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- Average
- REGISTER TRANSFER LANGUAGE.pdf
- Mirror Adder
- Combinational Circuit
- IJETTCS-2013-08-25-115
- Lab3 Introducere in Simulare
- Booth's, Barrel's and Array Multiplication
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- In Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) outlines, Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is one of the quickest adder utilized as a part of numerous data processing processors to perform quick number crunching capacities. In this paper we proposed the design of SQRT CSLA using parity preserving reversible gate (P2RG). Reversible logic is emerging field in today VLSI design. In conventional circuits, the logic gates such as AND gate, OR gate is irreversible in nature and computing with irreversible logic results in energy dissipation. This problem can be circumvented by using reversible logic. In ideal condition, the reversible logic gate produces zero power dissipation. The proposed design is efficient in terms of delay as compare to irreversible SQRT CSLA. The simulation is done using Xilinx.
- Decodificador_7447

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numbers. In many computers and other kinds of processors, adders are used not

only in the arithmetic logic units, but also in other parts of the processor, where

they are used to calculate addresses, table indices, increment and decrement

operators, and similar operations.

Although adders can be constructed for many numerical representations, such as

binary-coded decimal or excess-3, the most common adders operate on binary

numbers. In cases where two's complement or ones' complement is being used

to represent negative numbers, it is trivial to modify an adder into an adder

subtractor. Other signed number representations require more logic around the

basic adder.

Half adder[edit]

The half adder adds two single binary digits A and B. It has two outputs, sum (S)

and carry (C). The carry signal represents an overflow into the next digit of a

multi-digit addition. The value of the sum is 2C + S. The simplest half-adder

design, pictured on the right, incorporates an XOR gate for S and an AND gate for

C. With the addition of an OR gate to combine their carry outputs, two half

adders can be combined to make a full adder.[1] The half adder adds two input

bits and generates a carry and sum, which are the two outputs of a half adder.

The input variables of a half adder are called the augend and addend bits. The

output variables are the sum and carry. The truth table for the half adder is:

Inputs Outputs

A

Full adder[edit]

Full adder in action. A full adder gives the number of 1s in the input in binary

representation.

Schematic symbol for a 1-bit full adder with Cin and Cout drawn on sides of block

to emphasize their use in a multi-bit adder

A full adder adds binary numbers and accounts for values carried in as well as

out. A one-bit full adder adds three one-bit numbers, often written as A, B, and

Cin; A and B are the operands, and Cin is a bit carried in from the previous lesssignificant stage.[2] The full adder is usually a component in a cascade of

adders, which add 8, 16, 32, etc. bit binary numbers. The circuit produces a twobit output, output carry and sum typically represented by the signals Cout and S,

where {\displaystyle {\text{sum}}=2\times C_{\text{out}}+S}

{\text{sum}}=2\times C_{\text{out}}+S.

A full adder can be implemented in many different ways such as with a custom

transistor-level circuit or composed of other gates. One example implementation

is with {\displaystyle S=A\oplus B\oplus C_{\text{in}}} S = A \oplus B \oplus

C_\text{in} and {\displaystyle C_{\text{out}}=(A\cdot B)+(C_{\text{in}}\cdot

(A\oplus B))} C_\text{out} = (A \cdot B) + (C_\text{in} \cdot (A \oplus B)).

In this implementation, the final OR gate before the carry-out output may be

replaced by an XOR gate without altering the resulting logic. Using only two

types of gates is convenient if the circuit is being implemented using simple IC

chips which contain only one gate type per chip.

A full adder can be constructed from two half adders by connecting A and B to

the input of one half adder, connecting the sum from that to an input to the

second adder, connecting Ci to the other input and OR the two carry outputs.

The critical path of a full adder runs through both XOR-gates and ends at the sum

bit {\displaystyle s} s. Assumed that an XOR-gate takes 1 delays to complete,

the delay imposed by the critical path of a full adder is equal to

{\displaystyle T_{\text{FA}}=2\cdot T_{\text{XOR}}=2D.} {\displaystyle

T_{\text{FA}}=2\cdot T_{\text{XOR}}=2D.}

The critical path of a carry runs through 1 XOR-gate in adder and through 2 gates

(AND and OR) in carry-block and therefore, if AND- or OR-gates takes 1 delay to

complete, has a delay of

{\displaystyle T_{c}=T_{\text{XOR}}+T_{\text{AND}}

+T_{\text{OR}}=D+D+D=3D.} {\displaystyle T_{c}=T_{\text{XOR}}

+T_{\text{AND}}+T_{\text{OR}}=D+D+D=3D.}

The truth table for the full adder is:

Inputs Outputs

A

Cin

Cout S

Ripple-carry adder[edit]

It is possible to create a logical circuit using multiple full adders to add N-bit

numbers. Each full adder inputs a Cin, which is the Cout of the previous adder.

This kind of adder is called a ripple-carry adder, since each carry bit "ripples" to

the next full adder. Note that the first (and only the first) full adder may be

replaced by a half adder (under the assumption that Cin = 0).

