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Era 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 CE to c.

1450 CE

Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Interactions, c. 600 CE to c. 1450 CE

Although Afro-Eurasia and the Americas remained separate from one another, this era witnessed a deepening and widening of old and new networks of human interac9on within and across regions.
The results were unprecedented concentra9ons of wealth and the intensica9on of cross-cultural exchanges. Innova9ons in transporta9on, state policies, and mercan9le prac9ces contributed to the
expansion and development of commercial networks, which in turn served as conduits for cultural, technological, and biological diusion within and between various socie9es. Pastoral or nomadic
groups played a key role in crea9ng and sustaining these networks. Expanding networks fostered greater interregional borrowing, while at the same 9me sustaining regional diversity. The prophet
Muhammad promoted Islam, a new major monotheis9c religion at the start of this period. It spread quickly through prac9ces of trade, warfare and diusion characteris9c of this period.





Content Vocabulary/Identifications

Stearns Reading

Improved transportation
technologies and comercial
practices led to an increased
volume of trade, and
expanded the geographical
range of existing and newly
active trade networks.

Existing trade routes: Silk Roads, Mediterranean Silk and cotton textiles, porcelain, spices, precious metals, stirrups, camel
Sea, Trans-Saharan, Indian Ocean Basin New
saddles; credit, banking houses; minting of coins, use of paper money/flying
trade routes: Novgorod, Swahili city-states,
money; Hanseatic League; Byzantine Empire; The Caliphates, the Mongols;
Baghdad, Melaka, Tenochtitlan; Mesoamerican
and the Andes; Luxury goods trade intensifies;
New technologies encouraged trade; new types of
banking; State practices encouraging trade;
development of trading organizations; Expansion
of empires facilitated trade and communication

Chapter 7: 167-169; Chapter 8:

184-185; Chapter 10: 224-229,
Chapter 12: 267-269; Chapter
15: 327-328; 332-335

The movement of people

caused environmental and
linguistic effects.

Long distant trade depended on environmental

knowledge and technological adaptons to it:
Viking Longships on coastal/river travel; Arab
Berbers across the Sahara; Horses on the Central
Asian Steppe; Some migrations had significant
environmental impact: Bantu peoples spreading
iron technology and agricultural techniques;
Polynesian peoples cultivating transplanted foods
and domesticated animals as they moved

Viking Longships on coastal/river travel; Arab Berbers across the Sahara;

Horses on the Central Asian Steppe; Bantu peoples spreading iron
technology and agricultural techniques; Polynesian peoples cultivating
transplanted foods and domesticated animals as they moved;

Chapter 15: 335-337

Cross-cultural exchanges
were fostered by the
intensification of existing, or
the creation of new, networks
of trade and communication.

Development and spread of Islam; Diasporic

communities established along trade routes;
Interregional travelers; Increased cross-cultural
interactions diffusing literary, artistic and cultural
traditions AND the diffusion of scientific and
technological traditions

Muhammad; Caliph; Five Pillars; People of the Book (Dhimmi); Quran;

Shiite; Sunni; umma; Muslim communities in the Indian Ocean region;
Islamic spread into Africa; Stateless Society; Sudanic States: Mali; Ghana;
Songhay; Ibn Battuta; Marco Polo; Neoconfucianism and Buddhism in East
Asia; Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia; Influence of Greek
and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars; Spread of Printing and
Gunpowder technologies from East Asia to the Islamic Empires and W.

Chapter 6: 132-136; Chapter 8:

176-184; Chapter 12: 271-274;

Spread of cotton, sugar and citrus throughout Dar al-Islam; New Rice
varieties in East Asia; Black Plague

Chapter 10: 229-231




There was continued diffusion New foods and agricultural techniques were
of crops and pathogens
adopted; Spread of epidemic diseases following
throughout the Eastern
paths of trade and military conquest
Hemisphere along the trade

Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and their Interactions
State forma9on in this era demonstrated remarkable con9nuity, innova9on and diversity in various regions. In Afro-Eurasia, some states aHempted, with diering degrees of success, to preserve or
revive imperial structures, while smaller, less centralized states con9nued to develop. The expansion of Islam introduced a new conceptthe Caliphateto Afro-Eurasian statecraL. Pastoral peoples
in Eurasia built powerful and dis9nc9ve empires that integrated people and ins9tu9ons from both the pastoral and agrarian worlds. In the Americas, powerful states developed in both Mesoamerica
and the Andean region.




