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WELDING RESEARCH

SUPPLEMENT T O THE WELDING JOURNAL, OCTOBER 1991


Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council

All papers published in the Welding Journal's Welding Research Supplement undergo Peer Review before
publication for: 1) originality of the contribution; 2) technical value to the welding community; 3) prior
publication of the material being reviewed; 4) proper credit to others working in the same area; and 5)
justification of the conclusions, based on the work performed.
The names of the more than 170 individuals serving on the AWS Peer Review Panel are published
periodically. All are experts in specific technical areas, and all are volunteers in the program.

Analysis of Metal Transfer in Shielded


Metal Arc Welding
Through a better understanding of transfer modes,
performance characteristics of covered electrodes can be improved
BY S. BRANDI, C. TANIGUCHI AND S. LIU

ABSTRACT. In this work, a conventional


rectifier-type power source was used
with an automatic covered electrode
feeder to investigate metal transfer in
shielded metal arc (SMA) welding with
commercial AWS E6011, E6013 and E7018
grade electrodes. The arc was established
between the electrode and a rotating
copper disk. The individual metal droplets
transferred across the arc were collected
in water and then processed using standard mineral dressing techniques to remove the slag coverings and to determine
the droplet size and size distribution. The
tips of the electrodes used in the experiments were examined metallographically
for internal defects such as gas bubbles
and evidence of liquid metal flow. Experiments were conducted following a 2 4
factorial matrix and Yates's analysis was
carried out to determine the effects of
electrode coating, electrode diameter,
welding current, welding position, and
polarity on metal transfer.
The three major types of transfer identified were explosive transfer, short-circuiting transfer, and slag-guided transfer.
In all three electrodes, the size distributions of the metal droplets collected were
found to be nonuniform, with unusually
high spatter-size droplets, supporting the
explosive transfer conclusion. However,
E6013 grade electrodes produced droplets with comparably more uniform size
distribution (than the other electrodes)

with intermediate characteristic diameter.


The droplets from E7018 grade electrodes
showed more slag covering than those
collected from the other electrodes, which
can be related to the higher volume of slag
and the thicker coating on the electrodes.
This is also the reason why the core wire
diameter showed the strongest influence
on metal transfer in E7018 grade electrodes. Finally, polarity has the strongest
effect on droplet diameter in E6011 electrode, while welding current affected
E6013 electrode the most.

Metal Transfer Mode Classification


Since the discovery of arc welding at
the beginning of this century, metal transfer has been a topic of research interest.
In fact, metal transfer can be related to
weld quality because it affects the arc stability. It also determines weld spatter,
weld penetration, deposition rate and
welding position. Thus, the knowledge of
how metal transfer affects the arc welding

5. BRANDI and C TANIGUCHI are with the


Polytechnical School, University of Sao Paulo,
Sao Paulo, Brazil. S. LIU is with the Center for
Welding and joining Research, Colorado School
of Mines, Golden, Colo.
Paper presented at the 72nd Annual AWS
Meeting, held April 74-19, 1991, in Detroit,
Mich.

processes is important for welding control


and process automation, as well as in the
development of improved welding consumables.
Based on the transfer characteristics of
individual metal droplets, the International
Institute of Welding (IIW) (Ref. 1) proposed to classify metal transfer modes in
three major groups: 1) free flight; 2)
bridging; and 3) slag-protected transfer. In
free flight transfer, molten metal droplets
detach from the tip of the welding electrode and travel across the arc length.
Bridging transfer, on the other hand, is
characterized by momentary contacts of
the electrode with the weld pool. During
the short-circuiting cycle, the electrode tip
is melted by ohmic heating and transferred into the molten pool. In SMA and

KEY W O R D S
Metal Transfer
SMAW
Electrodes
Analysis
Modeling
Explosive Transfer
Short-Circuiting Transfer
Slag-Guided Transfer
Polarity
Current

WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT | 261-s

submerged arc (SA) welding, where metal


droplets are commonly covered by a
layer of molten slag, slag-protected transfer can predominate. Table 1 shows the
detailed classification of metal transfer
modes.
Models of M e t a l Transfer

Table 1IIW Classification of Metal Transfer in Arc Welding (Ref. 1)


Designation of Transfer Type

Welding Processes (Examples)

Free flight transfer


Globular
Drop
Repelled

Low current C M A
C 0 2 shielded C M A

Projected
Streaming
Rotating
Explosive

Intermediate-current GMA
Medium-current GMA
High-current GMA
SMA (Coated electrodes)

