves (Part I) menu (where you will
select the curves to be calculated), click the Rheometry menu button near the top of the ANSYS Polymat application window.
Select each of the curves you want, and click Upper level menu when you are done.
5.2.3. Defining Numerical Parameters
Next you will need to set some parameters that will be used by ANSYS Polymat when it calculates the
specified curves during the fitting process. To access the Numerical Parameters menu, click the Numerics menu button near the top of the ANSYS Polymat application window. In this menu, you can
specify the number of points used to represent a curve, whether or not to use a loglog scale, the range
of shear rates, and several other parameters, as described below.
Number of points: The rheological curves are discretized into a set of points. Using more points results in
a better representation of the curves. The default number of points is 100, which is acceptable for most
cases. To change the number of points, click Modify the number of points in the Numerical Parameters
menu.
Modify the number of points
Logarithmic or linear scale: By default, the scale for the curves will be log x, log y. To change to an x,y
scale, click Switch to linear distr. of points (steady curves) or Switch to linear distr. of points (transient
curves) in the Numerical Parameters menu. The first option applies to steady curves (for example, viscosity vs. shear rate) and the second applies to transient curves (for example, extensional viscosity vs. time).
Switch to linear distr. of points (steady curves)
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NonAutomatic Fitting
Switch to linear distr. of points (transient curves)
Range of shear rates: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a steady shear flow, you will
need to specify the minimum and maximum values of shear rate for the curves so that they will all be
consistent. To set these values, click Modify the range of shear rates in the Numerical Parameters
menu.
Modify the range of shear rates
Range of extensional strain rates: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a steady extensional flow, you will need to specify the minimum and maximum values of extensional strain rate for the
curves so that they will all be consistent. To set these values, click Modify the range of exten. strain
rates in the Numerical Parameters menu.
Modify the range of exten. strain rates
Range of times: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a transient flow, you will need to
specify the minimum and maximum values of time for the curves so that they will all be consistent. To
set these values, click Modify the range of times in the Numerical Parameters menu.
Modify the range of times
Range of frequencies: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for an oscillatory shear flow,
you will need to specify the minimum and maximum frequencies for the curves so that they will all be
consistent. To set these values, click Modify the range of frequencies in the Numerical Parameters
menu.
Modify the range of frequencies
Time variation of the shear rate: For a transient shear flow, you will need to specify the time variation of
the shear rate. First, choose Modify transient shear flow in the Numerical Parameters menu.
Modify transient shear flow
The shear rate is defined as a piecewiseconstant curve. You can specify the number of segments
(Modify the number of intervals), and then specify the range of times and the shear rate for each
interval (Modify the times and Modify the shear rates).
When you request a curve of the transient shear viscosity, ANSYS Polymat actually computes the
shear stress. When the shear rate is constant, the shear viscosity can be obtained by dividing the
shear stress by the shear rate; when the shear rate is not constant, this calculation is not always valid.
Most of the time, the transient shear viscosity corresponds to a startup experiment, where the shear
rate is equal to 0 up to time t, and then it becomes a nonzero constant value (K). In such cases, the
shear rate should be set to the constant K. ANSYS Polymat will obtain the current shear viscosity by
dividing the current shear stress by the current shear rate. For more complex cases, you will need to
set the reference shear rate appropriately so that the shear viscosity can be correctly obtained by
dividing the shear stress by the shear rate.
Time variation of the extensional strain rate: For a transient extensional flow, you will need to specify the
time variation of the extensional strain rate. First, choose Modify transient extensional flow in the Numerical Parameters menu.
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Fitting Material Parameters
Modify transient extensional flow
The extensional strain rate is defined as a piecewiseconstant curve. You can specify the number of
segments (Modify the number of intervals), and then specify the range of times and the extensional
strain rate for each interval (Modify the times and Modify the extensional strain rates).
When you request a curve of the transient extensional viscosity, ANSYS Polymat actually computes
the extensional stress. When the extensional strain rate is constant, the extensional viscosity can be
obtained by dividing the extensional stress by the extensional strain rate; when the extensional strain
rate is not constant, this calculation is not always valid. Most of the time, the transient extensional
viscosity corresponds to a startup experiment, where the extensional strain rate is equal to 0 up to
time t, and then it becomes a nonzero constant value (K). ANSYS Polymat will obtain the extensional
viscosity by dividing the current extensional stress by the current extensional strain rate.
To define the time evolution of the strain rate applied on the fiber you can use either of the following
methods.
Specify a piecewiseconstant curve for the time evolution of the extensional strain rate.
Specify an extension strain rate decreasing with time following the law:
where the initial extension rate is =
and lo is the initial length of the fiber.
(5.1)
=
where V is the constant takeup (or stretch)
Reference temperature: For a nonisothermal flow, you will need to provide at least one reference temperature. For each temperature, the rheological curves will be calculated for comparison with experimental
data. To add, modify, or remove a reference temperature, use the List of temperatures menu, which is
opened by clicking Modify the temperature
Modify the temperature
5.2.4. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model
To specify the type of flow you are modeling, choose the Select Fluid Model menu item in the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
Select Fluid Model
In the resulting menu, you can choose isothermal or nonisothermal generalized Newtonian, differential
viscoelastic, integral viscoelastic, or simplified viscoelastic flow. Click Upper level menu when you are
done.
If you plan to perform fitting for the temperature dependence of the viscosity in a nonisothermal flow,
note that you will need to supply several experimental data curves at different temperatures.
5.2.5. Defining Initial Values for the Material Parameters
Once you have specified the type of fluid model you want to fit (as described in Selecting the Type of
Fluid Model (p. 40)), follow the steps below to set the initial values for the material parameters. See
Material Data Parameters (p. 49) for details about the material parameters for different viscosity models.
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NonAutomatic Fitting
1.
Click Material Data in the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
Material Data
2.
Click the menu item for the material property you want to specify (for example, Shearrate dependence
of viscosity).
3.
Choose the desired law (for example, BirdCarreau law).
4.
Click the parameter to be set (for example, Modify fac), and enter the initial value.
5.
Click Upper level menu.
6.
Repeat the previous two steps to define initial values for the other parameters.
7.
When you have set initial values for all of the relevant material parameters, click Upper level menu
twice to return to the Material Data menu.
8.
If relevant, click the menu item for the next material property you want to specify (for example, Temperature dependence of viscosity), and follow the same procedure for selecting the desired law and
setting the related initial values.
9.
(optional) Specify values for any other relevant properties (for example, Density or Thermal conductivity). Note that these values will have no effect on the fitting procedure, but setting them will allow
you to save a material data file containing a full description of the fluid model.
10. Click Upper level menu to return to the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
5.2.6. Performing the Fitting Analysis
Now that you have defined initial values for all the relevant material parameters for your model, you
can begin the process of determining the values that best fit your experimental data.
1.
Click the Draw menu button near the top of the ANSYS Polymat application window. ANSYS
Polymat will use your initial values to compute the curves you selected in the Load Curves (Part
I) menu (as described in Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 38)), and then it will draw them
in the chart.
2.
Add the experimental data curve to the plot, by clicking the Import... chart button (
and selecting the appropriate file in the browser that opens.
See Defining and Plotting Curves (p. 149) for other information about graphical plots.
3.
Return to the Material Data menu and change the values of the material parameters. If you are not
familiar with the fluid model you are using, see Material Data Parameters (p. 49). Note that it is often
easier to vary the material parameters one at a time, so that you can analyze the effects of each of them
before trying to actually fit the model.
4.
Click the Draw menu button, and the plot in the chart will be updated to show the new curve (as
well as the old one and the experimental curve).
5.
Repeat the previous two steps until the computed curve(s) are close enough to the experimental curves.
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Fitting Material Parameters
6.
If you are varying one parameter at a time, return to the Material Data menu and change the value of
one of the other material parameters. If not, skip to the end of this procedure.
7.
Click the Draw menu button to update the plot with the newly computed curve.
8.
Continue to change the value of the second parameter and update the plot until you find the best
value for this parameter as well.
9.
Repeat the previous three steps until you have found the best values for all parameters.
Important
Remember to save your values to a material data file, as described in Reading and Writing
Material Data (p. 31).
5.3. Automatic Fitting
This section explains how to use the automatic fitting method in ANSYS Polymat:
5.3.1. Steps for Automatic Fitting
5.3.2. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model
5.3.3. Fixing Values for Selected Material Parameters
5.3.4. Defining Numerical Parameters
5.3.5. Drawing the Experimental Curves
5.3.6. Specifying a Name for the Material Data File
5.3.7. Performing the Automatic Fitting Analysis
5.3.1. Steps for Automatic Fitting
The steps for automatic fitting are as follows:
1.
Select the fluid model that matches your experimental data best, and fix values for any of the associated
material parameters that you want to remain constant during the fitting calculation. See Selecting the
Type of Fluid Model (p. 43) and Fixing Values for Selected Material Parameters (p. 43) for details.
2.
Read the experimental data curve(s) into ANSYS Polymat. See Reading Experimental Data Curves
for the Automatic Fitting Method (p. 29) for information about reading a data curve. (If you need
to define a data curve, you can do so by following the steps described in Working with
Curves (p. 150). Then save the curve, as described in Saving Experimental Data (p. 30).)
3.
Define the numerical parameters for the curve calculation. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 44)
for details.
4.
Draw the experimental curve(s). See Drawing the Experimental Curves (p. 46) for details.
5.
Specify a name for the material data file that ANSYS Polymat creates after it determines the best material parameter values to fit your experimental data. See Specifying a Name for the Material Data File (p. 46)
for details.
6.
Run the automatic fitting, as described in Performing the Automatic Fitting Analysis (p. 46).
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Automatic Fitting
5.3.2. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model
To specify the type of flow you are modeling, choose the Select Fluid Model menu item in the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
Select Fluid Model
In the resulting menu, you can choose isothermal or nonisothermal generalized Newtonian, differential
viscoelastic, or integral viscoelastic flow. Select Upper level menu when you are done.
If you plan to perform fitting for the temperature dependence of the viscosity in a nonisothermal flow,
note that you will need to supply several experimental data curves at different temperatures.
5.3.3. Fixing Values for Selected Material Parameters
In some cases, you may want to fix the values of some of the material parameters so that they do not
vary during the fitting calculation. For example, the value of a parameter may be fixed due to physical
requirements. The reference temperature for the Arrhenius law is a parameter that is commonly fixed.
Once you have specified the type of fluid model you want to fit (as described in Selecting the Type of
Fluid Model (p. 43)), follow the steps below to fix the values of any material parameters that you want
to keep constant during the fitting calculation. See Material Data Parameters (p. 49) for details about
the material parameters for different viscosity models.
1.
Select Material Data in the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
Material Data
2.
Click the Fix menu button near the top of the ANSYS Polymat application window. ANSYS Polymat will inform you that fixing is enabled, and the Fix menu button will remain highlighted.
3.
Select the menu item for the material property for which you want to fix the value of one or more
parameters (for example, Shearrate dependence of viscosity).
4.
Choose the desired law (for example, BirdCarreau law).
5.
Select the parameter to be fixed (for example, Modify fac), and enter the value.
Important
You will need to select the parameter even if you plan to keep the default value. By
default, the value will not be fixed; you need to tell ANSYS Polymat that it is a fixed
value, and this is done in the menu that appears after you have specified the value.
6.
Select the appropriate menu item to indicate that you are setting a fixed value for the parameter (for
example, fac is a fixed value).
7.
Select Upper level menu.
8.
Repeat the previous three steps to define fixed values for any other parameters that you do not want
to be varied during the fitting calculation.
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Fitting Material Parameters
9.
When you have fixed values for all of the appropriate material parameters, click Upper level menu
twice to return to the Material Data menu.
10. If relevant, click the menu item for the next material property for which you want to fix the value of
one or more parameters (for example, Temperature dependence of viscosity), and follow the same
procedure for selecting the desired law and setting the related fixed values.
11. Click the Fix menu button again to disable the fixing of values. ANSYS Polymat will inform you that
fixing is disabled, and the Fix menu button will no longer be highlighted.
12. (optional) Specify values for any other relevant properties (for example, Density or Thermal conductivity). Note that these values will have no effect on the fitting procedure, but setting them will allow
you to save a material data file containing a full description of the fluid model.
13. Select Upper level menu to return to the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
5.3.4. Defining Numerical Parameters
Next you will need to set some parameters that will be used by ANSYS Polymat when it calculates the
curve(s) during the fitting process. To access the Numerical Options for Fitting menu, click the Numerical options for fitting menu item in the Automatic Fitting menu. (You can enter the Automatic Fitting
menu by clicking Automatic fitting in the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.)
In the Numerical options for fitting menu, you can specify the range of shear rates, and several other
parameters, as described below. To return to the default settings for all parameters at any time, click
Reset default options.
Range of relaxation times: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a viscoelastic flow, you
will need to specify the minimum and maximum values of the relaxation time for the curves so that they
will all be consistent. To set these values, click Modify the range of relaxation times in the Numerical
Options for Fitting menu.
Modify the range of relaxation times
Window of shear rates: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a steady shear flow, you
will need to specify the minimum and maximum values of shear rate for the curves so that they will all
be consistent. To set these values, click Modify the window of shear rates in the Numerical Options
for Fitting menu.
Modify the window of shear rates
Window of frequencies: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for an oscillatory shear flow,
you will need to specify the minimum and maximum frequencies for the curves so that they will all be
consistent. To set these values, click Modify the window of frequencies in the Numerical Options for
Fitting menu.
Modify the window of frequencies
Window of times: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a transient flow, you will need
to specify the minimum and maximum values of time for the curves so that they will all be consistent. To
set these values, click Modify the window of times in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu.
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Automatic Fitting
Modify the window of times
Weighting for shear viscosity curves: The weighting allows you to assign more importance to one or more
curves compared to the others. For example, in the fitting of a viscoelastic model, if you are not interested
in fitting the shear viscosity, you should set the weighting for the shear viscosity curves to a much lower
value than for the others.
To set the weighting for the shear viscosity curves, click Modify the weight of shear viscosity curves
in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu.
Modify the weight of shear viscosity curves
Weighting for the storage and loss moduli curves: The weighting allows you to assign more importance
to one or more curves compared to the others. To set the weighting for the storage and loss moduli
curves, click Modify the weight of G and G" curves in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu.
Modify the weight of G and G" curves
Weighting for extensional viscosity curves: The weighting allows you to assign more importance to one
or more curves compared to the others. For example, in the fitting of a viscoelastic model for a flow that
is mainly extensional (for example, fiber spinning), the fitting of the extensional viscosity needs to be
better than the fitting for the others, so you should set the weighting for the extensional viscosity curves
to a higher value than for the others.
To set the weighting for the extensional viscosity curves, click Modify the weight of extensional
visc. curves in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu.
Modify the weight of extensional visc. curves
Weighting for the first normal stress difference curves: The weighting allows you to assign more importance
to one or more curves compared to others. To set weighting for the first normal stress difference curves,
click Modify the weight of N1 curves in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu.
Modify the weight of N1 curves
Maximum number of iterations: In general, 50 iterations (the default) are enough to get converged results.
However, sometimes more iterations are needed, especially for fitting viscoelastic models. Select Modify
the max. number of iterations item in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu to modify the default
value.
Modify the max. number of iterations
Activation of fitting of relaxation times: By default, relaxation times are not fit. Rather, they are distributed
at a regular interval in the range specified (in a logarithmic scale) via the Modify the range of relaxation
times option. However, it is possible to optimize the distribution of the relaxation times to obtain a better
fit. When this option is activated, the fitting becomes more complex, and it is often necessary to increase
the maximum number of iterations. Moreover, the CPU time to get a converged solution is significantly
increased. Select Activate fitting of relaxation times item in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu
to enable the fitting of the relaxation times.
Activate fitting of relaxation times
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Fitting Material Parameters
Identical nonlinear parameters: When a multimode differential viscoelastic model is selected, it is
strongly advised that all modes obey the same constitutive equation. This requirement is even enforced
for some models. Despite this, a multimode model may involve a long series of linear and nonlinear
parameters, which need to be identified on the basis of a few data only. You have the option of enabling the Use identical nonlinear parameters menu option, so that nonlinear parameters of a
given type will be assigned the same value for all modes. This may sometimes improve the fitting
procedure by increasing the sensitivity of the model properties with respect to nonlinear parameters.
Use identical nonlinear parameters
5.3.5. Drawing the Experimental Curves
To draw the experimental data curves in the chart, click Draw experimental curves in the Automatic
Fitting menu in ANSYS Polymat.
Draw experimental curves
See The Curve Settings (p. 24) for information about changing the appearance of the curves.
5.3.6. Specifying a Name for the Material Data File
Before you run the automatic fitting, you need to provide a name for the file where ANSYS Polymat will
save the results of the fitting calculation. You can read this material data file into ANSYS Polydata when
you are setting up the flow simulation, or read it into a later ANSYS Polymat session to examine the
curves again or perform further fitting.
To define the filename for the material data file, click Enter the name of the result file in the Automatic Fitting menu.
Enter the name of the result file
5.3.7. Performing the Automatic Fitting Analysis
When you have completed the setup of your fitting problem, you can click the Run fitting ... menu
item in the Automatic Fitting menu to begin the fitting calculation.
Run fitting ...
ANSYS Polymat will automatically compute curves corresponding to all of the specified experimental
data curves. When the automatic fitting calculation is complete, ANSYS Polymat will save the results to
the file you specified in Specifying a Name for the Material Data File (p. 46). When the calculation is
complete, ANSYS Polymat will automatically update the chart with the computed curve(s) and the experimental curve(s). The steady shear viscosity, storage and loss moduli, and the rest normal stress difference will be plotted on the same loglog graph. A second plot will display the extensional viscosity
curve(s), using a logarithmic scale on the yaxis (to represent the viscosity) and a linear scale on the xaxis (to represent time). See The Curve Settings (p. 24) for information about changing the appearance
of the curves.
If you do not want ANSYS Polymat to update the curves in the chart automatically, click Do not update
graphics after each run in the Automatic Fitting menu before you run the fitting calculation.
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Automatic Fitting
If you want to plot curves other than those that were directly calculated, you can read the material data
file into ANSYS Polymat and use the Rheometry menu button near the top of the ANSYS Polymat application window to specify additional curves to be plotted. (See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 38) for details, then use the Draw menu button to update the chart.
In an automatic fitting for a viscoelastic model, steady shear viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus are the mandatory curves whereas, first normal stress difference and extensional viscosity are the
optional curves. For a generalized Newtonian model, the steady shear viscosity is a mandatory curve.
After an automatic fitting, it is possible to pursue fitting, if necessary.
Select the Pursue fitting ... menu item in the Automatic Fitting menu.
Pursue fitting ...
This option is available after at least one fitting. Fitting is continued with the values of the parameters
of the initialized model using the values obtained at the previous fitting step. The fixed parameters will
not change. You do not have to change any flag associated to the parameter in Material data menus,
ANSYS Polymat automatically makes these changes.
You can check how the fitting has been performed using the View listing of fitting menu.
View listing of fitting
When you click the View listing of fitting option, a new window appears, presenting a summary of
the last fitting run.
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Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters
This chapter describes the fluid models available in ANSYS Polymat, including details about the related
material data parameters for each.
6.1. Overview of Fluid Properties and Flow Characteristics
6.2. Generalized Newtonian Flow
6.3. Differential Viscoelastic Flow
6.4. Integral Viscoelastic Flow
6.5. Simplified Viscoelastic Model
6.1. Overview of Fluid Properties and Flow Characteristics
The proper selection of a fluid model is one of the most important aspects in the simulation of a flow.
You need to always consider both the fluid and the flow; a particular constitutive equation is valid for
a given fluid in a given flow.
To determine an appropriate model for your problem, you need to first collect as much data as possible
about the fluid properties. Typical information includes the following:
Steady viscometric properties (shear viscosity and first normalstress difference ). These data characterize the fluid in the presence of large deformations.
Oscillatory viscometric properties (storage and loss moduli and ), also known as linear viscoelastic
data because they correspond to small deformations.
Elongational viscosity. Although obtaining data on elongation is difficult and not very frequent, knowledge
of the elongational viscosity is essential in choosing the appropriate constitutive equation and estimating
the values of the various parameters.
These data are not enough to evaluate the relevance of viscoelasticity in a given process. It is also necessary to characterize the flow itself and compare a characteristic time of the material to a characteristic time of the flow. In many situations, the flow can be characterized by a critical shear rate, which
can be understood as a wall shear rate in a region of high gradients. For example, in a fiberspinning
process, a critical shear rate will occur at the wall in the vicinity of the die exit. In a contraction or expansion flow (for example, Figure 6.1: Contraction and Expansion Flow (p. 50)), consider the shear rate
in the narrow section.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.1: Contraction and Expansion Flow
In a planar flow (Figure 6.1: Contraction and Expansion Flow (p. 50) a),
(6.1)
where is a typical distance.
In an axisymmetric flow (Figure 6.1: Contraction and Expansion Flow (p. 50) b),
(6.2)
where is a typical radius.
You also need to determine the elastic level of the fluid. This can be accomplished by evaluation of the
fluids characteristic relaxation time. When the oscillatory functions
and are available, their intersection (occurring at a shear rate = , as shown in Figure 6.2: Storage and Loss Moduli
Curves (p. 51)) is often a reasonable choice for selecting a typical relaxation time. Indeed, flows characterized by a typical shear rate lower than are essentially dominated by viscous forces, while viscoelastic
effects may play an important role in flows characterized by a shear rate higher than .
Note that, due to the technological limitations of some rheometry equipment, it is not always possible
to obtain viscoelastic data in the range of shear rates (or frequencies) where the process operates. In
this case, your only option is to extrapolate experimental data for higher shear rates or frequencies.
The selection of a particular model for such a case will be more qualitative.
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Generalized Newtonian Flow
Figure 6.2: Storage and Loss Moduli Curves
A typical dimensionless number used to estimate the viscoelastic character of a flow is the Weissenberg
, which is the product of the relaxation time and a typical shear rate :
number
(6.3)
=
When is low, generalized Newtonian models are sufficient to describe the flow; only at higher values
of
are viscoelastic models required to characterize memory effects.
Note that the Weissenberg number is probably not the best indicator for viscoelastic models with several relaxation times or if there is shear thinning in the flow. In such cases, a useful dimensionless
number is the recoverable shear , defined as the ratio of the first normalstress difference
to twice
the steady shear stress
:
=
(6.4)
The recoverable shear
gives the level of elasticity of a flow: if
flow is important, and a viscoelastic model is required.
>1, the viscoelastic character of the
6.2. Generalized Newtonian Flow
This section describes the following topics:
6.2.1. Introduction
6.2.2. ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity
6.2.3.Temperature Dependence of Viscosity
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Material Data Parameters
6.2.1. Introduction
6.2.1.1. Equations
For a generalized Newtonian fluid, the constitutive equation has the form
(6.5)
where is the extrastress tensor, is the rateofdeformation tensor, and is the viscosity, which can
depend upon both the second invariant of and the temperature .
The general form for the viscosity is written as
=
(6.6)
where
is the local shear rate. Therefore,
dependence of the viscosity, respectively.
and
represent the shearrate and temperature
6.2.1.2. Inputs
To specify the function , you will click the Shearrate dependence of viscosity menu item in
the Material Data menu
Shearrate dependence of viscosity
and to specify the function , you will click the Temperature dependence of viscosity menu
item.
Temperature dependence of viscosity
See NonAutomatic Fitting (p. 37) and Automatic Fitting (p. 42) for information about where and how
the material data specification occurs in the nonautomatic and automatic fitting procedures, respectively.
See ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity (p. 52) and Temperature Dependence of Viscosity (p. 64) for
details about the parameters and characteristics of each fluid model.
6.2.2. ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity
There are currently 10 laws available for
, plus the default constant value.
6.2.2.1. Constant
For Newtonian fluids, a constant viscosity
=
(6.7)
is the default setting. is referred to as the Newtonian or zeroshearrate viscosity, and its default
value is 1.
The units for and its name in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
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Generalized Newtonian Flow
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
fac
Mass Length Time
1
Figure 6.3: Constant (ShearRateIndependent) Viscosity (p. 53) shows a plot of a constant
.
Figure 6.3: Constant (ShearRateIndependent) Viscosity
6.2.2.2. BirdCarreau Law
The BirdCarreau law for viscosity is
= +
where
+
(6.8)
= infiniteshearrate viscosity
= zeroshearrate viscosity
= natural time (that is, inverse of the shear rate at which the fluid changes from Newtonian
to powerlaw behavior)
= powerlaw index
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
fac
facinf
tnat
expo
By default, and are equal to 1, and and are equal to 0. Figure 6.4: BirdCarreau Law for Viscosity (p. 54) shows a plot of a for the BirdCarreau law.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.4: BirdCarreau Law for Viscosity
The BirdCarreau law is commonly used when it is necessary to describe the lowshearrate behavior of
the viscosity. It differs from the Cross law primarily in the curvature of the viscosity curve in the vicinity
of the transition between the plateau zone and the power law behavior.
6.2.2.3. Power Law
The power law for viscosity is
=
(6.9)
where is the consistency factor, is the natural time, and is the powerlaw index, which is a property
of a given material.
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
fac
Mass Length Time
1
tnat
expo
1
1
By default,
, , and are equal to 1. Figure 6.5: Power Law for Viscosity (p. 55) shows a plot of
for the power law.
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Figure 6.5: Power Law for Viscosity
The power law is commonly used to describe the viscous behavior of polymeric materials, such as
polyethylene, with shear rates greater than 2 or 3 decades. If the behavior at low shear rates needs to
be fitted as well, the BirdCarreau or Cross law will capture the plateau zone of the viscosity curve for
low shear rates better than the power law.
6.2.2.4. Bingham Law
The Bingham law for viscosity is
+
+
(6.10)
<
where is the yield stress and
is the critical shear rate, beyond which Binghams constitutive
equation is applied. For shear rates less than
, the behavior of the fluid is normalized in order to
guarantee appropriate continuity properties in the viscosity curve.
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
fac
ystr
gcrit
By default, , , and are equal to 1. Figure 6.6: Bingham Law for Viscosity (p. 56) shows a plot of
for the Bingham law.
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Material Data Parameters
The Bingham law is commonly used to describe materials such as concrete, mud, dough, and toothpaste,
for which a constant viscosity after a critical shear stress is a reasonable assumption, typically at rather
low shear rates.
Figure 6.6: Bingham Law for Viscosity
6.2.2.5. Modified Bingham Law
A modified Bingham law for viscosity is also available:
= +
where =
(6.11)
.
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
fac
ystr
gcrit
By default, , , and are equal to 1. Figure 6.7: Modified Bingham Law for Viscosity (p. 57) shows
a plot of for the modified Bingham law.
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Figure 6.7: Modified Bingham Law for Viscosity
Compared to the standard Bingham law, the modified Bingham law is an analytic expression, which
means that it may be easier for ANSYS Polyflow to calculate, leading to a more stable solution. The
value =
has been selected so that the standard and modified Bingham laws exhibit the same
behavior above the critical shear rate,
.
6.2.2.6. HerschelBulkley Law
The HerschelBulkley law for viscosity is
=
+
+
+
where
is the yield stress, is the critical shear rate, is the consistency factor, and is the power
>
(6.12)
law index.
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
fac1
fac2
gcrit
expo
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Material Data Parameters
By default, , , , and are equal to 1. Figure 6.8: HerschelBulkley Law for Viscosity (p. 58) shows
a plot of for the HerschelBulkley law.
Like the Bingham law, the HerschelBulkley law is commonly used to describe materials such as concrete,
mud, dough, and toothpaste, for which a constant viscosity after a critical shear stress is a reasonable
assumption. In addition to the transition behavior between a flow and noflow regime, the HerschelBulkley law exhibits a shearthinning behavior that the Bingham law does not.