Content Vocabulary/Identifications

Empires collapsed and were

reconstituted; in some
regions new state forms

Reconstituted Governments combined tradition

and new innovations suited to the current era.
Traditional sources of power and legitimacy:
Patriarchy, Religion, Land-Owning Elites,
Taxation, Tributary systems, Adaptation of
religious institutions; New forms of governance
emerged: Islamic States, Mongol Khanates, Italian
city-states; Decentralized (Feudal) governments in
Europe and Japan; Some states synthesized local
and borrowed traditions: Chinese traditions in
Japan; Imperial systems in the Americas

Bedouin, Clan/Tribe; Kaba; Mecca; Medina; Caliphate; Umayyad; Abbasid;

Al-Andalus (Muslim Iberia); jihad; Mosque; Sunni-Shiite Split; Damascus;
Baghdad; Islam in India; Crusades; Saladin; Byzantine Empire; Justinian;
Caesaropapism; Hagia Sophia; Greek Fire; Cyril & Methodius; Kievan Rus;
Prince Vladimir; Great Schism; Eastern Orthodox/Roman Catholic Churches;
Sui, Tang & Song China; Grand Canal; Empress Wu; Khanate; Feudalism;
Charlemagne; Holy Roman Empire; vassal; Magna Carta; Maya; Aztec; Inca;
Taika Reforms; Samurai; Shogun; Korea; Sinification; Chinggis (Gehghis)
Khan; Golden Horde; Khanates

Interregional contacts and

conflicts between states &
empires encouraged
significant technological and
cultural transfers.

Technological and Cultural transfers: Tang

China and Abbasids, Across the Mongol Empires,



Stearns Reading
Chapter 6: 128-130; 136-139;
141-148; 152-157 Chapter 9:
197-207 Chapter 10: 213-221
Chapter 11: 236-240, 243-249
Chapter 12: 257-267 Chapter
13: 280-289, 293-299 Chapter
14: 305-321

Key Concept 3.3: Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences
The interconnec9on of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres made possible by transoceanic voyaging marked a key transforma9on of this period. Technological innova9ons helped to make
transoceanic connec9ons possible. Changing paHerns of long distance trade included the global circula9on of some commodi9es and the forma9on of new regional markets and nancial centers.
Increased transregional and global trade networks facilitated the spread and other elements of culture as well as the migra9on of large numbers of people. Germs carried to the Americas ravaged the
indigenous peoples, while the global exchange of crops and animals altered agriculture, diets, and popula9ons around the planet.


Innovations stimulated
agricultural and industrial
production in many regions.



Content Vocabulary/Identifications

Agricultural production increased due to

Champa Rice; Chinampa System; Horse Collar; Moldboard; Three-Field
technological innovations; Crops transported from System
their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates
in other regions; Chinese, Persian and Indian
artisans and merchants expanded their production
for export; Iron and Steel production expanded in

Stearns Reading
Chapter 10: 213 Chapter 11:






Content Vocabulary/Identifications

Stearns Reading

The fate of cities varied

greatly, with periods of
significant decline, and with
periods of increased
urbanization buoyed by rising
productivity and expanding
trade networks.

Multiple factors contributed to the decline of

The Renaissance
urban areas in this period: Invasions, Disease,
decline of agricultural productivity, the Little Ice
Age; Multiple factors contributed to urban
revival: end of invasions, safe and reliable
transport, rise of commerce, warmer temperatures
800-1300, increased productivity and populations,
availability of labor

Chapter 15: 328-332

Despite significant
continuities in social
structures and in methods of
production, there were also
some important changes in
labor management and in the
effect of religious conversion
on gender relations and
family life.

Many forms of labor organization: Free peasant

agriculture, Nomadic Pastoralism, Craft production
and guilds, Coerced labor, Government imposed
labor, military obligations; Patriarchies persisted
though some areas saw women with more power
and influence; New forms of Coerced Labor:
Serfdom, Mita; Free peasant revolts in China;
Diffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and
NeoConfucianism often led to significant changes
in gender relations and family structures.

Chapter 11: 248