Bridging transfer
Short-circuiting
Bridging without interruption

Short-arc GMA
Welding with filler wire addition

Slag-protected transfer
Flux-wall guided
Other modes

SAW
SMA, Cored-wire, Electroslag

Spray

In each metal transfer mode, there is a


group of forces that act on the arc (Refs.
2-26) and provide the characteristics of
the transfer. The major ones include gravitational force, surface tension, electromagnetic force, plasma jet force and vapor pressure. Gas-generating chemical reactions may also occur in the metal
droplets leading to porosity formation and
pressure buildup in the droplets. The
resulting force is known as the gas expansion force. These forces are schematically
illustrated in Fig. 1. Depending on the balance of these forces, the mode of transfer, size of droplets, rate of transfer,
amount of spatter, etc., may be different.
Table 2 shows the predominating forces
that act on metal transfer in SMA welding.
Several models were proposed to explain metal transfer in bare electrode and
covered electrode welding. Conrady (Ref.
17) proposed that welding with a bare
electrode using straight polarity and in an
overhead position, metal transfer was
promoted by the cathode spot. The pressure of the cathode spot would cause the
surface of the droplet to oscillate and
eventually transfer by short-circuiting. Larson (Ref. 21) extended Conrady's model
to include the effect of a gas bubble inside
the molten electrode tip. As the bubble
expanded, transfer of the droplet would
occur by explosion of the droplet or

Table 2Forces That Act or SMA Welding (Ref. 2)


Process Variable;
Polarity'2'
Acid coating
Rutile coating
Basic coating

DCEP
DCEN

Shielding
Gas

Low

CO2 type

short-circuiting. Becken (Refs. 27, 28) further discussed the interaction of surface
tension forces (75|ag and 7metai) with the
cathode spot pressure, both responsible
for droplet transfer. Besides, there is also
evidence of liquid metal flow inside the
molten electrode tip (Refs. 2, 5, 7, 9, 27,
29-32), which affect the metal transfer
behavior. The hydrodynamic instability of

Molten
Slag

262-s | OCTOBER 1991

Droplet
Size

(SC)-E
(SC)-E
SC-E

Small
Medium
Large

Forces
Present(c)
S,V,G
S,V,G
S,V,G

Metal
Droplet
ectric
Gravitational
Force

a liquid metal droplet can be induced by


the Marangoni effect (Refs. 31, 33, 34).
Sharp surface tension gradients in the
molten electrode tip may result from
temperature gradient, composition difference, for example, of surface active elements (Refs. 31, 33-35), and surface distribution of electric charges (Refs. 4, 36,
37). In recent years, most of the research
work has been directed toward gas metal
arc (GMA) welding instead of SMAW. The
presence of a slag covering complicates
significantly the investigation of metal
transfer in covered electrode welding.
Techniques in Observing M e t a l
Transfer

Flux
Coating,

Molten
Electrode
Tip

Type <b)

(a) DCEP-direct current electrode positive; DCEN direct current electrode negative.
(b) (SC)limited short-circuiting transfer; SC - short-circuiting transfer; E-explosive transfer.
(c) Ssurface tension; V vapor pressure; C-gas expansion force.

Electrode
Core

Fig. 7 Schematic
drawing of a molten
electrode tip
illustrating the
different forces
involved in metal
droplet transfer
during welding.

Transfer Characteristics

Current
Density

Metal transfer can be observed by


direct and indirect methods. Examples of
direct techniques are photography (Ref.
21), high-speed cinematography (Refs.
7,23,38-43), high-speed video (Refs. 4 4 46), deposition on a metal plate (Refs. 8,
47-50), deposition with double electrodes
(Ref. 51), and deposition against a carbon
electrode (Ref. 52). The first three methods examine the in-flight conditions of
metal droplets and the latter ones analyze
the physical evidence of metal transfer,
that is, the metal droplets collected in the
experiments. Indirect techniques rely basically on the variations of arc current and
voltage with the transfer of each metal
droplet. The arc signals are recorded, in
the form of oscillograms (Refs. 27, 38, 4 1 ,
43,49, 53, 54), and analyzed to determine

t h e transfer b e h a v i o r . A t t e m p t s h a v e also
b e e n m a d e t o use acoustic signals t o
m o n i t o r metal transfer (Refs. 55, 56).
Table 3 c o m p a r e s the d i f f e r e n t t e c h niques used in o b s e r v i n g metal transfer in
S M A w e l d i n g . Each m e t h o d has its o w n
advantages a n d shortcomings. D i r e c t o b servations, h o w e v e r , are generally p r e f e r r e d . D e s p i t e t h e f a i r - t o - g o o d optical
resolution that can b e o b t a i n e d b y p h o t o g r a p h y , high-speed
cinematography
a n d high-speed v i d e o , t h e t i m e o f each
sampling ( p e r i o d of active arc o b s e r v a tion) is generally limited t o a f e w seconds
or less, thus requiring a large n u m b e r of
samples f o r statistical significance. Indirect
m e t h o d s are generally c o n d u c t e d as w e l d
simulations that d o not actually c o r r e s p o n d t o a real w e l d i n g situation. Theref o r e , it is n o t unusual t o c o m b i n e several
of t h e direct a n d indirect techniques t o
characterize the p r e d o m i n a t i n g metal
transfer m o d e in a w e l d i n g process.