Figure 6.8: HerschelBulkley Law for Viscosity
6.2.2.7. Modified HerschelBulkley Law
A modified HerschelBulkley law is also available:
=
+
(6.13)
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
58
Name in ANSYS Polymat
fac1
Mass Length Time
1
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Generalized Newtonian Flow
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
fac2
gcrit
expo
By default, , , , and
shows a plot of
are equal to 1. Figure 6.9: Modified HerschelBulkley Law for Viscosity (p. 59)
for the modified HerschelBulkley law.
Figure 6.9: Modified HerschelBulkley Law for Viscosity
Compared to the standard HerschelBulkley law, the modified HerschelBulkley law is an analytic expression, which means that it may be easier for ANSYS Polyflow to calculate, leading to a more stable solution.
The integer value 3 that appears in the argument of the exponential term has been selected so that
the standard and modified HerschelBulkley laws exhibit the same behavior above the critical shear
rate,
.
6.2.2.8. Cross Law
The Cross law for viscosity is
=
where
(6.14)
= zeroshearrate viscosity
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Material Data Parameters
= natural time (that is, inverse of the shear rate at which the fluid changes from Newtonian
to powerlaw behavior)
= Crosslaw index (= 1 for large shear rates)
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS
Polymat
Mass
fac
tnat
expom
Length
1
Time
1
2
1
By default, is equal to 1, and and
are equal to 0. Figure 6.10: Cross Law for Viscosity (p. 60) shows
a plot of for the Cross law.
Figure 6.10: Cross Law for Viscosity
Like the BirdCarreau law, the Cross law is commonly used when it is necessary to describe the lowshearrate behavior of the viscosity. It differs from the BirdCarreau law primarily in the curvature of the
viscosity curve in the vicinity of the transition between the plateau zone and the power law behavior.
6.2.2.9. Modified Cross Law
A modified Cross law for viscosity is also available:
=
+
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
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(6.15)
Generalized Newtonian Flow
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
fac
Mass Length Time
1
tnat
2
1
expom
By default, is equal to 1, and and are equal to 0. Figure 6.11: Modified Cross Law for Viscosity (p. 61) shows a plot of for the Cross law.
Figure 6.11: Modified Cross Law for Viscosity
This law can be considered a special case of the CarreauYasuda viscosity law (Equation 6.17 (p. 63)),
where the exponent
has a value of 1.
6.2.2.10. LogLog Law
The loglog law for viscosity is
=
+
+
(6.16)
where is the zeroshearrate viscosity and , !, and "## are the coefficients of the polynomial expression.
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
$%
a0
&'
())
a1
a11
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Material Data Parameters
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
fac
gcrit
By default, and are equal to 1, and ,
, and
are equal to 0. Figure 6.12: LogLog Law for
Viscosity (p. 62) shows a plot of for the loglog law.
Figure 6.12: LogLog Law for Viscosity
This viscosity law is purely empirical, but sometimes provides a better fit to experimental data than the
others. Nevertheless, you should pay special attention to the coefficients you specify for the loglog
law, as detailed below.
) space. Depending on the values of the polynoThe function is a parabola in the (
mial coefficients, the viscosity may decrease as the shear rate approaches zero, which does not reflect
physical behavior. Moreover, for high shear rates, the slope of the curve may be less than 1, which is
also not physical. When you are using the loglog law, you must therefore ensure that the range of
shear rates in your application lies within the range of physically acceptable shear rates for the law.
This is accomplished by careful specification of the polynomial coefficients.
Important
Note that, for nonisothermal flows using the loglog law, the mixeddependence law (described in MixedDependence Law (p. 74)) must be used for the thermal dependence of the
viscosity.
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6.2.2.11. CarreauYasuda Law
The CarreauYasuda law for viscosity is
= +
where
+
(6.17)
= zeroshearrate viscosity
= infiniteshearrate viscosity
= natural time (that is, inverse of the shear rate at which the fluid changes from Newtonian
to powerlaw behavior)
= index that controls the transition from the Newtonian plateau to the powerlaw region
= powerlaw index
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
fac
facinf
tnat
expo
expoa
By default, , , and are equal to 1, and and are equal to 0. Figure 6.13: CarreauYasuda Law
for Viscosity (p. 63) shows a plot of for the CarreauYasuda law.
Figure 6.13: CarreauYasuda Law for Viscosity
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63
Material Data Parameters
The CarreauYasuda law is a slight variation on the BirdCarreau law (Equation 6.8 (p. 53)). The addition
of the exponent allows for control of the transition from the Newtonian plateau to the powerlaw
region. A low value ( < 1) lengthens the transition, and a high value (>1) results in an abrupt transition.
6.2.3. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity
As discussed in Introduction (p. 52), the general form for the viscosity can be written as the product
of functions of shear rate and temperature. There are actually three ways in which this relationship can
be expressed:
where
spectively.
and
(6.18)
(6.19)
(6.20)
represent the shearrate and temperature dependence of the viscosity, re
In Equation 6.18 (p. 64), the temperature scales the viscosity so there is only a vertical shift on the
model curves vs. temperature. Four of the temperaturedependent viscosity laws follow this
format:
Arrhenius approximate law
Arrhenius law
Fulcher law
WLF law
In Equation 6.19 (p. 64), the timetemperature equivalence is introduced by also scaling the shear rate
by temperature. Therefore, there is a horizontal shift in addition to the vertical shift on the model curves
vs. temperature. Three of the temperaturedependent viscosity laws follow this format:
Arrhenius approximate shearstress law
Arrhenius shearstress law
WLF shearstress law
The final form of the viscosity definition, Equation 6.20 (p. 64), corresponds to the mixeddependence
law.
By default, there is no temperature dependence of the viscosity (that is,
= ).
6.2.3.1. Arrhenius Law
The Arrhenius law is given as
64
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(6.21)
Generalized Newtonian Flow
where
is the ratio of the activation energy to the perfect gas constant and is a reference temper
ature for which = . The temperature shift must be specified when a nonabsolute temperature scale is used. It corresponds to the lowest temperature that is thermodynamically acceptable,
given with respect to the current temperature scale. Typically, if you use Kelvin as the temperature unit,
.
= . If you use Celsius,
=
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time Temperature
alfa
talfa
t0
Important
Note that for the Arrhenius model is not the same as for the approximate Arrhenius law;
they have different units.
By default, , , and are equal to 0. Figure 6.14: Arrhenius Law for Viscosity (p. 65) shows a plot of
for the Arrhenius law.
Figure 6.14: Arrhenius Law for Viscosity
6.2.3.2. Approximate Arrhenius Law
The approximate Arrhenius law is obtained as the firstorder Taylor expansion of the Arrhenius law
(Equation 6.21 (p. 64)):
(6.22)
where is the firstorder coefficient of the Taylor expansion and is a reference temperature. The
behavior described by Equation 6.22 (p. 65) is similar to that described by Equation 6.21 (p. 64) in the
neighborhood of !. Equation 6.22 (p. 65) is valid as long as the temperature difference " "# is not
too large.
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
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Material Data Parameters
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time Temperature
alfa
talfa
Important
Note that for the approximate Arrhenius model is not the same as for the Arrhenius law;
they have different units.
By default, and are equal to 0. Figure 6.15: Approximate Arrhenius Law for Viscosity (p. 66) shows
a plot of ( ) for the approximate Arrhenius law.
Figure 6.15: Approximate Arrhenius Law for Viscosity
6.2.3.3. Arrhenius ShearStress Law
The Arrhenius shearstress law is defined by the same equation as the Arrhenius law (Equation 6.21 (p. 64)), but differs in that a timetemperature equivalence has been introduced, as indicated
by Equation 6.19 (p. 64). When the temperature increases, the viscosity curve shifts downward and to
the right. Figure 6.16: Arrhenius ShearStress Law for Viscosity (p. 67) demonstrates this by showing the
Bird Carreau viscosity curve at several temperatures using the Arrhenius shearstress law for temperature
dependence.
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Figure 6.16: Arrhenius ShearStress Law for Viscosity
The units, default values, and names for the parameters in the ANSYS Polymat interface are the same
as for the Arrhenius law, described above.
6.2.3.4. Approximate Arrhenius ShearStress Law
The approximate Arrhenius shearstress law is defined by the same equation as the approximate
Arrhenius law (Equation 6.22 (p. 65)), but differs in that a timetemperature equivalence has been introduced, as indicated by Equation 6.19 (p. 64). When the temperature increases, the viscosity curve shifts
downward and to the right. Figure 6.17: Approximate Arrhenius ShearStress Law for Viscosity (p. 68)
demonstrates this by showing the BirdCarreau viscosity curve at several temperatures using the approximate Arrhenius shearstress law for temperature dependence.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.17: Approximate Arrhenius ShearStress Law for Viscosity
The units, default values, and names for the parameters in the ANSYS Polymat interface are the same
as for the approximate Arrhenius law, described above.
6.2.3.5. Fulcher Law
Another definition for
where
+
comes from the Fulcher law [5] (p. 209):
(6.23)
, , and
are the Fulcher constants. The Fulcher law is used mainly for glass.
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time Temperature
F1
F2
F3
, , and are equal to 0. Figure 6.18: Effect of Increasing f1 on the Fulcher Law for Viscosity (p. 69) how the impact of each parameter on the viscosity curves. The viscosity drops if increases,
and increases if increases. For , the behavior is more complex: if !" is below the fixed temperature,
By default,
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Generalized Newtonian Flow
the viscosity increases with an increase in
decreases with an increase in
; if
is greater than the fixed temperature, the viscosity
.
Figure 6.18: Effect of Increasing f1 on the Fulcher Law for Viscosity
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.19: Effect of Increasing f2 on the Fulcher Law for Viscosity
Figure 6.20: Effect of Increasing f3 (Less Than Fixed Temperature) on the Fulcher Law for Viscosity
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Figure 6.21: Effect of Increasing f3 (Greater Than Fixed Temperature) on the Fulcher Law for
Viscosity
6.2.3.6. WLF Law
The WilliamsLandelFerry (WLF) equation is a temperaturedependent viscosity law that fits experimental
data better than the Arrhenius law for a wide range of temperatures, especially close to the glass
transition temperature:
+ +
where and
are the WLF constants, and and
are reference temperatures.
(6.24)
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time Temperature
c1
c2
Ta
TrTa
Figure 6.22: Effect of Increasing c2 on the WLF Law for Viscosity (p. 72) and Figure 6.23: Effect of Increasing
c1 or Ta on the WLF Law for Viscosity (p. 72) show the impact of each parameter on the viscosity curves.
The viscosity drops if
increases; the opposite occurs if , , or
increases.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.22: Effect of Increasing c2 on the WLF Law for Viscosity
Figure 6.23: Effect of Increasing c1 or Ta on the WLF Law for Viscosity
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Generalized Newtonian Flow
6.2.3.7. WLF ShearStress Law
The WLF law described above is based on shear rate. As for the Arrhenius law, there is also a version
of the WLF law based on shear stress. In this version, the viscosity is computed from Equation 6.19 (p. 64), with computed from the WLF law, Equation 6.24 (p. 71). As for the Arrhenius
shearstress law, an increase in temperature will result in a shifting of the viscosity curve downward
and to the right. This is illustrated in Figure 6.24: WLF Law for Viscosity (p. 73) and Figure 6.25: WLF
ShearStress Law for Viscosity (p. 74).
Figure 6.24: WLF Law for Viscosity
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.25: WLF ShearStress Law for Viscosity
The units, default values, and names for the parameters in the ANSYS Polymat interface are the same
as for the WLF law, described above.
6.2.3.8. MixedDependence Law
For the mixeddependence law (which can be used only in conjunction with the loglog law for shearrate dependence, described in LogLog Law (p. 61)), the function is written in the form of Equation 6.20 (p. 64), where
is computed from the loglog law (Equation 6.16 (p. 61)) and
+ +
=
(6.25)
In this equation, , , and are the coefficients of the polynomial expression, and is the temperature shift; it must be specified when a nonabsolute temperature scale is used. It corresponds to
the lowest temperature that is thermodynamically acceptable, given with respect to the current temperature scale. Typically, if the units for temperature are Kelvin, will be 0; if the units for temperature
are Celsius, will be 273.15.
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
!
"##
$%&
'(
74
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time Temperature
a2
a22
a12
T0
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Generalized Newtonian Flow
By default, , , and are equal to 0. Figure 6.26: Effect of Increasing a2 or a22 on the MixedDependence Law for Viscosity (p. 75) and Figure 6.27: Effect of Increasing a12 on the MixedDependence
Law for Viscosity (p. 75) show the impact of each parameter on the viscosity curves. The viscosity increases when either or
increases. For
, there is a rotation of the viscosity curves around a
point when the value is changed.
Figure 6.26: Effect of Increasing a2 or a22 on the MixedDependence Law for Viscosity
Figure 6.27: Effect of Increasing a12 on the MixedDependence Law for Viscosity
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Material Data Parameters
Depending on the values of the parameters, there may be a decrease in viscosity when the shear rate
approaches zero (as shown in Figure 6.27: Effect of Increasing a12 on the MixedDependence Law for
Viscosity (p. 75)). This does not reflect physical behavior. Moreover, for high shear rates, the slope of
the curve may be less than 1, which is also not physical. For the mixeddependence law to be valid,
the range of useful shear rates must lie between these two intervals.
6.3. Differential Viscoelastic Flow
This section describes the following topics:
6.3.1. Introduction
6.3.2. Differential Viscoelastic Models
6.3.3.Temperature Dependence of Viscosity
6.3.4. Multiple Relaxation Times for Differential Viscoelastic Flows
6.3.1. Introduction
The differential approach to modeling viscoelastic flow is appropriate for most practical applications.
Many of the most common numerical models for viscoelastic flow are provided in ANSYS Polymat, including Maxwell, Oldroyd, PhanThienTanner, Giesekus, FENEP, POMPOM, and Leonov. Appropriate
choices for the viscoelastic model and related parameters can yield qualitatively and quantitatively accurate representations of viscoelastic behavior.
Improved accuracy is possible if you use multiple relaxation times to better fit the viscoelastic behavior
at different shear rates. If required, you can even use different viscoelastic models for the different relaxation times, although this has a very limited physical basis.
6.3.1.1. Equations
For a differential viscoelastic flow, the constitutive equation for the extrastress tensor is
+
(6.26)
(the viscoelastic component) is computed differently for each type of viscoelastic model. (the
purely viscous component) is an optional component, which is always computed from
=
(6.27)
is the rateofdeformation tensor and is the viscosity factor for the Newtonian (that is, purely
viscous) component of the extrastress tensor. The viscosity ratio is defined as
. The relationship
where
of
and to is expressed by
=
(6.28)
and
=
(6.29)
When a multimode viscoelastic model is used, the purely viscous component of the extrastress tensor
is defined through the first mode only.
6.3.1.2. Inputs
To specify the viscosity model for a differential viscoelastic flow, you will click the Differential viscoelastic
models menu item in the Material Data menu
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
Differential viscoelastic models
and then choose 1st viscoelastic model.
1st viscoelastic model
If you want to specify different parameters for different relaxation times, click Addition of a viscoelastic
model.
To specify the temperature dependence of viscosity for a differential viscoelastic flow, you will click the
Temperature dependence of viscosity menu item.
Temperature dependence of viscosity
See NonAutomatic Fitting (p. 37) and Automatic Fitting (p. 42) for information about where and how
the material data specification occurs in the nonautomatic and automatic fitting procedures, respectively.
See Differential Viscoelastic Models (p. 77) and Temperature Dependence of Viscosity (p. 117) for details
about the parameters and characteristics of each fluid model.
6.3.2. Differential Viscoelastic Models
There are currently nine differential viscosity models:
Upperconvected Maxwell and OldroydB models: These are the simplest viscoelastic constitutive equations,
although in many situations they are the most numerically cumbersome for ANSYS Polyflow. Both models
exhibit a constant viscosity and a quadratic first normalstress difference. They should be selected either
when very little information is know about the fluid, or when a qualitative prediction is sufficient. For
fluids exhibiting a very high extensional viscosity, the OldroydB model is preferred over the upperconvected Maxwell model.
WhiteMetzner model: Most fluids are characterized by shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference. With the WhiteMetzner model, it is possible to reproduce such viscometric features.
Several functions for the shearrate dependence of the viscosity and the relaxation time are available.
When experimental data are available for the shear viscosity and the first normalstress difference,
the material parameters for the WhiteMetzner model can be obtained easily by curve fitting: first
the shear viscosity is defined and fitted, and then the function for the relaxation time can be selected
and fitted on the basis of the first normalstress difference in a simple shear flow.
Despite its interesting features from a viscometric point of view, the WhiteMetzner model may exhibit strange numerical behavior at high shear rates, leading to spurious oscillations in the ANSYS
Polyflow solution.
PhanThienTanner (PTT), JohnsonSegalman, and Giesekus models: These models are the most realistic.
In particular, they exhibit shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference at high shear
rates. These properties are controlled by their respective material parameters ( , , and ), as described
in the model description below. Also, the selection of nonzero values for and will lead to a bounded
steady extensional viscosity.
For stability reasons, however, a purely viscous component must be added to the extrastress tensor
in simple shear flow. This is true for the JohnsonSegalman and PTT models when is nonzero, and
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Material Data Parameters
for the Giesekus model when >0.5. The addition of a purely viscous component to the extrastress
tensor affects the viscosity, but not the first normalstress difference. Shear thinning is still present,
but the viscosity curve also shows a plateau zone at high shear rates.
Poor control of the shear viscosity is the usual drawback of the JohnsonSegalman and PTT models
used with a single relaxation time, especially toward high shear rates.
Important
Note that you cannot explicitly select the JohnsonSegalman model in the ANSYS Polymat interface. It is obtained by selecting the PTT model and setting the value of to 0.
FENEP (Finitely Extensible NonLinear Elastic Dumbbells Peterlin) model: This model is derived from
molecular theories and is based on the assumption that the material behaves as a series of dumbbells
linked together by springs. Unlike the Maxwell model, springs can have only a finite extension, so the
energy of deformation of the dumbbell becomes infinite for a finite value of the spring elongation.
The FENEP model requires only four parameters (, , , and the length ratio for the spring), yet
it predicts a realistic shear thinning of the fluid and a first normalstress difference that is quadratic
for low shear rates and has a lower slope for high shear rates. It has been observed in practice that
viscometric properties of several fluids can often be accurately modeled. The FENEP model is well
suited for simulating the rheological behavior of dilute solutions.
POMPOM model: The pompom molecule consists of a backbone to which arms are connected at both
extremities. In a flow, the backbone may orient in a DoiEdwards reptation tube consisting of the neighboring molecules, while the arms may retract into that tube. The concept of the pompom macromolecule
makes the model suitable for describing the behavior of branched polymers. The approximate differential
form of the model is based on the equations of macromolecular orientation and macromolecular
stretching in connection with changes in orientation. In this construction, the pompom molecule is allowed
only a finite extension, which is controlled by the number of dangling arms. In particular, the strain
hardening properties are dictated by the number of arms. Beyond that, the model predicts realistic shear
thinning behavior, as well as a first and a possible second normal stress difference.
Leonov model: This model has been developed for the simultaneous prediction of the behavior of trapped
and free macromolecular chains for filled elastomers with carbon black and/or silicate. From the point of
view of morphology, macromolecules at rest are trapped by particles of carbon black, via electrostatic
van der Waals forces. Under a deformation field, electrostatic bonds can break, and macromolecules become
free, while a reverse mechanism may develop when the deformation ceases. You can therefore be facing
a macromolecular system consisting of trapped and free macromolecules, with a reversible transition from
one state to the other one.
This model involves actually two tensor quantities and a scalar one. The tensors focus respectively
on the behavior of the free and trapped macromolecular chains of the elastomer, while the scalar
quantity quantifies the degree of structural damage (debonding factor). The model exhibits a yielding
behavior. It is intrinsically nonlinear, as the nonlinear response develops and is observable at early
deformations.
Details about each model are provided below.
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
6.3.2.1. UpperConvected Maxwell Model
The Maxwell model is one of the simplest viscoelastic constitutive equations. It exhibits a constant viscosity and a quadratic first normalstress difference. Due to its simplicity, it is recommended only when
little information about the fluid is available, or when a qualitative prediction is sufficient. Even in this
case, the OldroydB model, which can include a purely viscous component, is preferable for numerical
reasons.
6.3.2.1.1. Equations
For the upperconvected Maxwell model, the purely viscous component of the extrastress tensor ( )
is equal to zero. The viscoelastic component ( ) is computed from
(6.30)
+ =
where is a modelspecific relaxation time,
is the rateofdeformation tensor, and is a model
specific viscosity factor for the viscoelastic component of . The relaxation time is defined as the time
required for the shear stress to be reduced to half of its original equilibrium value when the strain rate
vanishes. A high relaxation time indicates that the memory retention of the flow is high. A low relaxation
time indicates significant memory loss, gradually approaching Newtonian flow (zero relaxation time).
6.3.2.1.2. Inputs
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
visc
trelax
By default, and are equal to 1.
6.3.2.1.3. Behavior Analysis
Figure 6.28: UpperConvected Maxwell Model for a Shear Flow (p. 80) shows the viscometric functions
of the upperconvected Maxwell model in a simple shear flow. In this example (where =1 s and =1000
Pas), is constant, is linear, is quadratic, is zero, is constant, is zero, and !" is linear,
showing nonasymptotic behavior.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.28: UpperConvected Maxwell Model for a Shear Flow
Figure 6.29: UpperConvected Maxwell Model for an Extensional Flow (p. 81) shows the behavior of the
upperconvected Maxwell model in a simple extensional flow.
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Figure 6.29: UpperConvected Maxwell Model for an Extensional Flow
In this example (where =1 s and =1000 Pas), , , and
are unbounded for
=
=
=
=
=
, and
=
=
= !
(6.31)
(6.32)
(6.33)
(6.34)
Figure 6.30: UpperConvected Maxwell Model for a Transient Shear Flow (p. 82) shows the behavior of
the upperconvected Maxwell model in a transient shear flow.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.30: UpperConvected Maxwell Model for a Transient Shear Flow
In this example (where =1 s, =1000 Pas, and = s1), there is no stress overshoot and the transient
phase depends upon the relaxation time.
6.3.2.2. OldroydB Model
The OldroydB model is, like the Maxwell model, one of the simplest viscoelastic constitutive equations.
It is slightly better than the Maxwell model, because it allows for the inclusion of the purely viscous
component of the extra stress, which leads to better behavior of the numerical scheme. OldroydB is a
good choice for fluids that exhibit a very high extensional viscosity.
6.3.2.2.1. Equations
For the OldroydB model, is computed from Equation 6.30 (p. 79), and is computed (optionally)
from Equation 6.27 (p. 76). in Equation 6.30 (p. 79), and
in Equation 6.27 (p. 76) are partial shear
viscosities. ANSYS Polymat uses Equation 6.28 (p. 76) and Equation 6.29 (p. 76) to compute the value
of , based on a specified value for the viscosity ratio,
.
6.3.2.2.2. Inputs
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
82
Name in ANSYS Polymat
visc
Mass Length Time
1
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
trelax
ratio
By default, and are equal to 1, and the viscosity ratio
is equal to 0 (that is, and
are equal
to 0).
6.3.2.2.3. Behavior Analysis
Figure 6.31: OldroydB Model for a Shear Flow (p. 83) shows the viscometric functions of the OldroydB model in a simple shear flow. In this example, =1 s and (with the viscosity ratio equal to 0.15) =850
Pas and =150 Pas. In the resulting curves, is constant, is linear, is quadratic, is zero,
is constant, is zero, and is linear, showing nonasymptotic behavior. Notice that the curves are
moved down in comparison to the upperconvected Maxwell model; this is due to the Newtonian part
of the model (nonzero value for !"), which reduces the viscoelastic effects (#$, %&, '(, and ) *+,).
Figure 6.31: OldroydB Model for a Shear Flow
Figure 6.32: OldroydB Model for a Transient Shear Flow (p. 84) shows the behavior of the OldroydB
model in a transient shear flow. In this example,  =1 s, ./=1000 Pas, and 01 = s1. Notice that there
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83
Material Data Parameters
is an instantaneous response of the shear stress to the applied shear rate; this is due to the Newtonian
part of the model. Otherwise, the OldroydB model exhibits the same behavior as the upperconvected
Maxwell model.
Figure 6.32: OldroydB Model for a Transient Shear Flow
6.3.2.3. WhiteMetzner Model
Most fluids are characterized by shearthinning and nonquadratic first normalstress difference. With
the WhiteMetzner model, it is possible to reproduce such viscometric features.
6.3.2.3.1. Equations
The WhiteMetzner model computes
+ =
from
(6.35)
and is computed (optionally) from Equation 6.27 (p. 76). in Equation 6.35 (p. 84) and in Equation 6.27 (p. 76) are partial shear viscosities.
The relaxation time ( ) and the viscosity (
) can be constant or represented by the power law or the
BirdCarreau law for shearrate dependence.
The powerlaw representation of the total viscosity is
=
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(6.36)
Differential Viscoelastic Flow
where
is the consistency factor, is the powerlaw index, and is the natural time (that is, inverse
of the shear rate at which the fluid changes from Newtonian to powerlaw behavior).
The BirdCarreau representation of the viscosity is
=
where
+
+
(6.37)
is the natural time and is the powerlaw index.
and are then computed from Equation 6.28 (p. 76) and Equation 6.29 (p. 76), based on a specified
value for the viscosity ratio, .
The powerlaw representation of the relaxation time is
=
(6.38)
The BirdCarreau representation of the relaxation time is
%) (
! = !&
+ "$'# '
'
(6.39)
Important
Note that the powerlaw representation for the relaxation time should be avoided, since it
leads to high relaxation times for low shear rates. The BirdCarreau representation is better,
yielding a constant (and bounded) relaxation time at low shear rates.
6.3.2.3.2. Guidelines for Fitting
If you are fitting experimental curves using the WhiteMetzner model, you will need to do the fitting
in two parts:
1. Choose the viscosity function and fit its parameters. See ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity (p. 52) for
information about the parameters for the function you choose (constant, BirdCarreau, or power law).
2. Choose the relaxation time function and fit its parameters to the experimental curve for the first normalstress difference. See ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity (p. 52) for information about the parameters
for the function you choose (constant, BirdCarreau, or power law). Note that the relaxation time function
has no effect on the steady viscosity curves.
6.3.2.3.3. Inputs
The units for the WhiteMetzner parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as
follows:
Parameter
*+
,
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
viscosity function
relaxation time function
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Material Data Parameters
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
ratio
By default, and are constant values equal to 1, and the viscosity ratio is equal to 0 (that is,
and
are equal to 0).
6.3.2.3.4. Behavior Analysis
Figure 6.33: WhiteMetzner Model for a Shear Flow (p. 87) compares the WhiteMetzner model to the
upperconvected Maxwell model for a simple shear flow. In this example, the BirdCarreau viscosity law
is used, with =1000 Pas,
=10 s, and =0.5. The relaxation time is 1 s. Notice that and
are nonconstant for large shear rates, is nonlinear, is nonquadratic for large shear rates, and
and are equal to 0.
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Figure 6.33: WhiteMetzner Model for a Shear Flow
In transient shear flow, the WhiteMetzner model is similar in behavior to the upperconvected Maxwell
model. The shape of the curves is the same, but the duration of the transient phase depends on the
relaxation time function. If this function is constant, the duration to reach the regime situation is the
same; if it is not constant, the duration of the transient phase depends upon the relaxation time function.
Usually, the relaxation time is a decreasing function of the shear rate, so the duration of the transient
phase is reduced for high shear rate.
Figure 6.34: WhiteMetzner Model for a Transient Shear Flow with Constant Relaxation Time (p. 88)
shows the viscometric curves for a constant relaxation time and Figure 6.35: WhiteMetzner Model for
a Transient Shear Flow with a BirdCarreau Relaxation Time (p. 89) shows the curves for a shearratedependent relaxation time. In Figure 6.34: WhiteMetzner Model for a Transient Shear Flow with Constant
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87
Material Data Parameters
Relaxation Time (p. 88), the shear thinning affects the final value of the viscosity and the first normalstress coefficient. The transient phase is not affected by the shear rate. In Figure 6.35: WhiteMetzner
Model for a Transient Shear Flow with a BirdCarreau Relaxation Time (p. 89), there is no shear thinning,
so there is no effect on the final value of the viscosity. The first normal stress coefficient is affected by
the variation of relaxation time with shear rate. The transient phase is affected by the shear rate.
