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CHAPTER3DIODES

ChapterOutline
3.1TheIdealDiode
3.2TerminalCharacteristicsofJunctionDiodes
3.3ModelingtheDiodeForwardCharacteristics
3.4OperationintheReverseBreakdownRegion Zener Diodes
3.5RectifierCircuits
3.6LimitingandClampingCircuits

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3.1IdealDiode
Idealdiodecharacteristics
Andiodeisatwoterminaldevice:
Anode:thepositiveterminal
Cathode:thenegativeterminal
Forwardbiased turnedon short
Reversebiased turnedoff open

Circuitapplications

Y=A B C

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3.2TerminalCharacteristicsofJunctionDiodes
IVcharacteristicsofjunctiondiodes
Diodecurrent: i I S (ev / nV 1)
IS (saturationcurrent):proportionaltodiodearea
n (idealityfactor):between1and2
VT (thermalvoltage) 25mVatroomtemperature
Theforwardbiasregion,determinedbyv 0
Thereversebiasregion,determinedbyv 0
Thebreakdownregion,determinedbyv VZK
T

Forwardbiasregion
ThesimplifiedforwardbiasIVrelationship:
Foragivenforwardvoltage: i I S ev / nV
Foragivenforwardcurrent: v nVT ln(I / I S )
DuetotheexponentialIVrelationship
i 0forv <0.5V(cutinvoltage)
Fullyconductionfor0.6V<v <0.8V Von =0.7V
T

Temperaturedependence
IS doublesforevery5Criseintemperature
Voltagedecreases2mV/Cforagivencurrent
Currentincreaseswithtemperatureforagivenvoltage

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Reversebiasregion
Reversecurrent:i I S
Ideally,thereversecurrentisindependentofreversebias
Inreality,reversecurrentislargerthanIS andalsoincreasessomewhatwiththereversebias
Temperaturedependence:reversecurrentdoublesforevery10Criseintemperature

Breakdownregion
ThekneeoftheIVcurveisspecifiedasbreakdownvoltageVZK forZenerbreakdownmechanism
Inbreakdownregion,thereversecurrentincreasesrapidlywithasmallincreaseinthereversebias
Normally,thereversecurrentisspecifiedbyexternalcircuitrytoassurethepowerdissipation
withinasaferange(nondestructiveoperation)

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3.3ModelingtheDiodeForwardCharacteristics
Circuitanalysis
DeterminethediodecurrentID andvoltageVD forcircuitanalysis
Theequationrequiredfortheanalysis:
ID =IS exp(VD/nVT) doide IVcharacteristics
ID =(VDDVD)/R Kirchhoffloopequation

Needtosolvenonlinearequations
Graphicalanalysis
PlotthetwoequationsinthesameIVcoordination
Thestraightlineisknownasloadline
TheintersectisthesolutionforID andVD

Iterativeanalysis
SetinitialvalueVD =V0
UseID =(VDDVD)/R toobtainI1
UseVD =nVTln (ID/IS)toobtainV2
Repeatuntilitconverges(I3,V4,I5,V6)
Iterationsareneededtosolvethenonlinearcircuit

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Theneedforrapidanalysis
Rapidanalysisusingsimplifiedmodelsforinitialdesign
Accurateanalysis(iterativeanalysisorcomputerprogram)forfinaldesign
Rapidanalysis(I):idealdiodemodel
Themostsimplifiedmodelusedwhensupplyvoltageismuchhigherthanthediodevoltage
Diodeon:vD =0Vandi >0
Diodeoff:i =0andvD <0V
Equivalentcircuitmodelasanidealdiode
Rapidanalysis(II):constantvoltagedropmodel
Themostwidelyusedmodelininitialdesignandanalysisphases
Diodeon:vD =0.7Vandi >0
Diodeoff:i =0andvD <0.7V
Equivalentcircuitmodelasanidealdiodewitha0.7Vvoltagesource

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Smallsignalapproximation
Thediodeisoperatedatadcbiaspointandasmallacsignalissuperimposedonthedcquantities:
vD (t ) VD vd (t )
iD (t ) I S e vD / nVT I S e (VD vd ) / nVT I S eVD / nVT e vd / nVT I D e vd / nVT

Undersmallsignalcondition:vd /nVT <<1


iD (t ) I D (1

vd
I
) I D D vd I D id
nVT
nVT

ID associateswithVD dcoperatingpointQ
id associateswithvd smallsignalresponse
ThediodeexhibitslinearIVcharacteristics
undersmallsignalconditions(vd 10mV)
Diodesmallsignalresistance andconductance atoperatingpointQ:
id

ID
vd g d vd vd / rd
nVT

i
ID
[ D ]iD I D
nVT
vD
i
nV
rd T 1 /[ D ]iD I D
ID
vD

gd

Thediodesmallsignalmodel
ChooseproperdcanalysistechniqueormodeltoobtaintheoperationpointQ
ThesmallsignalmodelisdeterminedonceQ isprovided
ThesmallsignalmodelisusedforcircuitanalysiswhenthediodeisoperatingaroundQ

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Circuitanalysistechniquesfortotalquantities(AC+DC)
Eliminateallthetimevaryingsignals(acvoltageandcurrentsources)foroperationpointanalysis
UserapidanalysisoraccurateanalysistoobtaindcvoltageandcurrentatoperatingpointQ
DeterminetheparametersofsmallsignalmodelsfromQ
Replacethedeviceswithsmallsignalmodelsandeliminateallthedcsources
Circuitanalysisundersmallsignalapproximation
Thecompleteresponseofthecircuitisobtainedbysuperpositionofthedcandaccomponents