Table 3Comparison of the Different Techniques Used in Observing Metal Droplet Transfer
Techniques

Advantages

High-speed video and


cinematography

Direct observation of droplet


transfer
Medium-to-good optical resolution

Photography

Direct observation of droplet


transfer
Simple experimental setup
Good optical resolution

Current and voltage


oscillogram

Deposition on metal
plates

O b j e c t i v e s o f this R e s e a r c h
T h e main o b j e c t i v e of this w o r k was t o
characterize metal transfer in S M A w e l d ing b y studying t h e metal d r o p l e t s collected during w e l d i n g . The effect o f w e l d ing process parameters (current, polarity
a n d position) a n d e l e c t r o d e c o n d i t i o n s
( c o m p o s i t i o n and diameter) o n the size of
the droplets transferred a n d the a m o u n t
of spatter w e r e investigated. It is anticip a t e d that: 1) the m e t h o d o l o g y established in this research can b e used t o evaluate the p e r f o r m a n c e of c o m m e r c i a l and
experimental electrodes; a n d 2) the k n o w l e d g e gained in this study c a n b e used t o
i m p r o v e shielded metal arc w e l d i n g p r o cess c o n t r o l w i t h s m o o t h metal d r o p l e t
transfer a n d m i n i m u m spatter.

Double electrode

Carbon electrode

Simple experimental setup


Large sampling possible

Direct observation of droplet


transfer
Simple experimental setup
Physical evidence of individual
droplets
Large sampling possible
Capable of quantifying metal
transfer
Capable of distinguishing droplets
from slag covering
Direct observation of droplet
transfer
Simple experimental setup
Direct observation of droplet
transfer
Simple experimental setup

Disadvantages
Complex experimental setup
Short sampling time
Imprecise droplet size
measurement
Incapable of distinguishing droplet
from slag covering
Short sampling time
Imprecise droplet size
measurement
Incapable of distinguishing droplet
from slag covering
Indirect observation and
correlation
Transfer event difficult to
characterize
Incapable of droplet size and
shape determination
Incapable of distinguishing droplet
from slag covering
Simulated welding
Droplet may coalesce or fracture
at contact with chill

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Simulated welding
AC welding
Electrodes covered by slag
Simulated welding
Oxidation of the carbon electrode
causing changes in arc
atmosphere

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Experimental Procedure

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ui
A rectifier-type p o w e r supply a n d an
a u t o m a t e d S M A w e l d i n g system (Ref. 57)
w e r e used t o p e r f o r m the w e l d i n g experiments w i t h c o m m e r c i a l A W S E6011,
E6013, and E7018 grade c o v e r e d elect r o d e s . The d e p o s i t i o n w a s m a d e against
a rotating c o p p e r disk as s h o w n in Fig. 2.
T h e metal d r o p l e t s w e r e e j e c t e d b y the
spinning disk i n t o c o l d w a t e r . T h e r o t a t i o n
speed of the c o p p e r disk w a s fixed at 890
r p m because at that s p e e d , n o metal
d r o p l e t was o b s e r v e d t o coalesce or
f r a g m e n t (Ref. 57) d u r i n g c o n t a c t w i t h the
disk. A f t e r the transferred d r o p l e t s w e r e
d r i e d , the slag coverings w e r e separated
b y h a n d crushing w i t h a m o r t a r a n d pestle. T h e metal d r o p l e t s w e r e t h e n m a g netically separated f r o m the slag particles.
The samples a c q u i r e d using a splitter w e r e
classified a c c o r d i n g t o size f o l l o w i n g stand a r d particulate processing techniques
(ASTM Standard B-215). U.S. sieve series
(ASTM) n u m b e r 5 , 7 , 1 0 , 1 4 , 1 8 , 20 a n d 35,

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Fig. 2-Welding

equipment setup showing the SMA electrode and the rotating copper disk.

WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT | 263-s

Fig. 3 Material deposited from a shielded metal arc welding electrode. A Metal droplets, metal droplets covered with slag, and slag particles; B me
droplets after slag removal.

which correspond to mesh openings of


4.75 mm, 2.80 mm, 2.00 mm, 1.40 mm,
1.00 mm, 805 ,um, and 500 jum, respectively, were used. Both the number and
the total weight of the droplets collected
in each sieve were determined. The procedure was repeated four times for each
experiment and the data gathered were
used subsequently to determine the size
distribution of the metal droplets.
The 2 k factorial design technique was
used to plan the welding experiments for
each electrode type. Electrode diameter,

welding current, welding position, and


polarity, designated as (A), (B), (C) and (D),
respectively, were the main variables investigated, resulting in a total of 64 welding experiments for each electrode type.
Electrode feed rate was maintained constant at an average potential of 25 V. Table 4 gives the range of the variables
studied and the 2 4 factorial design matrix
is shown in Table 5. Note that Experiment
1 is the control experiment with all four
variables at low level.