Figure 6.34: WhiteMetzner Model for a Transient Shear Flow with Constant Relaxation Time
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
Figure 6.35: WhiteMetzner Model for a Transient Shear Flow with a BirdCarreau Relaxation Time
6.3.2.4. PhanThienTanner Model
The PhanThienTanner (PTT) model is one of the most realistic differential viscoelastic models. It exhibits
shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference at high shear rates.
6.3.2.4.1. Equations
The PTT model computes
+
from
+
=
(6.40)
and is computed (optionally) from Equation 6.27 (p. 76). in Equation 6.40 (p. 89) and
in Equation 6.27 (p. 76) are partial shear viscosities. ANSYS Polymat uses Equation 6.28 (p. 76) and Equation 6.29 (p. 76) to compute the value of
, based on a specified value for the viscosity ratio, .
and are material properties that control, respectively, the shear viscosity and elongational behavior.
A nonzero value for leads to a bounded steady extensional viscosity.
6.3.2.4.2. Inputs
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
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Material Data Parameters
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
visc
trelax
ratio
eps
xi
By default, and
are equal to 1, the viscosity ratio is equal to 0 (that is,
and are equal to 0),
and and are also equal to 0. Note that when =0, the PTT model is reduced to the JohnsonSegalman
model.
6.3.2.4.3. Behavior Analysis
In a simple shear flow (Figure 6.36: PTT Model for a Shear Flow (p. 91)), for >0, you can see a shearthinning effect and a nonquadratic behavior for the first normalstress difference . Notice also that,
for >0, the elasticity level remains finite for increasing shear rate (asymptotic behavior).
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
Figure 6.36: PTT Model for a Shear Flow
The parameter also affects the extensional viscosities, as shown in Figure 6.37: PTT Model for a Steady
Extensional Flow (p. 92). The steady extensional viscosities are finite, and tend toward the Newtonian
component of the extensional viscosity (that is, they are uniaxial) for large extension rates. For small
values of , there is extension thickening and thinning; for large values, there is only extension thinning.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.37: PTT Model for a Steady Extensional Flow
Important
is not zero, then the viscosity ratio must be at least 1/9, in order to
ensure the stability of the shear flow. The slope of the shear stress vs. shear rate curve must
be positive everywhere, contrary to what is shown on the left in Figure 6.38: Effect of on
the PTT Model for a Shear Flow (p. 93) with =0.1.
If the parameter
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Figure 6.38: Effect of on the PTT Model for a Shear Flow
The parameter has almost no effect on extensional viscosity, as shown in Figure 6.39: Effect of on
the PTT Model for a Steady Extensional Flow (p. 94). The maximum of the extensional viscosities decreases
when increases.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.39: Effect of on the PTT Model for a Steady Extensional Flow
In a transient shear flow (Figure 6.40: PTT Model in a Transient Shear Flow (p. 95)), a moderate stress
overshoot is observed. The stress overshoot increases as shear rate increases. Shear thinning is observed,
and the normal stress is nonquadratic. The transient phase is reduced as the shear rate increases.
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
Figure 6.40: PTT Model in a Transient Shear Flow
6.3.2.5. Giesekus Model
Like the PTT model, the Giesekus model is one of the most realistic differential viscoelastic models. It
exhibits shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference at high shear rates.
6.3.2.5.1. Equations
The Giesekus model computes
from
+
+ =
(6.41)
and is computed (optionally) from Equation 6.27 (p. 76). in Equation 6.41 (p. 95) and in Equation 6.27 (p. 76) are partial shear viscosities. ANSYS Polymat uses Equation 6.28 (p. 76) and Equation 6.29 (p. 76) to compute the value of
, based on a specified value for the viscosity ratio,
.
is the unit tensor and is a material constant that controls the extensional viscosity and the ratio of
the second normalstress difference to the first. For low values of shear rate,
=
(6.42)
For the majority of fluids, this ratio is between 0.1 and 0.2.
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Material Data Parameters
6.3.2.5.2. Inputs
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
visc
trelax
ratio
alfa
By default, and are equal to 1, the viscosity ratio
is equal to 0 (that is,
and are equal to 0),
and is also equal to 0.
6.3.2.5.3. Behavior Analysis
In a simple shear flow (Figure 6.41: Giesekus Model for a Shear Flow (p. 97)), controls the shearthinning
effect. The first normalstress difference is nonquadratic, and the cutoff appears earlier if increases.
If >0.5, you must add a Newtonian component () to the total viscosity in order to avoid instabilities.
96
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
Figure 6.41: Giesekus Model for a Shear Flow
Figure 6.42: Effect of on the Giesekus Model for an Extensional Flow (p. 98) shows the behavior of
the Giesekus fluid in an extensional flow.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.42: Effect of on the Giesekus Model for an Extensional Flow
Here, the steady extensional viscosities are finite. For small values of
for large values extension thinning occurs.
extension thickening occurs, and
In a transient shear flow (Figure 6.43: Giesekus Model for a Transient Shear Flow (p. 99)), the stress
overshoot is less severe than for the PTT model; there are fewer oscillations.
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Figure 6.43: Giesekus Model for a Transient Shear Flow
The duration of the transient phase depends on the imposed shear rate (the same behavior as for the
PTT model). For a high shear rate, the stress overshoots during the transient phase. As the shear rate
increases, the final value decreases as the overshoot increases. The duration of the transient phases
decreases as the shear rate increases.
6.3.2.6. FENEP Model
The FENEP model is derived from molecular theories and is based on the assumption that the polymer
macromolecules are idealized as dumbbells linked with an elastic connector or spring and suspended
in a Newtonian solvent of viscosity . Unlike in the Maxwell model, however, the springs are allowed
only a finite extension, so that the energy of deformation of the dumbbell becomes infinite for a finite
value of the spring elongation. This model predicts a realistic shear thinning of the fluid and a first
normalstress difference that is quadratic for low shear rates and has a lower slope for high shear rates.
6.3.2.6.1. Equations
The FENEP model computes from
=
where
is computed from
+ =
(6.43)
(6.44)
and is the ratio of the maximum length of the spring to its length at rest:
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Material Data Parameters
=
(6.45)
is an equilibrium length that corresponds to rigid motion (in this case, =0 and the tension in the
connector equals the Brownian forces). is the maximum allowable dumbbell length. Figure 6.44: Dumb
bell Definitions for the FENEP Model (p. 100) shows how the distance between dumbbells is based on
the relative position of both ends.
Figure 6.44: Dumbbell Definitions for the FENEP Model
is always greater than 1. As
becomes infinite, the FENEP model reduces to the upperconvected
Maxwell model.
is computed (optionally) from Equation 6.27 (p. 76). in Equation 6.43 (p. 99) and in Equa
tion 6.27 (p. 76) are partial shear viscosities. ANSYS Polymat uses Equation 6.28 (p. 76) and Equation 6.29 (p. 76) to compute the value of , based on a specified value for the viscosity ratio, .
The motion of the dumbbells is the result of hydrodynamic, Brownian, and spring forces. represents
the tension in the spring (spring forces) and the Brownian motion. represents the Newtonian (hydrodynamic) forces.
See [1] (p. 209) for additional information about the FENEP model. Note that the FENEP model is not
available for nonisothermal flows.
6.3.2.6.2. Inputs
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
100
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
visc
trelax
ratio
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
Lsqrd
By default, , , and are equal to 1, and the viscosity ratio is equal to 0 (that is,
and
are
equal to 0).
6.3.2.6.3. Behavior Analysis
The behavior of the FENEP model with small values of
for a simple shear flow is illustrated in Figure 6.45: Effect of Small Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Shear Flow (p. 102). Shear thinning occurs
with this model, and for large values of shear rate, the slope is 2/3. Therefore the addition of a Newtonian viscosity component is not required for stability. The first normalstress difference is nonquadratic,
and the second normalstress difference is 0. The cutoff appears sooner when decreases, down to
a value of 3. No asymptotic behavior is observed. For low values of shear rate, decreases as
decreases.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.45: Effect of Small Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Shear Flow
The behavior of the FENEP model with large values of
for a simple shear flow is illustrated in Figure 6.46: Effect of Large Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Shear Flow (p. 103).
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Figure 6.46: Effect of Large Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Shear Flow
, the FENEP model is observed to exhibit Maxwellian behavior: quadratic first
normalstress difference and close to . For close to 1, Newtonian behavior is observed: quadratic but small first normalstress difference,
tends toward 0, cutoff occurs at high shear rates. For
For large values of
low shear rates,
=
(6.46)
For extensional flows, controls the extensional viscosity. As shown in Figure 6.47: Effect of L^2 on
the FENEP Model for Extensional Flow (p. 104), the extensional viscosities are finite. For large values of
, the FENEP model is observed to exhibit Maxwellian behavior: the extensional viscosities are very
high for
. For close to 1, Newtonian behavior is observed: the extensional viscosities are
constant.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.47: Effect of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Extensional Flow
The behavior of the FENEP model for a transient shear flow is shown in Figure 6.48: Effect of Large
Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Transient Shear Flow (p. 105) and Figure 6.49: Effect of MidRange
Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Transient Shear Flow (p. 105). For high shear rates, the stress
overshoots in the transient phase. When the shear rate increases, the final value and the transient phase
, the FENEP model is observed to exhibit
Maxwellian behavior: no stress overshoots. For midrange values of , the stress overshoots increase
and the transient phase decreases as decreases. For close to 1, Newtonian behavior is observed:
decrease while the overshoot increases. For large values of
no stress overshoots and a short transient phase even for high values of shear rate.
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Figure 6.48: Effect of Large Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Transient Shear Flow
Figure 6.49: Effect of MidRange Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Transient Shear Flow
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Material Data Parameters
6.3.2.7. POMPOM Model [DCPP]
In the POMPOM model, the pompom molecule consists of a backbone to which arms are connected
at both extremities. In a flow, the backbone may orient in a DoiEdwards reptation tube consisting of
the neighboring molecules, while the arms may retract into that tube. The concept of the pompom
macromolecule makes the model suitable for describing the behavior of branched polymers. The approximate differential form of the model is based on equations of macromolecular orientation, and
macromolecular stretching in relation to changes in orientation.
The model, referred to as DCPP ([2] (p. 209), [8] (p. 209)), allows for a nonzero second normal stress difference. The DCPP model computes from an orientation tensor, and a stretching scalar (states
variables), on the basis of the following algebraic equation:
=
(6.47)
where is the shear modulus and is a nonlinear material parameter (the nonlinear material parameter will be introduced later on). The state variables and
are computed from the following differential equations:
+ =
+
+
+
=
(6.48)
(6.49)
In these equations, and are the relaxation times associated with the orientation and stretching
mechanisms respectively. In the last equation, characterizes the number of dangling arms (or priority)
at the extremities of the pompom molecule or segment. It is an indication of the maximum stretching
that the molecule can undergo, and therefore of a possible strain hardening behavior. ! can be obtained
from the elongational behavior. " is a nonlinear parameter that has enabled the introduction of a nonvanishing second normal stress difference in the DCPP model.
A multimode DCPP model can also be defined. Each contribution # will involve an orientation tensor
$ and a stretching variable % &. A few guidelines are required for the determination of the several linear
and nonlinear parameters.
Consider a multimode DCPP model characterized by ' modes sorted with increasing values of relaxation
times ( ) (increasing seniority). The linear parameters * + and ,  characterizing the linear viscoelastic
behavior of the model can be determined with the usual procedure.
Then the relaxation times (. /0) for stretching should be determined. Depending on the average number
12
should be within the range of 2 to 10. For a com1 32
pletely unentangled polymer segment, you may accept the physical limit of 4 5=6 78. 9 :; should also
satisfy the constraint < = ? < >= < =, since @ A B sets the fundamental diffusion time for the branch
point controlling the relaxation of polymer segment (C).
of entanglements of backbone section, the ratio
The parameter DE indicating the number of dangling arms (or priority) at the extremities of a pompom
segment F, also indicates the maximum stretching that can be undergone by that segment, and therefore
its possible strain hardening behavior. For a multimode DCPP model, both seniority and priority are
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assumed to increase together towards the inner segments; hence should also increase with . The
parameter can be obtained from the elongational behavior.
is a fifth set of nonlinear parameters that control the ratio of second to first normal stress differences.
The value of parameter should range between 0 and 1. For moderate values,
corresponds to twice
the ratio of the second to the first normal stress difference, and may decrease with increasing seniority.
As for other viscoelastic models, a purely viscous component can be added to the viscoelastic component
, in order to get the total extrastress tensor:
= +
(6.50)
where
=
where
(6.51)
is the rateofdeformation tensor and is the viscosity.
6.3.2.7.1. Inputs
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
visc2
trelax
G0
tlambda
nbarms
xi
, ,
By default, and ! are set to 1, the number of arms " to 2 and the other parameters to 0.
6.3.2.7.2. Behavior Analysis
Figure 6.50: Effect of Parameter for Steady Shear Flow (p. 108) shows the steady viscometric behavior
of a single mode DCPP fluid model for various values of the parameter # . For the present illustration,
the shear modulus equals 1000, while the relaxation times for orientation and stretching have been
assigned the values 1 and 0.5, respectively. As can be seen, constant viscosity and quadratic first normal
&
%
stress difference are obtained at low shear rates. Nonlinear behavior is found beyond $ = . We also
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107
Material Data Parameters
ishing second normal stress difference. The other nonlinear parameters and have actually a negligible influence on the viscometric properties.
Figure 6.50: Effect of Parameter for Steady Shear Flow
In Figure 6.51: Effect of Parameter q on Steady Elongation Viscosity (p. 109), we display the steady
elongation viscosity of a single mode DCPP fluid model for increasing values of . For the continuous
curves, the shear modulus equals 1000, while the relaxation times for orientation and stretching have
been assigned the values 1 and 0.5, respectively. Also, the nonlinear parameter is equal to 0.1. As is
known for the DCPP model, and more generally for pompom models, the parameter is an indication
of branching, and therefore of strain hardening in elongation. As can be seen from Figure 6.51: Effect
of Parameter q on Steady Elongation Viscosity (p. 109), the elongation viscosity increases when the strain
rate is larger than , and the strain hardening is enhanced for increasing values of . The figure also
as well as for = . As can be seen, the
shows the steady elongation viscosity obtained for
=
influence of these parameters on the steady elongation viscosity remains moderate as compared to
that of parameter
.
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Figure 6.51: Effect of Parameter q on Steady Elongation Viscosity
Finally, Figure 6.52: Effect of Parameter q on Transient Elongation Viscosity for Different Values of the
Elongation Rate (p. 110) shows the transient elongation viscosity of various singlemode DCPP fluid
model characterized by different branching levels ( ), at elongation rates successively equal to 0.1, 1
and 10. We find that all curves collapse at low strain rate (0.1), while they markedly differ at high strain
rate (10).
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.52: Effect of Parameter q on Transient Elongation Viscosity for Different Values of the
Elongation Rate
6.3.2.8. Leonov Model
Elastomers are usually filled with carbon black and/or silicate. From the point of view of morphology,
macromolecules at rest are trapped by particles of carbon black, via electrostatic van der Waals forces.
Under a deformation field, electrostatic bonds can break, and macromolecules become free, while a
reverse mechanism may develop when the deformation ceases. You can therefore be facing a macromolecular system consisting of trapped and free macromolecules, with a reversible transition from one
state to the other one.
Leonov and Simhambhatla have developed a rheological model ([9] (p. 209), [10] (p. 209), [3] (p. 209)) for
the simultaneous prediction of the behavior for trapped and free macromolecular chains. This model
for filled elastomers involves actually two tensor quantities and a scalar one. These tensor quantities
focus respectively on the behavior of the free and trapped macromolecular chains of the elastomer,
while the scalar quantity quantifies the degree of structural damage (debonding factor). The model
exhibits a yielding behavior. It is intrinsically nonlinear, as the nonlinear response develops and is
observable at early deformations.
In a singlemode approach, the total stress tensor
contributions, as follows:
can be decomposed as the sum of free and trapped
(6.52)
As for other viscoelastic models, a purely viscous component is added to the viscoelastic components
in order to get the total extrastress tensor:
(6.53)
=
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where
is the rateofdeformation tensor and is the viscosity.
In Equation 6.52 (p. 110), subscripts and respectively refer to the free and trapped parts. Each of
these contributions obeys its own equation. In particular, they invoke their own deformation field described by means of Finger tensors.
An elastic Finger tensor
+
is defined for the free chains, which obeys the following equation:
(6.54)
where is the relaxation time, is the unit tensor, while
and
are the first invariant of
respectively, defined as
=
=
,
(6.55)
(6.56)
The implemented material function
that appears in Equation 6.54 (p. 111) is written as follows:
=
The parameter
(6.57)
must be ; and increases slightly the amount of shear thinning.
is defined for the trapped chains, which obeys the following equation:
Similarly, an elastic Finger tensor
$% $&
%
+" #
and
where '( and )* are the first invariant of
, =
./ =
(6.58)
and
+
, respectively, defined as
(6.59)
(6.60)
In the equation for the trapped chains, the variable 1 quantifies the degree of structural damage (debonding factor), and is the fraction of the initially trapped chains that are debonded from the filler
particles during flow. The function 2 3 is a structural damage dependent scaling factor for the relaxation time 4 and is referred to as the mobility function".
A phenomenological kinetic equation is suggested for 5 :
67
89
9
+ 9 = 7;
8:
;
(6.61)
In Equation 6.61 (p. 111), < is the local shear rate while =
time factor, which may delay or accelerate debonding.
For the mobility function ?
mented:
E
A B
is the yielding strain. Also, > is a dimensionless
appearing in Equation 6.58 (p. 111), the following form has been imple
+ CD
D
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(6.62)
111
Material Data Parameters
The above selection for the mobility function endows the rheological properties with a yielding behavior. When
is large (or unbounded), the algebraic term dominates the constitutive equation for
(Equation 6.58 (p. 111)), and the solution is expected to be =1. When is vanishing, becomes
governed by a purely transport equation; this may lead to numerical troubles when solving a complex
steady flow with secondary motions (vortices). This situation can occur if parameter is set to zero and
under nodebonding situation ( = ). Therefore, we suggest imposing a small (but nonzero) value for
parameter (by default, we suggest the value 0.05, which is a reasonable compromise between rheological properties and solver stability). Based on this, parameter can be understood as the value of the
mobility function under nodebonding.
Finally, in order to relate the Finger tensors to the corresponding stress tensor, potential functions are
required. For and , the following expressions are suggested:
+
+
+
(6.63)
(6.64)
with and . It is interesting to note that has no effect on the shear viscosity, while it
contributes to a decrease of the elongational viscosity. On the other hand, the parameter increases
both shear and elongational viscosities. From there, stress contributions from free and trapped chains
in Equation 6.52 (p. 110) are respectively given by:
"
=
=
+
+
+&
"
!#
'*
(+
"
!$
(6.65)
'*
(,
(6.66)
where parameter  is the initial ratio of free to trapped chains in the system. A vanishing value of .
indicates that all chains are trapped at rest, while a large value of / indicates a system that essentially
consists of free chains.
6.3.2.8.1. Inputs
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
visc, additional viscosity
trelax, relaxation time
G, shear modulus
alpha, initial ratio of free to trapped
chains
beta, coefficient in potential function 5
n, index in potential function 7
m, deformation historydependence
0
1
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Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
nu, power index
Mass Length Time

k, mobility under nodebonding
q, dimensionless time factor
gamma*, yielding strain
, , ,
in mobility function
By default,
, , ,
, and are set to 1, and
to 0.
are set to 2, is set to 0.05 and the other parameters
6.3.2.8.2. Identification of Model Parameters and Functions
Important
In the current version of ANSYS Polymat, you cannot fit the Leonov model and/or draw the
corresponding rheometric curves in the chart.
From the point of view of rheology and numerical simulation, for single and multimode fluid models,
a purely viscous contribution must be added to the total extrastress tensor. Actually, this is largely
motivated by the fact that the matrix of the discretized system can be singular when all fields are initialized to values that correspond to the solution at rest. Hence, the first or only mode will always be
accompanied by a Newtonian contribution, whose corresponding viscosity value received a unit default
value. This value can be modified by the user.
Also, as suggested above, a nonvanishing value should be selected for the mobility function under
nodebonding.
As can be seen, next to parameters and controlling the linear properties, the model involves two
functions and several nonlinear parameters. In a single mode approach, the influence of these parameters
on the viscometric and elongational properties can be easily identified, and appropriate values can be
selected accordingly. By default, the nonlinear parameters are assigned values that are relevant from
the point of view of rheology. In a multimode approach, in order to facilitate the definition of a flow
case, corresponding nonlinear parameters should preferably be identical for each mode.
6.3.2.8.3. Behavior Analysis
In simple shear flow, the Leonov model exhibits shear thinning, which is slightly affected by some
parameters. Figure 6.53: Shear Viscosity of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000, =1, q=1, =0,
=2, *=2, and a=1, k=n=m=0 (continuous lines). (p. 114) shows that an increase of the parameter
(initial ratio of free to trapped chains) slightly decreases the shear viscosity at low shear rates. This can
be easily understood if you consider, for example, that when =0, the material consists only of trapped
chains at rest. The figure also shows that parameter increases the shear viscosity at high shear rates,
while parameter has a very limited influence. Finally, as can be seen in Figure 6.53: Shear Viscosity of
the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000, =1, q=1, =0, =2, *=2, and a=1, k=n=m=0 (continuous
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113
Material Data Parameters
lines). (p. 114), shear viscosity curves do not show a plateau at low shear rates. This is the fingerprint of
the yielding behavior of the fluid model, which is controlled by the value of the mobility function under
nodebonding (parameter ). Actually, if increases, the viscosity curves exhibit a plateau at low shear
rates; however, as can be seen in the insert, this does not affect the behavior at high shear rates, while
it may improve the stability of the solver.
Figure 6.53: Shear Viscosity of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000, =1, q=1, =0, =2,
*=2, and a=1, k=n=m=0 (continuous lines).
Dashed and dasheddotted lines show the viscosity for the value of the parameters as indicated. The
insert shows the viscosity curves obtained for various values of the mobility function under nodebonding
(parameter k). Note that these curves are not obtained from ANSYS Polymat; they result from semianalytical calculations.
Figure 6.54: First Normal Stress Difference of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000, =1, q=1, =0,
=2, *=2, and a=1, k=n=m=0 (continuous lines). (p. 115) shows that similar trends are found for the
first normal stress difference. Figure 6.54: First Normal Stress Difference of the Leonov Model with
Parameters G=1000, =1, q=1, =0, =2, *=2, and a=1, k=n=m=0 (continuous lines). (p. 115) shows that
an increase of the parameter slightly decreases the first normal stress difference at all shear rates. The
figure also shows that parameter increases the first normal stress difference at all shear rates, while
parameter decreases it at high shear rates. Finally, as can be seen, the first normal stress difference
shows a plateau at low shear rates; this is a counterpart of the yielding behavior of the fluid model,
which is also controlled by the value of the mobility function under nodebonding (parameter ). Actually,
if increases, the first normal stress difference exhibit a quadratic behavior at low shear rates; however,
as can be seen in the insert, this does not affect the behavior at high shear rates, while it may improve
the stability of the solver.
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Figure 6.54: First Normal Stress Difference of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000, =1,
q=1, =0, =2, *=2, and a=1, k=n=m=0 (continuous lines).
Dashed, dasheddotted and dotted lines show the first normal stress difference for the value of the
parameters as indicated. The insert shows the curves of first normal stress difference obtained for various
values of the mobility function under nodebonding (parameter ). Note that these curves are not obtained from ANSYS Polymat; they result from semianalytical calculations.
In simple elongation flow, the Leonov model exhibits marked strain thinning at low strain rates; it is
slightly affected by some parameters. Figure 6.55: Elongation Viscosity of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000, =1, q=1, n=1, =2, *=2, and a=1, =k=m=0 (continuous lines). (p. 116) shows that an
increase of the parameter (initial ratio of free to trapped chains) slightly decreases the elongation
viscosity at low strain rates. This can be easily understood if you consider, for example, that when =0,
the material consists only of trapped chains at rest. The figure also shows that parameter increases
the elongation viscosity at high strain rates, while parameters and decrease the elongation viscosity.
Finally, as can be seen in Figure 6.55: Elongation Viscosity of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000,
=1, q=1, n=1, =2, *=2, and a=1, =k=m=0 (continuous lines). (p. 116), elongation viscosity curves do
not show a plateau. This is the fingerprint of the yielding behavior of the fluid model, which is controlled
by the value of the mobility function under nodebonding (parameter ). Actually, if increases, the
elongation viscosity curves exhibit a plateau at low strain rates; however, as can be seen in the insert
of Figure 6.55: Elongation Viscosity of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000, =1, q=1, n=1, =2,
*=2, and a=1, =k=m=0 (continuous lines). (p. 116), this does not really affect the behavior at high
strain rates while it may improve the stability of the solver.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.55: Elongation Viscosity of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000, =1, q=1, n=1,
=2, *=2, and a=1, =k=m=0 (continuous lines).
Dashed, dasheddotted and dotted lines show the elongation viscosity for the value of the parameters
as indicated. The insert shows the curves of the steady elongation viscosity obtained for various values
of the mobility function under nodebonding (parameter ). Note that these curves are not obtained
from ANSYS Polymat; they result from semianalytical calculations.
Figure 6.56: Transient Shear Viscosity of the Leonov Model Versus Time, at Shear Rates Ranging from
10^2 to 10, With Parameters G=1000, =1, q=1, n=1, =0, =2, *=2, and a=1, k=m=n=0, (continuous
lines). (p. 117) shows the transient shear viscosity versus time at shear rates ranging from 102 to 10, for
various values of parameters and . At first, as can be seen, the transient shear viscosity exhibits an
overshoot before reaching the steady value. It is also interesting to note that the response time decreases
when the shear rate increases. This actually results from the increasing mobility function under increasing
shear rates. Eventually, we find that parameter decreases the elongation viscosity, while the other
parameters have a somewhat less marked influence.
116
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Figure 6.56: Transient Shear Viscosity of the Leonov Model Versus Time, at Shear Rates Ranging
from 10^2 to 10, With Parameters G=1000, =1, q=1, n=1, =0, =2, *=2, and a=1, k=m=n=0,
(continuous lines).
Dashed and dotted lines show the viscosity for the value of the parameters as indicated. Note that
these curves are not obtained from ANSYS Polymat; they result from semianalytical calculations.
6.3.3. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity
The viscosity in a nonisothermal differential viscoelastic flow can be temperaturedependent. As described
in Introduction (p. 52), the viscosity will be multiplied by a temperature shift function
. For nonisothermal differential viscoelastic flows, the relaxation time is multiplied by the same temperature shift
function. Temperaturedependent functions available for nonisothermal differential viscoelastic flows
are the Arrhenius law, the Arrhenius approximate law, and the WLF law, all described in Temperature
Dependence of Viscosity (p. 64).
6.3.4. Multiple Relaxation Times for Differential Viscoelastic Flows
If you define multiple relaxation modes for your differential viscoelastic fluid, you can specify the
model, relaxation time, and other parameters for each mode. (It is recommended that you use the same
model for each relaxation mode.) For multiple relaxation modes, the viscoelastic stress is written as
follows:
=
=
(6.67)
A purely viscous component can also be added.
Consider, for example, a fluid being modeled with two relaxation modes as follows:
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Material Data Parameters
mode 1: PTT model, =0.1 s, =
Pas, =0.2, =
mode 2: PTT model, =1 s, =
Pas,
=0.2, =
Figure 6.57: Simple Shear Flow with Multiple Relaxation Times (p. 118) shows the viscometric behavior
for this fluid in a simple shear flow. Here, the cutoff is controlled by the larger relaxation time, and the
slopes of the curves (for shear rates between 1/
and 1/) are affected.
