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# An adder, also called summer, is a digital circuit that performs addition of

numbers. In many computers and other kinds of processors, adders are used not
only in the arithmetic logic units, but also in other parts of the processor, where
they are used to calculate addresses, table indices, increment and decrement
operators, and similar operations.
Although adders can be constructed for many numerical representations, such as
binary-coded decimal or excess-3, the most common adders operate on binary
numbers. In cases where two's complement or ones' complement is being used
to represent negative numbers, it is trivial to modify an adder into an adder
subtractor. Other signed number representations require more logic around the
basic adder.
Half adder

## Half adder in action

The half adder adds two single binary digits A and B. It has two outputs, sum (S)
and carry (C). The carry signal represents an overflow into the next digit of a
multi-digit addition. The value of the sum is 2C + S. The simplest half-adder
design, pictured on the right, incorporates an XOR gate for S and an AND gate for
C. With the addition of an OR gate to combine their carry outputs, two half
adders can be combined to make a full adder. The half adder adds two input
bits and generates a carry and sum, which are the two outputs of a half adder.
The input variables of a half adder are called the augend and addend bits. The
output variables are the sum and carry. The truth table for the half adder is:
Inputs Outputs
A

Full adder

## Logic diagram for a full adder.

Full adder in action. A full adder gives the number of 1s in the input in binary
representation.

Schematic symbol for a 1-bit full adder with Cin and Cout drawn on sides of block
to emphasize their use in a multi-bit adder
A full adder adds binary numbers and accounts for values carried in as well as
out. A one-bit full adder adds three one-bit numbers, often written as A, B, and
Cin; A and B are the operands, and Cin is a bit carried in from the previous lesssignificant stage. The full adder is usually a component in a cascade of
adders, which add 8, 16, 32, etc. bit binary numbers. The circuit produces a twobit output, output carry and sum typically represented by the signals Cout and S,
where {\displaystyle {\text{sum}}=2\times C_{\text{out}}+S}
{\text{sum}}=2\times C_{\text{out}}+S.
A full adder can be implemented in many different ways such as with a custom
transistor-level circuit or composed of other gates. One example implementation
is with {\displaystyle S=A\oplus B\oplus C_{\text{in}}} S = A \oplus B \oplus
C_\text{in} and {\displaystyle C_{\text{out}}=(A\cdot B)+(C_{\text{in}}\cdot
(A\oplus B))} C_\text{out} = (A \cdot B) + (C_\text{in} \cdot (A \oplus B)).
In this implementation, the final OR gate before the carry-out output may be
replaced by an XOR gate without altering the resulting logic. Using only two
types of gates is convenient if the circuit is being implemented using simple IC
chips which contain only one gate type per chip.
A full adder can be constructed from two half adders by connecting A and B to
the input of one half adder, connecting the sum from that to an input to the
second adder, connecting Ci to the other input and OR the two carry outputs.
The critical path of a full adder runs through both XOR-gates and ends at the sum
bit {\displaystyle s} s. Assumed that an XOR-gate takes 1 delays to complete,
the delay imposed by the critical path of a full adder is equal to
{\displaystyle T_{\text{FA}}=2\cdot T_{\text{XOR}}=2D.} {\displaystyle
T_{\text{FA}}=2\cdot T_{\text{XOR}}=2D.}
The critical path of a carry runs through 1 XOR-gate in adder and through 2 gates
(AND and OR) in carry-block and therefore, if AND- or OR-gates takes 1 delay to
complete, has a delay of
{\displaystyle T_{c}=T_{\text{XOR}}+T_{\text{AND}}
+T_{\text{OR}}=D+D+D=3D.} {\displaystyle T_{c}=T_{\text{XOR}}
+T_{\text{AND}}+T_{\text{OR}}=D+D+D=3D.}
The truth table for the full adder is:
Inputs Outputs
A