50 CD

CD

40 -

OL.

co
u

30 -

D
Q_

20 CD

E
-3

10 -

1
2
3
4
Diameter of Droplets ( m m )

Results and Discussion


Characteristic Diameter of the Metal
Droplets
The material deposited from each electrode was found to consist of metal droplets, metal droplets covered with slag, and
slag particles, as shown in Fig. 3. Metal
droplet size distribution was determined
for each experiment and Fig. 4 shows an
example of such distribution.
To simplify the task of comparing the
droplet size distribution of the 64 sets of
welds of each electrode type, performed
under diverse conditions, a single parameter termed "characteristic diameter" was
determined for each experiment. The
characteristic diameter concept takes into
consideration the sieves used during size
classification, the number and mass of the
particles, and the average diameter of the
droplets accumulated in each size class.
Knowing the apparent density of the
metal droplets (calculation based on ASTM
Standard C-357) and assuming that all
droplets are spherical, the characteristic
diameter of each metal droplet's population was calculated.
The apparent density of the droplets
was determined not only for the characteristic diameter calculation, but also to
investigate the internal porosity found in
many metal droplets, as shown in Fig. 3.
Porosity was calculated as the difference
between the density of the steel (7.86
g/cm 3 ) and the apparent density measured, as reported in Table 6. These data
are close to those reported by Ishizaki, ef
al. (Ref. 52). Metallographic evidence indicated that only the larger droplets exhibited internal porosity. In fact, less than 5%
of the droplets of diameter smaller than
one millimeter showed any sign of porosity. Therefore, it was assumed that metal
droplets of 18 mesh (1-mm mesh opening) had a density of 7.86 g/cm 3 .

Fig. 4 Metal size distribution determined for Experiment A to illustrate the larger number of small With the mean apparent density values
(dg), the total mass (m) and number of the
particles generated by an E6011 electrode.

264-s | OCTOBER 1991

droplets retained in each sieve (n), the average diameter (D) of the droplets in each
sieve was determined using the equation
below.
D

THMT
|_7tndgJ

Amount of Spatter

ZNjVi2

U)

SNiVi

can be used to determine the characteristic diameter (Dc) of the droplets.


3V C \

>/3

(3)

-(

In Equation 2, N is the number of droplets


and V| is the total volume of droplets collected in each sieve.

Table 4Range of the Variables Chosen for


the Study (Ref. 57)

Electrode diameter
(A)
Welding current
(B)
Welding position
(C)
Polarity
(D)

Low Level

High Level

4 mm

5 mm

150 A

200 A

Flat

Nonflat
a

DCEP< '

Experiment
Designation

Electrode
Diameter
(mm)

Welding
Current
(A)

Welding
Position

Polar-

-A4
5
4
5
4
5
4
5
4
5
4
5
4
5
4
5

-B150
150
200
200
150
150
200
200
150
150
200
200
150
150
200
200

-C-

I
A
B
AB
C
AC
BC
ABC
D
AD
BD
ABD
CD
ACD
BCD
ABCD

-D+(b)

As indicated earlier, weld spatter is related to the stability of the welding arc and
metal transfer. Experimental observations
showed that these fine metal droplets
were between 500 /um (+20 mesh) and
212 /um (70 mesh) in size. Therefore, the
total number of droplets within the above
size range, assumed to be the total amount
of spatter, were counted and reported in
Table 8. Of the three electrodes, welding
with E6013 grade electrodes resulted in
the smallest amount of spatter, independent of the welding conditions Fig. 5.
The effects of welding parameters on
spatter will be discussed in the section on
analysis of variance (ANOVA) results.

ity

plal

+
+
+

F
F
F
HW
H
H
H
F
F
F
F
H
H
H
H

+
+

+
+
-(b)

(a) r-riat, H nonflat.


(b) + DCEP, - DCEN.

Table 6Mean Apparent Density (g/cm3) and Mean Apparent Porosity (%) as a Function of
Electrode Coating and USA Sieve Series (Ref. 67)

USA Sieve Series


Number

E6011
5.73
6.75
7.32
7.45

0.76
0.40
0.13
0.28

2.98
4.33
6.04
7.27
7.47

(%)
E7018

E6013

5
7
10
14
18

Mean apparent porosity

Mea 8 Apparent Density


(g/cm 3 )

Range of Study
Main Variables

Table 524 Factorial Design Matrix Used to


Study the Influence of Welding Process
Variables on Metal Transfer (Ref. 57)

(1)

The characteristic volume (Vc) of the droplets for each experiment, as defined in the
following equation (Refs. 40, 41),

estimated effects, a minus sign means that


the experiment decreases the characteristic diameter of the droplets, and a plus sign
increases the diameter. The effects of the
different process parameters will be further discussed in a later section.

3.84
4.83
6.49
7.29
7.48

0.27
0.39
0.32
0.27
0.22

0.22
0.32
0.29
0.15
0.20

E6011

27.10
14.12
6.87
5.22

E6013

E7018

62.09
44.91
23.16
7.51
4.96

51.15
38.55
17.43
7.25
4.83

DCEN<a>

(a) DCEP-direct current electrode positive; DCEN-direct


current electrode negative.