Figure 6.57: Simple Shear Flow with Multiple Relaxation Times
Figure 6.58: Extensional Flow with Multiple Relaxation Times (p. 119) shows the viscometric behavior for
this fluid in an extensional flow. The slopes of the curves (for extension rates between 1/ and ) are
affected.
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Figure 6.58: Extensional Flow with Multiple Relaxation Times
Figure 6.59: Transient Shear Flow with Multiple Relaxation Times (p. 120) shows the viscometric behavior
for this fluid in a transient shear flow. The multiple relaxation modes have an effect on the transient
phase. In this case, the length of the transient phase depends upon the larger relaxation time. The
multiple relaxation modes also affect the overshoot magnitude.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.59: Transient Shear Flow with Multiple Relaxation Times
6.4. Integral Viscoelastic Flow
This section describes the following topics:
6.4.1. Introduction
6.4.2. Integral Viscoelastic Models
6.4.3.Temperature Dependence of Viscosity
6.4.1. Introduction
While the differential approach is wellsuited for practical applications, the integral approach is generally
used for advanced rheological research. ANSYS Polymat provides several numerical models for viscoelastic
flow, including DoiEdwards and KBKZ. Appropriate choices for the viscoelastic model and related
parameters can yield qualitatively and quantitatively accurate representations of viscoelastic behavior.
Note that the integral approach to modeling viscoelastic flow is limited to 2D models; it cannot be applied
to 3D models.
6.4.1.1. Equations
For an integral viscoelastic constitutive equation, the extrastress tensor
the following equation:
=
+
where
120
is computed at time from
= modelspecific memory (kernel) function
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(6.68)
Integral Viscoelastic Flow
= modelspecific function of and
= modelspecific function of and
= CauchyGreen strain tensor
= current time
= metric for time integrals
and are the scalar invariants of the CauchyGreen strain tensor:
=
and
=
(6.70)
The various integral viscoelastic models are characterized by the form of the functions
, and
.
(6.69)
! " !
# can be computed from the isothermal constitutive equation (Equation 6.68 (p. 120)), provided that a modified time scale $ is used for evaluating the strain history:
+&
(6.71)
 = . % & ' ( ) )/ ,  * ' + (/ ) )/ , * ' +' +'
The modified time scale is related to 0 through the following equation:
7
(6.72)
1 = 2 3 4 5 65
8
where 9 is the shift function, which can be obtained from steadystate shearviscosity curves at different
For nonisothermal flows,
temperatures. This is the principle of timetemperature equivalence.
6.4.1.2. Inputs
To specify the viscosity model for an integral viscoelastic flow, you will click the Integral Viscoelastic
models menu item in the Material Data menu.
Integral Viscoelastic models
If you want to choose a generalized Newtonian flow model with a shearthinning behavior that is
identical to the currently defined integral model, click the Switch to Generalized Newtonian Flow
menu item in the Integral Viscoelastic models menu.
Switch to Generalized Newtonian Flow
If you want to use the DoiEdwards model instead of the default KBKZ model, click the Switch to Doi
 Edwards Model menu item in the Integral Viscoelastic models menu.
Switch to Doi  Edwards Model
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Material Data Parameters
If you want to define a spectrum of relaxation times, click the Modify the spectrum menu item in the
Integral Viscoelastic models menu.
Modify the spectrum
The spectrum can be defined with (relaxation force, time) or (viscosity, time) data pairs.
If you are using the KBKZ model, you can click Modify the damping function to specify which damping
function is to be used.
Modify the damping function
The default function is LodgeMaxwell (that is, no damping).
For the KBKZ model, you can also click Modify N2 / N1 to define the ratio of the normal stress differences.
Modify N2 / N1
If you want to add a constant Newtonian viscosity component to the viscoelastic stresses, you can click
Modify add visc and set a nonzero value for .
Modify add visc
To specify the temperature dependence of viscosity for an integral viscoelastic flow, you will click the
Temperature dependence menu item in the Integral Viscoelastic models menu.
Temperature dependence
Note that the Management of the evolutive viscosity and Numerical integration menu items are
not relevant for ANSYS Polymat.
See NonAutomatic Fitting (p. 37) and Automatic Fitting (p. 42) for information about where and how
the material data specification occurs in the nonautomatic and automatic fitting procedures, respectively.
See Integral Viscoelastic Models (p. 122) and Temperature Dependence of Viscosity (p. 134) for details
about the parameters and characteristics of each fluid model.
6.4.2. Integral Viscoelastic Models
There are two integral viscoelastic models provided in ANSYS Polymat:
DoiEdwards model: Theoretically, this model has an infinity of relaxation times, determined by only two
parameters: the main relaxation time and the zeroshearrate viscosity. This constitutive equation is characterized by shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference at high shear rates. It also
predicts a nonzero second normalstress difference and a finite steady extensional viscosity.
For stability reasons, however, it is necessary to add a purely viscous component to the extrastress
tensor for simple shear flows. The viscosity associated with this purely viscous stress leads to a plateau
as a function of
is greater
zone at high shear rates. In this way, the slope of the curve
than .
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KBKZ model: In addition to the spectrum that describes the linear viscoelastic behavior of the material,
the KBKZ model also makes use of a damping function. The damping function can be a constant value,
or one of two functions: PapanastasiouScrivenMacosko (PSM) or Wagner. Each of these two functions
has a reversible and an irreversible function type. Both functions are controlled by two parameters: and
for the PSM model and and for the Wagner model. A third parameter, , affects the ratio of the
second to the first normalstress difference.
For the PSM model, high values of lead to a large constant viscosity plateau; = corresponds to
a constant damping function, which corresponds to a LodgeMaxwell model. If decreases, the
constant viscosity plateau moves toward lower shear rates. For the Wagner model, high values of
lead to a short constant viscosity plateau, while a small value of gives a plateau for a large range
of shear rates.
For small values of the invariant
(a combination of and
, defined in Equation 6.80 (p. 124)), both
damping functions are very similar. For high values of , however, the exponential function of the
Wagner model decreases more quickly than the rational function of the PSM model. High values of
occur in the case of large deformations.
parameter has no effect on the shear viscosity or on the first and second normalstress differences. It affects only the extensional viscosity. A zero value for leads to an unbounded steady extensional viscosity. Increasing decreases the maximum value of the steady extensional viscosity
The
curve.
For the PSM and Wagner models, it is possible to introduce the concept of irreversibility originally
mentioned by Wagner [12] (p. 209). The idea is that the damping function must only decrease. According
to Wagner, this is a realistic assumption when intermolecular association occurs, as in a narrowing
part of a duct, for example. In the case of a high flow rate through a contraction followed by an expansion, it is reasonable not to allow the damping function to increase again after the narrowing of
the channel.
As for the DoiEdwards model, it is necessary to add a purely viscous component to the extrastress
tensor for simple shear flows with the KBKZ model.
Details about each model are provided below.
6.4.2.1. DoiEdwards Model
The DoiEdwards model is characterized by shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference at high shear rates. It also predicts a nonvanishing second normalstress difference and a finite
steady extensional viscosity.
is computed from
+ "
+ "
In the DoiEdwards model,
= ! "
=
where
#% = $% +
$& +
'()
(6.73)
(6.74)
and
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Material Data Parameters
= +
In Equation 6.73 (p. 123),
(6.75)
is the index of the relaxation mode.
(optional, but strongly recommended) is computed from Equation 6.27 (p. 76).
6.4.2.2. KBKZ Model
The KBKZ model provides additional accuracy by including a damping function in its constitutive
equations. is computed from
(6.76)
and
(optional, but strongly recommended) is computed from Equation 6.27 (p. 76), based on the
specified value of .
In Equation 6.76 (p. 124), is the index of the relaxation mode and
the ratio of the normalstress differences:
is a scalar parameter that controls
=
(6.77)
and ! is the damping function. The simplest case (LodgeMaxwell model) is for no damping: " =
and # = .
The PapanastasiouScrivenMacosko (PSM) model computes $ from
%= &
(6.78)
& +'
where ( is a material parameter that primarily influences the shearthinning behavior. The default value
for ) is 1, which may be unrealistic for many fluids, due to the large possible range of this parameter.
The Wagner model computes * from
(6.79)
,  ./0
+=
1
where is a material parameter that influences both the shear viscosity and the elongational behavior
of the material.
The reversible PSM model uses Equation 6.78 (p. 124), allowing
PSM model allows only to decrease.
2 to increase or decrease. The irreversible
Similarly, the reversible Wagner model uses Equation 6.79 (p. 124), allowing
The irreversible Wagner model allows only to decrease.
4 to increase or decrease.
In both Equation 6.78 (p. 124) and Equation 6.79 (p. 124), is computed from
7 = 879 +
124
7:
(6.80)
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Integral Viscoelastic Flow
where
and are given by Equation 6.69 (p. 121) and Equation 6.70 (p. 121). is a material parameter
that influences only the elongational behavior of the material. The default value for
be unrealistic for many fluids, due to the large possible range of this parameter.
is 1, which may
6.4.2.3. Influence of Damping Functions and Their Parameters
Figure 6.60: Storage and Loss Moduli for Oscillatory Shear Flow (p. 126) through Figure 6.70: Comparison
of Reversible and Irreversible PSM Damping Functions for Transient Shear Flow (=14.38) (p. 134) show
the influence of each parameter of the damping models on the rheological curves for a lowdensity
polyethylene with the following parameters:
(Pas)
(s)
12.9
104
94.8
103
3 586.0
102
4 2670.0
101
5 9800.0
10+0
6 18900.0 10+1
7 18000.0 10+2
8 1000.0
10+3
6.4.2.3.1. Oscillatory Shear Flow
For oscillatory shear flow, the wiggles in Figure 6.60: Storage and Loss Moduli for Oscillatory Shear
Flow (p. 126) are due to the discrete relaxation spectrum. There is one wiggle for each relaxation time,
at
.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.60: Storage and Loss Moduli for Oscillatory Shear Flow
A comparison of the Wagner and PSM damping functions for oscillatory shear flow is shown in Figure 6.61: Comparison of Damping Functions for Oscillatory Shear Flow (p. 126).
Figure 6.61: Comparison of Damping Functions for Oscillatory Shear Flow
The damping functions are equivalent for small values of invariant . For large values of , the Wagner
damping function decreases more quickly than the PSM function ( <
).
6.4.2.3.2. Simple Shear Flow
Figure 6.62: Comparison of Damping Functions for Simple Shear Flow (p. 127) shows a comparison of
the Wagner and PSM damping functions for a simple shear flow. Shear thinning and a nonlinear are
observed for both functions. The first normalstress difference is nonquadratic for both functions, with
<
. The first normalstress coefficient is nonconstant for both functions, with < .
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Integral Viscoelastic Flow
The second normalstress difference and the second normalstress coefficient are 0 for both. is nonlinear and shows asymptotic behavior. For large shear rates, < .
Figure 6.62: Comparison of Damping Functions for Simple Shear Flow
6.4.2.3.3. Extensional Flow
Figure 6.63: Comparison of Damping Functions for Extensional Flow (=0) (p. 128) shows a comparison
of the Wagner and PSM damping functions for an extensional flow, with
=0.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.63: Comparison of Damping Functions for Extensional Flow (=0)
For the Wagner function, , , and are bounded. For the PSM function, is unbounded and
and
are bounded. For small extension rates, the type of damping function has no effect on
the extensional viscosity. For large extension rates, the type of damping function strongly affects the
extensional viscosity.
Figure 6.64: Effect of (or n) on the PSM Damping Function for Extensional Flow (=0) (p. 129) shows
the influence of (or ) for an extensional flow with the PSM damping function and =0.
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Figure 6.64: Effect of (or n) on the PSM Damping Function for Extensional Flow (=0)
(or ) has little effect on the viscometric curves or the extensional viscosities. For = (or =0), the
behavior becomes the same as for Maxwell models.
Figure 6.65: Effect of on the PSM Damping Function for Steady Extensional Flow (=14.38) (p. 130)
shows the influence of for an extensional flow with the PSM damping function and =14.38.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.65: Effect of on the PSM Damping Function for Steady Extensional Flow (=14.38)
is very sensitive to , is affected around =1, and is not affected by
. Note that has no
influence on shear viscosity.
Figure 6.66: Effect of on the PSM Damping Function for Steady Extensional Flow (=14.38, =0.1) (p. 131)
shows the influence of for an extensional flow with the PSM damping function and
=14.38, =0.1.
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Integral Viscoelastic Flow
Figure 6.66: Effect of on the PSM Damping Function for Steady Extensional Flow (=14.38,
=0.1)
decreases, decreases, increases, and is not affected. Note that, in a simple shear
flow, the viscometric functions (except the second normalstress difference and coefficient) are independent of .
When
6.4.2.3.4. Transient Shear Flow
Figure 6.67: Comparison of Damping Functions for Transient Shear Flow (=0) (p. 132) shows a comparison of the Wagner and PSM damping functions for a transient shear flow, with
=0.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.67: Comparison of Damping Functions for Transient Shear Flow (=0)
For the Wagner function, the overshoot is more significant, especially for the first normalstress coefficient.
The final value of the first normalstress coefficient is lower for the Wagner function than for the PSM
function. While the transient behavior depends upon shear rate, it is independent of the reversibility
of the damping function.
Figure 6.68: Effect of (or n) on the PSM Damping Function for Transient Shear Flow (=0) (p. 133) shows
the influence of (or ) for a transient shear flow with the PSM damping function and =0.
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Figure 6.68: Effect of (or n) on the PSM Damping Function for Transient Shear Flow (=0)
(or ) has little effect on the development of the transient viscosity and the first normalstress coefficient. It affects only the final value of the viscosity and the first normal stress.
In the reversible PSM damping function, can increase or decrease, and in the irreversible function,
can only decrease. To illustrate the difference between reversible and irreversible damping functions,
consider a shearrate history that is a function of time. As shown in Figure 6.69: Transient Shear Rate
Function (p. 133), the shear rate is equal to for < , whereas it becomes for .
Figure 6.69: Transient Shear Rate Function
Figure 6.70: Comparison of Reversible and Irreversible PSM Damping Functions for Transient Shear Flow
(=14.38) (p. 134) shows a comparison between the reversible and irreversible PSM damping function
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Material Data Parameters
for a transient shear flow with =14.38. The first normalstress difference for the irreversible function is
less than or equal to the first normalstress difference for the reversible function. As a result, the swelling
with the irreversible function is less than with the reversible function.
Figure 6.70: Comparison of Reversible and Irreversible PSM Damping Functions for Transient
Shear Flow (=14.38)
6.4.3. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity
Three models are available for the temperature shift function in Equation 6.72 (p. 121): the Arrhenius
law, the Arrhenius approximate law, and the WLF law, all described in Temperature Dependence of
Viscosity (p. 64). It is also possible to eliminate the temperature dependence using a temperature shift
function equal to 1.
6.5. Simplified Viscoelastic Model
One of the interesting features of viscoelastic flow simulations is the prediction of extrudate swelling,
which can be larger than their Newtonian counterparts. Running complex 3D flows with a rheologically
sophisticated model, however, can be computationally expensive. Therefore, a more simplified approach
is needed: one in which you can qualitatively predict the extrudate free surface. This approach is referred
to as the simplified viscoelastic model" or the light viscoelastic model".
This section describes the following topics:
6.5.1. Equations
6.5.2. Identification of Model Parameters and Functions
6.5.3. Inputs
6.5.4. Behavior Analysis
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Simplified Viscoelastic Model
6.5.1. Equations
It is known that the first normal stress difference is mainly responsible for enhanced extrudate swell in
extrusion flow. This is typically a viscoelastic property. With respect to this, the simplified viscoelastic
model is an extension of existing Newtonian fluid models, where a normal stress difference has been
incorporated into the force balance. In other words, in simple shear flow along the first axis and with
a shear rate , the total extrastress tensor is given by:
(6.81)
In this tensor, is the shear stress component, which involves the shear rate dependent viscosity
. Several laws are available for describing the shear viscosity (see Generalized Newtonian
Flow (p. 51) for more details), for instance, the constant law (Equation 6.7 (p. 52)), the BirdCarreau law
(Equation 6.8 (p. 53)), the Power law (Equation 6.9 (p. 54)), the Cross law (Equation 6.14 (p. 59)), the
modified Cross law (Equation 6.15 (p. 60)), and the CarreauYasuda law (Equation 6.17 (p. 63)).
The first normal stress is given by
. This quantity involves the viscoelastic variable
, a
quantity
that can be referred to as the first normal viscosity, and a weighting coefficient .
The viscoelastic variable obeys a transport equation that involves a characteristic or relaxation time
and is given by:
+ =
(6.82)
The equation is such that you recover the solution = in simple shear flow. The first normal viscosity
found in Equation 6.81 (p. 135) is described by means of functions similar to those available for
the shear viscosity , where is presently replaced by . In order to facilitate the set up of a flow
simulation involving the simplified viscoelastic model, identical dependences for ! " and # $ are
considered by default. However, it is important to note that different functions can be selected for the
shear and first normal viscosities.
Three algebraic models are available for the relaxation time function:
Constant relaxation
BirdCarreau law
Power law
Finally, for nonisothermal flows, temperature dependence laws can be selected for the shear and first
normal viscosities (see Temperature Dependence of Viscosity (p. 64) for more details). For instance,
there is the Arrhenius law Equation 6.21 (p. 64)), the approximate Arrhenius law (Equation 6.22 (p. 65)),
and the WLF law (Equation 6.24 (p. 71)).
When defining a nonisothermal case, a single function is used to describe the temperature dependence
of the material functions % & , ' ( , ), and optionally of * + .
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Material Data Parameters
6.5.2. Identification of Model Parameters and Functions
The simplified viscoelastic model is mainly an empirical construction. The key ingredient is the normal
stress property that is introduced for the prediction of swelling. Although it is possible to qualitatively
relate the swelling and the first normal stress difference, a quantitative relationship is not obvious.
Methodologies have to be identified and developed for the determination of material functions and
parameters. A stepwise technique is recommended for this purpose.
Note that the simplified viscoelastic model has been developed and implemented mainly for the simulation of 3D extrusion flows, therefore including the prediction of extrudate swelling. Therefore, it is
acceptable to use cylindrical extrudate swelling data for the identification of the specific model properties.
As seen above, the simplified viscoelastic model involves three material functions and a parameter: the
shear viscosity
, the first normal viscosity , the relaxation time , and a weighting
coefficient . Typically, usual viscosity data should be used for identifying the shear viscosity function.
In most situations, shear thinning is experimentally observed, and algebraic relationships such as power
law, BirdCarreau, or Cross laws will be good candidates. However, it is recommended that you consider
a law that exhibits a zeroshear plateau if regions of nodeformation are expected over the flow domain.
Important
The parameters of the shear viscosity can be fitted automatically in ANSYS Polymat based on experimental steady shear viscosity curve(s), as for a generalized Newtonian
model. The other parameters of the model cannot actually be fitted in ANSYS Polymat. Note
that if rheometric curves are drawn in the chart, only the Newtonian part of the model is
seen.
Next, a function and material parameters should be selected for the first normal viscosity
. By
default, a relationship identical to the selected shear viscosity is considered, as this appears to
be a reasonable choice, at least at first. Of course, this default selection can be revised subsequently.
The power law, which exhibits unbounded values under zero deformation, should be avoided if large
regions of no deformation are expected. Instead, functions that exhibit a plateau, such as the BirdCarreau laws, should be preferred.
Eventually, for the relaxation time
and the weighting coefficient , it is suggested to perform a
fast 2D simulation of axisymmetric extrudate swelling, where the effects of the remaining degrees of
freedom are examined. Typically, the weighting coefficient will control the swelling intensity versus
the flow rate, while the relaxation time function will control the development of the extrudate
diameter along the jet, and may have a possible influence also on the developed extrudate geometric
attributes. Usually, a constant value or a BirdCarreau law can be selected for the relaxation time; the
value or zeroshear value should preferably be in agreement with the typical times involved in the flow.
On the other hand, a series of calculations should be performed with various values of the weighting
coefficient , where the development of extrudate versus the flow rate is examined, via an evolution
scheme. A comparison with experimental data on swelling should enable the selection of an appropriate
numerical value for the weighting coefficient .
6.5.3. Inputs
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS Polymat interface are as follows:
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Simplified Viscoelastic Model
Parameter
Name in ANSYS Polymat
Mass Length Time
viscosity function
first normal viscosity function
relaxation time function
weighting coefficient
1
1
By default, the viscosity, the first normal viscosity, and the relaxation time functions are constant and
set to 1. The weighting coefficient is also set to 1.
6.5.4. Behavior Analysis
The simplified viscoelastic model involves three material functions and a parameter: the shear viscosity
, the normal viscosity , the relaxation time
, and a weighting coefficient . Considering
the empirical construction of the simplified viscoelastic model, it is probably more relevant to inspect
the behavior from the point of view of extrusion flow, in particular from the point of extrudate swelling.
As will be seen, the various ingredients may have opposite effects, and enter in competition with each
other.
As is known, shear thinning decreases the extrudate swelling. However, the other ingredients will usually
enhance the swelling. Consider that the normal and shear viscosities are the same function of their respective dependence variable; the weighting coefficient and the relaxation time are to be considered.
Actually, selecting a normal viscosity independently with respect to the shear viscosity will mainly make
the analysis more complex without significantly affecting the general conclusions. The weighting coefficient adjusts the intensity of the first normal stress difference, and will essentially enhance the extrudate swelling. This is shown in Figure 6.71: Example of axisymmetric extrusion simulation for the
simplified viscoelastic fluid model through a cylindrical tube with a unit radius. (p. 138), which plots the
curve of swelling versus the flow rate for various simplified viscoelastic fluid models. The continuous
lines show the swelling for various values of the weighting coefficient. Note that the amount of swelling
can significantly be affected. In Figure 6.72: Example of axisymmetric extrusion simulation for the simplified viscoelastic fluid model through a cylindrical tube with a unit radius. (p. 139), note the development
of the free surface versus the axial distance, for various values of . Note that the development versus
the position is not significantly affected be a specific choice of . The relaxation time appears
in the transport equation for the viscoelastic variable; consequently it will at first affect the development
of the swelling along the flow direction. This is visible in Figure 6.72: Example of axisymmetric extrusion
simulation for the simplified viscoelastic fluid model through a cylindrical tube with a unit radius. (p. 139),
where the dashed lines indicate the development of swelling versus the axial distance: the development
distance increases with the relaxation time, while actually the amount of swelling is less affected by
the relaxation time. As can be seen in Figure 6.71: Example of axisymmetric extrusion simulation for the
simplified viscoelastic fluid model through a cylindrical tube with a unit radius. (p. 138), the overall
swelling is less affected by the value of the relaxation time.
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Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.71: Example of axisymmetric extrusion simulation for the simplified viscoelastic fluid
model through a cylindrical tube with a unit radius.
Swelling of an extrudate versus the flow rate, for various values of
(continuous lines) at =0.5 and
. Note that these curves are not obtained from ANSYS
for various values of (dashed lines) at =
Polymat; they result from ANSYS Polyflow calculations.
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Simplified Viscoelastic Model
Figure 6.72: Example of axisymmetric extrusion simulation for the simplified viscoelastic fluid
model through a cylindrical tube with a unit radius.
Development of an axisymmetric extrudate versus the axial distance at a flow rate of 10 (see also Figure 6.71: Example of axisymmetric extrusion simulation for the simplified viscoelastic fluid model through
a cylindrical tube with a unit radius. (p. 138)), for various values of (continuous lines) at =0.5 and
(dashed lines) at =1.2. Note that these curves are not obtained from ANSYS
for various values of
Polymat; they result from ANSYS Polyflow calculations.
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139
140
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Chapter 7: Rheological Properties
Depending on the kinematics of the system you are modeling (steady shear flow, steady extensional
flow, oscillatory shear flow, etc.), it is possible to compute and plot several viscometric properties in
ANSYS Polymat.
The following sections describe various kinematics properties, along with the name of each property
as it appears in the Load Curves (Part I) and Load Curves (Part II) menus in ANSYS Polymat.
7.1. Steady Simple Shear Flow
7.2. Steady Extensional Flow
7.3. Oscillatory Shear Flow
7.4.Transient Shear Flow
7.5.Transient Extensional Flow
7.1. Steady Simple Shear Flow
Steady simple shear flow is characterized by a horizontal velocity field, illustrated in Figure 7.1: Steady
Simple Shear Flow (p. 141) and defined as follows:
=
=
(7.1)
=
where , , and
are the velocity components in the ,
, and directions, respectively, and is
the constant shear rate, which is equal to .
Figure 7.1: Steady Simple Shear Flow
On the basis of this flow field, the following properties can be computed:
steady shear stress:
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Rheological Properties
(7.2)
In the Load Curves (Part I) menu, click Shear Stress.
steady shear viscosity:
=
(7.3)
In the Load Curves (Part I) menu, click Shear Viscosity.
first normalstress difference:
=
(7.4)
In the Load Curves (Part I) menu, click 1st Normal Stress Difference.
second normalstress difference:
=
(7.5)
In the Load Curves (Part I) menu, click 2nd Normal Stress Difference.
first normalstress coefficient:
=
(7.6)
In the Load Curves (Part I) menu, click 1st Normal Stress Coefficient.
second normalstress coefficient:
=
(7.7)
In the Load Curves (Part I) menu, click 2nd Normal Stress Coefficient.
recoverable stress:
!%
" #$
(7.8)
In the Load Curves (Part I) menu, click Stress ratio Sr.
estimated relaxation time:
& *+, ' =
() '
'
(7.9)
In the Load Curves (Part I) menu, click Lambda = Sr / shear_rate.
Note
Equation 7.4 (p. 142) Equation 7.9 (p. 142) have nonzero values only for viscoelastic fluids.
For this reason, these properties are not available in ANSYS Polymat for generalized Newtonian fluids.
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Steady Extensional Flow
To compute each of these curves, you will need to specify a minimum and maximum shear rate (
and ), and the number of sampling points. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 38) and Defining
Numerical Parameters (p. 44) for information about specifying numerical parameters for viscometric
property curves. See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 38) for information about specifying
which curves you want to compute and plot. (Note that, if you use the automatic fitting method, ANSYS
Polymat will automatically compute and plot the curves for all properties for which experimental data
curves have been defined.)
7.2. Steady Extensional Flow
Steady extensional flow can be uniaxial, biaxial, or planar. Uniaxial extensional flow is illustrated in
Figure 7.2: Uniaxial Extensional Flow (p. 143) and defined as follows:
=
=
=
(7.10)
where is a constant elongational strain rate.
The corresponding stress distribution can be written as
=
=
=
=
=
(7.11)
(7.12)
where is the uniaxial extensional viscosity.
Figure 7.2: Uniaxial Extensional Flow
Biaxial extensional flow is illustrated in Figure 7.3: Biaxial Extensional Flow (p. 144) and defined as follows:
$ = !
% = "
& =
(7.13)
#
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143
Rheological Properties
where
is a constant elongational strain rate.
Figure 7.3: Biaxial Extensional Flow
The corresponding stress distribution can be written as
=
=
=
=
=
(7.14)
(7.15)
where is the biaxial extensional viscosity.
Planar extensional flow is illustrated in Figure 7.4: Planar Extensional Flow (p. 144) and defined as follows:
=
=
=
(7.16)
where is a constant elongational strain rate.
Figure 7.4: Planar Extensional Flow
The corresponding stress distribution can be written as
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Transient Shear Flow
=
(7.17)
where is the planar extensional viscosity.
For extensional flow fields, the uniaxial, biaxial, and planar extensional viscosity curves (
,
, and
) can be computed. Click Uniaxial Extensional Viscosity, Biaxial Extensional Viscosity, and/or
Planar Extensional Viscosity in the Load Curves (Part I) menu if you want ANSYS Polymat to compute
one (or more) of these curves.