The layout of a ripple-carry adder is simple, which allows fast design time;

however, the ripple-carry adder is relatively slow, since each full adder must wait

for the carry bit to be calculated from the previous full adder. The gate delay can

easily be calculated by inspection of the full adder circuit. Each full adder

requires three levels of logic. In a 32-bit ripple-carry adder, there are 32 full

adders, so the critical path (worst case) delay is 3 31 (from input to later

adder) + 2 (in later adder) = 95 gate delays. The general equation for the worstcase delay for a n-bit carry-ripple adder is

{\displaystyle T_{\text{CRA}}(n)=(n-1)\cdot T_{c}+T_{s}=(n-1)\cdot

3D+2D=(3n-1)D.} {\displaystyle T_{\text{CRA}}(n)=(n-1)\cdot T_{c}

+T_{s}=(n-1)\cdot 3D+2D=(3n-1)D.}

The delay from bit position 0 to the carry-out is a little different:

{\displaystyle

T_{{\text{CRA}}_{[0:c_{\text{out}}]}}=T_{{\text{CRA}}_{[c_{0}:c_{n}]}}

(n)=n\cdot T_{c}=n\cdot 3D=3nD.} {\displaystyle

T_{{\text{CRA}}_{[0:c_{\text{out}}]}}=T_{{\text{CRA}}_{[c_{0}:c_{n}]}}

(n)=n\cdot T_{c}=n\cdot 3D=3nD.}

The carry-in must travel through n XOR-gates in adders and n carry-generator

blocks to have an effect on the carry-out.

A design with alternating carry polarities and optimized AND-OR-Invert gates can

be about twice as fast.[3]

Carry-lookahead adder[edit]

To reduce the computation time, engineers devised faster ways to add two

binary numbers by using carry-lookahead adders. They work by creating two

signals (P and G) for each bit position, based on whether a carry is propagated

through from a less significant bit position (at least one input is a 1), generated

in that bit position (both inputs are 1), or killed in that bit position (both inputs

are 0). In most cases, P is simply the sum output of a half adder and G is the

carry output of the same adder. After P and G are generated the carries for every

bit position are created. Some advanced carry-lookahead architectures are the

Manchester carry chain, BrentKung adder, and the KoggeStone adder.

Some other multi-bit adder architectures break the adder into blocks. It is

possible to vary the length of these blocks based on the propagation delay of the

circuits to optimize computation time. These block based adders include the

carry-skip (or carry-bypass) adder which will determine P and G values for each

block rather than each bit, and the carry select adder which pre-generates the

sum and carry values for either possible carry input (0 or 1) to the block, using

multiplexers to select the appropriate result when the carry bit is known.

A 64-bit adder

By combining multiple carry-lookahead adders, even larger adders can be

created. This can be used at multiple levels to make even larger adders. For

example, the following adder is a 64-bit adder that uses four 16-bit CLAs with

two levels of LCUs.

Other adder designs include the carry-select adder, conditional sum adder, carryskip adder, and carry-complete adder.

Carry-save adders[edit]

Main article: Carry-save adder

If an adding circuit is to compute the sum of three or more numbers, it can be

advantageous to not propagate the carry result. Instead, three-input adders are

used, generating two results: a sum and a carry. The sum and the carry may be

fed into two inputs of the subsequent 3-number adder without having to wait for

propagation of a carry signal. After all stages of addition, however, a

conventional adder (such as the ripple-carry or the lookahead) must be used to

combine the final sum and carry results.

3:2 compressors[edit]

We can view a full adder as a 3:2 lossy compressor: it sums three one-bit inputs

and returns the result as a single two-bit number; that is, it maps 8 input values

to 4 output values. Thus, for example, a binary input of 101 results in an output

of 1 + 0 + 1 = 10 (decimal number 2). The carry-out represents bit one of the

result, while the sum represents bit zero. Likewise, a half adder can be used as a

2:2 lossy compressor, compressing four possible inputs into three possible

outputs.

Such compressors can be used to speed up the summation of three or more

addends. If the addends are exactly three, the layout is known as the carry-save

adder. If the addends are four or more, more than one layer of compressors is

necessary, and there are various possible design for the circuit: the most

common are Dadda and Wallace trees. This kind of circuit is most notably used in

multipliers, which is why these circuits are also known as Dadda and Wallace

multipliers.

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- In Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) outlines, Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is one of the quickest adder utilized as a part of numerous data processing processors to perform quick number crunching capacities. In this paper we proposed the design of SQRT CSLA using parity preserving reversible gate (P2RG). Reversible logic is emerging field in today VLSI design. In conventional circuits, the logic gates such as AND gate, OR gate is irreversible in nature and computing with irreversible logic results in energy dissipation. This problem can be circumvented by using reversible logic. In ideal condition, the reversible logic gate produces zero power dissipation. The proposed design is efficient in terms of delay as compare to irreversible SQRT CSLA. The simulation is done using Xilinx.Diunggah olehAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
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