A summary of the characteristic diameters of the droplets collected are given in


Table 7 (Ref. 57). The F0 values and the
estimated effects were obtained using
Yates's algorithm (Refs. 58-62). Of the
three consumables investigated, welding
with E6011 grade electrodes resulted in
the smallest droplets, while E7018 grade
electrodes produced the largest, independent of the welding parameters. Additionally, the present findings compared very
favorably with the literature data. For the
welds made in Experiment 1, that is,
welding at 150 A with 4-mm-diameter
electrodes, using reversed polarity and in
a flat position, the mean characteristic diameter of the droplets from the E6011
grade electrodes was 1.82 mm, slightly
larger than the 1.73 mm reported by Wyant, et al. (Ref. 63). In the case of E6013
and E7018 grade electrodes, the results of
2.18 and 2.97 mm were well within the
ranges reported in the literature of 1.24 to
2.35 mm and 2.0 to 3.0 mm, respectively
(Refs. 9, 40, 4 1 , 64, 65). In the column of

Table 7Summary of the Analysis of Variance Results of the Characteristic Diameters of the
Droplets (Ref. 57)
Mean Characteristic
Diameter (mm)
Experiment
1
A
B
AB

AC
BC
ABC
D
AD
BD
ABD
CD
ACD
BCD
ABCD

Estimated Effects'1'

Estimated F0

E6011

E6013

E7018

E6011

2.15
2.05
1.85
1.92
1.84
2.29
1.89
1.86
1.59
1.60
1.65
1.60
1.65
1.94
1.51
1.73

2.48
2.59
2.01
2.01
2.18
2.55
1.84
2.26
2.00
2.04
2.06
2.02
2.38
2.60
1.99
1.90

2.85
3.34
2.37
3.37
2.12
3.21
2.42
2.92
3.08
3.17
3.06
3.21
2.98
3.89
2.49
3.04

_
7.02
10.97
1.76
<1
8.80
1.14
4.01
60.81
<1
2.55
<1
2.13
<1
1.96
3.77

E7018

E6011

E6013

E7018

10.62
73.09
1.88
2.53
6.27
4.79
<1
8.67
5.65
4.00
1.18
9.82
3.05
23.67
1.55

177.95
23.98
1.05
14.73
13.17
5.91
18.23
41.71
15.27
6.11
<1
10.13
9.61
25.79
3.67

1.82
0.1100 d
-0.1375b

2.18
0.1294 b
-0.3394 a

2.97
0.5984 a
-0.2197 a

E6013

0.1231

-0.3238 a

0.0994

-0.1169c

0.1244 c

-0.19312

-0.1722b
0.1628 b
-0.1091d
-0.1916 a
0.2897a
-0.1753b
-0.1109d

0.1428 c
0.1391 c
-0.2278 a

(1) Levels of significance: a = 0.1%; b = 0.5%; c = 1.0%; d = 2.5%.

WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT 1265-s

Table 8Summary of the Analysis of Variance Results of the Amount of Spatter (Ref. 57)
Mean Spatter
(Number of Droplets)

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Estimated FD

Estimated Effects'1'

Experiment

E6011

E6013

E7018

E6011 E6013 E7018

E6011

1
A
B
AB
C
AC
BC
ABC
D

1886
1052
1780
1119
1976
1276
2324
1661
2654
2638
3453
2847
3021
1789
3538
2018

576
504
1010
962
1016
684
1503
1152
1191
940
1338
1474
993
1209
1394
1139

1170
1288
1424
688
1149
783
1310
1013
1508
883
869
873
981
1115
1234
986

56.20
8.70
<1
<1
5.79
<1
<1
114.28
<1
1.63
1.71
9.99
7.41
1.55
<1

2.59
23.13

2189
-778.25 a
306.34c

Al)

BD
ABD
CD
ACD
BCD
ABCD

<1
3.39

<1
<1
2.31
14.59
1.20
1.97

<1
6.45
1.16
<1
1.88

12.30
<1
< I
<1
<1
6.90
<1
<1
<1
<1
3.22
<1
< I
<l
11.32

Table 9Summary of the Measurement of


Crater Depths at the Tip of the Electrodes
(Ref. 57)

E6013
1068

Electrode Type

E7018
1080
-252.10b

357.53 a

Electrode
diameter
(mm)

1110.59a

283.96 b

-328.29 c
-282.85d

-188.79 d

Welding
current
(A)

OC

-241,85

Welding
position

Polarity

VJ

Ul

ui
ac

o
Q

E6011
V E6013
T E7018

3500

E7018

1.79
0.18

2.17
0.29

5.0

1.64
0.19
1.70
0.12

2.08
0.16
1.82
0.14

2.98
0.15
2.44
0.40

1.59
0.06
1.53
0.05

1.91

0.18
1.68
0.23

2.68
0.36
2.52
0.42

1.70
0.13
1.73
0.18
1.59
0.08

2.03
0.36
1.93
0.25
1.96 +
0.37

2.50
0.45
2.60
0.32
2.66
0.38

I 50

200

4000

<

E6013

1.63
0.08

188.84 d

(1) Levels of significance: a = 0 88; b = 0.5"..; c = 1.0%; d = 2 :

E6011
4.0

Flat

Nonflat
DCRP
DCSP

3000
Flux Coating Cup (Arc Barrel) at the
Electrode Tip

_Q

UJ

2000

<u

1500

Q.