To compute each of these curves, you will need to specify a minimum and maximum extensional strain
rate ( and ), and the number of sampling points. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 38)
and Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 44) for information about specifying numerical parameters for
viscometric property curves. See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 38) for information about
specifying which curves you want to compute and plot. (Note that, if you use the automatic fitting
method, ANSYS Polymat will automatically compute and plot the curves for all properties for which
experimental data curves have been defined.)
7.3. Oscillatory Shear Flow
It is often interesting to examine the response of a viscoelastic material to a smallamplitude oscillatory
shear rate. This flow allows you to investigate the linear viscoelastic behavior of the material, and yields
the storage and loss moduli, and . For the upperconvected Maxwell model,
#
# #
+
="
!
=
# #
=" +
=
(7.18)
For oscillatory shear flow fields, the property curves for the storage and loss moduli ($ and % ) can
be computed. Select Storage Modulus and Loss Modulus in the Load Curves (Part I) menu if you
want ANSYS Polymat to compute these curves.
To compute each of these curves, you will need to specify a minimum and maximum frequency (& '()
and * +,), and the number of sampling points. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 38) and Defining
Numerical Parameters (p. 44) for information about specifying numerical parameters for viscometric
property curves. See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 38) for information about specifying
which curves you want to compute and plot. (Note that, if you use the automatic fitting method, ANSYS
Polymat will automatically compute and plot the curves for all properties for which experimental data
curves have been defined.)
7.4. Transient Shear Flow
It can also be interesting to calculate the response of a viscoelastic material to one or more instantaneous
variations of shear rate. The main types of transient shear flows are described below, and Figure 7.5: Transient Shear Flows (p. 146) shows the shear rate as a function of time for these flows.
startup (two time intervals):
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Rheological Properties
< <
< <
=
=
(7.19)
stop (two time intervals):
<
<
<
<
=
(7.20)
startup and stop (three time intervals):
< <
< <
< <
=
=
(7.21)
doublestep (five time intervals):
< < '
' < < (
!"#
< < )
) < < *
(
*
< < !%&
=
=
(
'
=
=
*
(7.22)
=
+
The doublestep flow is used to assess the irreversible character of the viscoelastic material.
Figure 7.5: Transient Shear Flows
For transient shear flow fields, the transient property curves for the properties defined by Equation 7.2 (p. 142) Equation 7.9 (p. 142) can be computed. Click Select transient curves in the Load
Curves (Part I) menu to open the Load Curves (Part II) menu, where you can then select Transient
Shear Rate, Transient Shear Stress, Transient Shear Viscosity, Transient 1st Normal Stress Difference,
Transient 2nd Normal Stress Difference, Transient 1st Normal Stress Coefficient, and/or Transient
2nd Normal Stress Coefficient if you want ANSYS Polymat to compute one (or more) of these curves.
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Transient Extensional Flow
To compute each of these curves, you will need to define the desired number of time intervals during
which a constant shear rate is applied. The time interval is bounded by the time values and + .
All times must be included between the specified minimum and maximum times, (
and
).
The number of sampling points per time interval must also be specified. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 38) and Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 44) for information about specifying numerical
parameters for viscometric property curves. See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 38) for information about specifying which curves you want to compute and plot. (Note that, if you use the
automatic fitting method, ANSYS Polymat will automatically compute and plot the curves for all properties for which experimental data curves have been defined.)
7.5. Transient Extensional Flow
You may also want to calculate the response of a viscoelastic material to one or more instantaneous
variations of strain rate. The main types of transient extensional flows correspond to the types of transient shear flows described in Transient Shear Flow (p. 145) and illustrated by Figure 7.5: Transient Shear
Flows (p. 146) (with the extensional strain rate substituted for the shear rate ). The velocity field for
a transient extensional flow is as defined for the steady extensional flow in Steady Extensional
Flow (p. 143).
In a transient uniaxial extensional flow, the stress difference is
=
(7.23)
In a biaxial or planar extensional flow, the stress difference is
=
(7.24)
For transient extensional flow fields, the transient property curves for the properties defined in Steady
Extensional Flow (p. 143) can be computed. Select Transient Extensional Rate, Uniaxial Extensional
Stress vs. Strain [ln(1/lo)], Uniaxial Extensional Stress vs. Time, Uniaxial Extensional Viscosity vs.
Time, Biaxial Extensional Stress vs. Strain [ln(1/lo)], Biaxial Extensional Stress vs. Time, Biaxial
Extensional Viscosity vs. time, and/or Planar Extensional Stress vs. Strain [ln(1/lo)], Planar Extensional Stress vs. Time, Planar Extensional Viscosity vs. Time in the Load Curves (Part II) menu if
you want ANSYS Polymat to compute these curves.
To compute each of these curves, you will need to define the desired number of time intervals during
which a constant extensional strain rate is applied. The time interval is bounded by the time values
! and " # + $. All times % must be included between the specified minimum and maximum times, (& '()
and * +,). The number of sampling points per time interval must also be specified. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 38) and Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 44) for information about specifying
numerical parameters for viscometric property curves. See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 38)
for information about specifying which curves you want to compute and plot. (Note that, if you use
the automatic fitting method, ANSYS Polymat will automatically compute and plot the curves for all
properties for which experimental data curves have been defined.)
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Chapter 8: Defining and Plotting Curves
This chapter describes how to visualize the rheological properties of various fluid models and to fit
them to experimental data, by defining or reading experimental data curves and plotting curves
graphically using ANSYS Polymat.
8.1. Overview
8.2. Working with Curves
8.3. Adding, Removing, and Modifying Charts
8.1. Overview
You can create 2D curves in ANSYS Polymat, or load .crv files that you have previously created in
Polymat, .prb files that Polyflow saved during the calculation (see Saving Data at a Specified Point in
the separate Polyflow User's Guide), or .cnvg files that Polyflow created when monitoring the relative
variation of the norm of a given field as it evolves during the solver iterations. For information about
creating and loading curves, see Working with Curves (p. 150) and Reading Experimental Data Curves
for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. 27), respectively. These curves are automatically displayed
in a chart, which is a tab with a white area with two axes. You can manipulate the display using the
various GUI controls and your mouse. Each curve can also have different attributes (color, marker, etc.)
and can be included in more than one chart, if desired. After you have defined the curves in a particular
chart, you can save it for use in a later ANSYS Polymat session.
When you click the Draw menu button, the curves that were selected with the Rheometry menu button
will be updated and added to the current chart. This allows you to progressively fit the selected fluid
model to the available rheological data by adjusting the model parameters one by one. See NonAutomatic Fitting (p. 37) for details. Note that you will not need to click Draw and Rheometry if you
use the automatic fitting procedure, because ANSYS Polymat will update the chart for you automatically
after it completes the fitting calculation.
8.1.1. Definitions of Terms
The following terms are used throughout this chapter:
axis
is a segment of a chart. Each axis has a range of values, and an interval (called a gap). You can add a
name to the axis, modify the format and precision of the printed numbers, and modify the type of
scaling (linear or logarithmic). See Modifying the Axis Attributes (p. 155) for details about modifying axis
parameters.
chart
is a tab with a white window where curves are displayed. Multiple curves can be plotted on the
same chart, and multiple chart tabs can be created in the chart window.
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curve
is a set of (x,y) pairs of values. The parameters of a curve include whether the data points are connected by a line, the color and thickness of the line, and the markers for the data points. See
Working with Curves (p. 150) for information about selecting and modifying curves.
8.2. Working with Curves
This section describes the following topics:
8.2.1. Defining Experimental Data Curves
8.2.2. Reading Curve Files
8.2.3. Deleting a Curve
8.2.4. Modifying a Curve Definition
8.2.5. Saving a Curve
8.2.6. Moving or Copying a Curve
8.2.7. Modifying Curve Display Attributes
8.2.1. Defining Experimental Data Curves
The procedure for defining an experimental data curve is as follows:
1.
Click the
curve button to open the Create a New Curve dialog box (Figure 8.1: The Create a New
Curve Dialog Box (p. 150)).
Figure 8.1: The Create a New Curve Dialog Box
2.
Enter a name for the curve in the Name textentry box. This name will be displayed and available for
selection in the curve list when you finish creating the curve.
3.
Enter the X and Y value for each data pair. At any point you can delete a single data pair by selecting
it and clicking Delete, or you can delete all of the data pairs by clicking Delete All.
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4.
Click OK to create the specified curve. The data points will be automatically plotted in the current chart
and the name will be added to the curve list.
5.
If you want to save the curve to a file, select it in the curve list and click the
button. The Save curve
dialog box will open, where you can specify a file name and directory. The format of the curve file is
described in Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. 27).
6.
To add additional curves, repeat the previous steps.
8.2.2. Reading Curve Files
For information on reading curve files, see Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic
Fitting Method (p. 27) and Reading Experimental Data Curves for the Automatic Fitting Method (p. 29).
8.2.3. Deleting a Curve
If you want to delete a curve, select it in the curve list and click the
button. You can select multiple
curves in the curve list by holding down the Ctrl or Shift key while making selections and delete them
all at the same time.
8.2.4. Modifying a Curve Definition
If you want to modify the name and/or data pairs of a curve, select it in the curve list and click the
button. Then edit the Name textentry box and/or values of the data pairs using the Edit <name>
dialog box that opens, where <name> is the name of the curve.
8.2.5. Saving a Curve
To save a curve, select it in the curve list and click the
curve button. Then specify the name and
directory using the Save curve dialog box that opens, and click Save.
8.2.6. Moving or Copying a Curve
To move or copy a curve into another existing chart, select the curve in the curve list and click the
button to open the Move or Copy Curve(s) dialog box (Figure 8.2: The Move or Copy Curve(s) Dialog
Box (p. 152)). Then, select either Move or Copy from the Options: list, select the chart to which it is to
be moved or copied from the To: dropdown list, and click OK.
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Figure 8.2: The Move or Copy Curve(s) Dialog Box
8.2.7. Modifying Curve Display Attributes
You can modify how a curve is displayed in the chart by selecting it in the curve list and using the curve
settings, as described in The Curve Settings (p. 24).
8.3. Adding, Removing, and Modifying Charts
Information about adding, removing, and modifying graphics is presented in the following subsections.
8.3.1. Adding and Removing a Chart
8.3.2. Modifying the Title and Legend
8.3.3. Modifying the Range and Scaling
8.3.4. Modifying the Axis Attributes
8.3.1. Adding and Removing a Chart
To add another chart tab to the default chart in the chart window (Figure 8.3: The Chart Buttons and
Default Chart Window (p. 153)), click the New Chart chart button (
) or rightclick the name of
an existing chart (located in the tab at the top of the chart) and select New Chart from the menu that
opens.
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Figure 8.3: The Chart Buttons and Default Chart Window
To delete a chart, rightclick the name of the chart to be deleted and select Close from the menu that
opens, as shown in Figure 8.4: Closing a Graphic (p. 154). To delete every chart but one, rightclick the
name of the chart to be preserved and select Close All But This from the menu that opens.
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Figure 8.4: Closing a Graphic
8.3.2. Modifying the Title and Legend
To modify the title of the current chart, rightclick in the chart and select Properties from the menu
that opens. Then click the General tab in the Properties dialog box that opens (Figure 8.5: The General
Tab of the Properties Dialog Box (p. 155)), and enter a name in the Title textentry box.
If you enable the Show Legend option in the General tab, a legend will be displayed in the chart that
identifies the line color and marker associated with each curve. You can specify that this legend appears
within the axes or outside of the axes by enabling or disabling the Inline option, respectively.
The changes you specify will not take effect until you click Apply or OK in the Properties dialog box.
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Figure 8.5: The General Tab of the Properties Dialog Box
8.3.3. Modifying the Range and Scaling
To change the range of values visible in a chart, you can translate the view by clicking in the chart and
dragging the mouse.
You can revise the magnification of the view, by hovering your mouse over the chart and rotating the
scroll wheel of your mouse. You can also zoom in by positioning the mouse at the corner of the area
to be magnified, holding down the middle mouse button, and dragging the mouse to create a rectangle;
when you release the middle mouse button, the area within the rectangle will fill the chart.
You can adjust the scale of the axes of the current chart tab to show all of the data points by clicking
the Auto Range button (
the menu that opens.
), or by rightclicking in the chart and selecting Auto Range from
You can also revise the range/scaling via the axis attributes, as described in Modifying the Axis Attributes (p. 155).
8.3.4. Modifying the Axis Attributes
There are several attributes of the axes that you can modify: axis name, format and precision of the
numbers attached to axis markers, and the scale and limits of the displayed numbers. All of these attributes are specified in an axis tab of the Properties dialog box. To open the Properties dialog box asso
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ciated with the current chart, rightclick in the chart and select Properties from the menu that opens.
The attributes for the x axis are shown in Figure 8.6: The X Axis Tab of the Properties Dialog Box (p. 156).
Figure 8.6: The X Axis Tab of the Properties Dialog Box
To define a new name for the axis, specify it in the Title textentry box.
The Ticks group box allows you to specify whether you want to show gridlines in the chart (via the
Show Grid option), and whether to display numbers for the axis markers (via the Show Ticks Label
option). Note that the Show Grid option must be disabled in both axes' tabs to remove the gridlines.
The Ticks group box also allows you to specify the Format and Precision of the numbers. Three formats
are available for the numbers:
Auto (i.e., as many decimal places as necessary)
Scientific (e.g., 1.20e+001)
Fixed (i.e., two decimal places)
The Range group box allows you to specify whether a linear or a logarithmic (base 10) scale is used
for the axis (via the Logarithmic scale option). When the Autoadjust option is enabled, the scale of
the axis automatically adjusts to show all of the data points; when disabled, the axis only shows the
range specified via the Min and Max numberentry boxes.
The changes you specify will not take effect until you click Apply or OK in the Properties dialog box.
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Chapter 9: Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models
This chapter presents some guidelines for selecting an appropriate model and fitting the related parameters for several common applications.
9.1. Introduction
9.2.The Weissenberg Number
9.3. Viscometric and Rheometric Measurements
9.4. General Strategy for Fitting
9.5. Guidelines for Extrusion
9.6. Guidelines for Fiber Spinning
9.7. Guidelines for Film Casting
9.8. Guidelines for Blow Molding and Thermoforming
9.9. Guidelines for Pressing
9.10. Empirical Rules and Principles
9.1. Introduction
There are several viscoelastic models available in ANSYS Polymat, as described in detail in Material Data
Parameters (p. 49). These models involve linear and nonlinear parameters, which in turn carry viscometric
and extensional properties. It can often be a difficult task to select the best constitutive equation with
the most appropriate material parameters. The task can be more easily addressed if it is broken into
three smaller questions: how many modes, which constitutive equation, and which parameter settings.
These questions implicitly assume that everything is known about the material being modeled, and
that all properties are equally important, which is usually not the case. In actual industrial practice,
however, only some of the information is known, and assumptions will therefore be necessary.
The purpose of this section is to suggest useful guidelines for the selection of a constitutive model and
associated parameters. Two strategies are possible: you can evaluate the numerical values of parameters
in order to match some experimental data in a given range, or you can try to fit all viscometric (and
possibly elongational) measured data over a broad range. The two approaches lead more or less to the
selection of a rheological model for a flow and the selection of a rheological model for a fluid, respectively.
Although you may prefer one of these two approaches, useful guidelines can be found in both of them.
Therefore, the guidelines that follow will be presented on the basis of the flow being simulated. For
example, the kinematics involved in profile extrusion is significantly different from that in blow molding
or thermoforming. Indeed, swelling during extrusion results from a velocity rearrangement and normalstress difference developed in a shear flow, while blow molding involves an elongational component
with a strainhardening or strainthinning response from the melt.
Recommendations will be given for the four mostcommonly encountered types of flow: extrusion
(Guidelines for Extrusion (p. 162)), fiber spinning (Guidelines for Fiber Spinning (p. 164)), film casting
(Guidelines for Film Casting (p. 166)), and blow molding/thermoforming processes (Guidelines for Blow
Molding and Thermoforming (p. 167)).
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9.2. The Weissenberg Number
Consider a flow whose typical kinematics is given by , and let be the relaxation time of the fluid.
The Weissenberg number is given by
=
(9.1)
This number indicates the elasticity involved in a flow.
The Weissenberg number is sometimes understood as the ratio between a normalstress difference and
a shear stress. Such an interpretation raises questions about the relevance of Weissenberg numbers as
high as 20 or even 100. Indeed, this would involve a very high normal stress, and besides a few biological fluids, the majority of macromolecular fluids would not sustain such a high stress.
Important
Note that a polymer melt is characterized by a relaxation spectrum, rather than by a single
relaxation time. Hence, when evaluating , it is important to consider an adequate relaxation
time .
9.3. Viscometric and Rheometric Measurements
In general, you should obtain rheological measurements for the melt in the following order of importance:
oscillatory properties (storage and loss moduli), steadystate shear viscosity, first normalstress difference
and/or transient uniaxial elongational viscosity. Of course, it is not always possible to obtain such an
extensive range of measurements, which can often be costly.
This section describes the following topics:
9.3.1. Oscillatory Properties
9.3.2. SteadyState Shear Viscosity
9.3.3. First NormalStress Difference
9.3.4.Transient Uniaxial Elongational Viscosity
9.3.1. Oscillatory Properties
The oscillatory properties (storage and loss moduli, represented by and , respectively) should always
be provided. For most polymer melts, the measurement of the oscillatory properties is easy. Storage
and loss moduli are usually obtained over several decades. The most typical measurement device is the
coneplate rheometer. Measurements can be taken at one temperature if an isothermal model is being
considered, or at various temperatures if a nonisothermal model is being considered.
In general, measurements can be taken at various temperatures in order to obtain master curves of
and
at a suitably selected temperature. For this, the timetemperature equivalence can be used in
order to properly shift the curves. By doing so, it is possible to expand the range of experimental data
for the linear properties, provided that the material exhibits visible temperature dependence. See Empirical Rules and Principles (p. 170) for details.
9.3.2. SteadyState Shear Viscosity
The steadystate shear viscosity is also always needed. When possible, it should also be measured using
capillary rheometry, and the data for shear viscosity vs. true shear rate should be obtained. If such an
experiment is not feasible, you can instead extract information about shear viscosity from the empirical
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CoxMerz rule [4] (p. 209), assuming that the modulus of the complex viscosity can be obtained from
dynamic data. Alternatively, you can extract information about shear viscosity from the empirical mirror
relationship of Gleissle [6] (p. 209), which suggests that the steady shear viscosity curve is a mirror image
of the transient shear viscosity measured at a low shear rate. This assumes that transient viscosity
measurements are indeed possible. See Empirical Rules and Principles (p. 170) for details.
Even though the knowledge of the shear viscosity is not important for all processes, the automatic fitting
procedure requires it. Extrapolating from measured quantities can provide additional data, but data
should not be extrapolated over more than one decade.
9.3.3. First NormalStress Difference
If available, the steady data of the first normalstress difference is also useful. Data can be acquired using
a coneplate rheometer or using a technique based on the hole pressure. It is also possible to estimate
the first normalstress difference on the basis of capillary extrudate swell, by using an empirical formula
suggested by Tanner [11] (p. 209).
If such data cannot be acquired, you can instead extract information about the steady first normalstress
difference using the empirical CoxMerz rule [4] (p. 209) (p. 201), assuming that the storage modulus
can reveal a good indication about the first normalstress difference. See Empirical Rules and Principles (p. 170) for details.
Even though the knowledge of the first normalstress difference is not important for all processes, the
automatic fitting procedure can benefit from it. While extrapolating from measured quantities can
provide additional data, data should not be extrapolated over more than one decade.
9.3.4. Transient Uniaxial Elongational Viscosity
If available, transient uniaxial elongational viscosity data are also useful. Data should be obtained by
measuring at a constant strain rate or constant stretching velocity, which can be accomplished using
equipment involving the EVF technology or of the Mnstedt type (for example, filament stretching).
9.4. General Strategy for Fitting
This section describes the following topics:
9.4.1. Weighting Measured Data
9.4.2. Assigning a Value to a Parameter
9.4.3. Using Identical or Independent NonLinear Parameters
9.4.4. Relaxation Time vs. Relaxation Spectrum in Extrusion, Fiber Spinning, and Film Casting
9.4.5. Relaxation Time vs. Relaxation Spectrum in Blow Molding and Thermoforming
9.4.6. Relaxation Time vs. Relaxation Spectrum in Pressing
9.4.1. Weighting Measured Data
Once you have obtained the data described in Viscometric and Rheometric Measurements (p. 158), you
can weight its importance within ANSYS Polymat, as described in Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 44).
This is useful if, for example, there is some uncertainty about the data for a particular property, or if
some data have been measured at a different temperature.
9.4.2. Assigning a Value to a Parameter
Material parameters are specified within a range of acceptable values. For example, viscosity factors
must be positive. If the automatic fitting method is used, each material parameter can have three types
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of status: subject to fitting, initial value, or fixed value. By default, all parameters are subject to fitting,
meaning that ANSYS Polymat will compute the best value based on the experimental data. If you have
a priori knowledge of the value of a parameter, you can speed up the fitting calculation by assigning
an initial value for it.
Since there may be many parameters for a model, and there may be only a limited amount of experimental data available, it can be difficult to compute the best set of parameters. In this case, it is
preferable to assign a fixed value to one or more parameters, so that they will not change during the
fitting calculation.
If the model involves only one relaxation time, its value can be either assigned or computed by ANSYS
Polymat. For a multimode model, however, you will need to specify the spectrum of relaxation times
yourself, or let it computed by ANSYS Polymat. In that last case, you have just to specify the minimum
and maximum possible relaxation times.
Next, there are nonlinear parameters for the models. For the PTT model (described in PhanThienTanner Model (p. 89)), the parameters and control the elongational viscosity and viscometric properties, respectively: an increasing reduces or even cancels the strain hardening, while affects shearthinning properties as well as the amount of second normalstress difference. Based on your needs,
knowledge, or available experimental data, you may want to fix these values. Typically, strain hardening
occurs for
to
, and disappears for
. For example, low values for should
be specified for a LDPE, while moderate values are appropriate for a LLDPE or a HDPE. On the other
hand, shear thinning occurs for nonzero values of , which usually is set to about 0.2. For practical
purposes, it can be given a value of 0.5 or even as high as 1.
The Giesekus model (described in Giesekus Model (p. 95)) involves the parameter , which simultaneously
increases shear thinning and the second normalstress difference while it reduces the strainhardening
property. Again, based on your needs, knowledge, or available experimental data, you can fix the value
of . When viscometric properties are relevant for the flow, values of ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 are
common. If elongational properties are needed, plays a role similar to in the PTT model, and very
low values (103 to 102) should be considered if strain hardening is needed.
For a PTT model with a nonzero value of or a Giesekus model with >0.5, as well as for the DCPP
and the Leonov models, in both single and multimode models, it is important to check whether the
shear stress remains a monotonically increasing function of shear rate. A nonincreasing shear stress
can be corrected by adding a purely Newtonian component to the stress tensor. The viscosity of this
component is small: 1/9 of the zeroshearrate viscosity for a singlemode model, and even less for a
multimode model.
The DCPP model (described in Differential Viscoelastic Models (p. 77)) involves the parameter , which
simultaneously increases shear thinning and the second normalstress difference while the parameter
q increases the strainhardening property. You can fix the value of and q, based on your requirements,
knowledge, or available experimental data. When viscometric properties are relevant for the flow, values
of ranging around 0.2 are reasonable. If elongational properties are needed, and in particular if strain
hardening is needed, the parameter q should be increased; it reflects the number of branches, and
therefore affects the behavior in elongation.
The Leonov model (described in Differential Viscoelastic Models (p. 77)) involves several nonlinear
parameters, affecting either the viscometric behavior or the elongation properties. You assign values
to some of these nonlinear parameters, based on your requirements, knowledge, or available experi
mental data. Parameters q and affect the transition from trapped to free configuration of macromolecular chains. When viscometric properties are relevant for the flow, it is interesting to note that
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enhances the shear thinning property, while increases the viscosity. has no effect on the shear viscosity, while it contributes to a decrease of the elongational viscosity. If elongational properties are
needed it can be noted that n increases the strain hardening, while b and m decrease it.
It is possible that the fitting calculation may yield values for nonlinear parameters that are unusual,
although within the limits of accuracy. In this case, you should set these parameters to more appropriate
fixed values, and rerun the fitting calculation. This will yield another set of parameters with the expected
properties.
In general, the fitting calculation will determine parameter values on the basis of the available experimental data. However, the available data do not necessarily include the operating conditions, as
measurement techniques do not always allow for reaching the conditions present in the actual process.
Fiber spinning is a typical example, where the melt is processed at strain rates much higher than those
available for rheometric measurement. For such cases, you can extrapolate from available data.
9.4.3. Using Identical or Independent NonLinear Parameters
When a multimode differential viscoelastic model is selected, it is strongly advised that all modes obey
the same constitutive equation. This requirement is even enforced for some models. Despite this, a
multimode model may involve a long series of linear and nonlinear parameters, which need to be
identified on the basis of a few data only. You have the option of specifying that nonlinear parameters
of a given type will be assigned the same value for all modes. This may sometimes improve the fitting
procedure by increasing the sensitivity of the model properties with respect to nonlinear parameters.
Using identical values for nonlinear parameters of a given type is not a requirement; by default, the
nonlinear parameters are independent. It is interesting to note that the timetemperature equivalence
is advocated for justifying such a choice, although that argument does not formally hold for nonlinear
properties. See Empirical Rules and Principles (p. 170) for details.
9.4.4. Relaxation Time vs. Relaxation Spectrum in Extrusion, Fiber Spinning,
and Film Casting
When a large amount of data is available, it can be tempting to build a rheological model involving a
broad relaxation spectrum, even ranging up to 100 s or beyond. In most cases, this will be impractical
and not very useful. Indeed, in a cessation of steady shear flow, measurements reveal that the relaxation
mechanism occurs with a time scale on the order of , where is a typical shear rate involved in the
experiment.
This observation allows for the identification of a typical time scale for the description of mechanisms
occurring in steady flow processes, such as extrusion, fiber spinning, or film casting. An extrusion flow
is characterized by a typical wall shear rate , while fiber spinning and film casting are characterized
by a typical elongation rate . Consequently, if a singlemode constitutive equation is selected, the
corresponding relaxation time should be specified as about or , respectively. For a multimode
model, the relaxation times should be selected in the vicinity of
or
, respectively. This is quite
important, since it enables the setup of a model that is in agreement with the typical time scales involved
in the simulation. Note that the previous comments raise questions about the relevance of Weissenberg
numbers as high as 10 or 100.
For most applications, the computational domain is open, with fluid entry and exit. The residence time
of fluid particles in the computational domain usually remains moderate, so extremely long relaxation
times are not usually effective. Fluid particles trapped in vortices usually do not affect the main flow;
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they are instead a consequence of it. Finally, in extrusion, the extruded material solidifies long before
the effects of these long relaxation times become visible.
9.4.5. Relaxation Time vs. Relaxation Spectrum in Blow Molding and Thermoforming
Typical time scales for blow molding and thermoforming are rather short: from on the order of a tenth
of a second for a milk bottle, to on the order of a few seconds for a gas tank. Hence, starting from a
reasonable assumed initial rest state, stresses develop within that time interval. Although the deformation
speed (and therefore the strain rate) is usually unknown, deformations remain moderate. Consequently,
dynamic or linear measurements alone provide a good characterization of the melt for blow molding
and thermoforming.
The selected spectrum of the rheological model may, of course, involve very short times and very long
times. Actually, very short time scales (that is, those smaller than the typical process time) can be replaced
by a purely Newtonian contribution. Similarly, long times (that is, much longer than the process time)
probably do not have the opportunity to develop their own contribution to the stress, and can be
omitted, if necessary.
9.4.6. Relaxation Time vs. Relaxation Spectrum in Pressing
Pressing applications are very similar to simple squeeze flows. Typical time scales for pressing applications
are rather short: they range from on the order of a tenth of a second up to a few seconds. With the
exception of rheometric measurements, they depend more or less on the geometrical size of the melt
sample. Hence, starting from an initial rest state, stresses develop within that time interval. Although
the rate of deformation can be large, deformations remain moderate. Consequently, dynamic or linear
measurements alone provide a good characterization of the melt for pressing.