Voltageregulatorbydiodeforwarddrop
Aregulatoristoprovideaconstantdcvoltageregardlesschangesinload
andpowersupplyvoltage
Theforwardvoltagedropremainsalmostconstantat0.7Vwithinawide
currentrange
Multiplediodesinseriestoachievetherequiredvoltagedrop
Betterregulationcanbeprovidedforhigherbiascurrentandsmallerrd

Example3.5(Textbook)
Example3.6(Textbook)
Exercise3.14(Textbook)

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3.4OperationintheReverseBreakdownRegion Zener Diodes


SymbolandcircuitmodelfortheZener diode
Inbreakdownregion,areversebias(VZ)beyondthekneevoltage(VZK)leadstoalargereverse
current(IZ).
ThediodeinbreakdownregionisgivenbyVZ =VZ0+rzIz
ThebreakdowndiodeismodeledbyavoltagesourceVZ0 inserieswithanincremental
resistancerz
Incrementalvoltageversuscurrent:V =rz I
ThesimplifiedmodelisonlyvalidforIZ >IZK (kneecurrent)
Equivalentrz increasesasIZ decreases
Diodetypes:
Diode:onlyforwardandreverseregionsareconsidered
Zener diode:forward,reverseandbreakdownregions

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DesignoftheZener shuntregulator
Outputvoltageoftheregulator:
VO

R
r
RrZ
VZ 0 Z V
IL
R rz
R rZ
R rZ

Lineregulation:
Loadregulation:

VO
r
Z

V
R rZ
VO
RrZ

I L
R rZ

Lineandloadregulationshouldbeminimized
Forrz <<R,lineregulationcanbeminimizedbychoosingsmallrz
Loadregulationcanbeminimizedbychoosingsmallrz andlargeR
ThereisanupperlimitonthevalueofRtoensuresufficientlyhighcurrentIZ (rz increasesifIZ is
toolow)
R shouldbeselectedfrom R

VS min VZ 0 rz I Z min
I Z min I L max

Example3.7(Textbook)
Exercise3.16(Textbook)
Exercise3.17(Textbook)
Exercise3.18(Textbook)
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3.5RectifierCircuits
Blockdiagramofadcpowersupply
DCpowersupply
Generateadcvoltagefromacpowersources
Theacinputisalowfrequencylargesignal voltage

Powertransformer
Stepthelinevoltagedowntorequiredvalueandprovideselectricisolation
Dioderectifier
Convertstheinputsinusoidaltoaunipolar output
Canbedividedto halfwave andfullwaverectifiers
Filter
Reducesthemagnitudevariationfortherectifieroutput
Equivalenttotimeaverageoperationoftheinputwaveform
VoltageRegulator
Furtherstabilizestheoutputtoobtainaconstantdcvoltage
CanbeimplementedbyZener diodecircuits
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Thehalfwaverectifier
Voltagetransfercurve:
vS VD 0 vO 0
vS VD 0 vO vS VD 0

Rectifierdiodespecifications:
Currenthandlingcapability:thelargestcurrentthediodeisexpectedtoconduct
Peakinversevoltage (PIV):thelargestreversevoltagethediodecanstandwithoutbreakdown
PIV=Vs (inputvoltageswing)andthediodebreakdownvoltageisselectedatleast50%higher

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Thefullwaverectifier(centertappedtransformer)
Voltagetransfercurve:
| vS | VD 0 vO 0

vS VD 0 vO vS VD 0

Transformersecondarywindingiscentertapped
Peakinversevoltage(PIV)=2VsVD0
Rectifiedoutputwaveformforbothpositiveandnegativecycles

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Fullwaverectifier(Bridgerectifier)
Voltagetransfercurve:
| vS | 2VD 0 vO 0
vS 2VD 0 vO vS 2VD 0

vS 2VD 0 vO vS 2VD 0

Doesnotrequireacentertappedtransformer
Higherturnonvoltage(2VD0 )
Peakinversevoltage(PIV)=VsVD0
Mostpopularrectifiercircuitconfiguration

Exercise3.19(Textbook)
Exercise3.20(Textbook)
Exercise3.21(Textbook)
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Rectifierwithafiltercapacitor thepeakrectifier
Outputunloadedcase:

Outputloadedcase:

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Precisionhalfwaverectifier thesuperdiode
Superdiode iscomposedofaopampandadiode
Superdiode worksasanidealdiodewithzeroturnonvoltage
Positiveinputvoltage:
Diodeturnson
Closedloopopampwithvirtualshortatinput
Outputvoltagefollowsinputvoltage
Negativeinputvoltage:
Diodeturnsoff
Opampinopenloop
Outputvoltageis0V
Rectifierwithsuperdiode candemonstratesbetterefficiency

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3.6LimitingandClampingCircuits
Limitercircuits
Forinputinacertainrange,thelimiteractsasalinearcircuit.
Forinputexceedsthethreshold,theoutputvoltageswingislimited.
Classification:
Basedontransfercharacteristics:hardlimiterandsoftlimiter
Basedonthepolarity:singlelimiteranddoublelimiter
Avarietyoflimitingcircuitsbydiodes:

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ClampedcapacitororDCrestorer
Outputunloadedcase:

Outputloadedcase:

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