2500

At t h e e n d o f each w e l d i n g e x p e r i m e n t ,
the tip o f t h e e l e c t r o d e w a s also e x a m i n e d
to d e t e r m i n e t h e presence of porosity in
the u n d e t a c h e d m o l t e n metal d r o p l e t a n d
the c u p o f flux coating (arc barrel) f o r m e d
at t h e t i p o f t h e e l e c t r o d e d u r i n g w e l d i n g ,
as s h o w n in Fig. 6. T o a v o i d breakage o f
the c u p , t h e e l e c t r o d e tip w a s first filled
w i t h adhesive a n d m o u n t e d in resin. Careful sectioning o f the e l e c t r o d e tip along a
diametral plane a n d light grinding revealed
the features described a b o v e . T h e d e p t h
of t h e cups w e r e m e a s u r e d using an o p tical p r o f i l o m e t e r . A schematic profile o f
the t i p o f a S M A e l e c t r o d e is also s h o w n
in Fig. 6. Table 9 s h o w s t h e average c u p
depths f o r the three electrodes investig a t e d . As e x p e c t e d , basic electrodes such
as E7018 s h o w e d the deepest c u p . This
can b e related t o t h e chemical c o m p o s i t i o n a n d viscosity o f t h e flux coating a n d
the thickness o f t h e coatings. It is also i m p o r t a n t t o notice t h e presence o f a large
internal p o r o s i t y in the metal d r o p l e t in Fig.
6. This seems t o s u p p o r t Larson's m o d e l o f
gas expansion leading t o metal d r o p l e t
transfer.

Q.
o
_i

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Results

>
Ul

a
*

x
o
a:
<

Ul
(ft

o.
O

Fig. 5 The amount of CL


spatter generated by 00
each electrode used in c
O
this investigation. CD
Independent of the
welding conditions,
EbO 11 electrodes
produced consistently
the largest amount of
spatter.

1000
500

D AD BD CD BCD
1 A B AB C AC BC
ABC
ABD ACD ABCD
Experiment Designation

>
UJ

a
o
oc
<
Ul
</>
Ul
OS

Ul

>
Ul

a
X

IE

<

ui

cn
ui
IK

Fig. 6 - Schematic drawing and photomacrograph


and internal gas porosity.

266-s | OCTOBER 1991

of the tip oi an electrode showing the arc barrel

Table 10 summarizes t h e results o f t h e


A N O V A calculations o f t h e characteristic
diameters a n d the a m o u n t o f spatter.
Based o n t h e ranking in Table 10, only t h e
first f i v e m o s t i m p o r t a n t results will b e
discussed in this paper. These are experiments D, B, A, A C , a n d B C D . In Table 10,
t indicates an increase a n d \ a decrease
o f t h e effect w h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h e

2,66-73). Figure 7 shows the difference in


droplet surface temperature distribution
under electrode positive and electrode
negative polarity conditions. Temperature
gradient in the molten electrode tip is
known to give rise to other temperaturesensitive forces and promote gas circulation and metal flow in the molten electrode tip, as illustrated in Fig. 8. Additionally, surface charge distribution can also
change surface tension and alter the liquid
metal flow pattern. With all these effects,
a large number of the metal droplets explode before short-circuiting occurs,
which reduces the characteristic diameter
of the droplets and increases spatter.
In E7018 grade electrodes, the characteristic diameter of the droplets increased
when welded at electrode negative polarity. The presence of fluorides in the flux

results of Experiment 1. The number between brackets indicates the relative order of significance of the experiment;
smaller numbers represent tests more
heavily influenced by the specific welding
conditions. Note that the order of significance for each one of the three types of
electrode coating is not necessarily the
same.
Polarity Effect (Experiment D)
In the case of E6011 and E6013 grade
electrodes, a change in polarity, from
electrode positive (reverse) to electrode
negative (straight), caused a decrease in
the characteristic diameter of the metal
droplets and an increase in the amount of
spatter. This can be related to the surface
temperature of the metal droplets (Refs.