The selected spectrum of the rheological model may, of course, involve very short times and very long
times. Actually, very short time scales (that is, those smaller than the typical process time) can be replaced
by a purely Newtonian contribution. Similarly, long times (that is, much longer than the process time)
probably do not have the opportunity to develop their own contribution to the stress, and can be
omitted if necessary.
9.5. Guidelines for Extrusion
Transient and steadystate situations can be considered for 2D viscoelastic extrusion simulations, while
it is reasonable to essentially consider steadystate flow situations in 3D. Transient extrusion processes
are encountered in parison production, while steadystate conditions are met for profile extrusion. The
guidelines in this section focus on steadystate cases.
This section describes the following topics:
9.5.1. Important Effects
9.5.2. Recommended Experimental Data
9.5.3. Recommended Models and Parameters
9.5.1. Important Effects
9.5.1.1. 2D Extrusion
In 2D extrusion flows, swelling at the die exit is caused by both the velocity rearrangement and the
relaxation of the normal stresses. The velocity profile in the channel results mainly from viscous forces,
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while the normal stress is a viscoelastic effect connected to the shear rate. The material may also exhibit
properties such as strain thinning and strain hardening, but these effects in extrusion are negligible.
9.5.1.2. 3D Extrusion
In 3D extrusion flows, the normalstress difference also plays a role in the swelling, but velocity rearrangements in 3D generate much more dramatic effects than in 2D. Indeed, a 3D crosssection may be such
that the resulting velocity distribution is strongly nonuniform. Typically, low velocities are encountered
in narrow crosssections and tiny details, while high velocities are encountered in wideopen regions.
At the die exit, significant deformations may occur, which usually lead to a further reduction of the
previously narrow crosssections.
Therefore, more so in 3D than in 2D, an appropriate flow balancing inside the die (based on stresses,
velocity, pressure, etc.) may improve the flow. Finally, as in 2D, the effects of the elongational properties
are negligible, compared to those resulting from velocity rearrangement and normalstress difference,
and they can therefore be neglected.
9.5.2. Recommended Experimental Data
The linear properties and nonlinear shear viscosity provide good insight into the viscoelastic character
of the material being extruded. Also, if the nonlinear shear viscosity is not available, it can often be
estimated using the CoxMerz rule [4] (p. 209) or the Gleissle mirror relationship [6] (p. 209) (see Empirical
Rules and Principles (p. 170) for details). When feasible, this set of experimental data can be usefully
completed with first normalstress difference data. For most materials, measurement of linear properties
for frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 100 s1 , or perhaps up to 1000 s1 is achievable. If you consider a
typical wall shear rate in the extrusion process, it is usually included within this range of measurements.
Otherwise, extrapolation should be considered.
For 3D flows, it is practical to select a computationally light" rheological model, to reduce the computational cost of the ANSYS Polyflow simulation. Hence, it is useful to identify a typical shear rate for
the flow, and obtain viscometric data one decade on each side of this shear rate. Doing this implicitly
reinforces the idea of a constitutive equation for a flow (rather than for a fluid). Consequently the fitted
model for a given shearrate decade will probably not be the best one for another shearrate decade.
9.5.3. Recommended Models and Parameters
Consider the typical wall shear rate in the extrusion process. If a constant viscosity is observed
around , the Maxwell or OldroydB model is recommended. If shear thinning occurs around , the
PTT or Giesekus model is recommended. If qualitative information on the macromolecular behavior is
required, it can also be interesting to consider using the DCPP model.
For filled materials, such as rubber, the Leonov model can also be considered, but the large number of
unknowns involved warns against having unrealistic modeling ambitions.
Both single and multimode models are acceptable for a 2D model, but a singlemode model is strongly
recommended for a 3D model.
For a singlemode model, select a relaxation time on the order of
, with no more than one decade between relaxation times.
For a threemode (or more) model, select relaxation times < and > , with no more than one
one relaxation time <
. For a twomode model, select
and one >
decade between relaxation times.
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For a strainhardening material (for example, LDPE), a low value can be specified for the PTT models
or the Giesekus models . Values of 103 to 102 are typical. For strainthinning or moderate strainhardening materials (for example, LLDPE or HDPE), a higher valuetypically about 0.1can be specified.
Also, for strain hardening materials, the DCPP model can be used with a large enough value of q
(number of arms).
For the simulation of the flow of filled materials, the use of the Leonov model can be a good idea. The
model involves several parameters, and have received reasonable default values. It is worth mentioning
that the Leonov model involves the calculation of several tensors, and that the use of a multimode
model can be computationally expensive.
Finally, for very large flow simulations, it may be relevant to consider the simplified viscoelastic model"
suggested in Simplified Viscoelastic Model (p. 134), suited for extrusion simulation. Here, the identification
of parameters is based on rheometric information, such as viscosity and swelling versus the flow rate.
Typically, the first normal viscosity equals the shear viscosity by default, while a relaxation time function
and a weighting factor have to be identified in order to reproduce the swelling behavior. In other words,
a 2D axisymmetric flow simulation is required for parameters identification.
In the automatic fitting procedure, it is preferable to consider the data in the range of shear rates of
interest, typically one decade above and one below. If data extrapolation is necessary, it should be done
over no more than one decade. Also, use appropriate weighting factors (see Weighting Measured
Data (p. 159)) if some data are more reliable than others.
The whole shear viscosity curve for the model may differ from measurements at low shear rates, but
this can generally be disregarded. Indeed, low shear rates are encountered only in a few areas of the
flow, and involve usually a fraction of the total flow rate, such that the total impact on the momentum
is negligible.
9.6. Guidelines for Fiber Spinning
Transient and steadystate situations can be considered for 2D viscoelastic fiberspinning simulations,
while it is reasonable to essentially consider steadystate flow situations in 3D. Fiber spinning is a continuous process, so primarily steadystate simulations are relevant. The guidelines in this section will
therefore focus on steadystate cases.
This section describes the following topics:
9.6.1. Important Effects
9.6.2. Recommended Experimental Data
9.6.3. Recommended Models and Parameters
9.6.1. Important Effects
9.6.1.1. 2D Fiber Spinning
Several mechanisms are involved in 2D fiber spinning. First, a takeup velocity is assigned at the end
of the computational domain. This velocity leads to significant geometric changes and to the development
of the free surface. A swelling may develop at the die exit, but it is usually not a critical feature; it is
quickly hindered or annihilated by the takeup (pulling) velocity.
The takeup velocity plays a dominant role in the free jet. A transverse velocity gradient exists in the
channel, while the free jet is endowed with an axial velocity gradient. The occurrence of a significant
strain rate is typical for fiber spinning. Many melts involved in fiber spinning exhibit a moreorless
pronounced strainhardening behavior, as this property is known to enhance the stability of the process.
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A moderate takeup velocity is sometimes applied in continuous extrusion processes (for example, for
guiding or stabilizing the extrudate). Here, the draw ratio is close to 1, which means that the elongation
rate involved is often negligible; such cases should not be regarded as fiber spinning.
9.6.1.2. 3D Fiber Spinning
To some extent, 3D fiber spinning combines the effects encountered in 2D fiber spinning with some
of those seen in 3D extrusion. In other words, the flow has a strong elongational component due to
the takeup velocity, as well as effects resulting from the velocity rearrangement in the 3D geometry.
This takeup velocity leads to significant geometric changes. A swelling may develop at the die exit,
but it is usually not a critical feature; it is quickly hindered or annihilated by the takeup (pulling) velocity.
The kinematics of 3D fiber spinning involves a transverse velocity gradient in the die, while the fiber
itself is endowed with an axial velocity gradient. Consequently, the aspect ratio of some details in a
crosssection of the fiber may differ significantly from the corresponding aspect ratio found at the die
exit.
9.6.2. Recommended Experimental Data
The elongational viscosity is important, perhaps even more so than the shear viscosity. This property
can be measured for moderate strain rates (usually up to 10 s1 using an elongational rheometer equipped
with the EVF device), although the material is often processed at a much higher strain rate. This apparent
difficulty can be overcome by considering the following heuristic argument. For a given melt, all curves
of transient uniaxial elongational viscosity follow the same lower linear envelope, up to a Hencky strain
of 1 or 2. It is therefore reasonable to believe that a similar behavior occurs at higher strain rates, regardless of whether the melt is strainhardening or strainthinning. This is a qualitative extrapolation,
which results from a speculative extension of the Gleissle mirror relationship to the transient elongational
viscosity.
The minimum experimental data needed for successful fitting are the linear properties and the nonlinear shear viscosity (possibly obtained from the CoxMerz rule [4] (p. 209) or the Gleissle mirror relationship [6] (p. 209); see Empirical Rules and Principles (p. 170) for details). If data for the transient elongational
viscosity are available, they should also be used. When all the properties are available, you can allocate
a low weighting to the shear viscosity and a high weighting to the elongational properties (as described
in Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 44)), since the elongational component in the fiber is more important.
9.6.3. Recommended Models and Parameters
The PTT and Giesekus models recommended for extrusion are also recommended for fiber spinning.
The OldroydB and Maxwell models are also good choices, especially for highly strainhardening materials. Note that the WhiteMetzner model is not wellsuited for fiber spinning because it is not able to
properly model the elongational behavior of polymer melts. If qualitative information on the macromolecular behavior is required, it can also be interesting to consider using the DCPP model.
Both single and multimode models are acceptable for a 2D model, but a singlemode model is strongly
recommended for a 3D model. For a 2D model, three modes are recommended, with the relaxation
times no more than one decade apart.
The flow involves a typical shear rate in the die and a typical elongation rate in the fiber itself.
Two or more orders of magnitude may exist between these quantities. It is worth mentioning that the
actual deformation in shear evolves linearly with the shear rate, while the actual deformation in elongation evolves exponentially with the elongation rate. Hence, although numerical values for the typical
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shear rate in the die can be larger than the numerical values of the elongation rate in the fiber, the
actual corresponding deformation will be significantly larger in the fiber. Consequently, you should focus
on the elongation character more carefully.
For a singlemode model, select a relaxation time of about
. For a multimode model, select one
relaxation time < and one > , with no more than one decade between relaxation times.
For a strongly strainhardening material (for example, LDPE), use a low strain rate with the Maxwell or
OldroydB model, a low value of (typically 103 to 102) with the PTT model, or a low value of with
the Giesekus model (typically 103 to 102). For strainthinning or moderate strainhardening materials
(for example, LLDPE or HDPE), use the PTT or Giesekus model with a higher valuetypically about 0.1
or morefor or . Also, for strain hardening materials, the DCPP model can be used with a large
enough value of q (number of arms). Currently, the Leonov model and the simplified viscoelastic
model" are not recommended for fiber spinning simulations.
If data on elongational viscosity are available, they should be used. If the resulting values for the nonlinear parameters are not in agreement with the expected behavior of the melt, they can be fixed as
noted in Assigning a Value to a Parameter (p. 159).
In the automatic fitting procedure, it is preferable to consider the data in the range of frequencies and
shear rates of interest, typically one decade above and one below. If data extrapolation is necessary, it
should be done over no more than one decade. Also, use appropriate weighting factors (see Weighting
Measured Data (p. 159)) if some data are more reliable than others.
The shear viscosity curve for the model may differ from measurements, but this can generally be disregarded, since elongation is the main component of the flow.
9.7. Guidelines for Film Casting
This section describes the following topics:
9.7.1. Important Effects
9.7.2. Recommended Experimental Data
9.7.3. Recommended Models and Parameters
9.7.1. Important Effects
Film casting processes exhibit features that are very similar to those encountered in fiber spinning
(described in Guidelines for Fiber Spinning (p. 164)). In other words, the extension results from a takeup velocity, which is significantly higher than the velocity at the die exit. An appropriate modeling approach for film casting in ANSYS Polyflow involves the use of a flat membrane element. Such an approach
focuses on the development of the extruded film only, not on the flow inside the die.
9.7.2. Recommended Experimental Data
Elongation is the component that dominates the flow, and a proper description of the elongational
behavior of the material is needed, although draw ratios are usually lower than in fiber spinning. The
comments about experimental data for fiber spinning are valid for film casting as well.
9.7.3. Recommended Models and Parameters
The PTT and Giesekus models recommended for fiber spinning are also recommended for film casting.
The OldroydB model is another acceptable choice, especially for melts characterized by a significant
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strain hardening behavior. The DCPP model can also be used, especially if a qualitative description of
the macromolecular behavior is required. The Leonov model, however, is not available for film casting
applications. In addition, the simplified viscoelastic model is not suited for the simulation of film casting.
If no experimental data are available for the elongational viscosity, the nonlinear parameters should
be fixed on the basis of known melt properties. Therefore, for a strainthinning or weakly strainhardening melt, high values for the nonlinear parameters are selected (typically
for a PTT
for a Giesekus model). For a strainhardening melt, lower values should be used for
model or
the nonlinear parameters. If the DCPP model is used, a relatively large number of branches ( in
Equation 6.49 (p. 106)) should be considered for strainhardening materials such as LDPE, while a unit
or low number of branches should be selected for strainthinning or weakly strainhardening melts such
as LLDPE.
9.8. Guidelines for Blow Molding and Thermoforming
Any prediction of blow molding or thermoforming is based on a transient calculation. The melt undergoes
deformations in time, and the process conditions (such as the closing speed of the mold and the inflation
pressure) may also vary with time.
In 2D, an axisymmetric geometry is usually used in the ANSYS Polyflow calculation, although a planar
description can also be used. Such a representation enables calculation through the thickness, and
therefore prediction of the possible local shear effects. This is also the case when running an actual 3D
calculation. For thin 3D objects in 3D, a membrane element is used, since it allows for calculation of
complex shapes at a moderate cost. This representation is suited for elongationlike deformations, but
is unable to report shear deformations across the thickness.
This section describes the following topics:
9.8.1. Important Effects
9.8.2. Recommended Experimental Data
9.8.3. Recommended Models and Parameters
9.8.1. Important Effects
In blow molding and thermoforming, extension is the dominating component of the deformation. Extension develops in two main directions, and is accompanied by a reduction in thickness. The magnitudes
of the extensions in the main directions may differ, and they depend on the geometry. For example,
inflating a cylinder involves an azimuthal extension field, while inflating a sphere involves an isotropic
extension field.
Since extension is the main component in this process, knowledge of the extensional response of the
material is usually necessary. However, although the extension rates can be high, the overall deformation
usually remains moderate. The Hencky strains are typically on the order of 1 or 2, which correspond to
Cauchy strains up to 7.
9.8.2. Recommended Experimental Data
Since the processes involve important strain rates and moderate extensions, knowledge of the transient
linear extensional response is enough for the description of the melt rheology. In other words, knowledge
of the linear properties is a good starting point. If extensional data are available, they can be used
(either in the automatic fitting calculation, or for checking the results of the automatic fitting). The extensional viscosity can be measured for moderate strain rates (usually up to 10 s1 using an elongational
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rheometer equipped with the EVF device), although the material is often processed at a much higher
strain rate.
Although shear is usually not an important component of the total deformation, shear viscosity is
needed in the fitting procedure. This can be obtained from the CoxMerz rule [4] (p. 209) (see Empirical
Rules and Principles (p. 170)), and can be assigned a zero weight (see Weighting Measured Data (p. 159)).
9.8.3. Recommended Models and Parameters
Several modeling approaches can be considered. The constantviscosity Newtonian model is the simplest
approach, and this is recommended if no rheological data are available. The use of a generalized Newtonian fluid model should not be considered for blow molding or thermoforming, since such a model
will lead to unrealistically high velocities due to strain thinning.
Further modeling recommendations for 2D and 3D simulations are provided below.
9.8.3.1. 2D and 3D Blow Molding and Thermoforming
In addition to the constantviscosity Newtonian model, differential viscoelastic models (Maxwell, OldroydB, PTT, Giesekus, FENEP, DCPP, and Leonov) are available for blow molding and thermoforming. The
WhiteMetzner model is not recommended, in view of the dependence of the rheological properties
on the local kinematics. Although multimode simulations are available, for reasons of computational
cost in ANSYS Polyflow, singlemode transient viscoelastic calculations are suggested, at least in first
instance.
The flow involves a typical time scale , corresponding to the inflation. The relaxation time should be
of the same order of magnitude as this time scale.
For the viscosity factor, select a value corresponding to the shear viscosity as obtained for a shear rate
of 1/.
For a strongly strainhardening material (for example, LDPE), you can use the Maxwell or OldroydB
model when the strain rate remains moderate. Alternatively, you can use a low value of (typically 103
to 102) with the PTT model, a low value of with the Giesekus model (typically 103 to 102), or a high
value of q for the DCPP model. For strainthinning or moderate strainhardening materials (for example,
LLDPE or HDPE), use the PTT or Giesekus model with a higher valuetypically about 0.1 or morefor
or or the DCPP model with a low value of q.
If data on elongational viscosity are available, they should be used. If the resulting values for the nonlinear parameters are not in agreement with the expected behavior of the melt, they can be fixed as
noted in Assigning a Value to a Parameter (p. 159).
In the automatic fitting procedure, it is preferable to consider the data in the range of frequencies and
deformation rates of interest, typically one decade above and one below the value 1/. If data extrapolation is necessary, it should be done over no more than one decade. Also, use appropriate weighting
factors (see Weighting Measured Data (p. 159)) if some data are more reliable than others.
A purely Newtonian contribution can be added to the model. This corresponds to that part of the
spectrum associated with very short times, and the response of which is shorter than the process time
itself.
The shear viscosity curve for the model may differ from measurements, but this can generally be disregarded, since elongation is the main component of the flow.
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Guidelines for Pressing
9.8.3.2. Blow Molding and Thermoforming with Shell Models
For computational reasons, the use of the shell element (membrane element) is recommended for blow
molding or thermoforming simulations that involve objects that are thin and have geometrically complex
shapes. In addition to the constantviscosity Newtonian model, the integral viscoelastic KBKZ model
with a relaxation spectrum is also a good choice when a Lagrangian representation is used. No damping
(that is, the LodgeMaxwell model) is needed, due to the moderate deformations involved in the process.
The LodgeMaxwell model predicts strain hardening up to a level that is experimentally observed.
Based on the oscillatory properties, a spectrum of 4 to 8 relaxation times is recommended. If you use
a low number of relaxation times, they should be selected around the typical process (inflation) time
. If you use a high number of relaxation times, they can spread to values as short as 104 and as long
as 104 s.
Oscillatory data should be considered in the range of frequencies as covered by the range of reciprocal
relaxation times. Viscosity factors should be identified on the basis of linear properties, as well as on
the basis of the shear viscosity (possibly with a zero weighting).
If data on elongational viscosity are available, they should be used. If the resulting values for the nonlinear parameters are not in agreement with the expected behavior of the melt, they can be fixed as
noted in Assigning a Value to a Parameter (p. 159).
A purely Newtonian contribution can be added to the model. This corresponds to that part of the
spectrum associated with very short times, and the response of which is shorter than the process time
itself.
The shear viscosity curve for the model may differ from measurements, but this can generally be disregarded, since elongation is the main component of the flow.
9.9. Guidelines for Pressing
Any prediction of pressing is based on a transient calculation. The melt undergoes deformations in time
in the same manner as a simple squeeze flow. The process conditions (such as mold or plug motion)
may also vary with time.
In terms of geometry, 2D planar, axisymmetric, and 3D modeling can be employed in the ANSYS Polyflow
calculation. Such a representation enables a calculation through the thickness, and therefore it is possible
to predict the local shear effects, as well as the elongation effects. For the former, 2D modeling can
certainly make sense from a computational point of view.
This section describes the following topics:
9.9.1. Important Effects
9.9.2. Recommended Experimental Data
9.9.3. Recommended Models and Parameters
9.9.1. Important Effects
In pressing, shear is the dominating component of the deformation, but it is often accompanied by a
significant level of extension. The balance between shear and extension depends on the geometry, as
well as on the boundary conditions. For example, shear will often dominate under the adhesion condition,
while elongation may play a significant role under full slipping.
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Since shear is often the main deformation component that develops in this process, knowledge of the
shear viscosity of the material is necessary. While shear rates can be high, the overall deformation usually
remains moderate. A Cauchy strain of the order of ten is a reasonable order of magnitude.
9.9.2. Recommended Experimental Data
Since the processes are so affected by shear rates, obtaining information about the shear viscosity is
the first step. Data acquisition via a direct capillary measurement is a good idea, although other techniques are acceptable. Linear properties and elongation data can also be used (either in the automatic
fitting calculation or for checking the results of the automatic fitting), if they are available.
The extensional viscosity can be measured for moderate strain rates, usually up to 10 s1 using an
elongational rheometer equipped with the Extensional Viscosity Fixture (EVF).
9.9.3. Recommended Models and Parameters
As a first comment, it is worth noting that kinematic constraints imposed in the process do not really
enable a full development of viscoelastic effects.
Several modeling approaches can be considered. The constantviscosity Newtonian and generalized
Newtonian models are the simplest approaches, and these are recommended when only the viscosity
data is available. The generalized Newtonian fluid model is an obvious choice, because shear is an important component of the flow.
In addition to the Newtonian and generalized Newtonian models, differential viscoelastic models
(Maxwell, OldroydB, PTT, Giesekus, FENEP, DCPP, and Leonov) are all good candidates for pressing
simulations. Generally, the WhiteMetzner model is not recommended, because the rheological properties
are dependent on the local kinematics in this model. Although multimode simulations are available,
single mode transient viscoelastic calculations are recommended (at least in first instance) because of
the computational cost in ANSYS Polyflow.
The flow involves a typical time scale corresponding to the pressing. The relaxation time should be
of the same order of magnitude as this time scale. For the viscosity factor, select a value corresponding
to the shear viscosity, as obtained for a shear rate that is typical for the process.
For a strongly strainhardening material (for example, LDPE), you can use the Maxwell or OldroydB
model, as long as the strain rate remains relatively low and therefore prevents the development of high
stresses. Alternatively, if you use the PTT or the Giesekus model, you should consider specifying a low
value for or , respectively: typically, between 103 to 102. You can also use the DCPP model with a
large number of branches (). For filled materials, the Leonov model could be recommended, although
it is computationally expensive.
You can use data on the elongational viscosity if it is available. If the resulting values for the nonlinear
parameters are not in agreement with the expected behavior of the melt, they can be fixed as noted
in Assigning a Value to a Parameter (p. 159).
9.10. Empirical Rules and Principles
It is often helpful during fitting to be able to estimate property values when experimental data is unavailable. For some materials, there are rules that link properties together; such rules are often empirical
and must be handled with care, as there is no theoretical proof that validates their results. Frequently,
these rules are applicable to polymer melts, such as polyethylenes and polystyrenes.
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For information about some empirical rules and principles, see the following sections:
9.10.1. CoxMerz Rule
9.10.2. Gleissle Mirror Relationships
9.10.3. First Normal Stress Difference Relationships
9.10.4.TimeTemperature Equivalence
9.10.1. CoxMerz Rule
For many materials, linear data and is relatively easy to measure for various angular frequencies
(rad/s). When applicable, the shear viscosity can be estimated by applying the CoxMerz [4] (p. 209)
empirical rule. This empirical rule states that the modulus of the complex viscosity matches the nonlinear shear viscosity, as shown in the following equation.
+
=
(9.2)
A CoxMerz rule also exists for the first normal stress difference; it is an approximation for low shear
rates and is written as follows:
(9.3)
9.10.2. Gleissle Mirror Relationships
When performing a shear startup experiment for several values of the shear rate, you measure the shear
stress as a function of time; the transient shear viscosity is obtained as the ratio of the shear stress and
the (constant) shear rate. In general, the measured curves exhibit an initial development of the transient
+
viscosity that matches the linear behavior
, and subsequently departs from the linear response.
The departure from the linear response is delayed when a low shear rate is considered.
The Gleissle mirror relationship [6] (p. 209) is empirical and relates the linear transient viscosity,
+
with the nonlinear steady shear viscosity,
= +
=
as follows:
+
(9.4)
In other words, there is a graphical mirror relationship between the transient shear viscosity and the
nonlinear steady shear viscosity. This relationship has been observed for oils, as well as polymeric melts
such as polyisobutylenes and polyethylenes. It also provides a useful tool for validating measurements
obtained via various techniques.
A second Gleissle mirror relationship concerns the first normal stress coefficient,
by:
!% "
= !% +
"=$#
<$ <
!% + #
= . It is given
"
(9.5)
Here again, there is a graphical mirror relationship between the transient first normal stress coefficient
and the corresponding nonlinear steady property.
When necessary, it may be possible to extend the Gleissle mirror relationship for obtaining preliminary
information on the transient elongation viscosity.
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=
(9.6)
9.10.3. First Normal Stress Difference Relationships
The CoxMerz rule for the first normal stress difference is only valid for a limited range of shear rates.
Laun [7] (p. 209) has proposed an empirical rule that is valid over a larger interval of shear rates, and is
given by the following:
= +
=
(9.7)
Equation 9.7 (p. 172) is found to be valid for polyethylenes. Similar relationships can be created for other
families of polymers.
Using an elastic recoil mechanism, Tanner [11] (p. 209) proposed a simple expression that relates the
extrudate diameter to the first normal stress difference, as follows:
=
(9.8)
where and !"#$ are the diameters of the extrudate and of the die, respectively, and % & is the wall
shear stress in the capillary die.
9.10.4. TimeTemperature Equivalence
Timetemperature equivalence (or superposition) can be applied, for example, in the measurements of
linear properties ' and ( . Usually, devices allow a measurement within a given interval of angular
frequencies. However, when performing measurements at different temperatures, it is possible to expand
the interval of frequencies. If the relationship between linear properties and temperature is unknown,
it is reasonable to assume that the dependence is the same for ) and * . Hence the ratio
+ = , , , when plotted against the angular frequency, will typically have the same shape for
different temperatures, though the curves will shift along the frequency axis. That is, an experiment
performed at a lower temperature corresponds to an experiment at a higher temperature within a
higher interval of frequencies. You can then combine the data by shifting the curves and thereby expand
the interval of frequencies, possibly beyond the technological limits of the measurement device. Simultaneously, the identification of the corresponding shift factor will characterize the dependence with
respect to temperature for subsequent analysis; this is relevant, for example, for the complex viscosity.
It is therefore possible to acquire information on the temperature dependence of the properties, as
well as to expand the knowledge of linear properties.
To illustrate how timetemperature equivalence can be used, consider the following figure, which shows
the measurement of linear properties  (thick lines) and . (thin lines) for frequencies ranging from
102 to 102. The data is measured at four temperatures, represented here in black, blue, magenta, and
red.
172
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Empirical Rules and Principles
Figure 9.1: G' and G" vs. Angular Frequency
The next figure shows the properties
= , for each temperature ranging from black to red.
The blue temperature is the reference temperature that will be used to build the master curves.
Figure 9.2: G"/G' vs. Angular Frequency
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173
Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models
The curves from the previous figure can be combined into a single curve, as shown in the following
figure. The black curve is shifted to the right, while the magenta and red curves are shifted to the left;
the shift factors are kept for further evaluation of the temperature dependence of the properties.
Combining these four curves into the dashed line enables you to expand the interval of frequencies.
Figure 9.3: Combining G"/G' Curves
The shift factors obtained in the previous step can be applied to the linear properties
order to obtain the master curves in the figure that follows.
174
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and , in
Empirical Rules and Principles
Figure 9.4: Master Curves for G' and G"
The applicability of the timetemperature equivalence depends on the material considered, and is affected
by the actual temperature dependence of the properties. Experience and specialized literature can
provide further information.
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176
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Chapter 10: Examples
This chapter presents four examples of fitting for different types of models.
10.1. Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model
10.2. Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
10.3. Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model
10.4. Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
10.1. Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model
In this example, the automatic method will be used to perform fitting for a CarreauYasuda fluid with
experimental data curves of shear viscosity vs. shear rate at four different temperatures. The CarreauYasuda law has been chosen for its plateau zone at low shear rates and its controllable transition zone.