Cin

Cout S

## More complex adders

Ripple-carry adder

## Decimal 4-digit ripple carry adder. FA = full adder, HA = half adder.

It is possible to create a logical circuit using multiple full adders to add N-bit
numbers. Each full adder inputs a Cin, which is the Cout of the previous adder.
This kind of adder is called a ripple-carry adder, since each carry bit "ripples" to
the next full adder. Note that the first (and only the first) full adder may be
replaced by a half adder (under the assumption that Cin = 0).
The layout of a ripple-carry adder is simple, which allows fast design time;
however, the ripple-carry adder is relatively slow, since each full adder must wait
for the carry bit to be calculated from the previous full adder. The gate delay can
easily be calculated by inspection of the full adder circuit. Each full adder
requires three levels of logic. In a 32-bit ripple-carry adder, there are 32 full
adders, so the critical path (worst case) delay is 3 31 (from input to later
adder) + 2 (in later adder) = 95 gate delays. The general equation for the worstcase delay for a n-bit carry-ripple adder is
{\displaystyle T_{\text{CRA}}(n)=(n-1)\cdot T_{c}+T_{s}=(n-1)\cdot
3D+2D=(3n-1)D.} {\displaystyle T_{\text{CRA}}(n)=(n-1)\cdot T_{c}
+T_{s}=(n-1)\cdot 3D+2D=(3n-1)D.}
The delay from bit position 0 to the carry-out is a little different:
{\displaystyle
T_{{\text{CRA}}_{[0:c_{\text{out}}]}}=T_{{\text{CRA}}_{[c_{0}:c_{n}]}}
(n)=n\cdot T_{c}=n\cdot 3D=3nD.} {\displaystyle
T_{{\text{CRA}}_{[0:c_{\text{out}}]}}=T_{{\text{CRA}}_{[c_{0}:c_{n}]}}
(n)=n\cdot T_{c}=n\cdot 3D=3nD.}
The carry-in must travel through n XOR-gates in adders and n carry-generator
blocks to have an effect on the carry-out.
A design with alternating carry polarities and optimized AND-OR-Invert gates can
be about twice as fast.

## 4-bit adder with carry lookahead

Carry-lookahead adder

To reduce the computation time, engineers devised faster ways to add two
binary numbers by using carry-lookahead adders. They work by creating two
signals (P and G) for each bit position, based on whether a carry is propagated
through from a less significant bit position (at least one input is a 1), generated
in that bit position (both inputs are 1), or killed in that bit position (both inputs
are 0). In most cases, P is simply the sum output of a half adder and G is the
carry output of the same adder. After P and G are generated the carries for every
bit position are created. Some advanced carry-lookahead architectures are the
Manchester carry chain, BrentKung adder, and the KoggeStone adder.
Some other multi-bit adder architectures break the adder into blocks. It is
possible to vary the length of these blocks based on the propagation delay of the
circuits to optimize computation time. These block based adders include the
carry-skip (or carry-bypass) adder which will determine P and G values for each
block rather than each bit, and the carry select adder which pre-generates the
sum and carry values for either possible carry input (0 or 1) to the block, using
multiplexers to select the appropriate result when the carry bit is known.

A 64-bit adder
By combining multiple carry-lookahead adders, even larger adders can be
created. This can be used at multiple levels to make even larger adders. For
example, the following adder is a 64-bit adder that uses four 16-bit CLAs with
two levels of LCUs.
Other adder designs include the carry-select adder, conditional sum adder, carryskip adder, and carry-complete adder.
Carry-save adders
Main article: Carry-save adder
If an adding circuit is to compute the sum of three or more numbers, it can be
advantageous to not propagate the carry result. Instead, three-input adders are
used, generating two results: a sum and a carry. The sum and the carry may be
fed into two inputs of the subsequent 3-number adder without having to wait for
propagation of a carry signal. After all stages of addition, however, a
conventional adder (such as the ripple-carry or the lookahead) must be used to
combine the final sum and carry results.
3:2 compressors
We can view a full adder as a 3:2 lossy compressor: it sums three one-bit inputs
and returns the result as a single two-bit number; that is, it maps 8 input values
to 4 output values. Thus, for example, a binary input of 101 results in an output
of 1 + 0 + 1 = 10 (decimal number 2). The carry-out represents bit one of the
result, while the sum represents bit zero. Likewise, a half adder can be used as a
2:2 lossy compressor, compressing four possible inputs into three possible
outputs.
Such compressors can be used to speed up the summation of three or more
addends. If the addends are exactly three, the layout is known as the carry-save
adder. If the addends are four or more, more than one layer of compressors is

necessary, and there are various possible design for the circuit: the most
common are Dadda and Wallace trees. This kind of circuit is most notably used in
multipliers, which is why these circuits are also known as Dadda and Wallace
multipliers.