coating might have been the cause of this


opposite behavior. First of all, fluoride ions
have been reported to make the electron
emission process more difficult (Refs. 14,
53, 54). Additionally, because of their
small size (rp - = 1.36 A), fluoride ions have
high mobility and tend to migrate toward
the anode. They react with the layer of
positive charges there and reduce the
cathode spot size. This is schematically illustrated in Fig. 9. The combination of
these effects causes the droplets to explode after transfer, resulting in larger
characteristic diameters. Furthermore, the
viscosity of the molten metal also played
a complex role in the transfer, because it
can be related to the deoxidizers present
in the electrode coating or electrochemical reactions that occur at the electrode
tip prior to transfer.
Current Effect (Experiment B)

Table 10Summary of the Results Obtained in This Investigation


Electrode Type
E6013

E6011
Significant
Experiments

Characteristic
Diameter

Amount of
Spatter

D
B
AC
A
CD
ACD
BCD
AD
C
BD
BC
ABC
ABCD

1 (Dw

t (1)
t (4)

i (2)
t (3)
t (4)

1 (2)
1 (3)
1 (5)

Characteristic
Diameter
1
1
t
t
t

(5)
(1)
(6)
(3)
(4)

1 (2)

E7018

Amount of
Spatter
t (2)
t (1)

1 (3)

Characteristic
Diameter
t
i
t
t
t
t
i

(2)
(4)
(8)
(1)
(9)
(10)
(3)

1 (6)
1 (7)
i (11)
1 (12)
i (5)

Amount of
Spatter

1 (1)

The increase from 150 to 200 A in


welding current caused a decrease in the
characteristic diameter of the droplets for
all three types of electrodes. The amount
of spatter observed for E6011 and E6013
grade electrodes, however, increased.
This is reasonable because metal vapor
pressure, droplet temperature, and liquid
circulation velocity in the droplet all increased with increasing welding current.
The interaction of these forces, as illustrated in Fig. 10, would generate compressive forces and cause the droplets to
explode at the moment of short-circuiting.

t (3)

t (2)

(a) I : Decrease; t : increase; (number) in decreasing order of importance of the effect.

I
...i,..,5jj\

'
/ffj:

(")

(1536C)
Metal Droplet

Droplet
Surfoce "
(2000C)

Anode Spot
(40O0C)

Electric Arc
(4000C)

Fig. 8 Gas circulation and metal flow in the


molten electrode tip set up by temperaturesensitive forces and temperature gradient in the
metal droplet.
Cathode
(5000 -

Spot
6000C)

Fig. 7 Droplet surface temperature as a function of polarity. A DC electrode positive; (B) - DC


electrode negative. (Refs. 2, 66-73)

WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT | 267-s

Electrode Diameter Effect (Experiment A)


A larger diameter core wire also resulted in an increase in the characteristic
diameter of the droplets for all three types
of electrodes, and a decrease in the
amount of spatter for E6011 and E7018
electrodes. At a constant welding current,
the current density and droplet temperature will be higher for the smaller diameter electrode. Combining these effects
with the surface tension forces, necking
can be resisted to a greater extent in the
five millimeter diameter electrode, resulting in larger volume of molten metal at the
electrode tip. Subsequent short-circuiting
transfer will result in less spatter. Since
E7018 grade electrodes generally contain
larger amounts of deoxidizers for oxygen
control, liquid circulation in the metal

droplet may be accelerated by the Marangoni effect. Eventually, the droplets


would be transferred by short-circuiting
without explosion.

internal cavity, and compressive force,


caused the droplets to explode at the
moment of short-circuiting, as shown in
Figure 11, resulting in smaller droplets
transferred.

Interaction Effect (Experiments BCD)


When the current was increased to 200
A, polarity changed from electrode positive to electrode negative, and the welding position changed from flat to nonflat,
the characteristic diameters from E6013
and E7018 welding were observed to decrease. Since all other factors had already
been discussed as single effects previously, only the effect of welding position
will be discussed. The change in welding
position resulted in the deformation of the
droplets, which together with liquid circulation in the droplet, vapor pressure in the

Interaction Effect (Experiment AC)


Changing from a 4-mm-diameter electrode welding in the flat position to a
5-mm diameter electrode welding in the
nonflat position, the characteristic diameters were observed to increase for the
E6011 electrodes. Electrode diameter (as
shown in Experiment A) was without
question the prevailing effect. In this case,
spatter was reduced because the transfer
of droplets occurred by short-circuiting
before exploding.

(+)
Fig. y /ts a result of fluoride ions (F~) migrating to the anode and reacting with the layer of fig. 10-Metal vapor pressure (Fj), electromagnetic
positive charges there, the cathode size is reduced.
pinch force (FJ, and liquid circulation within the molten droplet generate compressive forces which cause
the droplet to explode at the moment of shortcircuiting.

Fig. 11 Welding position


effect: distortion of the
metal droplet together with
liquid circulation, vapor
pressure (Fj) in the gas
porosity and compressive
force, cause the droplet to
explode at the moment of
short-circuiting.