For temperature dependence, the Arrhenius shearstress law has been chosen for its vertical and horizontal shifts. is fixed at 240C; it is recommended that you set it to one of the temperatures at which
experimental data were measured, close to the average of those temperatures. Since the experimental
, as required for proper scaling.
data are based on degrees Celsius, is set to
10.1.1. Experimental Data
Experimental data for shear viscosity vs. shear rate are as follows:
temp=200.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 220 C):
60.1 497
131 336
315 198
767 110
1750 59.9
4100 31.3
9870 15.8
19700 9.02
temp=220.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 220 C):
58.8 381
125 274
299 169
723 98.3
1620 55.9
3910 29.2
9180 15.3
18400 8.97
temp=240.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 240 C):
56.5 287
121 211
286 137
643 90.3
1510 51.6
3750 26.8
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Examples
8850 14.1
17700 8.39
temp=260.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 260 C):
56.8 228
117 171
269 121
654 77.1
1470 46.3
3590 24.9
8570 13.2
17100 7.9
The files for these data curves are provided on the ANSYS Polyflow product CD, in the test/polymat/example1 subdirectory.
10.1.2. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS Polymat
Start ANSYS Polymat by typing polymat. Then follow the procedure below to perform the fitting for
the data presented in Experimental Data (p. 177).
10.1.2.1. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type
Select Fluid Model
1.
Choose a Generalized Newtonian nonisothermal model.
Generalized Newtonian nonisothermal model
2.
Return to the toplevel menu.
10.1.2.2. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters
Material Data
1.
Specify the shearrate dependence.
Shearrate dependence of viscosity
a.
Select the CarreauYasuda law.
CarreauYasuda law
b.
2.
Return to the Material Data menu.
Specify the temperature dependence.
Temperature dependence of viscosity
a.
178
Select the Arrhenius shear stress law.
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Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model
Arrhenius shear stress law
b.
c.
Enable the fixing of parameters.
i.
Click the Fix button at the top of the ANSYS Polymat menu.
ii.
Click OK to confirm that fixing is enabled.
Fix the value of
i.
to be 240.
Specify =
Modify talfa
ii.
Specify that is fixed.
talfa is a fixed value
iii.
d.
Return to the Arrhenius shear stress law menu.
Fix the value of to be
i.
Specify =
.
.
Modify t0
ii.
Specify that
is fixed.
t0 is a fixed value
iii.
e.
f.
Return to the Arrhenius shear stress law menu.
Disable the fixing of parameters.
i.
Click the Fix button at the top of the ANSYS Polymat menu.
ii.
Click OK to confirm that fixing is disabled.
Return to the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
10.1.2.3. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves
1.
Enter the Automatic Fitting menu.
Automatic fitting
2.
Enter the List of Experimental Curves menu.
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Examples
Add experimental curves
3.
Add the first experimental curve (temp=200.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named temp=200.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Set the reference temperature to 200.
Modify the temperature
c.
4.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the second experimental curve (temp=220.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named temp=220.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Set the reference temperature to 220.
Modify the temperature
c.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
5.
Repeat to add the third and fourth experimental curves (temp=240.crv and temp=260.crv) and
set the appropriate reference temperatures.
6.
Return to the Automatic Fitting menu.
7.
Plot the four experimental data curves.
Draw experimental curves
10.1.2.4. Step 4: Run the Fitting Calculation
1.
Specify a name for the material data file (for example, example1.mat).
Enter the name of the result file
2.
Start the fitting calculation.
Run fitting
180
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Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
10.1.2.5. Results
The results of the fitting calculation are as follows:
RESULTS
CarreauYasuda law
f(g) = facinf + (facfacinf) *
[1+(tnat*g)**expoa]**((expo1)/expoa)
fac
tnat
expo
facinf
expoa
=
=
=
=
=
0.6793715E+03
0.9776775E02
0.1625742E+00
0.9628370E04
0.5421551E+00
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
Arrhenius shear stress law
h(t) = exp( alfa / (tt0)  alfa / (talfat0) )
alfa
talfa
t0
= 0.5559034E+04 [auto]
= 0.2400000E+03 [fixed]
= 0.2731500E+03 [fixed]
The computed and experimental curves are shown in Figure 10.1: Plot of Computed and Experimental
Curves (p. 181).
Figure 10.1: Plot of Computed and Experimental Curves
10.2. Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
In this example, the automatic method will be used to perform fitting for a nonisothermal differential
viscoelastic model with experimental data curves of shear viscosity vs. shear rate at three different
temperatures, plus data curves for the storage and loss moduli.
The Giesekus model has been chosen according to fitting guidelines for a 2D extrusion simulation where
shear thinning is desired (see Recommended Models and Parameters (p. 163)). Three relaxation times
are used to fit the experimental curves properly, since multiple relaxation times are computationally
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181
Examples
affordable for 2D extrusion. The relaxation times are set automatically by ANSYS Polymat to cover the
whole range of experimental data. The large relaxation time that ANSYS Polymat computes is useful
only for lowshearrate flows (up to 0.1 s
) with a long residence time (10 to 100 s). The viscosity
ratio is set to zero for all relaxation modes, except for the first mode where it will be computed automatically by ANSYS Polymat.
For temperature dependence, the standard Arrhenius law has been chosen. is automatically set to
220 C, which is one of the temperatures at which experimental data were measured, close to the average
of those temperatures. Since the experimental data are based on degrees Celsius, is set to
,
as required for proper scaling.
10.2.1. Experimental Data
Experimental data for shear viscosity vs. shear rate are as follows:
visco_200.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 200 C):
1.0476158e01
1.2618569e01
1.5199111e01
1.8307383e01
2.2051308e01
2.6560879e01
3.1992671e01
3.8535285e01
4.6415886e01
5.5908102e01
6.7341506e01
8.1113082e01
9.7700995e01
1.1768119e+00
1.4174742e+00
1.7073526e+00
2.0565124e+00
2.4770765e+00
2.9836473e+00
3.5938139e+00
4.3287611e+00
5.2140083e+00
6.2802911e+00
7.5646334e+00
9.1116276e+00
1.0974989e+01
1.3219412e+01
1.5922827e+01
1.9179104e+01
2.3101297e+01
2.7825592e+01
3.3516029e+01
4.0370174e+01
4.8626015e+01
5.8570202e+01
7.0548027e+01
8.4975342e+01
1.0235312e+02
4.7409219e+04
4.6221703e+04
4.4989727e+04
4.3684172e+04
4.2269406e+04
4.0711258e+04
3.8987227e+04
3.7095207e+04
3.5058137e+04
3.2921125e+04
3.0742695e+04
2.8582736e+04
2.6492119e+04
2.4505934e+04
2.2641396e+04
2.0899119e+04
1.9267033e+04
1.7725678e+04
1.6254397e+04
1.4836971e+04
1.3465704e+04
1.2142567e+04
1.0877272e+04
9.6834766e+03
8.5747520e+03
7.5614922e+03
6.6494995e+03
5.8398315e+03
5.1295151e+03
4.5126445e+03
3.9814446e+03
3.5272209e+03
3.1410603e+03
2.8143108e+03
2.5388992e+03
2.3074878e+03
2.1135415e+03
1.9513297e+03
visco_220.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 220 C):
1.0476158e01
1.2618569e01
1.5199111e01
1.8307383e01
2.2051308e01
2.6560879e01
182
3.2600383e+04
3.1866336e+04
3.1115115e+04
3.0347666e+04
2.9555596e+04
2.8722006e+04
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Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
3.1992671e01
3.8535285e01
4.6415886e01
5.5908102e01
6.7341506e01
8.1113082e01
9.7700995e01
1.1768119e+00
1.4174742e+00
1.7073526e+00
2.0565124e+00
2.4770765e+00
2.9836473e+00
3.5938139e+00
4.3287611e+00
5.2140083e+00
6.2802911e+00
7.5646334e+00
9.1116276e+00
1.0974989e+01
1.3219412e+01
1.5922827e+01
1.9179104e+01
2.3101297e+01
2.7825592e+01
3.3516029e+01
4.0370174e+01
4.8626015e+01
5.8570202e+01
7.0548027e+01
8.4975342e+01
1.0235312e+02
2.7824447e+04
2.6839762e+04
2.5750273e+04
2.4550127e+04
2.3249219e+04
2.1873061e+04
2.0457902e+04
1.9043281e+04
1.7664730e+04
1.6348507e+04
1.5109322e+04
1.3950688e+04
1.2866907e+04
1.1846350e+04
1.0875361e+04
9.9421738e+03
9.0399053e+03
8.1679702e+03
7.3314004e+03
6.5386035e+03
5.7986880e+03
5.1192021e+03
4.5048770e+03
3.9573066e+03
3.4752805e+03
3.0554553e+03
2.6930635e+03
2.3825698e+03
2.1181692e+03
1.8941488e+03
1.7051194e+03
1.5461493e+03
visco_240.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 240 C):
1.0476158e01
1.2618569e01
1.5199111e01
1.8307383e01
2.2051308e01
2.6560879e01
3.1992671e01
3.8535285e01
4.6415886e01
5.5908102e01
6.7341506e01
8.1113082e01
9.7700995e01
1.1768119e+00
1.4174742e+00
1.7073526e+00
2.0565124e+00
2.4770765e+00
2.9836473e+00
3.5938139e+00
4.3287611e+00
5.2140083e+00
6.2802911e+00
7.5646334e+00
9.1116276e+00
1.0974989e+01
1.3219412e+01
1.5922827e+01
1.9179104e+01
2.3101297e+01
2.7825592e+01
3.3516029e+01
4.0370174e+01
4.8626015e+01
5.8570202e+01
7.0548027e+01
2.2935412e+04
2.2492188e+04
2.2018766e+04
2.1526125e+04
2.1021365e+04
2.0505982e+04
1.9975033e+04
1.9417773e+04
1.8819420e+04
1.8164182e+04
1.7439488e+04
1.6640199e+04
1.5771608e+04
1.4849731e+04
1.3898310e+04
1.2944033e+04
1.2011361e+04
1.1118893e+04
1.0277535e+04
9.4904971e+03
8.7546172e+03
8.0624219e+03
7.4047461e+03
6.7733594e+03
6.1631475e+03
5.5731948e+03
5.0064775e+03
4.4684849e+03
3.9653857e+03
3.5024512e+03
3.0831277e+03
2.7087434e+03
2.3787000e+03
2.0908918e+03
1.8422029e+03
1.6289486e+03
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Examples
8.4975342e+01 1.4472250e+03
1.0235312e+02 1.2931675e+03
Experimental data for the storage and loss moduli ( and
) are as follows:
gprime.crv ( vs. frequency curve at 220 C):
1.0000000e01
1.5850000e01
2.5120000e01
3.9810000e01
6.3100000e01
1.0000000e+00
1.5850000e+00
2.5120000e+00
3.9813000e+00
6.3101000e+00
1.0001000e+01
1.5850000e+01
2.5121000e+01
3.9813000e+01
6.3101000e+01
1.0000000e+02
5.9316000e+02
1.1784000e+03
2.2076000e+03
3.9173000e+03
6.5593000e+03
1.0419000e+04
1.5724000e+04
2.2596000e+04
3.1232000e+04
4.1570000e+04
5.3470000e+04
6.6881000e+04
8.1509000e+04
9.7119000e+04
1.1352000e+05
1.3036000e+05
gsecond.crv ( vs. frequency curve at 220 C):
to be replaced by :
1.0000000e01 3.2158000e+03
1.5850000e01 4.7820000e+03
2.5120000e01 6.9325000e+03
3.9810000e01 9.7403000e+03
6.3100000e01 1.3239000e+04
1.0000000e+00 1.7346000e+04
1.5850000e+00 2.2001000e+04
2.5120000e+00 2.7050000e+04
3.9813000e+00 3.2279000e+04
6.3101000e+00 3.7352000e+04
1.0001000e+01 4.2321000e+04
1.5850000e+01 4.6851000e+04
2.5121000e+01 5.1123000e+04
3.9813000e+01 5.5108000e+04
6.3101000e+01 5.9097000e+04
1.0000000e+02 6.3270000e+04
The files for these data curves are provided on the ANSYS Polyflow product CD, in the test/polymat/example2 subdirectory.
10.2.2. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS Polymat
Start ANSYS Polymat by typing polymat. Then follow the procedure below to perform the fitting for
the data presented in Experimental Data (p. 182).
Note that the fitting calculation for this example will take longer than for the generalized Newtonian
example in Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model (p. 177), due to the added complexity of the model.
10.2.2.1. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type
Select Fluid Model
1.
184
Choose a Differential nonisothermal viscoelastic model.
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Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
Differential nonisothermal viscoelastic model
2.
Return to the toplevel menu.
10.2.2.2. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters
Material Data
1.
Specify the temperature dependence.
Temperature dependence of viscosity
a.
Select the Arrhenius law.
Arrhenius law
b.
c.
Enable the fixing of parameters.
i.
Click the Fix button at the top of the ANSYS Polymat menu.
ii.
Click OK to confirm that fixing is enabled.
Fix the value of
i.
to be
Specify =
.
.
Modify t0
ii.
Specify that is fixed.
t0 is a fixed value
iii.
d.
e.
2.
Return to the Arrhenius law menu.
Disable the fixing of parameters.
i.
Click the Fix button at the top of the ANSYS Polymat menu.
ii.
Click OK to confirm that fixing is disabled.
Return to the Material Data menu.
Specify the differential viscoelastic models.
Differential viscoelastic models
a.
Specify the differential viscoelastic model for the first relaxation mode and fix parameters.
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Examples
1st viscoelastic model
i.
Select the Giesekus model.
Giesekus model
b.
ii.
Accept the current values.
iii.
Return to the Differential viscoelastic models menu.
Specify the differential viscoelastic model for the second relaxation mode.
Addition of a viscoelastic model
i.
Select the Giesekus model.
Giesekus model
c.
ii.
Accept the current values.
iii.
Return to the Differential viscoelastic models menu.
Specify the differential viscoelastic model for the third relaxation mode and fix parameters.
Addition of a viscoelastic model
i.
Select the Giesekus model.
Giesekus model
3.
ii.
Accept the current values.
iii.
Return to the Differential viscoelastic models menu.
Return to the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
10.2.2.3. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves
1.
Enter the Automatic Fitting menu.
Automatic fitting
2.
Enter the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add experimental curves
3.
186
Add the first experimental curve (visco_200.crv).
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Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named visco_200.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Set the reference temperature to 200.
Modify the temperature
c.
Specify that the curve is a shear viscosity curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose steady shear viscosity (the default).
steady shear viscosity
ii.
4.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the second experimental curve (visco_220.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named visco_220.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Set the reference temperature to 220.
Modify the temperature
c.
Specify that the curve is a shear viscosity curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose steady shear viscosity (the default).
steady shear viscosity
ii.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
5.
Repeat to add the third shear viscosity curve (visco_240.crv) and set the appropriate reference
temperature and curve type.
6.
Add the storage modulus curve (gprime.crv).
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Examples
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named gprime.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Set the reference temperature to 220.
Modify the temperature
c.
Specify that the curve is a storage modulus curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose storage modulus G.
storage modulus G
ii.
7.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the loss modulus curve (gsecond.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named gsecond.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Set the reference temperature to 220.
Modify the temperature
c.
Specify that the curve is a loss modulus curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose loss modulus G".
loss modulus G"
ii.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
8.
Return to the Automatic Fitting menu.
9.
Plot the five experimental data curves.
Draw experimental curves
188
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Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
10.2.2.4. Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation
1.
Set the numerical parameters for the calculation.
Numerical options for fitting
a.
Limit the range of relaxation times to be from a minimum of 0.1 to a maximum of 10.
Modify the range of relaxation times
b.
2.
Return to the Automatic Fitting menu.
Specify a name for the material data file (for example, example2.mat).
Enter the name of the result file
3.
Start the fitting calculation.
Run fitting
10.2.2.5. Results
The results of the fitting calculation are as follows:
RESULTS
nb. of modes = 3
mode # 1  Giesekus model
T = T1 + T2
(1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D
T2 = 2*visc2*D
where  visc is the viscosity
 visc1 = (1ratio)*visc
 visc2 = ratio*visc
 trelax is the relaxation time
 T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1
visc
trelax
alfa
ratio
=
=
=
=
0.8395177E+04
0.1000000E+00
0.5175758E+00
0.8191842E01
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
mode # 2  Giesekus model
T = T1 + T2
(1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D
T2 = 2*visc2*D
where  visc is the viscosity
 visc1 = (1ratio)*visc
 visc2 = ratio*visc
 trelax is the relaxation time
 T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1
visc
trelax
alfa
ratio
=
=
=
=
0.1901750E+05
0.1000000E+01
0.6759477E+00
0.0000000E+00
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
[fixed]
mode # 3  Giesekus model
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T = T1 + T2
(1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D
T2 = 2*visc2*D
where visc
trelax
alfa
ratio
visc is the viscosity
visc1 = (1ratio)*visc
visc2 = ratio*visc
trelax is the relaxation time
T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1
=
=
=
=
0.9246148E+04
0.1000000E+02
0.3902228E+00
0.0000000E+00
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
[fixed]
Arrhenius law
h(t) = exp( alfa / (tt0)  alfa / (talfat0) )
alfa
talfa
t0
= 0.5019328E+04 [auto]
= 0.2200000E+03 [auto]
= 0.2731500E+03 [fixed]
The computed and experimental curves are shown in Figure 10.2: Plot of Computed and Experimental
Curves (p. 190).
Figure 10.2: Plot of Computed and Experimental Curves
10.3. Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model
In this example, the automatic method will be used to perform fitting for an integral viscoelastic model
with experimental data curves of shear viscosity vs. shear rate at three different temperatures, plus data
curves for the storage and loss moduli.
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Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model
The KBKZ model with 4 relaxation times will be used with the reversible PSM damping function. For
temperature dependence, the Arrhenius approximate law will be used. ANSYS Polymat will automatically
set the value of to 220 C, since this is the average temperature of the viscosity curves.
For the fitting calculation, the range of relaxation times will be limited to between 0.1 and 10.
10.3.1. Experimental Data
Experimental data for shear viscosity vs. shear rate are as follows:
visco_200.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 200 C):
1.0476158e01
1.5199111e01
2.2051308e01
3.1992671e01
4.6415886e01
6.7341506e01
9.7700995e01
1.4174742e+00
2.0565124e+00
2.9836473e+00
4.3287611e+00
6.2802911e+00
9.1116276e+00
1.3219412e+01
1.9179104e+01
2.7825592e+01
4.0370174e+01
5.8570202e+01
8.4975342e+01
4.7409219e+04
4.4989727e+04
4.2269406e+04
3.8987227e+04
3.5058137e+04
3.0742695e+04
2.6492119e+04
2.2641396e+04
1.9267033e+04
1.6254397e+04
1.3465704e+04
1.0877272e+04
8.5747520e+03
6.6494995e+03
5.1295151e+03
3.9814446e+03
3.1410603e+03
2.5388992e+03
2.1135415e+03
visco_220.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 220 C):
1.0476158e01
1.5199111e01
2.2051308e01
3.1992671e01
4.6415886e01
6.7341506e01
9.7700995e01
1.4174742e+00
2.0565124e+00
2.9836473e+00
4.3287611e+00
6.2802911e+00
9.1116276e+00
1.3219412e+01
1.9179104e+01
2.7825592e+01
4.0370174e+01
5.8570202e+01
8.4975342e+01
3.2600383e+04
3.1115115e+04
2.9555596e+04
2.7824447e+04
2.5750273e+04
2.3249219e+04
2.0457902e+04
1.7664730e+04
1.5109322e+04
1.2866907e+04
1.0875361e+04
9.0399053e+03
7.3314004e+03
5.7986880e+03
4.5048770e+03
3.4752805e+03
2.6930635e+03
2.1181692e+03
1.7051194e+03
visco_240.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 240 C):
1.0476158e01
1.5199111e01
2.2051308e01
3.1992671e01
4.6415886e01
6.7341506e01
9.7700995e01
2.2935412e+04
2.2018766e+04
2.1021365e+04
1.9975033e+04
1.8819420e+04
1.7439488e+04
1.5771608e+04
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1.4174742e+00
2.0565124e+00
2.9836473e+00
4.3287611e+00
6.2802911e+00
9.1116276e+00
1.3219412e+01
1.9179104e+01
2.7825592e+01
4.0370174e+01
5.8570202e+01
8.4975342e+01
1.3898310e+04
1.2011361e+04
1.0277535e+04
8.7546172e+03
7.4047461e+03
6.1631475e+03
5.0064775e+03
3.9653857e+03
3.0831277e+03
2.3787000e+03
1.8422029e+03
1.4472250e+03
Experimental data for the storage and loss moduli ( and
) are as follows:
gprime.crv ( vs. frequency curve at 220 C):
0.1 593.16
0.1585 1178.4
0.2512 2207.6
0.3981 3917.3
0.631 6559.3
1 10419
1.585 15724
2.512 22596
3.9813 31232
6.3101 41570
10.001 53470
15.85 66881
25.121 81509
39.813 97119
63.101 113520
100 130360
gsecond.crv ( vs. frequency curve at 220 C):
0.1 3215.8
0.1585 4782
0.2512 6932.5
0.3981 9740.3
0.631 13239
1 17346
1.585 22001
2.512 27050
3.9813 32279
6.3101 37352
10.001 42321
15.85 46851
25.121 51123
39.813 55108
63.101 59097
100 63270
The files for these data curves are provided on the ANSYS Polyflow product CD, in the test/polymat/example3 subdirectory.
10.3.2. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS Polymat
Start ANSYS Polymat by typing polymat. Then follow the procedure below to perform the fitting for
the data presented in Experimental Data (p. 191).
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Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model
Note that the fitting calculation for this example will take longer than for the generalized Newtonian
example in Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model (p. 177), due to the added complexity of the model.
10.3.2.1. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type
Select Fluid Model
1.
Choose an Integral nonisothermal viscoelastic model.
Integral nonisothermal viscoelastic model
2.
Return to the toplevel menu.
10.3.2.2. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters
Material Data
1.
Enter the Integral Viscoelastic models menu.
Integral Viscoelastic models
2.
Specify the temperature dependence.
Temperature dependence
a.
Select the Arrhenius approximate law.
Arrhenius approximate law
b.
3.
Return to the Integral Viscoelastic models menu.
Specify the number of relaxation modes.
Modify the spectrum
a.
Set the number of relaxation modes to 4.
Number of relaxation modes
b.
Return to the Integral Viscoelastic models menu.
No modification
4.
Specify the damping function.
Modify the damping function
a.
Select the Reversible PapanastasiouScriven model.
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Examples
Reversible PapanastasiouScriven model
5.
b.
Select the Modify alfa and Modify beta menu items, and keep the default values for each. (This
step is necessary so that ANSYS Polymat will not remind you that you need to set or confirm those
values by selecting the menu items.)
c.
Return to the Integral Viscoelastic models menu.
Return to the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
10.3.2.3. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves
1.
Enter the Automatic Fitting menu.
Automatic fitting
2.
Enter the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add experimental curves
3.
Add the first experimental curve (visco_200.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named visco_200.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Set the reference temperature to 200.
Modify the temperature
c.
Specify that the curve is a shear viscosity curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose steady shear viscosity (the default).
steady shear viscosity
ii.
4.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the second experimental curve (visco_220.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
194
Select the curve named visco_220.crv.
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Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Set the reference temperature to 220.
Modify the temperature
c.
Specify that the curve is a shear viscosity curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose steady shear viscosity (the default).
steady shear viscosity
ii.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
5.
Repeat to add the third shear viscosity curve (visco_240.crv) and set the appropriate reference
temperature and curve type.
6.
Add the storage modulus curve (gprime.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named gprime.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Set the reference temperature to 220.
Modify the temperature
c.
Specify that the curve is a storage modulus curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose storage modulus G.
storage modulus G
ii.
7.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the loss modulus curve (gsecond.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named gsecond.crv.
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Examples
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Set the reference temperature to 220.
Modify the temperature
c.
Specify that the curve is a loss modulus curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose loss modulus G".
loss modulus G"
ii.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
8.
Return to the Automatic Fitting menu.
9.
Plot the five experimental data curves.
Draw experimental curves
10.3.2.4. Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation
1.
Set the numerical parameters for the calculation.
Numerical options for fitting
a.
Limit the range of relaxation times to be from a minimum of 0.1 to a maximum of 10.
Modify the range of relaxation times
b.
2.
Return to the Automatic Fitting menu.
Specify a name for the material data file (for example, example3.mat).
Enter the name of the result file
3.
Start the fitting calculation.
Run fitting
10.3.2.5. Results
The results of the fitting calculation are as follows:
RESULTS
Integral Viscoelastic models
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Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
Integral viscoelastic flow
Type of model : KBKZ model
N2 / N1 = 0.0000000E+00 [auto]
ad.visc. = 0.7632522E+03 [auto]
Damping function : Reversible Papanastasiou  Scriven
alfa = 0.6365238E+01 [auto]
beta = 0.0000000E+00 [auto]
Number of relaxation modes = 4
Mode  Viscosity
 Relaxation
1
6.63042E+03 [auto] 1.00000E01
2
7.89786E+03 [auto] 4.64159E01
3
1.51692E+04 [auto] 2.15443E+00
4
4.68693E+03 [auto] 1.00000E+01
Time
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
Arrhenius approximate law
h(t) = exp( alfa * (t  talfa) )
alfa = 0.2150435E01 [auto]
talfa = 0.2200000E+03 [auto]
The computed and experimental curves are shown in Figure 10.3: Plot of Computed and Experimental
Curves (p. 197).
Figure 10.3: Plot of Computed and Experimental Curves
10.4. Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
In this example, the automatic method is used to perform fitting for a differential viscoelastic model
with experimental data curves of shear viscosity vs. shear rate, data curves for the storage and loss
moduli, plus curves of stress vs. Hencky strain. In order to obtain these curves, measure the forces and
deformations of a sample stretched with a constant pulling velocity in a uniaxial mode. In this setup,
the strain rate diminishes with time as shown in the following equation:
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Examples
where
(10.1)
=
, is the pulling velocity and , the initial length of the sample.
The Hencky strain is defined as:
where is the length of the sample at time .
The Giesekus model with 4 relaxation times is used. For the fitting calculation, the range of relaxation
times is limited to between 0.01 and 100 s.