268-s I OCTOBER 1991

Conclusions
T h e m a j o r findings of this w o r k are
s u m m a r i z e d in the f o l l o w i n g conclusions:
1) Explosive, short-circuiting a n d slagg u i d e d w e r e the t h r e e transfer m o d e s
o b s e r v e d in S M A w e l d i n g w i t h E6011,
E6013 a n d E7018 grade electrodes.
2) Explosive transfer w a s the p r e d o m inate mechanism, e v i d e n c e d b y the hete r o g e n e o u s size distribution of the d r o p lets f o r all experiments.
3) Slag-protected transfer w a s most
significant in w e l d i n g w i t h E7018 grade
electrodes, w i t h a large n u m b e r of t h e
d r o p l e t s c o v e r e d entirely b y slag.
4) Polarity w a s the variable that most
a f f e c t e d t h e size o f the d r o p l e t s transf e r r e d , as w e l l as the a m o u n t o f spatter f o r
w e l d i n g E6011 grade electrodes.
5) For E7018 grade electrodes, polarity
has an o p p o s i t e effect o n characteristic
diameters o f the droplets transferred. This
is d u e t o t h e flux coating c o m p o s i t i o n
(presence of f l u o r i d e ions) a n d chemical
reactions that o c c u r b e t w e e n t h e metal
a n d m o l t e n slag at t h e tip o f the e l e c t r o d e .
6) C u r r e n t w a s t h e variable that most
a f f e c t e d t h e size o f the d r o p l e t s transf e r r e d , as w e l l as t h e a m o u n t of spatter f o r
w e l d i n g w i t h E6013 grade electrodes.
7) Electrode d i a m e t e r w a s t h e variable
that most a f f e c t e d the size of the d r o p l e t s
transferred, as w e l l as t h e a m o u n t o f
spatter f o r w e l d i n g w i t h E7018 grade
electrodes.
8) E6013 electrodes p r o d u c e d the most
stable arc w i t h l o w spatter because of t h e
relatively small d r o p l e t size transferred.
9) Porosity in t h e m o l t e n e l e c t r o d e tip
was d e t e c t e d in all t h r e e electrodes, being
m o r e f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d in the E6013
and E7018 electrodes.
10) I n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e t y p e o f w e l d ing e l e c t r o d e , small characteristic diameters w e r e o b s e r v e d w h e n d r o p l e t s e x p l o sion p r e c e d e d t h e transfer. If droplets exp l o d e d after short-circuiting w i t h t h e w e l d
p o o l , the characteristic diameters w e r e
generally bigger.

A ckno wledgments
The authors a c k n o w l e d g e and a p p r e c i ate t h e research s u p p o r t o f FAPESP (Fund a c a o de A m p a r o a Pesquisa d o Estado d e
Sao Paulo, Brazil) a n d the help of Eloi Patinetti F in the e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n of this
w o r k . O n e o f the authors, S. Liu, also acknowledges the support of the Welding
Research C o u n c i l .

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WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT 1269-s

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WRC Bulletin 346


August 1989
WFI/PVRC Moment Fatigue Tests on 4 x 3 ANSI B16.9 Tees
By G. E. Woods and E. C. Rodabaugh
The Markl-type fatigue test data presented in this r e p o r t have been needed for a number of years to
establish i-factors (SIFs) for f o r g e d tees with d / D ratios between 0.5 and 1.0 t h a t c o n f o r m to t h e ANSI
B16.9 s t a n d a r d . These new data will provide i m p r o v e d design rules for b o t h nuclear and industrial piping
systems.
Publication of this r e p o r t was sponsored by the S u b c o m m i t t e e on Piping Pumps and Valves of t h e
Pressure Vessel Research C o m m i t t e e of t h e Welding Research Council. The price of WRC Bulletin 3 4 6 is
$ 2 5 . 0 0 per copy, plus $ 5 . 0 0 for U.S. and $ 1 0 . 0 0 for overseas postage and handling. Orders should be
sent w i t h p a y m e n t to the Welding Research Council. Room 1 3 0 1 , 345 E. 4 7 t h St., New York, NY 10017.

WRC Bulletin 356


August 1990
This Bulletin contains t h r e e r e p o r t s involving welding research. The titles describe t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e
reports.

( 1 ) Finite Element Modeling of a Single-Pass Weld


By C. K. Leung, R. J. Pick and D. H. B. Mok

( 2 ) Finite Element Analysis of Multipass Welds


By C. K. Leung and R. J. Pick

( 3 ) Thermal and Mechanical Simulations of Resistance Spot Welding


By S. D. Sheppard
Publication of t h e papers in this Bulletin was sponsored by t h e Welding Research Council. The price of
WRC Bulletin 3 5 6 is $ 3 5 . 0 0 per copy, plus $ 5 . 0 0 for U.S. and $ 1 0 . 0 0 for overseas postage and handling.
Orders should be sent with p a y m e n t t o t h e Welding Research Council. 3 4 5 E. 4 7 t h St., Room 1 3 0 1 . New
York, NY 10017.

270-s | OCTOBER 1991