10.4.1. Experimental Data
Experimental data for shear viscosity vs. shear rate are as follows:
Visc.crv
9.9999998e03
1.5848933e02
2.5118863e02
3.9810721e02
6.3095726e02
1.0000000e01
1.5848932e01
2.5118864e01
3.9810717e01
6.3095737e01
1.0000000e+00
1.5848932e+00
2.5118864e+00
3.9810719e+00
6.3095737e+00
1.0000000e+01
1.5848933e+01
2.5118862e+01
3.9810719e+01
6.3095726e+01
1.0000000e+02
5.7942590e+04
5.7463543e+04
5.6368508e+04
5.4127902e+04
5.0320945e+04
4.5214285e+04
3.9707617e+04
3.4520855e+04
2.9743750e+04
2.5129584e+04
2.0666746e+04
1.6676426e+04
1.3395818e+04
1.0758137e+04
8.5443789e+03
6.6362754e+03
5.0658618e+03
3.8541172e+03
2.9273818e+03
2.1740850e+03
1.5363018e+03
Experimental data for storage and loss moduli (G and G") are as follows :
G1.crv (G vs. frequency curve)
9.9999998e03
1.5848933e02
2.5118863e02
3.9810721e02
6.3095726e02
1.0000000e01
1.5848932e01
2.5118864e01
3.9810717e01
6.3095737e01
1.0000000e+00
1.5848932e+00
2.5118864e+00
3.9810719e+00
6.3095737e+00
1.0000000e+01
1.5848933e+01
2.5118862e+01
198
3.5167976e+01
8.7100800e+01
2.1137102e+02
4.8953040e+02
1.0309354e+03
1.8629243e+03
2.8503687e+03
3.9749304e+03
5.6332231e+03
8.4511943e+03
1.2569028e+04
1.7147389e+04
2.1693041e+04
2.7440998e+04
3.6552094e+04
4.9613684e+04
6.4043047e+04
7.8277656e+04
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(10.2)
Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
3.9810719e+01 9.6098992e+04
6.3095726e+01 1.2392985e+05
1.0000000e+02 1.6244308e+05
G2.crv (G" vs. frequency curve)
9.9999998e03
1.5848933e02
2.5118863e02
3.9810721e02
6.3095726e02
1.0000000e01
1.5848932e01
2.5118864e01
3.9810717e01
6.3095737e01
1.0000000e+00
1.5848932e+00
2.5118864e+00
3.9810719e+00
6.3095737e+00
1.0000000e+01
1.5848933e+01
2.5118862e+01
3.9810719e+01
6.3095726e+01
1.0000000e+02
5.7939490e+02
9.1043549e+02
1.4132689e+03
2.1352705e+03
3.0668875e+03
4.1247217e+03
5.3469106e+03
7.0692012e+03
9.6275000e+03
1.2890045e+04
1.6170969e+04
1.9267887e+04
2.3409984e+04
2.9933691e+04
3.8417832e+04
4.6432570e+04
5.2870504e+04
6.0886148e+04
7.3567648e+04
8.7799180e+04
9.3189672e+04
Experimental data for stress vs. Hencky strain are as follows:
Stress_01.crv (stress vs. Hencky strain with
9.9950028e04
3.4975763e03
4.3310076e03
5.1519061e03
5.9449933e03
6.6795419e03
7.2960192e03
7.7497927e03
8.1741009e03
9.0343673e03
1.0988208e02
1.7310996e02
2.5077807e02
3.2225050e02
3.8228299e02
4.2950768e02
4.7312122e02
5.5426948e02
7.3435947e02
1.2336361e01
1.6961214e01
2.0687814e01
2.4421628e01
3.1127003e01
4.4549382e01
6.0200286e01
7.3499125e01
9.2299604e01
1.1368132e+00
1.3128684e+00
1.4625189e+00
1.5926619e+00
1.7078016e+00
1.8110423e+00
1.9046148e+00
1.9901757e+00
2.0689895e+00
, transient elongational flow, uniaxial mode)
4.7493774e+02
1.1649296e+03
1.3302749e+03
1.4737156e+03
1.6005024e+03
1.7103892e+03
1.7980840e+03
1.8603550e+03
1.9169126e+03
2.0268396e+03
2.2556704e+03
2.8492520e+03
3.4017185e+03
3.8135403e+03
4.1159541e+03
4.3344062e+03
4.5241104e+03
4.8511318e+03
5.4840532e+03
6.7618486e+03
7.5459292e+03
7.9897729e+03
8.3163574e+03
8.7072051e+03
9.0984199e+03
9.1738301e+03
8.9499355e+03
8.2168379e+03
7.0296606e+03
5.9730420e+03
5.1118062e+03
4.4254043e+03
3.8785447e+03
3.4393530e+03
3.0826299e+03
2.7892783e+03
2.5450134e+03
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Examples
2.1420429e+00
2.2101209e+00
2.2738583e+00
2.3337755e+00
2.3903048e+00
2.3978953e+00
2.3391619e+03
2.1637117e+03
2.0126024e+03
1.8812087e+03
1.7659636e+03
1.7510774e+03
Stress_1.crv (stress vs. Hencky strain with
9.9503305e03
3.5282198e02
4.3344986e02
4.4380169e02
5.0368823e02
5.4894730e02
6.2509246e02
8.1463300e02
1.3814193e01
1.8773396e01
2.2752298e01
2.8311470e01
4.0201676e01
5.8976156e01
7.4152720e01
9.5612168e01
1.1944033e+00
1.3866911e+00
1.5479001e+00
1.6866928e+00
1.8085489e+00
1.9171560e+00
2.0151145e+00
2.1043277e+00
2.1862297e+00
2.2619283e+00
2.3322980e+00
2.3980396e+00
2.4597244e+00
2.5178244e+00
2.5727334e+00
2.6247835e+00
2.6742580e+00
2.7213998e+00
2.7664189e+00
2.8094983e+00
2.8507981e+00
2.8904600e+00
2.9286084e+00
2.9653549e+00
3.0007987e+00
3.0350292e+00
3.0398252e+00
3.0445225e+00
4.7317754e+03
1.1698975e+04
1.3279960e+04
1.3467764e+04
1.4504699e+04
1.5241891e+04
1.6408148e+04
1.9005615e+04
2.5006209e+04
2.8923967e+04
3.1489385e+04
3.4498039e+04
3.9637305e+04
4.5542875e+04
4.8620051e+04
5.0665562e+04
5.0673203e+04
4.9045047e+04
4.6442348e+04
4.3383812e+04
4.0245000e+04
3.7241980e+04
3.4473777e+04
3.1970490e+04
2.9727072e+04
2.7722971e+04
2.5932439e+04
2.4329539e+04
2.2890289e+04
2.1593441e+04
2.0420559e+04
1.9355818e+04
1.8385701e+04
1.7498678e+04
1.6684896e+04
1.5935935e+04
1.5244557e+04
1.4604533e+04
1.4010480e+04
1.3457726e+04
1.2942199e+04
1.2460345e+04
1.2394070e+04
1.2329443e+04
Stress_10.crv (stress vs. Hencky strain with
9.9950028e04
6.0874340e03
1.1150699e02
1.7656896e02
2.4453657e02
3.4632608e02
4.4532828e02
5.6003418e02
6.9556937e02
8.5579991e02
1.0387585e01
1.3146825e01
1.9615518e01
200
= , transient elongational flow, uniaxial mode)
, transient elongational flow, uniaxial mode)
4.6545542e+03
5.1004746e+03
8.9122051e+03
1.1150112e+04
1.6401330e+04
2.4217082e+04
2.8274932e+04
3.6161609e+04
4.1835988e+04
4.9879168e+04
5.7453828e+04
6.7541008e+04
8.6601953e+04
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Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
3.0259091e01
6.4501029e01
1.0591307e+00
1.4779303e+00
1.7722136e+00
1.9992969e+00
2.1842365e+00
2.3402529e+00
2.4751813e+00
2.5940497e+00
2.7002776e+00
2.7962968e+00
2.8838987e+00
2.9644408e+00
3.0389767e+00
3.1083403e+00
3.1732030e+00
3.2341137e+00
3.2915263e+00
3.3458207e+00
3.3973186e+00
3.4462938e+00
3.4929821e+00
3.5375874e+00
3.5802877e+00
3.6212392e+00
3.6605794e+00
3.6984303e+00
3.7349007e+00
3.7700875e+00
3.8040783e+00
3.8369517e+00
3.8687785e+00
3.8996236e+00
3.9176843e+00
1.1047721e+05
1.6648053e+05
2.1380906e+05
2.4456852e+05
2.5255466e+05
2.5105683e+05
2.4327736e+05
2.3121462e+05
2.1701552e+05
2.0233612e+05
1.8816394e+05
1.7497670e+05
1.6294345e+05
1.5206948e+05
1.4228305e+05
1.3348239e+05
1.2555956e+05
1.1841162e+05
1.1194519e+05
1.0607776e+05
1.0073742e+05
9.5861930e+04
9.1397508e+04
8.7297773e+04
8.3522602e+04
8.0037242e+04
7.6811484e+04
7.3819000e+04
7.1036742e+04
6.8444508e+04
6.6024469e+04
6.3760898e+04
6.1639836e+04
5.9648879e+04
5.8512105e+04
The files for these data curves are provided on the ANSYS Polyflow product CD, in the /test/polymat/example4 subdirectory.
10.4.2. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS Polymat
Start ANSYS Polymat by typing polymat. Then follow the procedure described below to perform the
fitting for the data presented in Experimental Data (p. 198).
Note
The fitting calculation for this example will take significant time, due to the transient elongational curves added for the fitting.
10.4.2.1. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type
Select Fluid Model
1.
Choose Differential viscoelastic model.
Differential viscoelastic model
2.
Return to the toplevel menu.
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Examples
10.4.2.2. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models
Material Data
1.
Enter the Differential viscoelastic models menu.
Differential viscoelastic models
2.
Specify the first viscoelastic model.
1st viscoelastic model
a.
Select the Giesekus model.
Giesekus model
b.
Accept the current values.
Accept current values
c.
Return to the Differential viscoelastic models menu.
Upper level menu
3.
Specify the second, third and fourth viscoelastics models of type Giesekus.
Addition of a viscoelastic model
Note
You do not have to change values of the different modes. They will be fitted automatically later.
4.
Return to the toplevel ANSYS Polymat menu.
10.4.2.3. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves
1.
Enter the Automatic Fitting menu.
Automatic fitting
2.
Enter the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add experimental curves
3.
202
Add the first experimental curve (visc.crv).
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Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named visc.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Specify that the curve is a shear viscosity curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose steady shear viscosity (the default).
steady shear viscosity
ii.
4.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the second experimental curve (g1.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named g1.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Specify that the curve is a storage modulus curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose storage modulus G.
storage modulus G
ii.
5.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the third experimental curve (g2.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named g2.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Specify that the curve is a loss modulus curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose loss modulus G".
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Examples
loss modulus G"
ii.
6.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the fourth experimental curve (stress_01.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named stress_01.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Specify that the curve is a transient extensional flow curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose transient extensional flow.
transient extensional flow
ii.
In this menu, choose uniaxial mode, stress vs. strain [ln(l/lo)], and constant extensional
velocity.
iii.
In the menu Experimental curve #4, modify the initial strain rate (V/lo) and set it to 0.1.
Modify the initial strain rate (V/lo)
iv.
7.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the fifth experimental curve (stress_1.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named stress_1.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Specify that the curve is a transient extensional flow curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose transient extensional flow.
transient extensional flow
ii.
204
In this menu, choose uniaxial mode, stress vs. strain [ln(l/lo)], and constant extensional
velocity.
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Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
iii.
In the menu Experimental curve #5, modify the initial strain rate (V/lo) and set it to 1.
Modify the initial strain rate (V/lo)
iv.
8.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the sixth experimental curve (stress_10.crv).
Add a new curve
a.
Select the curve named stress_10.crv.
Enter the name of the curve file
b.
Specify that the curve is a transient extensional flow curve.
Modify the curve type
i.
Choose transient extensional flow.
transient extensional flow
ii.
In this menu, choose uniaxial mode, stress vs. strain [ln(l/lo)], and constant extensional
velocity.
iii.
In the menu Experimental curve #5, modify the initial strain rate (V/lo) and set it to 10.
Modify the initial strain rate (V/lo)
iv.
9.
Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Return to the Automatic Fitting menu.
10. Plot the six experimental data curves.
Draw experimental curves
The curves will be presented in two graphics: In the first one, you can see the steady shear viscosity, G and
G"; while in the second, you can see the extensional curves.
10.4.2.4. Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation
1.
Set the numerical parameters for the calculation.
Numerical options for fitting
a.
Limit the range of relaxation times to be from a minimum of 0.01 to a maximum of 100.
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Examples
Modify the range of relaxation times
b.
2.
Return to the Automatic Fitting menu.
Specify a name for the material data file (for example, example4.mat).
Enter the name of the result file
3.
Start the fitting calculation.
Run fitting
10.4.2.5. Results
The results of the fitting calculation are as follows:
RESULTS
nb. of modes = 4
mode # 1  Giesekus model
T = T1 + T2
(1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D
T2 = 2*visc2*D
where visc
trelax
alfa
ratio
visc is the viscosity
visc1 = (1ratio)*visc
visc2 = ratio*visc
trelax is the relaxation time
T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1
=
=
=
=
0.1940853E+04
0.1000000E01
0.7392697E+00
0.2350520E04
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
mode # 2  Giesekus model
T = T1 + T2
(1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D
T2 = 2*visc2*D
where visc
trelax
alfa
ratio
visc is the viscosity
visc1 = (1ratio)*visc
visc2 = ratio*visc
trelax is the relaxation time
T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1
=
=
=
=
0.1129548E+05
0.2154435E+00
0.6407529E+00
0.0000000E+00
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
[fixed]
mode # 3  Giesekus model
T = T1 + T2
(1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D
T2 = 2*visc2*D
where visc
206
visc is the viscosity
visc1 = (1ratio)*visc
visc2 = ratio*visc
trelax is the relaxation time
T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1
= 0.4098902E+05 [auto]
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Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
trelax = 0.4641589E+01 [auto]
alfa
= 0.4906601E+00 [auto]
ratio = 0.0000000E+00 [fixed]
mode # 4  Giesekus model
T = T1 + T2
(1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D
T2 = 2*visc2*D
where visc
trelax
alfa
ratio
visc is the viscosity
visc1 = (1ratio)*visc
visc2 = ratio*visc
trelax is the relaxation time
T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1
=
=
=
=
0.4973851E+04
0.1000000E+03
0.4113689E+00
0.0000000E+00
[auto]
[auto]
[auto]
[fixed]
The computed and experimental curves are shown in Figure 10.4: Computed and Experimental Curves
for Steady Shear Viscosity, Storage Modulus and Loss Modulus (p. 207) and Figure 10.5: Computed and
Experimental Curves for Stress vs. ln(1/lo) at Different Initial Strain Rates (0.1,1, and 10). (p. 208).
Figure 10.4: Computed and Experimental Curves for Steady Shear Viscosity, Storage Modulus
and Loss Modulus
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Examples
Figure 10.5: Computed and Experimental Curves for Stress vs. ln(1/lo) at Different Initial Strain
Rates (0.1,1, and 10).
208
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Bibliography
[1] R. B. Bird, P. J. Dotson, and N. L. Johnson. J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech. 7:213. 1980.
[2] N. Clemeur, R. P. G. Rutgers, and B. Debbaut. On the Evaluation of Some Differential Formulations for
the PomPom Constitutive Model. Rheol Acta. 42(1). 217231. 2003.
[3] P. Coussot, A. I. Leonov, and J. M. Piau. Rheology of Concentrated Dispersed Systems in a Low Molecular
Weight Matrix. J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech. 46. 179217. 1993.
[4] W. P. Cox and E. H. Merz. Correlation of dynamic and steady flow properties. J Polym Sci. 28:619. 1958.
[5] G. S. Fulcher. J Am Ceram Soc. 8(6). 339355. 1925.
[6] W. Gleissle. "Two simple timeshear rate relations combining viscosity and first normal stress coefficient
in the linear and nonlinear flow range". Rheology, Vol. 2. G. Astarita, G. Marrucci, and L. Nicolais,
editors. Plenum, New York. 1980.
[7] H. M. Laun,. Prediction of elastic strains of polymer melts in shear and elongation. J Rheology. 30. 459501.
1986.
[8] T. C .B. McLeish and R. C. Larson. Molecular Constitutive Equations for a Class of Branched Polymers
The PomPom Polymer. J Rheo. 42(1). 82112. 1998.
[9] M. Simhambhatla. The Rheological Modeling of Simple Flows of Unfilled and Filled Polymers. PhD Thesis
University of Akron. 1994.
[10] M. Simhambhatla and A. I. Leonov. On the Rheological Modeling of Filled Polymers with ParticleMatrix Interactions. Rheol Acta. 34. 329338. 1995.
[11] R. I. Tanner. Engineering Rheology. Oxford University Press. 1985.
[12] M. H. Wagner. A Constitutive Analysis of Uniaxial Elongational Flow Data of LowDensity Polyethylene
Melt. J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech. 4. 3955. 1978.
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209
210
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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
BirdCarreau law, 53
blow molding, 162, 167
2D and 3D, 168
shell models, 169
Index
A
adding charts, 152
ANSYS DesignModeler, 3
ANSYS FIPOST, 3
ANSYS Fluent/CFDPost, 23
ANSYS Meshing, 3
ANSYS Polycurve, 5
graphical user interface, 25
ANSYS Polydata, 23
ANSYS Polyflow, 23
ANSYS Polyman, 3
ANSYS Polymat, 23
chart buttons, 22
chart window, 22
curve buttons, 23
curve list, 24
curve settings, 24
graphical user interface, 17
help, 18
menu, 21
menu bar, 18
menu buttons, 20
output text window, 25
ANSYS Polyplot, 3
ANSYS Polystat, 23
approximate Arrhenius law, 65
approximate Arrhenius shearstress law, 67
Arrhenius law, 64
approximate, 65
Arrhenius shearstress law, 66
approximate, 67
automatic fitting, 37, 42
examples, 13, 177, 181, 190, 197
numerical parameters, 44
weighting data, 44
axes
attributes, 155
linear scale, 156
logarithmic scale, 156
range, 155
scale, 156
scaling, 155
axis, 149
B
biaxial extensional flow, 143
transient viscosity, 147
Bingham law, 55
modified, 56
C
CAMPUS files, 31
CarreauYasuda law, 63
CauchyGreen strain tensor, 121
CFViewPF, 3
chart
axes, 155
chart buttons, 22
chart window, 22
charts, 149, 152
adding, 152
legend, 154
range, 155
removing, 152
scaling, 155
title, 154
concrete, 55, 58
consistency factor, 54, 57, 84
copying curves, 151
CoxMerz rule, 171
Create a New Curve dialog box, 150
critical shear rate, 49, 55, 57
Cross law, 59
index, 59
modified, 60
curve buttons, 23
curve list, 24
curve settings, 24
curves, 149150
computing, 38
copying, 151
defining, 150
deleting, 151
drawing, 46
experimental, 150
reading, 27, 29
experimental drawing, 46
exporting, 151
modifying data pairs, 151
modifying display attributes, 24
moving, 151
removing, 151
saving, 30, 151
weighting, 44
D
damping function, 124
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211
Index
DataVisualizer, 3
defining curves, 150
deleting charts, 152
deleting curves, 151
differential viscoelastic flow, 76
example of fitting, 181
example of fitting with extensional curves, 197
FENEP model, 99
Giesekus model, 95
JohnsonSegalman model, 90
Maxwell model, 79
OldroydB model, 82
PhanThienTanner model, 89
temperaturedependent viscosity, 117
WhiteMetzner model, 84
DoiEdwards model, 123
dough, 55, 58
Draw menu button, 20
E
Edit <name> dialog box, 151
elongational strain rate, 143
elongational viscosity, 49
empirical rules for fitting, 170
CoxMerz rule, 171
first normal stress difference relationships, 172
Gleissle mirror relationships, 171
timetemperature equivalence, 172
estimated relaxation time, 142
examples, 5, 177
isothermal differential viscoelastic model, 197
isothermal generalized Newtonian model, 5
nonisothermal differential viscoelastic model, 181
nonisothermal generalized Newtonian model, 177
nonisothermal integral viscoelastic model, 190
experimental data, 27
defining, 150
file format, 27
for blow molding, 167
for extrusion, 163
for fiber spinning, 165
for film casting, 166
for pressing, 170
for thermoforming, 167
measuring, 158
reading, 27, 29
saving, 30
units for, 35
exporting curves, 151
extensional flow
steady, 143
steady numerical parameters, 38
212
transient, 147
transient numerical parameters, 39
extrastress tensor, 52
extrusion, 161162
F
FENEP model, 99
fiber spinning, 161, 164
files, 27
CAMPUS, 31
experimental data, 27
format, 27
reading, 27, 29
saving, 30
units for, 35
material data, 3
reading and writing, 31
reading and writing, 27
film casting, 161, 166
first normal stress difference relationships, 172
first normalstress coefficient, 142
first normalstress difference, 49, 141, 159
fitting, 37
automatic, 37, 42
examples, 13, 177, 181, 190, 197
automatic numerical parameters, 44
automatic weighting data, 44
examples, 177, 181, 190, 197
guidelines, 157
blow molding, 162, 167
empirical rules, 170
extrusion, 161162
fiber spinning, 161, 164
film casting, 161, 166
pressing, 162, 169
thermoforming, 162, 167
methods, 37
nonautomatic, 37
example, 7
nonautomatic numerical parameters, 38
relaxation times, 44
strategy, 159
weighting data, 159
Fix menu button, 20, 43
Fulcher law, 68
G
GAMBIT, 2
generalized Newtonian flow, 51
approximate Arrhenius law, 65
approximate Arrhenius shearstress law, 67
Arrhenius law, 64
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Arrhenius shearstress law, 66
Bingham law, 55
modified, 56
BirdCarreau law, 53
CarreauYasuda law, 63
Cross law, 59
modified, 60
example of fitting, 177
Fulcher law, 68
HerschelBulkley law, 57
modified, 58
Leonov model, 110
loglog law, 61
mixeddependence law, 74
modified Bingham law, 56
modified Cross law, 60
modified HerschelBulkley law, 58
POMPOM model [DCPP], 106
power law, 54
shearratedependent viscosity, 52
temperaturedependent viscosity, 64
WLF law, 71
WLF shearstress law, 73
Giesekus model, 95
glass, 68
Gleissle mirror relationships, 171
graphical user interface (GUI), 17
ANSYS Polycurve, 25
ANSYS Polymat, 17
graphics display window, 22
GUI, 17
ANSYS Polycurve, 25
ANSYS Polymat, 17
guidelines for fitting, 157
blow molding, 162, 167
2D and 3D, 168
shell models, 169
empirical rules, 170
extrusion, 161162
fiber spinning, 161, 164
film casting, 161, 166
pressing, 162, 169
thermoforming, 162, 167
2D and 3D, 168
shell models, 169
H
HDPE, 159, 163, 165
help, 18
HerschelBulkley law, 57
modified, 58
I
Ideas, 3
identical nonlinear parameters, 44
infiniteshearrate viscosity, 53, 63
integral viscoelastic flow, 120
damping function, 124
DoiEdwards model, 123
example of fitting, 190
KBKZ model, 124
LodgeMaxwell model, 124
PapanastasiouScrivenMacosko model, 124
temperaturedependent viscosity, 134
Wagner model, 124
isothermal flow
example of fitting with extensional curves, 197
iterations
maximum number, 44
J
JohnsonSegalman model, 90
K
KBKZ model, 124
kernel function, 120
kinematics, 141
L
LDPE, 159, 163, 165
legend, 154
Leonov Model, 110
linear scale, 38, 156
LLDPE, 159, 163, 165
LodgeMaxwell model, 124
loglog law, 61
logarithmic scale, 38, 156
loss modulus, 49, 145, 158
M
magnifying the view, 22
manuals, x
material data file, 3
reading and writing, 31
material data parameters, 49
differential viscoelastic flow, 76
fixing, 43
generalized Newtonian flow, 51
integral viscoelastic flow, 120
overview, 49
setting, 40
simplified viscoelastic flow, 134
Maxwell model, 79
measuring data, 158
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213
Index
membrane elements, 169
memory function, 120
menu, 21
menu bar, 18
menu buttons, 20
mixeddependence law, 74
modified Bingham law, 56
modified Cross law, 60
modified HerschelBulkley law, 58
modifying curves
data pairs, 151
display attributes, 24
Move or Copy Curve(s) dialog box, 151
moving curves, 151
mud, 55, 58
N
natural time, 53, 59, 63, 8485
Newtonian flow, 52
Newtonian viscosity, 52
nonautomatic fitting, 37
example, 7
numerical parameters, 38
nonisothermal flow
example of fitting, 177, 181, 190
experimental data for, 40, 43
nonlinear parameters, identical, 44
normalstress coefficient, 142
transient, 146
normalstress difference, 49, 141142, 159
transient, 146
numerical parameters, 38, 44
identical, 44
Numerics menu button, 20, 38
O
OldroydB model, 82
oscillatory shear flow, 145, 158
numerical parameters, 38, 44
output text window, 25
P
PapanastasiouScrivenMacosko model, 124
PATRAN, 3
PhanThienTanner model, 89
planar extensional flow, 144
transient viscosity, 147
planning the analysis, 3
plotting curves, 149
POLYCEM, 3
polyethylene, 55
POLYMESH, 3
214
POMPOM Model [DCPP], 106
power law, 54
index, 5354, 57, 8485
POWERMESH, 3
pressing, 162, 169
problem setup, 4
examples, 5, 177, 181, 190, 197
program structure, 2
Properties dialog box, 154155
pulling velocity, 164
R
rateofdeformation tensor, 52, 76
reading curves
automatic fitting method, 29
nonautomatic fitting method, 27
recoverable stress, 51, 142
relaxation
mode, 124
spectrum, 161162
time, 79, 161162
estimated, 142
relaxation times
activation of fitting, 44
removing charts, 152
removing curves, 151
rheological properties, 141
rheometric measurements, 158
Rheometry menu button, 20, 38
S
sample session, 5
Save curve dialog box, 151
saving curves, 151
saving files, 27
second normalstress coefficient, 142
second normalstress difference, 142
setting up a problem, 4
examples, 5, 177, 181, 190, 197
shear flow
oscillatory, 145, 158
oscillatory numerical parameters, 38, 44
steady, 141
steady numerical parameters, 38, 44
transient, 145
transient numerical parameters, 38
shear rate, 141
critical, 49, 55, 57
transient, 146
shear stress, 141
transient, 146
shear thinning, 58, 123, 159, 163, 181
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shear viscosity, 49, 141, 158
transient, 146
shell models, 169
simplified viscoelastic flow, 134
starting
ANSYS Polycurve, 5
ANSYS Polymat, 5
steady extensional flow, 143
numerical parameters, 38
steady shear flow, 141
numerical parameters, 38, 44
storage modulus, 49, 145, 158
strain hardening, 157, 159, 162166, 168170
strain rate
elongational, 143
strain thinning, 157, 162163, 165166, 168
T
takeup velocity, 164
temperaturedependent viscosity, 64, 117, 134
thermoforming, 162, 167
2D and 3D, 168
shell models, 169
thirdparty attributions, 18
timetemperature equivalence, 172
toothpaste, 55, 58
transient extensional flow, 147
numerical parameters, 39
transient flow
numerical parameters, 38, 44
transient shear flow, 145
numerical parameters, 38
translating the view, 22
tutorials, 5, 177, 181, 190, 197
typographical conventions in the manual, xi
U
uniaxial extensional flow, 143
transient viscosity, 147, 159
units, 33
converting, 33
restrictions, 35
user interface, 17
ANSYS Polycurve, 25
ANSYS Polymat, 17
using the manual, ix
V
V3DMSH, 3
viscoelastic flows
damping function, 124
DoiEdwards model, 123
FENEP model, 99
Giesekus model, 95
JohnsonSegalman model, 90
KBKZ model, 124
LodgeMaxwell model, 124
Maxwell model, 79
memory effects, 79
numerical parameters, 44
OldroydB model, 82
PapanastasiouScrivenMacosko model, 124
PhanThienTanner model, 89
Wagner model, 124
WhiteMetzner model, 84
viscometric measurements, 158
viscometric properties, 49, 141
viscosity
approximate Arrhenius law, 65
approximate Arrhenius shearstress law, 67
Arrhenius law, 64
Arrhenius shearstress law, 66
Bingham law, 55
modified, 56
BirdCarreau law, 53
CarreauYasuda law, 63
constant, 52
Cross law, 5960
differential viscoelastic flow, 77
extensional, 143144
Fulcher law, 68
generalized Newtonian flow, 52
HerschelBulkley law, 5758
infiniteshearrate, 53, 63
integral viscoelastic flow, 122
Leonov model, 110
loglog law, 61
mixeddependence law, 74
modified Bingham law, 56
modified Cross law, 60
modified HerschelBulkley law, 58
Newtonian, 52
POMPOM model [DCPP], 106
power law, 54
shearratedependent, 52
temperaturedependent, 64, 117, 134
WLF law, 71
WLF shearstress law, 73
zeroshearrate, 5253, 59, 61, 63
W
Wagner model, 124
weighting, 44, 159
Weissenberg number, 51, 158
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Index
WhiteMetzner model, 84
WLF law, 71
WLF shearstress law, 73
writing files, 27
Y
yield stress, 55, 57
Z
zeroshearrate viscosity, 5253, 59, 61, 63
zooming in, 22
216
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